ISSN: 1052-536X

Vegetables and Fruits:

A Guide to Heirloom Varieties and Community-Based Stewardship. Volume 1, Annotated Bibliography

Special Reference Briefs Series no. SRB 98-05

September 1998
Electronic version slightly revised, March 1999

Compiled By:
Suzanne P. DeMuth
Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, Information Centers Branch
National Agricultural Library, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture
Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2351

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A Note About the Electronic Files for Each Volume

The publication Vegetables and Fruits: A Guide to Heirloom Varieties and Community-Based Stewardship was published in three printed volumes. The following sections were repeated in each volume: 1) Table of Contents for 3 volumes, 2) Introduction (including Notes and References) to 3 volumes, 3) Acknowledgements, 4) Alternative Farming Systems Information Center overview, and 5) document access instructions. To reduce duplication in the electronic versions, these sections have been extracted and placed in one document,

The remainder of each volume is contained in a separate file which includes its respective citations, indices, and table of contents. These files are:
Volume 1. Annotated Bibliography, [below]
Volume 2. Resource Organizations,
Volume 3. Historical Supplement,

There are many cross-reference links to related entries, either within the same document, or to another document in this heirloom series. When you activate a link to another document, use your browser's "back" button to return to the document from which the link was selected.

Additional related entries can be located through use of the indices that accompany each document. Separate indices to publication titles, organization names, and persons (as authors or contacts) are found at the end of Volume 1, Volume 2, and Volume 3. (Note that there is no comprehensive index that covers all three documents. Therefore, to find all substantive references to particular publications or organizations, you will need to follow the links from each document's indices.)

Contents of Volumes 1, 2, and 3


The author is grateful to AFSIC staff, especially Mary Gold and Jane Gates, for their review of this document, helpful suggestions offered, and continuous encouragement thoughout its development. Sincere thanks are extended also to the individuals from stewardship organizations, seed companies, and nurseries who provided an array of useful and interesting materials and other information on their respective missions, activities, products, and services.

National Agricultural Library Cataloging Record:

DeMuth, Suzanne
Vegetables and fruit : a guide to heirloom varieties and community-based stewardship.
(Special reference briefs ; 98-05 -- 98-07)
1. Fruit--Heirloom varieties. 2. Vegetables--Heirloom varieties. 3. Fruit--Germplasm resources. 4. Vegetables--Germplasm resources. 5. Agrobiodiversity conservation. I. vol.1. Annotated bibliography. II. vol.2. Resource organizations. III. vol.3. Historical supplement. IV. Title.
aS21.D27S64 no. 98-05 -- 98-07

Go to: Top of Volume 1 | Contents of Volume 1 | Introduction | Notes and References | Part I. Vegetables and Fruits | Part II. New World Crops: Heirloom Varieties and Genetic Diversity | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, 400, 420, 460 | Appendices (Volume 1): 1) Current Books, 2) AFSIC, 3) Publication Titles Index, 4) Periodical Articles Index, 5) Persons / Organizations Index

Volume 1. Annotated Bibliography

Contents of Volume 1

See for the following information about this 3-volume series: 1) Table of Contents for 3 volumes, 2) Introduction (including Notes and References) to 3 volumes, 3) Acknowledgements, 4) Alternative Farming Systems Information Center overview, and 5) document access instructions.

Part I. Vegetables and Fruits

1. Books, Book Chapters

    A. Heirloom Vegetables and Gardening Today
    B. Seed Production and Plant Breeding--Practical Aspects
    C. Fruits, Including Heirlooms and Genetic Diversity
    D. Heirloom Apples and Genetic Diversity
    E. Food Crops--Conserving Genetic Diversity and Related Topics
    F. Food Crops--Community- and Farmer-Based Conservation

2. Periodical Articles

    A. Heirloom Vegetables and Gardening Today
    B. Seed Production and Plant Breeding--Practical Aspects
    C. Apples and Other Fruits, Including Heirlooms and Genetic Diversity
    D. Food Crops--Conserving Genetic Diversity and Related Topics
    E. Food Crops--Community- and Farmer-based Conservation

3. Videos

4. Current and Recent Periodicals

    A. Heirloom Vegetables and Gardening
    B. Crop Genetic Resources and Vegetable Seed Industry
    C. Gardening Magazines with Seed Exchanges and Other Heirloom Resources

5. Resource Guides

    A. Heirloom Vegetables and Fruits--Plant-Finding Tools
    B. Other Resource Guides

6. Bibliographies and Guides to the Literature

    A. Heirloom Varieties and Gardening Today
    B. Food Crops--Biodiversity and Genetic Conservation

7. Additional Internet Sites

    A. Vegetables and Fruits
    B. Native American Agriculture and New World Crops
    C. Online Seed Exchanges
    D. Food Crops--Biodiversity and Genetic Conservation

Part II. New World Crops: Heirloom Varieties and Genetic Diversity

1. Native American Agriculture and New World Crops

    A. Bibliographies
    B. Books, Book Chapters, Periodical Supplement
    C. Periodical Articles

2. Corn (Maize)

    A. Books, Book Chapters, Agricultural Reports
    B. Periodical Articles

3. Tomatoes

    A. Books, Book Chapters
    B. Periodical Articles

4. Capsicum Peppers

    A. Bibliographies
    B. Books, Book Chapters
    C. Periodical Articles

5. Phaseolus Beans

    A. Books, Book Chapters, Special Periodical Issue
    B. Periodical Articles

6. Squashes and Pumpkins (Cucurbita species)

    A. Books, Book Chapters
    B. Periodical Articles

7. Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum)

    A. Books, Book Chapters
    B. Periodical Articles


Go to: Top of Volume 1 | Contents of Volume 1 | Introduction | Notes and References | Part I. Vegetables and Fruits | Part II. New World Crops: Heirloom Varieties and Genetic Diversity | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, 400, 420, 460 | Appendices (Volume 1): 1) Current Books, 2) AFSIC, 3) Publication Titles Index, 4) Periodical Articles Index, 5) Persons / Organizations Index

Part I. Vegetables and Fruits

1. Books, Book Chapters

A. Heirloom Vegetables and Gardening Today

Books in this section provide information on creating and caring for heirloom gardens, including the present-day attributes of heirloom vegetables, and heirloom gardening as a popular movement. Books dealing with food plants as genetic resources, including farmer- and community-based conservation projects and governmental programs in the U.S. and abroad, are found in Sections 1E and 1F in Part I, this volume. Historical publications offering contemporary descriptions of garden vegetables and fruits of the 19th C. to early 20th C. are found in Volume 3, Historical Supplement. Also contained in Volume 3 are current (i.e., 1970s-1990s) books and articles on historical development and use of vegetables and fruits in North American gardens, including plant introductions to North America, and also plant domestication and early development, in general. Several books in this section offer much historical information also. For instance, while its main subject is the variety of choice heirlooms available to today's gardeners, William Weaver's Heirloom Vegetable Gardening stands out with respect to the wealth of historical information provided. Current books (and also periodical articles and bibliographies) on Native American heirlooms, featuring corn, tomato, Capsicum pepper, Phaseolus bean, squash and pumpkin, and potato varieties, are cited in Part II of this volume; historical works and current histories on these subjects are cited in Volume 3, Historical Supplement.

1. Ausubel, Kenny. Seeds of Change: The Living Treasure: The Passionate Story of the Growing Movement to Restore Biodiversity and Revolutionize the Way We Think About Food. San Francisco, CA: HarperSanFrancisco, 1994. 232 p. 1994. NAL SB117.35.N6A9 1994

The author and other like-minded individuals founded Seeds of Change, a Santa Fe-based seed firm, in 1989. It was conceived as a "value-driven" company enlisting the aid of backyard gardeners to protect crop biodiversity and to sell organically grown seeds that served to close the organic food cycle. Seeds of Change is a highly personalized account of author Kenny Ausubel's philosophy (and that of close associates, such as Alan Kapular, research director of Seeds of Change and founder of Peace Seeds) concerning the ways much of our food is typically grown and the larger effects (generally perceived as negative) on human and environmental health. The narrative weaves connections among these interrelated themes: plant biodiversity, food security, and ecological stability; human diet, health, and vegetarianism; native and local farming and local cuisines; and organic agriculture, modern agribusiness, and mainstream plant breeding. Hybrid seeds are seen as the "soft center of [the] food system." The book includes a collection of recipes from chefs such as Alice Waters and Mark Miller, whose culinary approaches "emphasize fresh healthful food based on a diet of diversity." Chapters are appended with notes and literature references. Some of the topics pertaining to genetic resource issues are covered in greater depth and with more balanced treatment in other publications. With color photos, plus list of resource organizations and mail-order suppliers. Volume out of print. (See Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 120, for more on Seeds of Change, the seed company.)
Related work: More recently, Mr. Ausubel has written Restoring the Earth: Visionary Solutions from the Bioneers (HJ Kramer, 1997, 288 p., volume current in print). For more on the Bioneers and the Collective Heritage Institute, with which the author is currently affiliated, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 63.

2. Creasy, Rosalind. Cooking from the Garden. San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books, 1988. 547 p.
NAL SB321.C73

For gardeners who cook and cooks who garden, a sumptuous and informative publication celebrating garden beauty and bounty-- "the unbroken arc from the garden to table." Skilled gardeners, knowledgeable seeds people, and master chefs assisted the author by growing theme gardens and creating complementary cuisines that demonstrated their particular area of expertise. The book is divided into five sections, the first three presenting the gardens, and the last two serving as reference material. Part I describes seven types of gardens illustrating North American history; Part II, five types of international gardens; and Part III, five types of avant-garde gardens featuring new approaches to food (such as spa gardens serving nutritional menus). For each garden type, there is generous information on how to create it, suitable plants, and a cooking section with recipes, as well as information on seed and plant sources and demonstration gardens, and suggested gardening and cooking publications. Part IV, "An encyclopedia of superior vegetables," provides specific growing information and recommended varieties. Part V consists of resources and references, including general advice on planting and maintenance; comprehensive list of suppliers of seeds, plants, and garden and kitchen sundries; annotated bibliography; and general index. Since one of the author's goals was to celebrate our great legacy of garden plants, the gardens and recipes emphasize open-pollinated vegetable varieties, although some notable hybrids are identified in Part IV. Heirlooms receive special attention in the chapters on historical gardens (including heirloom, baked bean, Native American, and chili pepper gardens), and several gardens in other sections (especially Italian, Oriental, and rainbow) emphasize classic vegetable varieties. Illustrated with numerous color plates. Volume out of print. ( Edible Heirloom Vegetable Garden is a new book by Ms. Creasy, which is due out in mid-1999.)

3. Jabs, Carolyn. The Heirloom Gardener. San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books, 1984. 310 p. NAL SB324.73.J33

This 1984 book from journalist Carolyn Jabs assembled a wealth of information on the burgeoning garden heirloom movement and served as further stimulus to preservation initiatives. Although its resource information has lost some of its currency, the publication remains a useful single source for explaining the whys and hows of grassroots preservation of garden plants, since the author's purpose was to inform gardeners, scientists, collectors, commercial seed purveyors, and historians about the problem of extinction of many old and endangered varieties, and to help create common ground among these groups with differing interests. Included are portraits of individual collectors, seed exchanges, historical garden programs, and regional seed companies; historical perspectives on particular vegetables and fruits; and information on the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System and institutional efforts to preserve crop genes, the seed industry and seed politics, and backyard seed-saving methods for preservationists or breeders. One chapter offers guidance for locating heirlooms and documenting information. The appendices provide brief descriptions of seed exchanges, commercial suppliers, and living history farms; cite research libraries, federal germplasm repositories, and sources for old books; and include a bibliography of selected historical sources, general bibliography, and detailed subject index. Page margins are illustrated with line drawings from 19th-C. horticultural publications and source notes. Volume out of print.

4. Kline, Roger A., Robert F. Becker, and Lynn Belluscio. The Heirloom Vegetable Garden: Gardening in the 19th Century. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Cooperative Extension, 1981. 28 p.

A guide to some of the existing garden vegetables that embody the names, tastes, and physical and genetic traits of prominent 19th-C. American varieties. Following a survey of changes in vegetable production over the last century, there are sketches of a dozen commonly-grown vegetables, including their histories in the New World, and for each, descriptive notes on several named cultivars. The roster includes carrots, sweet corn, lettuce, onion, parsnips, peas, potatoes, radishes, squash and pumpkins, tomatoes, and turnips. The authors note that some of the varieties are authentic in their lack of quality and disease resistance, emphasizing the need for proper garden care, such as crop rotations. (Old varieties of celery, cucumbers, and muskmelons, with especially poor performances compared to modern introductions, are left out of the booklet.) The text is enlivened with a number of old-time recipes, with line drawings throughout. Includes bibliography that cites original 19th-C. sources for vegetable descriptions. (Available from Cornell Cooperative Extension, Resource Center-GP, 7 Business & Technology Park, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, tel. 607-255-2080, fax 607-255-9946, e-mail

5. Lerner, Steve. Eco-Pioneers: Practical Visionaries Solving Today's Environmental Problems. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997. 462 p. NAL GE150.L47 1997

A new book profiling ecological innovators in the U.S. who work on a variety of fronts to create practical solutions to environmental problems. Each chapter is devoted to one of 25 eco-pioneers who are "modeling ways to log forests, grow food, raise livestock, manufacture goods, construct houses, generate power, reuse materials, reduce waste, and design sustainable communities while minimizing damage to the web of life." The work of several of these men and women involves crop preservation and improvement, and cultural preservation and local self-reliance. Ch. 21 (p. 309-319), "Saving the seed: rescuing important foods and medicinal crops from extinction," profiles Kenny Ausubel, catalyst and former president of Seeds of Change, a New Mexican company that sells organically-grown seeds of heirlooms and open-pollinated vegetables and herbs. The piece provides background on Ausubel's motives and accomplishments, and the company's operations and impact. (Ausubel is author of the 1994 book, Seeds of Change, cited in entry 1, this volume; the company is described in Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 120.) Ch. 7 (p. 101-113), "Breeding naturally colored organic cotton eliminates the need for toxic dyes and pesticides," profiles Sally Fox, who turned her fascination with textiles into a highly profitable and revolutionary business, Natural Cotton Colors. Starting in the 1980s, Fox, who trained as an entomologist, worked on her own to create long-fibered, intensely-colored cotton varieties, which she selected and cross-bred from brown cotton grown traditionally in Central America. Ch. 20 (p. 299-308), "Zunis launch a sustainable action plan to manage tribal resources," describes the work of James Enote, director of the Zuni Conservation Project (ZCP) in Zuni, New Mexico. The Project centers on reversing ecological damage from prior mismanagement of Zuni lands, and reviving the Zuni's traditional dryland farming techniques and crop varieties. ZCP is parent organization to the Zuni Folk Varieties Project, described further in Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 23. The volume contains black-and-white photos, with bibliography and subject index. Author Lerner is currently director of the Commonweal Research Institute in Bolinas, California. Currently in print.

6. Nazarea, Virginia, et al. Yesterday's Ways...Tomorrow's Treasures: Heirloom Plants and Memory Banking. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., 1997. 31 p.

A concise guide to exploring and preserving the local cultural knowledge embodied in old garden varieties. The book is part of an effort undertaken by the Southern Seed Legacy (SSL) Project Network to preserve the biological and cultural diversity found in "old-timey" southern vegetable varieties. In step-by-step fashion it provides "a map to memory banking," a systematic approach to document and perpetuate the knowledge associated with traditional crops and wild plants, which was first developed and used successfully by the lead author (an anthropologist) in the Philippines. Ch. 1 explains how to find the people in one's community who have special memories or knowledge, and the tools and procedures needed to interview them and collect seed and plant samples. Ch. 2 explains how to conduct a life history interview. Ch. 3 tells how to organize and evaluate the plant information collected. Ch. 4 suggests ways to use the information gained, including educating others. With numerous charts and diagrams, and sample worksheets. (For more on SSL, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 58.)
Related work: Dr. Nazarea has written more recently an academic study, entitled Cultural Memory and Biodiversity (Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 1998, 189 p., NAL GN476.N39 1998). In it she argues for the pressing need to conserve human cultural memory, along with crop biodiversity, and the values offered by memory-banking. The focus is on her work in the Philippines.

7. Proulx, E. Annie. The Gourmet Gardener: Growing Choice Fruits and Vegetables with Spectacular Results. New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1987. 197 p. NAL SB324.3.P7 1987

From a garden writer (and also award-winning novelist), this book is both a guide to gardening techniques and to selecting choice plants and varieties, including exotic vegetables and heirlooms. The opening chapter offers "how-to" information on planting an organic kitchen garden, from soil types and starting seeds, to harvest. Following are four chapters on the following topics: salad vegetables ("Magnificent crudites," Ch. 2), "Exotic, curious, and special vegetables" (Ch. 3); culinary herbs (Ch. 4), and "Choice fruits" (Ch. 5). The vegetable profiles in Ch. 2 and 3 include anecdotes on historically-interesting varieties, with discussion of varieties currently available and specific commercial suppliers. The fruit section considers more unusual types: gooseberries, dessert grapes, medlars, and several others. Text is illustrated with line drawings. With listing of U.S. sources for seeds, plants, and supplies, plus bibliography citing modern and historical publications, and subject index. Volume out of print.

8. Rupp, Rebecca. Blue Corn and Square Tomatoes: Unusual Facts About Common Vegetables. Pownal, VT: Storey Communications, 1987. 222 p. NAL SB320.9.R87 1987

A compilation of eclectic biographies of garden vegetables, including New World crops (tomatoes, peppers, potatoes, corn, beans, etc.) and 16 others with diverse origins. The author's entertaining narrative considers historical aspects (such as the rise and fall of vegetable reputations), the wide-ranging travels of some crops, modern usage and nutrition (including current science-based plant improvements), the stories behind plant names, and some practical garden tips. How plants arrived in Colonial America and how they were received is typically described, and for some vegetables, the array of types formerly or currently available, and the status of genetic resources for crop improvement, are outlined briefly. (Readers learn, for instance, that a ripe tomato's flavor derives from a complex mixture of more than 118 flavor components; that pre-16th-C. carrots were purple rather than orange; that although 5000 potato varieties are known, 80 percent of the American crop derives from only six cultivars; and that the turnip was a favorite in 19th-C. American gardens.) Supplementing the vegetable narratives, an introductory chapter traces briefly the rise in "vegetable consciousness" from classical Greece to 20th-C. Europe and America. With black-and-white line drawings, plus a handful of old-time recipes (such as "pumpion-pye"). Includes annotated listing of seed companies, plus lengthy bibliography and subject index. Volume out of print.

9. Stickland, Sue, foreword by Kent Whealy. Heirloom Vegetables: A Home Gardener's Guide to Finding and Growing Vegetables from the Past. New York: Fireside Books, 1998. 191 p. NAL SB324.73.S75 1998

A timely and informative volume on preserving and using the vast diversity of heirloom vegetables available to today's gardeners. This well-illustrated book is divided into two sections; Part I, consisting of five chapters, offers background on various reasons for gardening with heirloom varieties, and related issues. Among the topics considered: the historical origins of crop plants (including how and where they have traveled), trends in modern plant breeding, the relevance of diversity from plant breeders' and gardeners' perspectives, economic and social pressures towards genetic uniformity, and community-based conservation initiatives (from seed savers networks to alternative seed companies). Ch. 5 offers guidelines for saving vegetable seeds, including some plant-specific tips. (This section contains several maps, plus more than three dozen vivid color photos of vegetables.) Part II (p. 100-168) is a directory of heirloom varieties, intended to identify some that are "well-loved and highly recommended," most of them maintained in the past as family or community heirlooms, and all available today from commercial sources. Three dozen plants (from beans and beets, to tomatoes and watermelons) are included. For each, there is general information on garden cultivation, followed by profiles of named varieties, each with notes on history, appearance, and garden aspects. Codes for each variety identify commercial seed sources in the U.S. and Canada. A resource section provides contact information, with short descriptions of 100+ seed suppliers, plus a dozen seed saving networks. (Includes a number of seed companies not cited in this resource guide.) Appended also with a reading list, and subject index. Kent Whealy of Seed Savers Exchange served as consultant; photos by David Cavagnaro. Currently in print; available BG,SS.

10. Watson, Benjamin, ed. Taylor's Guide to Heirloom Vegetables. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1996. 343 p. NAL SB324.73.T38 1996

A recent addition to Taylor's Guide series, this book presents information on more than 500 varieties of the "best historic, regional, and ethnic vegetables." Heirlooms are defined as open-pollinated varieties that reproduce true-to-type, were introduced over 50 years ago, and possess a history that is more-or-less well documented. Plant descriptions, arranged alphabetically, are offered in the main section of the book. Recommended named varieties (the vast majority heirlooms in the strict definition above and each available from at least one commercial supplier) are described briefly, with horticultural and historical notes, plus general growing and harvest advice. More than 70 beans of all types, 23 corns, and 34 tomatoes, plus fewer selections among other garden crops (from amaranth to watermelon) are profiled. Includes a section of color plates along with notes depicting 200 varieties, plus sections outlining heirloom popularity, seed-saving procedures, and organic control of pests and diseases. Many of the color photos were taken at Seed Savers Exchange's Heritage Farm. Supplemented with bibliography and mail-order seed sources and descriptions of 11 North American seed trusts and historic seed programs (most of them updated for this publication). Currently in print; available AL,FE,SS.

11. Weaver, William Woys, foreword by Peter Hatch. Heirloom Vegetable Gardening: A Master Gardener's Guide to Planting, Growing, Seed Saving, and Cultural History. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1997. 439 p. NAL SB324.73.W43 1997

A superb, encyclopedic reference to the histories and present-day garden attributes of distinguished heirloom vegetables, from a master gardener and food historian who views the book as "a family album of what America has eaten." Monticello's Peter Hatch, in the foreword, calls it a "landmark study" that effectively revives the identities of our vegetable heritage. The heart of the book, "A grower's guide to selected heirloom vegetables" (p. 33 onwards), describes some 700 historical and heirloom varieties, 250 of the latter grown in the author's southeastern Pennsylvania garden and still available to gardeners through seed savers' networks or commercial sellers. For each of some three dozen common and unusual garden vegetables there is an essay on its horticultural history, with growing and seed-saving advice and culinary tips. The heirloom roster consists of 30 beans (kidneys, limas, and runners), 22 lettuces, 17 melons, 11 corns, 15 squashes, and 20 tomatoes, plus many others. Antique plants and varieties less typically grown (e.g., cardoon, chayote, and martynia), which are regional, ethnic, or historical favorites, are featured also. For each named heirloom, there are details on its ancestry, historical importance, and popular lore, plus current garden virtues and availability. Some varieties are especially well-documented in the historical literature, including 30 or so 19th-C. French varieties known from Vilmorin's Vegetable Garden (cited in Volume 3, Historical Supplement, entry 39), and some are the author's flavor favorites. (Some of Mr. Weaver's varieties are offered through Seed Savers Exchange network.) This section includes old-time recipes for a number of vegetables, primarily to illustrate classic kitchen uses. There are also two chapters on the evolution of the kitchen garden in North America, from its classical roots, to important figures and publications of the 19th C. to early 20th C., and on the nature of today's heirloom garden movement, respectively. Well-researched and engaging, written in nontechnical language for novice gardeners and seed savers. Contains black-and-white drawings from old texts, plus a section of vivid color plates. Also includes a list of commercial seed and plant sources, suggested periodicals and other publications, extensive list of historical works cited, and subject index. Currently in print; available PN,SC,SE,SS.

12. Whealy, Kent and Arllys Adelmann, eds. Seed Savers Exchange: The First Ten Years. Decorah, IA: Seed Savers Publications, 1986. 416 p. NAL SB117.S412

This book gathers together some of the best information from Seed Savers Exchange (SSE) 's two semi-annual publications produced during the organization's first 10 years, 1975 to 1985. As it depicts the evolution of the organization, it is an invaluable guide for seed savers, offering much in the way of practical information and resources, especially for those who missed the original publications. Excerpts are grouped under the following topics: interviews with seed collectors (including John Withee of Wannigan Associates and Carl Barnes of CORNS); annual SSE campout conventions, with the text of talks by collectors and others; plant patenting issues; Seed Banks Serving People Workshop (including talks by Cary Fowler, Gary Nabhan, and others, presented at the 1981 event in Tucson); SSE's growers network; heirloom vegetable stories; historical gardens (including sketches of historical garden projects); preservation projects by nonprofit organizations; heirloom seed companies; and saving garden seeds (including methods, glossary, supplies needed). Supplemented with a section containing miscellaneous, brief items of news, techniques, and other information; excerpts from members' correspondence on a multitude of topics; and SSE's manifesto (a status report on the loss of old garden varieties and organization goals). Includes a detailed seed-saving guide (p. 292-324) covering numerous garden crops. With black-and-white photos. (For availability, contact Seed Savers Exchange, Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 17.)

1B. Seed Production and Plant Breeding--Practical Aspects

Books in this section have been selected for their potential value to home gardeners, small-scale market growers, and seed bank curators who are interested in the fundamentals of seed saving, and plant preservation and improvement. In addition, these topics are considered, to varying degree, in some of the books found in Section 1A (Part I, this volume). Additional seed-saving guides are available from several of the seed companies listed in Volume 2, Resource Organizations; see Part VI, "Commercial Seed Companies." Some information on seed production and plant breeding as it relates to five of the New World crops that are the subjects of Part II of this volume (including corn, tomatoes, Capsicum peppers, Phaseolus beans, and squash and pumpkins) is found in the books, book chapters, and periodical articles cited in that section.

13. Ashworth, Suzanne; Kent Whealy, ed. Seed to Seed: Seed Saving Techniques for the Vegetable Gardener. Decorah, IA: Seed Savers Publications, 1991. 222 p. NAL SB324.75.A8

An invaluable reference for the novice or more advanced seed saver, offering detailed and clear instructions for collecting and preserving seeds from common and unusual food plants (mostly vegetables). Section I offers general information on seed saving to preserve rare heirloom varieties, covering topics such as pollination and seed biology, procedures to maintain varietal purity, seed cleaning methods, and seed storage techniques. Section II covers the main vegetable families (alliums, brassicas, composites, cucurbits, legumes, umbellifers, and solanaceous species). Section III covers other families with important members: amaranths, corn and its relatives, mints, and others. Both Sections II and III describe botanical relationships among species, specific pollination and isolation requirements, seed collecting and processing techniques, and seed viability data. A number of unusual species are covered in both sections. Information was based on current research and the author's experience in growing all of the featured plants in her central California garden. Supplemented with descriptions of national seed-saving organizations, plus bibliography, glossary, and indexes to common names; some sources for seed-saving equipment are mentioned in Section I. Currently in print; available AL,BG,FE,GC,HA,HS,MS,NS,PN,SC,SS,TS.

14. Bassett, Mark J., ed. Breeding Vegetable Crops. Westport, CT: AVI Pub. Co., 1986. 584 p. NAL SB324.7.B74

A treatise on the genetic improvement of vegetable crops, emphasizing the practical aspects of applying breeding techniques and knowledge. In 14 chapters, the book covers the more economically important U.S. vegetables: sweet potato, watermelon, Capsicum pepper, tomato, cucumber, squash, snap bean, peas, carrot, onion, cabbage, lettuce, sweet corn, and asparagus. For each vegetable, there is a brief overview of U.S. commercial production, then discussion of floral biology and controlled pollination, important commercial breeding achievements (mostly of the more recent past) and objectives, and commonly used techniques for hybridization and selection. Reviews the predominant breeding objectives for commercial improvement of each plant, including traits such as insect and disease resistance, early or uniform maturity, growth habit and concentrated fruit set (for machine harvestability), and other qualities (e.g., aesthetic, texture, flavor, nutritional)). Some chapters devote more attention to early breeding history and cite important publications (e.g., Ch. 4, "Tomato breeding," p. 135-171), or provide information on horticultural groups and traits (e.g., Ch. 3, "Pepper breeding," p. 67-134), which may interest seed savers and collectors. For keen amateur breeders, this text is most useful as a supplement to Carole Deppe's book, Breeding Your Own Vegetable Varieties (cited in entry 16, this volume). Readers may need to look elsewhere for the basic fundamentals of genetics and plant breeding, as these subjects aren't covered. A bibliography supplements each chapter. Volume out of print.

15. Cleveland, David A. and Daniela Soleri. Food From Dryland Gardens: An Ecological, Nutritional, and Social Approach to Small-Scale Household Food Production. Tucson, AZ: Center for People, Food, and Environment, 1991. 387 p. NAL SB323.C63

This book was the first major project from the Center for People, Food, and Environment (CPFE), an Arizona-based nonprofit group devoted to supporting sustainable food systems. The book's subject focus is the creation of household gardens that serve local needs and build on local knowledge, and conserve natural resources and local environments. It is intended primarily to serve development and extension workers in community-based agriculture in the Third World, but some content may apply to self-reliant, arid-region gardeners in the U.S. Broadly considering small-scale gardens in dryland regions, including those in the Third World and developed nations, the book is included here because of its focus on using traditional garden crop varieties and associated knowledge systems within an ecological framework. Part I (Ch. 2-4) examines issues involved in developing household gardens, focusing on nutrition, household economics, and marketing. Part II (Ch. 5-13) covers garden management, including basic principles of plant biology and propagation, and indigenous practices for managing soils, water, plants, and pests and diseases, emphasising ecological management to enhance household and community well-being. Part III (Ch. 14-16) centers on using the garden harvest. Seed saving and garden diversity are the subjects of Ch. 14 (p. 285-306); topicsinclude issues and values associated with garden diversity and locally-adapted crops, and practical aspects of seed collection and storage. Additional resource materials and lengthy publications list provided. Part IV (Ch. 17-20, plus index) consists of general resource and reference information, including a glossary, list of garden crops mentioned in the text, international resource organizations, and an extensive (partially-annotated) bibliography. Supplemented with numerous diagrams, charts, and drawings. Currently in print; available NS.
Related work: For a brief overview of the characteristics and values of dryland household gardens, see D. Soleri and D.A. Cleveland's article, "Dryland household gardens in development," Arid Lands Newsletter 29: 5-10 (Fall/Wtr. 1989), NAL S612.A753. For further information on the Center for People, Food, and Environment, write to CPFE, 344 South Third Ave., Tucson, AZ 85701; tel. 520-884-8565; e-mail (Besides serving as co-director of CPRE, Dr. Cleveland is professor at the University of California, Berkeley, Dept. of Anthropology.)

16. Deppe, Carol. Breed Your Own Vegetable Varieties: Pop Beans, Purple Peas, and Other Innovations from the Backyard Garden. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Co., 1993. 303 p. NAL SB324.7.D47 1993

An excellent guidebook and reference for adventuresome gardeners, amateur breeders, and serious seed savers who want to preserve their favorite garden varieties, or to improve upon them or others. The author, a professional geneticist and self-professed amateur, describes the advantages and rewards gained from developing one's own vegetable varieties, asking "[W]hy should we let professionals have all the fun?" The book contains abundant, practical information on garden vegetables and their wild relatives, as well as other wild plants with potential for domestication, which in modern times have been largely ignored by professional breeders. Major topics include how to carry out variety trials and garden research; finding and evaluting experimental materials (including suggestions for obtaining materials from the U.S. germplasm system; basic protocols for performing crosses, making selections, and saving seed; and additional considerations for would-be breeders (such as time and space aspects). Includes useful discussion of various types of vegetable breeding systems, the merits of commercial hybrids versus open-pollinated varieties, and how to develop one's own hybrids or turn commercial hybrids into stable open-pollinated lines to suit one's needs. The concepts and methods of modern genetics and heredity that are germane to amateur plant breeding are discussed in clear language. There are numerous examples of various gardener's vegetable development projects with corn, tomatoes, brassicas, and others, as well as Deppe's own work with chickpeas, popbeans, purple peas, and others. Supplemented with reference information on 801 "interesting plants" (including scientific names, isolation distances, pollination mechanisms, their location in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System, and literature references). Includes an annotated bibliography of numerous plant-breeding and seed-saving publications (most of them not duplicated in this guide), plus contact information for 30 U.S. germplasm working collections, commercial seed sources and noncommercial exchanges, and other equipment suppliers. With a glossary of terms and subject index. Currently in print; available PS.

17. Fanton, Michel and Jude Fanton, preface by Bill Mollison. The Seed Savers' Handbook for Australia and New Zealand. Byron Bay, NSW, Australia: Seed Savers' Network, 1993. 176 p. NAL SB117.4.A8F35 1993

From the co-founders of Australia's Seed Savers' Network (SSN), a practical guide and reference publication for Australian seed savers, emphasizing permaculture practices and principles. Part 1 provides background discussion on crop biodiversity and preservation issues and alternatives, and on the founding and focus of SSN. Part 2 offers guidance in seed-saving practices; topics include selecting varieties, maintaining seed purity, seed harvest and cleaning methods, vitality testing, and raising seedlings. This section includes a chapter on working with members of the cucurbit family, which present some challenges to seed savers. Part 3, the main portion of the book, covers an array of food plants (vegetables, culinary herbs, and edible flowers) available to Australian and New Zealand gardeners; 117 crops--amaranth to yam bean--are treated in turn. Includes plants known to most temperate zone gardeners, and some lesser known, mostly warm-weather or high-altitude crops such as taro, winged bean, ginger, and others. Descriptions for each include botanical species and family names, plus background on the plant's geographic origins, botanical features, garden cultivation (including suitable locales in Australia), seed-saving aspects, and each plant's food and non-food uses in various cultures. Also includes notes on interesting or especially endangered varieties of each plant, and simplicity ratings to guide readers to plants suited to their experience level. Appendices contain useful reference charts on plant characteristics, plus indexes to plant names, glossary of terms and bibliography listing books and periodicals (Australian and otherwise) for reference. With numerous black-and-white line drawings. Currently in print; available SN. (For more information on Seed Savers' Network, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 19.)
Related work: The Fantons have collaborated with Jeremy Cherfas of the U.K.'s Henry Doubleday Research Association (HDRA) on an updated seed-saving guide, The Seed Savers' Handbook (by J. Cherfas, M. Fanton, and J. Fanton, Bristol, UK: Grover Books, 1996, 168 p.) Currently in print; available HD,SN.

18. Jason, Dan, foreword by Helen Nearing. Greening the Garden: A Guide to Sustainable Growing. Philadelphia; Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers, 1991. 196 p. NAL SB453.5.J38 1991

Practical information plus philosophical commentary on ecological gardening with a bioregionalist perspective (i.e., "ground[ing] human cultures within natural regions"), from the owner of Salt Spring Seeds, a British Columbian seed company. (Salt Spring Seeds is cited in Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 142.) Part I presents organic methods, including basic principles and techniques for soil regeneration. Part II, "Foods for nutrition and health," is comprised of eight chapters on particular plant groups that offer fundamental nutriments, among them protein-rich beans (Phaseolus vulgaris beans, soybeans, and cool-weather types--favas, chickpeas, and lentils) and the pseudocereals amaranth and quinoa, as well as useful herbs, a variety of vegetables, and some edible wild plants. This section includes a number of recipes, along with a chapter describing methods for extending the gardening season. Part III, "Ecological perspectives," discusses seed-saving methods and particulars for various garden plants, seed politics that influence the availability of heirloom and hybrid seeds, spiritual elements inherent in gardening, and how our food choices affect environmental balance and vitality. Bibliography cites recommended seed companies, and useful magazines and books. Illustrated with black-and-white line drawings, with subject index. Currently in print; available AL,GC,SP.
Related work: New from Dan Jason is the book entitled, Living Lightly on the Land: Self-reliance in Food & Medicine (self-published, 1998, 142 p.). It contains growing, seed-saving, varietal, and cooking information. For availability, contact the author at Salt Spring Seeds (see above).

19. Klein, Mary Ann. Seed Saving Techniques of the National Colonial Farm. Accokeek, MD: Accokeek Foundation, 1984. National Colonial Farm Research Report no. 25. 56 p.

A how-to-do-it guide for saving seeds from common vegetables and herbs of temperate climates, written to aid living historical farms in developing and maintaining heirloom seed and plant collections. Part I provides a brief overview of standard varieties (including heirlooms) and seed biology. Part II includes a glossary of seed-saving terms, an outline of botanical family relationships, and specific information on seed production, including pollination biology and harvesting, and techniques for various plants, which are grouped by 10 plant families. Part III covers seed storage procedures. Part IV, entitled "Diversity--What it means in the long run," offers discussion of the contribution of heirloom varieties to a diversified crop gene pool. A reference list accompanies each section. Currently out of print. (For more information on National Colonial Farm's heritage crops program, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 33.)

Go to: Contents of Volume 1 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, 400, 420, 460 | Appendices (Volume 1)

20. Loewer, Peter. Seeds: The Definitive Guide to Growing, History, and Lore. New York: Macmillan, 1996. 230 p. NAL SB117. L59 1995

For general readers, this book provides broad coverage of the world of seeds. Major topics include an overview of seed biology and ecology (including seed development, dispersal, and germination), starting garden seeds (soil mixes, equipment, and planting out), profiles of contemporary seed collectors, and "the big business of seeds." Includes discussion of seed storage for food security (with a visit to the U.S. National Seed Storage Laboratory) and also brief looks at seed dealers and products, and sketches of several American seed houses (Burpees, Seeds Blüm, and others). Ch. 13 consists of an annotated listing of nearly 100 commercial mail-order seed companies (mostly U.S. and Canadian), and several dozen seed exchanges connected with plant societies of various sort (most of them dealing with other than garden vegetables, such as native plants, ornamentals, and others). Included here are descriptions of several sourcebooks for seed growers and collectors (those publications dealing with vegetables are cited also in this resource guide). Seed-saving methodologies are covered only briefly in Ch. 18. With subject index. Currently in print.

21. McDonald, Miller B. and Lawrence Copeland. Seed Production: Principles and Practices. New York: Chapman & Hall, 1997. 740 p. NAL SB117.M36 1997

A modern text providing fundamental information on the practical aspects of producing high-quality seeds, with methods for specific agronomic and horticultural crops. Part I consists of 12 chapters covering plant biology and seed production topics (including flowering; seed development; planting to harvesting, including tools and equipment;conditioning; drying and storage; and seed quality and performance), plus the seed industry in North America (its evolution, plus seed certification, seed marketing, and seed legislation and law enforcement). Part II (the bulk of the book) covers the cereals (Ch. 13 on corn, p. 193-205, along with five others), oil seeds, forage legumes, cool- and warm-season grasses, field and garden beans (common, lima, faba beans, and several others in Ch. 18, p. 554-589), vegetables, flowers, and tree seeds. The vegetable section (Ch. 19, p. 590-643) presents general considerations for vegetable seed production, then discusses, in turn, onions, tomatoes, cabbages, lettuces, cucumbers, and sugarbeets. (These were selected for their economic values, and also botanical qualities, to illustrate different seed production methodologies.) For each crop or crop group there is information on commercial production, vegetative and reproductive development, and production and seed harvest methods, along with a short bibliography. With useful diagrams of equipment, illustrations of selected seeds, and subject index. Text coverage was intended to serve the needs of larger seed growers, although some portions may be useful to smaller growers and seed bank curators, especially as a reference and supplement to Suzanne Ashworth's Seed to Seed (cited in entry 13, this volume). Currently in print.
Related work: These same authors have collaborated on the 1995 publication, Principles of Seed Science and Technology (3rd ed., Chapman & Hall, 409 p., NAL SB117.C73 1995). Intended for "students, laypersons, and practitioners," this volume, first published in 1976, provides comprehensive coverage of seed biology, production, enhancement, evalution, and distribution. Currently in print.

22. Rogers, Marc. Saving Seeds: The Gardener's Guide to Growing and Storing Vegetable and Flower Seeds. Pownal, VT: Storey Communications, 1990. 185 p. NAL SB324.75.R633

A popular guidebook offering practical instructions for raising, harvesting, and storing garden seeds. Part I presents general background information on seed biology, collecting, and storing. The main portion of the book deals with individual plant groups and species: Part I with vegetables, Part II with ornamental flowers, mostly annuals. In the vegetable section (p. 51-135), plants are grouped by family, with species characteristics, pollination information, and specific seed collection procedures. Includes black-and-white line drawings. The book is supplemented with a list of mail-order sources, references, and glossary. Currently in print; available AL,BG,HA,HS,NS,SC.
Related work: Also from Marc Rogers is a 1978 book, Growing and Saving Vegetable Seeds (Garden Way Publishing, 139 p., NAL SB324.75.R6). This older work offers very similar coverage to Saving Seeds, but it deals with food plants only. Reissued in 1983, currently out of print.

23. Solomon, Steve. Growing Vegetables West of the Cascades: Steve Solomon's Complete Guide to Natural Gardening. Seattle, WA: Sasquatch Books, 1989. 339 p. NAL SB324.3.S67 1989

This book presents practical information for gardeners in the mild--but often challenging--climate of the maritime Pacific Northwest, with its mild, moist winters and warm, rainless summers. In the words of the author (an experienced subsistence gardener, garden writer, and once-professional seedsman), the book conveys the Oregonian's approach to self-reliant food gardening, which "combines organic gardening with the best of an 'establishment' scientific outlook." Ch. 2, on plant biology and ecology, and Ch. 3, on soil science and management, each distill fundamental scientific tenets central to gardening success. Ch. 4 through Ch. 9 deal with planning the maritime garden, including methods for extending the season; managing water use, including irrigation for dryland gardening; growing plants from seeds or transplants; and managing pests and diseases. Ch. 6, entitled "Seeds," deals with seed vigor, germination, and quality; open-pollinated and hybrid vegetables available to today's gardeners are compared, with an insider's view of the garden seed trade, including appraisal of some seed companies. (In the late 1970s author Solomon founded Territorial Seeds, a bioregional seed firm.) Ch. 9 presents "family-by-family and species-by-species" information, including culture specifics for a variety of solanums, legumes, various "greens" and root crops, brassicas, cucurbits, alliums, and others. This section, covering one-third of the book, offers advice on seed-saving, and vegetable varieties (both good open-pollinated and hybrid types) optimal for the maritime climate, with their commercial sources. Much of the book's content, including varietal suggestions, is suited to the specific soils and climate of northwestern gardens; yet the book contains much information with more general application, including the author's insights and philosophy on topics relevant to seed saving and factors that might inform varietal selection. With subject index; chapters include suggestions for further reading and black-and-white illustrations. Currently in print.
Related works: This book has been revised from the author's 1981 publication, Complete Guide to Organic Gardening West of the Cascades (Seattle: Pacific Search Press, NAL SB324.3.S67) and its 1985 revision, Growing Organic Vegetables West of the Cascades. (The 1989 revised edition is currently in print.) Also by Mr. Solomon, and likewise, with varietal recommendations, is the 1993 book, Water-wise Vegetables for the Maritime Northwest Gardener (Sasquatch Books, 93 p., NAL SB321.S644 1993.) Currently in print.

24. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Seeds. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1961. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Yearbook 1961. 591 p. NAL 1 Ag84Y

A useful single-volume reference for seed savers, producers, and sellers, this Yearbook from USDA scientists compiled current knowledge on seeds during "World Seed Year" (as 1961 was designated by the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization), continuing the agency's long service of collecting and improving crop seeds for American farmers and gardeners. Six sections cover the following topics: the importance of seeds (including seeds as propagators and protectors of life, as foods, and more; types of seeds; seed development; and age-old uses for seeds); the life processes of seeds (physiology of flowering and seed production, role of growth regulators, seed dispersal, seed viability and life processes, seed dormancy, and plant breeding goals and basic procedures); commercial seed production of grain, legume, flower, and forest tree seeds, with hybrid corn seed production, pests and diseases of seed crops, and seed treatments for disease control; seed processing (seed drying, cleaning, packaging, storage, and pest control); seed certification (policies on seed releases, producing stock seed for field crops and new horticultural varieties, and seed certification in the U.S.); and seed testing (methods for testing purity, origin, moisture, trueness to variety, and seed-borne disease agents; and seed marketing, seed trade associations, seed laws, and seed production economics). Appendix provides tabular data on seeds from a variety of cultivated plants (e.g., germination data, weights), and economic information. Includes black-and-white photos, a detailed glossary of seed terms, and general subject index.

1C. Fruits, Including Heirlooms and Genetic Diversity

Books in this section provide information on garden fruit diversity and fruit varieties, especially on fruits grown more commonly in temperate-zone gardens in North America. Practical aspects of fruit culture and propagation are considered only peripherally. Several books in this section, along with bibliographies and resource guides cited elsewhere in this volume, suggest publications on these topics, which may be useful to amateur fruit growers. (See, for instance, John Hildebrand's bibliography in this volume, entry 248.) Books on apples, including heirloom varieties, are cited in Section 1D, this volume.

25. Fishman, Ram. The Handbook for Fruit Explorers. Chapin, IL: North American Fruit Explorers, 1986. 145 p. NAL SB354.F5 1986, ARB SB354.F5

For contemporary fruit enthusiasts, a practical and philosophical guidebook from the North American Fruit Explorers (NAFEX). Part I ("Spirit") centers on NAFEX's origins and the various interests and activities of its fellowship of modern fruit explorers. Part II ("Structure") addresses the group's self-governance, education, and communication vehicles, including the quarterly periodical Pomona, natural orchard management consulting staff, fruit testing groups, NAFEX library, annual meeting, and other topics. Part III ("Skills") is a compendium of basic skills for responsible fruit growing, including basic grafting methods (with diagrams and tool information), plus discussion of scionwood collection, varietal selection, choosing and growing rootstocks, and other topics. This part concludes with a bibliographic chapter citing the best pomological books on these topics: variety selection and identification, propagation/nursery management, fruit breeding and genetics, dwarfs and espaliers, pruning, pest identification, general fruit and nut culture, and pomological history. (Numerous publications not duplicated in this resource guide are cited). With black-and-white photos and drawings. Volume out of print. (The author is co-owner of Greenmantle Nursery; for contact information, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 155.)

26. Holmes, Roger, ed. Taylor's Guide to Fruits and Berries. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1996. 451 p. NAL SB355.T25 1996, ARB SB355.T25 1996

From the highly rated Taylor's Guide series on various horticultural subjects, this volume offers guidance on the "best selections for the home garden," covering tree fruits (apples, pears, cherries, plums, peaches and nectarines, citrus), fruiting shrubs or vines (raspberries, blackberries, blueberries, grapes, currants and gooseberries), strawberries, and other less common hardy and tender fruits. Each of 12 chapters from individual contributors is self-contained, offering background information on each fruit or berry type, criteria for varietal choices (including pest and disease considerations), and a list of recommended cultivars. Antique apple varieties are included among the group of 38 hardy apples and 15 with low-chill requirements, with brief notes on fruit type, notable resistance qualities, and uses. Older varieties are noted also among the pears (including 11 "old favorite" European pears) and plums, although historical information is otherwise scant. Includes chapters on planting, pruning, and maintenance. The book is particularly useful for those considering the comparative merits of antiques and newer varieties, within a fairly comprehensive guide to growing fruits and berries. All varieties mentioned are commercially available, each fruit group keyed to specialist mail-order nursery sources. With color photos and black-and-white illustrations. Currently in print.

27. Janick, Jules and James N. Moore, eds. Advances in Fruit Breeding. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press, 1975. 623 p., [1] leaf of plates. NAL SB357.3.A38, ARB SB357.3.A38

A reference work for professional breeders, amateurs, and students that assembles contemporary scientific knowledge on breeding temperate and subtropical fruit and nut species. It was intended to update the previous synthesis of fruit breeding information presented in USDA's 1937 Yearbook of Agriculture (also known as Better Plants and Animals--II, see Volume 3, Historical Supplement, entry 27). Information is presented on a species-by-species basis; there are 20 chapters from recognized fruit specialists from around the world. Plants covered include the following: apples, pears, brambles, grapes, blueberries and cranberries, currants and gooseberries, minor temperate fruits, peaches, plums, cherries, apricots; plus temperate nuts, almonds, pecans and hickories, walnuts, filberts, chestnuts; and subtropical fruits, citrus, avocados, and figs. For each fruit or nut type, there is a review of the plant's origins and early horticultural development; modern breeding objectives; breeding techniques (including floral biology and pollination, plant development, selection procedures, fruit evaluation, record keeping, and breeding systems); and breeding for special plant characters (e.g., vigor, cold hardiness, season of flowering, spur types, fruit flavor, and disease resistance); there is also an assessment of current achievements and future outlook. Chapters vary in their emphasis on horticultural history. The pear chapter (p. 38-70) is one that discusses in some length the history of fruit improvement in Europe and elsewhere, citing a number of historical sources. Most chapters review important disease and pest problems in relation to breeding, and to some extent consider genetic resources, in conjunction with breeding objectives. The text is a useful reference for growers, collectors, and breeders, with lengthy bibliographies supplementing each chapter (primarily 20th-C. references). Volume out of print.
Related work: The 1983 publication, Methods in Fruit Breeding (James N. Moore and Jules Janick, eds., Purdue University Press, 464 p., NAL SB357.M4), serves as companion volume. Volume currently in print.

28. Moore, James N. and James R. Ballington, Jr., eds. Genetic Resources of Temperate Fruit and Nut Crops. Wageningen, Netherlands: International Society for Horticultural Science, 1990. Acta Horticulturae series no. 290. 2 vols., 980 p. NAL 80 Ac82 no.290

This two-volume work provides comprehensive description and assessment of temperate fruit and nut germplasm. Fourteen chapters in Vols. 1 and 2 cover the fruits, including apples, apricots, cherries, peaches, plums, grapes, blackberries and raspberries, blueberries and cranberries, currants and gooseberries, strawberries, Amelanchier species, pawpaw, kiwifruit, and pears; in addition, five nut species are considered in Vol. 2. Each chapter reviews the genetic base of current commercial cultivars, known genetic resources in existing crop varieties and wild species, genetic solutions to fruit problems, and the current conservation status of each species. Intended to inform fruit breeders and conservationists, these volumes may serve as useful references for amateur breeders, collectors, and historians. Ch. 1 on apples, for instance, reviews the status of commercial cultivars and production, apple diseases and pests, and fruit qualities, with a synopsis of the apple gene pool, botanical nomenclature and relationships, genetic status of current cultivars and international Malus germplasm programs, and apple cultivars and rootstock breeding. With summary and bibliography appending each chapter; for the apple chapter and others, most references are recent 20th-C. publications. Vol. 2 includes index to plant and other organism names.

29. Westwood, Melvin Neil. Temperate-Zone Pomology: Physiology and Culture. 3rd. ed. Portland, OR: Timber Press, 1993. 523 p. NAL SB355.W43 1993

For practicing pomologists and students, a reference work and textbook concerned with the scientific principles and practical culture of tree and small fruits and nut species of temperate climates. Although written primarily for commercial growers, some content may serve amateurs, particularly those with general botany and horticulturalbackgrounds. The book is organized into 19 chapters. Preliminary chapters deal with the history and current influences on fruit culture, production areas in the U.S. and the world, and the genetics of commercially-important species and varieties. Ch. 4 in this section deals with genetic resources preservation, varietal improvement, and commercially important varieties. Succeeding chapters cover various cultural practices and physiological development (flowering, fruiting, crop maturity, harvest), plus growth regulators, dormancy, and disease and pest management. Additional topics include special cultural requirements for growing temperate fruits in the tropics and subtropics, and factors involved in optimizing the commercial fruit farm. Text contains useful diagrams and tables; supplemental materials include a glossary, bibliography, and name and subject indexes. With black-and-white photos, plus section of color plates. First published in 1978 (San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, NAL SB355.W43); revised and reissued by Timber Press in 1988 (NAL SB355.W434 1988). Third edition currently in print.

1D. Heirloom Apples and Genetic Diversity

30. Bultitude, John. Apples: A Guide to the Identification of International Varieties. London: Macmillan Press, 1983. 325 p. NAL SB363.3.A1B79

A field guide to aid more experienced apples growers in identifying the more common--and also unusual types--that are for the most part still available. It covers some 250 commercial and noncommercial (garden) varieties, and also those of historical interest. The author notes that inclusion indicates only that particular varieties are currently grown and thus "liable to need identification from time to time," and doesn't imply recommendation per se. Descriptions are based on the author's own experience with apples grown at the U.K.'s National Fruit Trials and Brogdale Experimental Horticulture Station. Concise descriptions of mostly English cultivars, plus North American and others (Adams's Pearmain to Zabergäu) are arranged alphabetically, each with black-and-white photos of apple cross-sections and color plates. Descriptions include tree and flowering characteristics, fruit appearance and size, history, synonyms, brief comments on use and value, and literature references. Other chapters tell how best to use the book, with overviews of apple history and current commercial apple production; an additional chapter describes identifying characteristics and apple groups (based on use and appearance). Supplemented with a list of synonyms, and bibliography citing mostly English works. Volume out of print.

31. Crawford, Martin. Directory of Apple Cultivars. Subiaco, WA, Australia: Cornucopia Press (for Agroforestry Research Trust), 1996. 234 p. NAL SB363.3.A1M37 1996

Directory contains a wealth of information on 2650 apple cultivars, including varieties currently available commercially in the U.K. and North America. Within the main section individual cultivars are grouped as dessert/dual apples, cooking apples (i.e., acidic apples that cook down to a puree--a European distinction), cider apples, or crab apples (being those with edible fruits, or good pollinators). For each variety there is information on flowering and pollination, picking, and ripening dates (these aspects based on southern England), plus brief notes on disease resistance/susceptibility, fruit and tree qualities, origin and parentage, and suppliers. (U.K. suppliers only are provided; readers are referred to Seed Savers Exchange's Fruit, Nut and Berry Inventory (cited in entry 242, this volume) for North American sources, thus the publication has less utility on its own as a plant-finding tool for North American readers.) A separate section includes detailed explanation of the descriptors used, a chart listing the characteristics of 150+ rootstocks, and lists of sports included in the directory, plus varietal lists and their pertinent traits for the following groups: self-fertile cultivars, tip bearers, spur bearers, and apples suited to particular uses (no-prune culture, areas with late frosts, alkaline soils, organic cultivation, drying apples, juice or cider production, etc.). The appendix provides a source list for the U.K., selected bibliography, and index to names and synonyms. (For availability, contact Cornucopia Press, P.O. Box 27, Subiaco, WA 6008, Australia, fax 09-385-3400.)

32. Larsen, R. Paul. "The quiet revolution in the apple orchard." In: That We May Eat. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Yearbook 1975. p. 158-168. NAL 1 Ag84y 1975

Provides a mid-1970s overview of commercial apple production, describing progress in terms of improved apple varieties and strains, disease and pest management, and production and storage techniques, which together have produced today's "high quality apples [available] 365 days a year." At the time of this writing, the top eight U.S. varieties were seedling apples "hybridized by nature before 1900."

33. Manhart, Warren. Apples for the 21st Century. Portland, OR: North American Tree Co., 1995. 274 p., plus appendices. NAL SB363.3.A1M36 1995

A practical and informative guide to selecting and growing superior apple cultivars, based on the author's extensive experience in evaluating varieties. Intended for hobbyists as well as professional growers, it provides guidance on varieties suited to particular climates and other conditions, and identifies particular virtues and faults. Part I introduces the book's content, considering several topics relevant to orchardists, such as climate, chill time, and apple biology. Part II describes 50 superior apple cultivars, all readily-obtained; included are U.S. and European apples, and others that are sold commercially, as well as varieties better suited to home growers or connoisseurs (the latter group either not well-tested or less profitable). Descriptions, which have been modeled after Beach's Apples of New York (see Volume 3, Historical Supplement, entry 47), include notes on origins, tree productivity and characteristics, fruit quality, general quality rankings, and comparisons with similar varieties. Since many of the 50 are pre-20th-C. varieties, this work provides useful comparisons among the antiques and the best of the newer introductions, including some up-and-coming varieties and new apples from prominent breeding programs. Part III provides data on flowering periods and commercial apple statistics; Part IV, guidance on selecting apple rootstocks; Part V, physiological apple problems, insects and pests, orchard management, and direct marketing for small commercial orchards; and Part VI, the author's favorite apples. Appendices provide a listing of North American (mostly U.S.) nurseries, and brief glossary, plus a list of literature cited and recommended books and periodicals. Currently in print; available SA.

34. Morgan, Joan and Alison Richards. The Book of Apples. London: Ebury Press (with Brogdale Horticultural Trust), 1993. 304 p. NAL SB363.M64 1993

An informative and attractive volume published in association with the U.K.'s Brogdale Historical Trust. The main section consists of a directory of the 2000 varieties maintained in the Apple Collection at Brogdale in Kent, with notes (ranging from a few lines to several paragraphs) on appearance, culture, and flavor characteristics, plus synonyms and history. Included are varieties from North America and continental Europe, although apples originating in the British Isles are best represented. The directory section is preceded by chapters on the apple's history, its many cultural uses (for decoration and drink as well as food), and developmental influences, with focus largely although not exclusively on Great Britain. Topics include the growth of the commercial apple industry and efforts to catalog and preserve British apple heritage. Appendices highlight the main themes of apple cookery, provide apple-growing basics, and include an annotated list of apple collections and nurseries in Europe and North America. Includes also an extensive reference listing and index to the main text. Supplemented with handsome color plates painted from life, by Elisabeth Dowle. Currently in print.

35. Yepsen, Roger B. Apples. New York: W.W. Norton, 1994. 255 p. NAL SB363.3.A1Y46 1994

A handy (palm-sized, only 5 inches by 6 inches) and attractive book, full of interest for apple enthusiasts. Preliminary chapters offer background information on "the fruit of legend and lunchboxes," including apple lore and facts (such as how to buy and eat apples, using apples in the kitchen, hard and soft cider, and the apple orchard). The heart of the book (p. 61-243) is a gallery of some 90 varieties, a mix of recent disease-resistant introductions and esteemed antiques--Akane to Zabergau Reinette. Among the old and new apples are those both obscure and well-known, from North America and elsewhere. Descriptions (ranging from a couple of paragraphs to a full page of text) touch on ancestry, fruit qualities, and relative maturity and keeping quality. Each is supplemented with a full-page watercolor illustration by the author. Supplemental materials includes a glossary ("apple argot"), a list of mail-order tree sellers, and brief lists of cider and wine-making suppliers, resource organizations, and apple publications. Currently in print; available FE,SS.
Related work. A Celebration of Heirloom Vegetables: Growing and Cooking Old-Time Varieties is a new volume written and illustrated by Roger Yepsen (New York: Artisan, 1998, 192 p.). It contains historical information, growing advice, recipes, and seed and plant sources. Currently in print; available SS.

1E. Food Crops--Conserving Genetic Diversity and Related Topics

This section cites books, book chapters, and technical reports that provide information on governmental plant germplasm preservation systems or facilities (i.e., "genebanks" or "seedbanks") in the U.S. and Canada, and also selected international programs. Included also are publications on various aspects of varietal diversity and genetic resources management of food crops. Publications whose major focus is crop origins and domestication, or the introduction of non-native vegetables and fruits to North America and their early histories in domestic food production, are cited in Volume 3, Historical Supplement, in Part III, "Histories of Vegetables and Fruits." Publications dealing with various dimensions of grassroots conservation programs (i.e., those initiated and supported by gardeners and farmers), are found in this volume in Section 1F, "Food Crops--Community- and Farmer-based Conservation." Several books in Section 1A, "Heirloom Vegetables and Gardening Today," and in Section 1B, "Seed Production and Plant Breeding--Practical Aspects," also consider, to varying degree, the conservation aspects of heirloom gardening, especially in the U.S. and Canada, and similar settings.

36. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology. Plant Germplasm Preservation and Utilization in U.S. Agriculture. Ames, IA: The Council, 1985. CAST Report no. 106. 35 p. NAL S22.C6 no.106

A mid-1980s assessment by a team of USDA and university scientists, intended for a nonspecialist readership. Topics considered include genetic diversity; genetic erosion; acquiring germplasm by plant exploration and introduction; germplasm use by plant breeders; systems for collecting, preserving, and utilizing germplasm; historical roles of public breeders and the private seed industry; and the impacts of the 1970 U.S. Plant Variety Protection Act on germplasm resources, plant breeding, competition in the seed industry, and seed prices. Includes brief profiles of the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR) and components of the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System, with an assessment of the latter's adequacy in meeting current and future needs. With summary statement, p. 1-2, and appended with bibliography. (For availability, contact CAST, 4420 West Lincoln Way, Ames, IA 50014-3447, tel. 515-292-2125, fax 515-292-4512, e-mail, Web site

37. Doyle, Jack. Altered Harvest: Agriculture, Genetics, and the Fate of the World's Food Supply. New York: Viking Penguin, 1986. 502 p. NAL HD9006.D65 1986

Still an important book for those concerned about where their food comes from--and where it may be going. Altered Harvest traces the emergence, to the early 1980s, of the agricultural genetics industry as a profound economic and political force with expanding global reach. It explores the implications of increasing concentration of money and power behind multinational agrichemical corporations, backed by government and science interests, which together promise to exert unprecedented control of the "genetic variable" in the food system. The narrative provides a close look at ways that use of new biotechnologies to manipulate genes, along with legal expansions of patent-type protections to control life forms and processes, may affect biological diversity in domesticated crops and livestock, environmental quality, and food safety and security. It documents homogenizing influences within the North American farm and garden seed industries, and links to similar, system-wide trends in agriculture as a whole, and examines the goals and products of public- and private-sector plant breeding (including creation of hybrid corn, the Green Revolution, and historical examples of the downsides of breeding for uniformity). Also considered are the growth during this century of legal means to control ownership and distribution of seeds and plant materials, and growing politicization of gardeners and farmers with respect to seed access issues. The author suggests that genetic technologies might be used to create agricultural and economic diversity, and to expand options for farmers, gardeners, and consumers, but he believes that, over the long term, the business-as-usual approach to genetic engineering "will mean greater vulnerability in the food system [as] more of the technological 'pieces' of agriculture essential to food production--seeds, livestock embryos, microbes, and gene-keyed agrichemicals--will be in fewer and fewer hands..." (p. 30-31). Doyle's lively critique is based on extensive research, including interviews with key participants in government and science. The text contains detailed footnotes and bibliography, plus an appendix with data outlining U.S. business investments in agrigenetics and biotechnology research during the early 1980s. At the time of publication, the author was affiliated with Environmental Policy Institute, a Washington, D.C.-based, nonprofit, public-interest organization. Volume out of print.

38. Duvick, Donald N. "Possible effects of intellectual property rights on erosion and conservation of plant genetic resources in centers of crop diversity." In: International Crop Science I. D.R. Buxton et al., eds. Madison, WI: Crop Science Society of America, 1993. Ch. 66, p. 505-509. NAL SB16.A328 1992

Following an introduction to historical plant improvement and conservation, the author addresses potential ways that implementation of legal restrictions on plant genetic materials (i.e., patents and plant variety protection, also called breeders' rights) may affect use of plant germplasm by farmers and professional breeders, and enhance its value. He concludes that intellectual property rights will further amplify the need to conserve local farmer varieties in their centers of diversity in developing countries, and calls for measures that will use those rights designed "for private gain to promote public good." With bibliography. This paper is one of many presented at the International Crop Science Congress held in Ames, Iowa, during July 1992. Plant germplasm management and related issues (especially intellectual property rights) were prominent among the subjects covered by the scientific gathering, the volume containing papers by J.T. Williams, J.I. Cohen, Garrison Wilkes, Henry Shands, and others. (A conference overview appears in Diversity 8(3): 10-12 (1992), NAL SB123.3.D5.)

39. Fowler, Cary. "International conflicts in 'new crops'policy." In: New Crops. National Symposium New Crops: Exploration, Research, and Commercialization (2nd; 1991; Indianapolis, Ind.); Jules Janick and James E. Simon, eds. New York: Wiley, 1993. p. 22-27. NAL SB160.N38 1991

The author traces developments related to the rising value of plant genetic resources, from the plant migrations following the "Columbian Exchange," to consequences of the Keystone Center's International Dialogue Series held in 1988, 1990, and 1991 [and later in 1994--see below]. His aim: to help those working with "new crops" to "be mindful of the context" of their work. According to the author, the Dialogues "recognized that questions of ownership, control, and the realization of value of genetic resources were linked to the problem of [their] conservation." The volume consists of presentations made to the second national symposium on new crops, which dealt with aspects of policy, research and development, and genetic resources for a wide array of specific crops. Most presentations dealt with new species or new plant products, versus crop varieties, an exception being Duane L. Johnson and Mitra N. Jha's article, "Blue corn," (p. 228-230), presenting a modern evaluation of protein-rich Hopi blue corn. (For H. Eshbaugh's article on chile peppers, see entry 405, this volume.) Bibliographies append each article; volume includes indexes.
Related works: The following four publications resulted from the Keystone Center-sponsored dialogues on plant genetic resources management issues, held during the period 1988 to 1994. (For availability of the first three documents, see the Keystone Center's Web page at
Keystone International Dialogue Series on Plant Genetic Resources. Final Report of the Keystone International Dialogue on Plant Genetic Resources: Session I: Ex Situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources, [First Plenary Session], August 15-18, 1988. Keystone, CO: Keystone Center, 1988. 46 p.
Keystone International Dialogue Series on Plant Genetic Resources. Final Consensus Report of the Keystone International Dialogue Series on Plant Genetic Resources: Madras Plenary Session, Second Plenary Session, 29 January - 2 February, 1990, Madras, India. Washington, DC: Genetic Resources Communications Systems, [1990]. 39 p. NAL QK981.K49 1990
Keystone International Dialogue Series on Plant Genetic Resources (3rd: 1991: Oslo, Norway). Oslo Plenary Session, Final Consensus Report: Global Initiative for the Security and Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Resources, Third Plenary Session, 31 May - 4 June, 1991, Oslo, Norway. Washington, DC: Genetic Resources Communications Systems, 1991. 42 p. NAL QK981.7.K49 1991
Keystone International Dialogue Series on Plant Genetic Resources (5th: 1994: Madras,India); M.S. Swaminathan, ed. Farmers' Rights and Plant Genetic Resources: Recognition & Reward: A Dialogue. Madras: MacMillan India, 1995. Reaching the Unreached [series]. 440 p. NAL QK981.7.F37 1995

Go to: Contents of Volume 1 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, 400, 420, 460 | Appendices (Volume 1)

40. Fowler, Cary. Unnatural Selection: Technology, Politics, and Plant Evolution. Yverdon, Switzerland; U.S.A: Gordon and Breach, 1994. International Studies in Global Change no. 6. 317 p. NAL SB123.F68 1994

Examines the historical and social development of control over plant genetic resources. Part I reviews early seed and plant collecting initiatives arising from existing botanical inequity among regions and nations of the world. Ch. 1 in this section surveys the rise of commercial agriculture, from the start of the 19th C., and Ch. 2, scientific plant breeding during the period 1800 to 1930, with focus on U.S. and European events. The latter chapter considers the impacts of the developing market economy on the relationship between farmers and planting materials, using hybrid corn as the focal point and tracing the transition from farmers as seed savers, to seed purchasers. Part II (Ch. 3-5) deals with the creation of intellectual property rights for plants in the U.S. The Plant Patent Act of 1930, secured by commercial nursery interests, is the subject of Ch. 3; Ch. 4 is concerned with the Plant Variety Protection Act (PVPA) of 1970, and Ch. 5, with PVPA expansion in 1980. Part III (Ch. 6) reviews the expansion of intellectual property rights issues to international arenas; the focus here is on the linkage of property rights with trade issues at GATT (Ch. 6); the farmers' rights issues at conferences of the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and negotiations held at the Keystone International Dialogue on Plant Genetic Resources. Each chapter appended with lengthy endnotes. Supplemental materials include a brief survey of the loss of genetic diversity in the U.S. and Third World; glossary of technical terms; explanation of the writer's theoretical basis for the study and sequential accounting of his sources of information and methodology; an extensive bibliography; and subject index. At the time of publication, the author was Senior Officer with FAO, thus a portion of the modern history reflects his "insider" role as participant and observer (Ch. 5, for example, includes his role in opposing the 1980 PVPA amendment.) Currently in print.
Related works: A more comprehensive examination of the origins and threats to crop genetic diversity occurs in the author's previous book, Shattering: Food, Politics, and the Loss of Genetic Diversity (by Cary Fowler and Pat Mooney, University of Arizona Press, 1990, NAL SB175.F68 1990), which was issued in the U.K. under the title, The Threatened Gene: Food, Politics, and the Loss of Genetic Diversity (Cambridge: Butterworth, 1990, SB123.F69 1990). Volume currently in print; available AL,GC,HA,PW,SB. Mr. Fowler served as senior author for the 1988 work, The Laws of Life: Another Development and the New Biotechnologies (Uppsala, Sweden: Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation, 350 p., Development Dialogue no. 1/2, NAL S494.5.B563L3). A cooperative effort from the Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation, Rural Advancement Foundation International (RAFI), and others, this well-documented publication grew out of the Foundation's 1987 Seminar, "The Socioeconomic Impact of New Biotechnologies on Basic Health and Agriculture in the Third World." The series continues with the recent book, The Parts of Life: Agricultural Biodiversity, Indigenous Knowledge, and the Role of the Third System, by P. Mooney (Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation, 1997, 185 p., Development Dialog Special Issue). It can be downloaded from RAFI's Web site, (or ordered from Dag Hammarskjöld Centre, Övre Slottsgatan 2, SE-753 10 Uppsala, Sweden).

[NOTE: Citation number 41 does not exist.]

42. Hauptli, Holly, et al. "Biotechnology and crop breeding for sustainable agriculture." In: Sustainable Agriculture Systems. Clive A. Edwards et al., eds. Ankeny, IA: Soil and Water Conservation Society, 1990. Ch. 10, p. 141-156.

In this chapter, the genetic modifications resulting from efforts to produce crops that fit into modern, intensive production systems are reviewed. Focus is on the processing tomato, whose biology and history of domestication, combined with the efforts of modern breeders, have yielded cultivars that, by intention, are highly uniform compared to ancestral tomatoes still found in South America. The authors assert that, to develop modern crop varieties suited to sustainable production systems, the "biological principles needed...are analagous to those that underlay the stability of land race varieties under subsistence production conditions"; these principles include lowered reliance on synthetic chemicals, a broader genetic base, and tolerance (rather than absolute resistance) to diseases and pests. They argue that bioengineering through recombinant DNA techniques can be used successfully to produce tomatoes for sustainable systems, citing examples of insect and pest resistance, herbicide tolerance, and other desirable plant traits. The senior author and two others were at the time affiliated with Calgene, a biotechnology company in Davis,California. The volume consists of 40 chapters on technological components and environmental, economic, and policy aspects of sustainable systems in both temperate and tropical zones, which were based on presentations from a 1988 international conference. Currently in print.

43. Hawkes, J.G. The Diversity of Crop Plants. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983. 184 p. NAL SB185.75.H38

This book from a distinguished British plant scientist reviewed current thinking on how and when crop plants originated, how plant breeders have used the diversity that has accumulated over millennia, and the formal, international undertakings of the last 30 years to safeguard plant germplasm diversity for current and future use. Opening sections (Ch. 1-3) review the geographic origins of major crop plants, the patterns of their dispersal and development, how they differ from their wild progenitors, and the features (such as ecological weediness) that predisposed them to human selection. Ch. 4 examines the nature of genetic diversity, including how it appears as morphological or biochemical variation. Ch. 5 explains how breeders rely on a wide genetic base to enhance yields, quality (such as nutritional content), or adaption to environmental extremes, and the types of plant genetic resources used by breeders, which range from wild relatives, to current and obsolete commercial cultivars. Ch. 6 reviews the loss of genetic richness in cultivated plants in their centers of diversity and replacement by standard varieties (i.e., the problem of genetic erosion), and reviews scientific aspects of plant collection, conservation, and evaluation. A final chapter discusses global strategies and actions to conserve and utilize plant genetic resources. With numerous maps and illustrations throughout, plus bibliography and subject index. Portions of the book are more pertinent to crop scientists and evolutionists, although there is good discussion of plant origins and the nature of crop diversity that is accessible to general readers. The author's viewpoint is largely limited to the scientific sector's interests and activities in plant germplasm resource issues. Professor Hawkes is currently professor emeritus at the University of Birmingham, England. Volume out of print.

44. Iltis, Hugh. "Serendipity in the exploration of biodiversity: What good are weedy tomatoes?" In: Biodiversity. Edward O. Wilson, ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1988. Ch. 10, p. 98-105. NAL QH75.A1N32 1986

A plant scientist tells of his role in collecting certain wild tomato species from Peru, which eventually served as raw materials in boosting the U.S. canning tomato industry by tens of millions of dollars. He argues that botanical exploration continues to be important and that the tomato example represents the many real instances of crop enrichment via gene transfer from wild species. Professor Iltis objects to demands for proof of "economic" value of biodiversity, which may come years after collection, and argues that biologists must insist on investment and support for natural reserves and the study of diversity in situ. The volume, consisting of contributions from distinquished scholars on the issues and challenges presented by global biodiversity conservation, was based on presentations from the 1986 "National Forum on Biodiversity" held in Washington, DC. Many chapters (of 57 total) are more directly concerned with conservation issues and problems of wild plant and animal species and their natural habitats. Two other chapters deal specifically with food crops: Ch. 28, p. 240-247, by J. Trevor Williams, entitled "Identifying and protecting the origins of our food plants"; and Ch. 41, p. 361-369, by Miguel A. Altieri and Laura C. Merrick, entitled "Agroecology and in situ conservation of native crop diversity in the Third World." Currently in print.

45. Janick, Jules, ed. The National Plant Germplasm System of the United States. Portland, OR: Timber Press, 1989. Plant Breeding Reviews vol. 7. 230 p. NAL SB123.P55 v.7 1989, ARB SB123.3.N3

A status report on various aspects of the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (USNPGS), from "acquisition through preservation, and from evaluation to enhancement." Consists of eight chapters by individual contributors, the subjects including the history of USNPGS, plant exploration, maintenance and storage procedures for seeds and clonal materials, use of biotechnology in germplasm preservation, and germplasm evaluation and enhancement. Each chapter contains a bibliography. The volume is appended with subject and author indexes.

46. Kidd, George H. "The new plant genetics: Restructuring the global seed industry." In: The World Biotech Report 1985. Vol. 1. Europe: Proceedings of Biotech '85 Europe, Geneva, May 1985. Biotech '85 Europe. Pinner, Middlesex, U.K,: Online Publications, 1985. 3 vols. p. 311-321. NAL TP248.2.W682

Industrial analyst presents an overview of the revenues and profits that the new plant genetics (including tissue culture and DNA technologies) applied to improving crop heredity and productivity will add to crops and seeds globally. Includes a look at impacts on the structure of the global seed trade (his prediction in 1985: that soon after the year 2000, "no more than a dozen global companies will dominate the seed markets"). This paper was one of several dozen from scientists, policymakers, and industrialists who convened for an international congress on genetic and other biotechnologies; four presentations dealt with the "new plant genetics." Volume also titled Biotech '85 and Proceedings of Biotech '85.

47. Kloppenburg, Jack, ed. Seeds and Sovereignty: The Use and Control of Plant Genetic Resources. Durham, NC: Duke University Press (for American Association for the Advancement of Science), 1988. 368 p. NAL SB123.3.S44

While agricultural plant biodiversity has long been recognized as vital to the "common good," plants--and more narrowly, their genes--are increasingly treated as privately-owned commodities to be bought and sold. This book examines what came to be called the "Seed Wars," a global conflict that erupted in the 1970s over access to, control over, and preservation of plant genetic resources. Tweny contributors with differing viewpoints (among them Otto Frankel, H. Garrison Wilkes, Jack Harlan, William L. Brown, and others, primarily government, academic, or private sector scientists and administrators) "provide a map of positions in the plant germplasm debate," to identify issues and find solutions. The book is divided into four main sections following a brief introduction. Part I presents a comprehensive overview of the biological and social elements of the "politicization of plant genetic resources." Part II examines the historical and contemporary contexts of plant evolution and biodiversity, plant exploration and collection, and genetic erosion. This section includes chapters on the contribution of exotic germplasm to U.S. agriculture, presenting examples of several important crops (corn, soybeans, wheat, and others), and the use of biotechnology tools to assess genetic diversity and develop new crop varieties. Part III presents differing perspectives on events further fueling the Seed Wars dispute, including a 1983 Undertaking by the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization that broadly defined plant genetic resources (including advanced plant breeders lines and hybrid varieties, as well as farmer-developed landraces) as the "common heritage of mankind." This section explores national interests, farmer interests, institutional responsibilities, and the perspectives of the seed industry and the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research, the latter a network of international centers and programs whose goal is to enhance sustainable food production in developing countries. Part IV offers proposals for institutional changes that control the exchange and use of plant germplasm. A bibliography appends each chapter; volume contains subject index and notes on contributors. Currently in print.
Related work: A second book from the same period, also by Dr. Kloppenburg (who is currently professor of rural sociology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison), provides background to the debate over rights of access to crop germplasm. First the Seed: The Political Economy of Plant Biotechnology, 1492-2000 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988, 349 p., NAL SB117.3.K5) offers historical analysis of plant breeding, including bioengineered crop improvement, and the U.S. seed industry. Volume out of print.

48. Rissler, Jane and Margaret Mellon. The Ecological Risks of Engineered Crops. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996. 168 p. NAL SB123.57.R564 1996

This book has been revised and expanded from the authors' earlier publication, Perils Amidst the Promise: Ecological Risks of Transgenic Crops in a Global Market. Its authors, who are affiliated with the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), believe that "[A]gricultural biotechnology should be evaluated in the context of efforts to make agriculture more sustainable and less environmentally damaging," and that "[A]n educated public should have a say in choosing among the benefits of the technology." Ch. 1 outlines the book's subject matter, which consists of an analysis of potential ecological damage associated with large-scale commercial use of bioengineered (or transgenic) crops, and the efficacy of current U.S. regulatory schemes. Ch. 2 defines transgenic plants (i.e., those manipulated in the laboratory to contain traits from unrelated organisms) and reviews the "first wave" of bioengineered crops being commercialized from private and government-sponsored research, and the types of existing applications, such as herbicide and pest resistance. Ch. 3 describes and classifies particular kinds of environmental risks: those associated with engineered plants themselves (which may become "weeds" in agricultural ecosystems), and with the movement of transgenes into related plant types, including wild and weedy relatives. Cumulative effects, including reduced biodiversity in local communities and centers of crop diversity, and risks associated with engineered virus-resistant crops, are discussed. Ch. 4 reviews the risk assessment process and presents a novel scheme to analyze crop weediness potential and gene flow, to assess the two kinds of risks outlined previously. Ch. 5 explains the implications of a global seed trade positioned for widespread adoption of transgenics, especially the flow of novel genes into related plants in centers of crop diversity in developing countries (already diminished by habitat loss and replacement by modern varieties). Ch. 6 reviews current U.S. regulations governing bioengineered crops and outlines UCS's conclusions and recommendations concerning commercial development, risk assessment, and regulation of transgenic crops. The text uses clear language to explain scientific concepts and keeps readers "on track" with frequent summaries. Appended materials include a glossary of terms, endnotes and sources, lengthy bibliography, and subject index. Currently in print.
Related work: Perils Amidst the Promise, cited above, was issued in 1993 (Cambridge, MA: Union of Concerned Scientists, 92 p., NAL SB123.57.R57 1993, volume out of print). For more information on work in this area by the UCS Agriculture and Biotechnology Program, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 77.

49. National Research Council, Committee on Genetic Vulnerability of Major Crops. Genetic Vulnerability of Major Crops. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 1972. 307 p. NAL SB731.N27 1972, ARB SB731.N27

An influencial assessment of the genetic vulnerability of important U.S. crops to disease and insect attacks.Assembled by a panel of plant breeders, pathologists, and other agricultural scientists, this belwether report followed two years after the Southern corn leaf blight of 1970 destroyed 50 percent of the corn crop in the southern states most affected (and 15 percent overall), and stimulated wider interest in the genetic status of farm crops in the nation and elsewhere. Part I examines disease epidemics in general and the corn blight epidemic in particular, covering the complexities of plant host and disease agent interactions, the types of plant genetic resources that breeders draw upon, and economic aspects of epidemics (including economic and social pressures on plant breeders that lead to genetic specialization and uniformity). With a chapter on the dynamics of insect outbreaks. Part II consists of seven chapters, each focusing on the genetic vulnerability of a particular food or fiber crop or crop group; these include corn; wheat; sorghum and pearl millet; rice; potato, sugar beet, and sweet potato; soybeans and other edible legumes; cotton; and vegetable crops. For each there is review of the diversity present in the species as a whole and in prevailing commercial varieties within the U.S., important disease and insect problems, trends in breeding programs and technologies, and prospects for broadening the genetic base. In Ch. 14 on vegetables (p. 254-268), the authors conclude that "the disappearance of old varieties displaced by productive, uniform hybrids may be a serious loss of germ plasm for future breeders." Part III examines the challenges stemming from highly vulnerable American crops,including devising new breeding strategies that conserve genetic material as well as production increases. The report includes summary statements and recommendations (p. 1-2); among the conclusions: "...most major crops are impressively uniform genetically and impressively vulnerable" to disease epidemics, "this uniformity [deriving] from powerful economic and legislative forces." The text avoids specialized terminology or jargon; Part I, for instance, offers a "short course" on plant disease epidemiology, which is accessible to non-scientific readers, as is the rest of the report. Bibliographic references with each chapter. Appended with list of committee members. Volume out of print.

50. National Research Council, Committee on Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Imperatives.The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1991. Managing Global Genetic Resources. 171 p. NAL SB123.3.U17, ARB SB123.3.U17

Part of a major study on agricultural crop genetic resources, this volume presents an in-depth analysis of the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (USNPGS), including discussion of the challenges of effective management, components and administrative functioning of the system, its role in international plant conservation, and history of germplasm management in the U.S. Non-federal activities, including botanical gardens, grassroots organizations (such as Seed Savers Exchange), are mentioned briefly in terms of their distinctive collections and goals. Executive Summary (p. 1-20) contains recommendations concerning USNPGS' administration, germplasm acquisition and collection, and overall mission. With black-and-white photos and diagrams. Currently in print.
Related works: This book is the first part of a four-volume series, "Managing Global Genetic Resources," which was prepared by a team of U.S. and international scientists. Each volume deals with economically-important plant and animal genetic resources. Other volumes are: Forest Trees (NAL SD399.7.F67), issued in 1991; and in 1993, Livestock (NAL SF105.3.L58 1993) and Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies (NAL SB123.3.A47 1993). Written for a broad readership and designed to serve as the anchor volume of the series, the latter publication examines the scientific, technical, economic, and policy issues relating to germplasm conservation, collection, use, and ownership. It includes an overview of the usefulness of germplasm, conservation options (in situ and ex situ), the worldwide network of genetic collections, impacts of biotechnology, perceptions of germplasm use by breeders and other users, and related topics. With Executive Summary (p. 1-28). Like The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System, these three volumes contain the NRC Committee's recommendations for action on the various topics addressed. Each contains also a bibliography, glossary, and subject index. With black-and-white photos and diagrams. Currently in print.

51. Olson, Richard K. and Charles A. Francis. "A hierarchical framework for evaluating diversity in agroecosystems." In: Exploring the Role of Diversity in Sustainable Agriculture: Proceedings of a Symposium... Richard K. Olson, Charles A. Francis, and Stephen Kaffka, eds. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy, 1995. Ch. 1, p. 5-34. NAL S494.5.D58E86 1995

This chapter illustrates the biological (including genetic), social, and economic elements of agroecosystems and the complexity of their interactions. Considered are how to quantify diversity, relationships of diversity to agroecosystem functions, and diversity's role in stabilizing the "agricultural hierarchy" (from the microplot or field level, to farm level, and ultimately to regional and global levels). The volume consists of nine chapters contributed by agronomists, ecologists, anthropologists and others, which examine ways to analyse and use elements of diversity in agricultural production systems. Volume out of print.

52. Patent, Dorothy Hinshaw. The Vanishing Feast: How Dwindling Genetic Diversity Threatens the World's Food Supply. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace, 1994. 180 p. NAL S494.3.P38 1994

An excellent introduction to agricultural biodiversity in our food crops and farm livestock, exploring "what diversity can do for us, how it is threatened, and what we can do to preserve it." Part 1 explains the nature of diversity in cultivated and wild plants, and how uniformity imperils continued improvements in food crops. Historical examples of the pitfalls of a narrow gene pool are provided, with discussion of the pressures that have overwhelmed local, traditional crop varieties, highlighting potatoes and corn. Part 2 describes in more detail how scientifically-bred, high-yielding varieties and associated farming systems, which characterize "Green Revolution" approaches to agricultural improvement, have heightened diversity losses. Traditional farming systems that are diversity-enhancing are compared briefly. This section examines changes in the structure and conventions of modern agriculture that affect biodiversity, including the impact of multinational chemical and seed companies, genetic engineering, and legal protections that limit farmers' seed-saving practices. Part 3 is concerned with declining animal diversity, the benefits offered by minor breeds of cattle, pigs, and other farm animals, and trends on modern American farms, especially in the poultry business. Part 4 describes government-sponsored preservation systems, including the U.S.'s genebank network, and grassroots efforts, such as Seed Savers Exchange, North American Fruit Explorers, and American Livestock Breeds Conservancy. The pluses and minuses of preservation, whether in seed bank or garden, are examined, as are "creative solutions" for preserving and sharing biological wealth, and sustainable food production.Supplemented with glossary of terms, suggested reading list, and subject index. The book was written for a young adult audience, and complex issues are thus simplified, yet it is effective also in presenting the major issues for adultreaders (and the bibliography is more suited to adults). The author is a Ph.D-zoologist who has written numerous award-winning science books for young people. Currently in print.

53. Pistorius, Robin. Scientists, Plants and Politics: A History of the Plant Genetic Resources Movement. Rome, Italy: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, 1997. 134 p. NAL SB123.3.P57 1997

This recently published book analyzes the scientific, historical, and political factors that have shaped today's strategies and policies affecting plant genetic resources at the global level. The narrative presents a detailed chronicle of important conferences, debates, and publications. Drawn from published and unpublished sources and personal interviews, it presents the perspectives of many individuals and organizations with key roles and varying interests in germplasm conservation issues. A preliminary chapter explains "how plant genetic resources became a global issue," starting with the collection and introduction activities of the first half of the 20th C., and proceeding to the development of national and international germplasm collections during the 1950s-1960s. Subsequent topics include rising concern over "genetic erosion" and debates on conservation activities in the 1960s; linkages between breeding and conservation strategies; moves to establish a global genebank network in the 1970s; and varying dimensions of the conservation strategies of the 1980s-1990s, including review of the arguments for and against in situ and ex situ strategies. A comparison of the development of genetic resource issues (emphasizing 'conservation' for 'use') and biodiversity issues (emphasizing 'conservation' per se) is made. Appended materials include a lengthy bibliography, glossary of terms, and subject index. Notes supplementing the text are provided in footnotes. The book resulted from the author's research as a recipient of the Vavilov-Frankel Fellowship, a program established to honor the unique contributions of Soviet botanist, Nikolai Vavilov, and Australian plant breeder, Sir Otto Frankel. (Vavilov's work receives primary focus in a separate volume by Igor Loskutov, Vavilov and his Institute, IPGRI, 1997.) For availability, or more information on IPGRI, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 52.

54. Prescott-Allen, Robert and Christine Prescott-Allen. Genes from the Wild: Using Wild Genetic Resources for Food and Raw Materials. London: International Institute for Environment and Development, Earthscan, 1988. 111 p. NAL QH433.P7 1988

Presents an analysis of plant breeders' use of genes from wild plant species, to improve agricultural crops, assessing contributions to date and future outlook. The book's main section is preceded by an executive summary, with important points keyed to specific pages within the text. Ch. 1 consists of a brief introduction to the subject and definition of terms. Ch. 2 offers specific examples of how particular plants have been improved by the use of wild plant breeding materials, emphasizing cereal grains and other food staples, and covering also vegetables and fruits, oil and forage crops, fiber crops and timber, and other economically-important world crops. Succeeding chapters address the types of benefits (such as yield increases or environmental adaptions) offered by wild relatives of domestic plants, including how breeding is done and pointing out why wild genes are sometimes a "last resort" (Ch. 3); where wild genes are found, and existing trends and issues (such as privatization) relating to their distribution and use (Ch. 4); threats to wild genetic resources, with examples provided for specific crops (Ch. 5); and conservation strategies for wild plants (Ch. 6). The latter chapter discusses pros and cons, and difficulties associated with ex situ and in situ programs, and their complementarity. With charts and illustrations, plus bibliography, and index to geographical locations and organizations. First published in 1983 (NAL QH433. P7). The authors are independent resource analysts who specialize in the conservation and use of plant and animal resources. Recent edition currently in print.

55. Raeburn, Paul. The Last Harvest: The Genetic Gamble That Threatens to Destroy American Agriculture. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995. 269 p. NAL SB123.25.U6R34 1995

Intending to raise popular interest and alarm concerning genetic erosion and food security issues, the writer charges that American farmers, and ultimately the American public, are "betting the farm" by relying on a dangerously narrow genetic base of crops, and that current efforts to preserve plant seeds and other materials are inadequate. Raeburn explains how existing uniformity in our important economic crops--uniformity sought by consumers as well as plant breeders, farmers, and other food sector participants--equals vulnerability to pests, diseases, and environmental stresses. The book stems from a 1989 series of award-winning articles, "Seeds of conflict," co-authored by Associated Press colleague Lee Mitgang, which argued that inadequate funding and officialneglect had turned the U.S.'s seedbanks into little more than "seed morgues." One chapter offers an update on the status of the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System; Raeburn supports its mission and praises its directors, but remains critical of its effectiveness. Also examined are the contributions of other organizations charged with safeguarding plant biodiversity, including the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research network, and private, grassroots initiatives in the U.S. (such as Seed Savers Exchange), and related topics, including international conflicts over germplasm access and exchange, and plant variety protection issues. Written for readers without a plant sciences background, the book includes numerous examples and anecdotes to explain scientific issues and to illustrate some of the dilemmas implicit in crop development and preservation. For instance, the chapter "Green gold" cites the production successes created by adoption of high-yielding wheat and rice varieties, which revolutionized Third World agriculture in the "Green Revolution," yet also stimulated replacement of large numbers of farmer's traditional landraces by genetically-uniform varieties. The chapter "Billion-dollar corn" conveys the potential genetic values of wild relatives of domestic crops, to plant breeders, by relating a corn breeder's search in Mexico for a nearly-extinct wild perennial corn that can be cross-bred with domestic corn. Other chapters examine the historical consequences of crop uniformity (resulting in the 1840s Irish potato famine and the 1970 Southern corn leaf blight in the U.S.), problems associated with biological extinctions, some of the downsides of industrial farming systems, and the promise that agricultural biotechnology may offer to food system security. With bibliography and subject index. Currently in print.

56. Shiva, Vandana. Monocultures of the Mind: Perspectives on Biodiversity and Biotechnology. Dehra Dun, India: Natraj Publishers, 1993. 184 p. NAL QH75.S476 1993

A collection of five previously-published writings from the Indian scientist and activist, which explore forces that lead to disappearing diversity in nature and culture. Numerous examples supporting her analysis are drawn from farmer- and community-based movements and projects in India and other Third World settings (including some in which she participated), and from the published literature. The volume takes its title from the lead essay, in which Shiva argues that, for human societies, living with diversity enables the existence of alternatives in terms of sustenance, livelihood, and democratic relations, which lend stability and renewability to farming and rural communities. She condemns "Green Revolution" approaches to agricultural development and forestry management, which have, besides displacing indigenous crops and crop varieties developed to serve multiple functions, further reduced complex, sustainable systems to their marketable components, e.g., grain, in the case of wheat or rice, or timber, in the case of forest ecosystems. Shiva contends that "monocultures" first inhabit the mind before they become policy and practice, ultimately destroying diversity, yet legitimized as "progress." In her view, production models based on the commercial ideals of uniformity and resource-extraction come to dominate because they allow greater economic and political control, not because greater biological productivity or ecological stability result. Ch. 2 through Ch. 4 elaborate further on issues presented in this first essay, examining--from a Third World perspective--the links between biodiversity and production technologies, including genetic engineering. Shiva argues that treatment of crop germplasm as a "raw material" for biotechnology and patent protection systems devalues the contributions of nature and of traditional plant stewards; she voices skepticism for "environmentally sound management" of biotechnology, citing concerns with respect to biosafety, ecological and genetic diversity, economic displacement, industry concentration and privatization, and ownership and profiteering of plant materials. The final chapter critiques the Biodiversity Convention, citing the treaty's negative impacts on Third World people. (The full text of the Convention, which addresses international regulation of biodiversity conservation and use of biotechnology, and was ratified by 154 nations during UNCED's "Rio Earth Summit" of June 1992, is contained in the appendix.) With illustrations and tables, plus bibliography with each chapter. Volume republished in 1995 by Zed Books, London; currently in print.
Related works: Dr. Shiva's perspective on problems generated by the "monoculture mind" are elaborated in an article, "Mistaken miracles," in Ceres: The FAO Review 27(4): 28-35, July/Aug. 1995 (NAL TX341.F63). She addresses issues of plant biodiversity, local knowledge, biotechnology, and intellectual property rights in a more recent book, Biopiracy: The Plunder of Nature and Knowledge (Boston: South End Press, 1997, 148 p., currently in print). Shiva, who is director of India's Research Foundation for Science, Technology, and Ecology (RFSTE), received the "Right Livelihood Award" (dubbed the "Alternative Nobel Prize") in 1993. (Dr. Shiva can be reached c/o RFSTE, A-60 Hauz Khas, New Delhi, 110016 India,, or see Web site

57. Sperling, Louise, ed. War and Crop Diversity. London: Overseas Development Institute, 1997. Network Paper/ODI, Agricultural Research & Extension Network no. 75. 40 p. NAL S539.5.N47 no.75

This paper examines one of the forces that narrow biological diversity in farmers' fields, that of war and accompanying civil upheaval. Using a detailed case study approach, it examines the biological, social, and political factors that shaped crop genetic diversity prior to onset of war, compares pre-and-post war crop production and seed supply systems, and assesses implications for policy, development work, and relief interventions. Four papers by individual authors are included; wars during the 1990s in Cambodia, Nicaragua, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone are the focus of each respective study, the group preceded by the editor's introduction. Each paper appended with bibliography. From ODI's Seed and Biodiversity Programme. (For availability, contact ODI, e-mail
Related work: For a look at the impacts of civil and economic turmoil on the stability of several national germplasm collections, see the short article, "Political and economic strife aroung the world causes genebanks to face loss of irreplaceable collections," in Diversity 8(3): 13 (1992), NAL SB123.3.D5. Events in Brazil, Russia, and Bulgaria are featured.

58. Thrupp, Lori Ann. Linking Biodiversity and Agriculture: Challenges and Opportunities for Sustainable Food Security. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, 1997. WRI Issues and Answers. 19 p. NAL HC79.E5W755 no.1997 March

WRI staffer reviews conflicts and complementarities existing between biodiversity conservation and modern agricultural production. Includes discussion of various forms of biological diversity within agroecosystems; erosion in crop and livestock genetic diversity; causes of biodiversity loss; and enhancing diversity through sustainable agriculture principles and practices. With lengthy bibliography.
Related work: More recently the author has written the book entitled, Cultivating Diversity: Agrobiodiversity and Food Security (World Resources Institute, 80 p., 1998). Addressing the "urgent need for action" to reverse the current trend towards erosion of agrobiodiversity, and to incorporate biodiversity planning into agricultural development, it features "effective practices and policies..." to inform planners, policymakers, and others. (For availability of these publications from WRI, see contact information, entry 304, this volume.)

59. Tripp, Robert and Wieneke van der Heide. The Erosion of Crop Genetic Resources: Challenges, Strategies and Uncertainties. London: Overseas Development Institute, 1996. Natural Resources Perspectives no. 7.

This paper surveys challenges to the continued existence of traditional farmer-bred landraces, which stem largely from changes in agricultural production, especially widespread adoption of modern varieties. Reviews conservation strategies, including genebanks ("the conventional solution"), in situ conservation in centers of high diversity, and farmer-participatory plant breeding programs. The article's full text appears at ODI's Web site,, along with links to numerous other ODI publications on biodiversity conservation, indigenous farming and knowledge systems, and related topics.

Go to: Contents of Volume 1 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, 400, 420, 460 | Appendices (Volume 1)

60. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Technologies to Maintain Biological Diversity. Washington, DC: U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, 1987. 334 p. NAL QH76.T4

An analysis provided for Congress on problems associated with losses of the Earth's biodiversity, with recommendations for a range of policy options. Its specific aim was "to identify and assess the technological and institutional opportunities and constraints to maintaining biological diversity in the U.S. and worldwide." Broadly concerned with ecosystems, species, and genetic diversity, the analysis includes consideration of agroecosystems, crop and livestock species diversity, and preservation approaches. Ch. 1 consists of a summary report, including policy options towards strengthening national and international conservation activities. Succeeding sections provide background information on diversity components, diversity benefits (ecological, technological, economic, and cultural), and the status of biodiversity (Part 1); technologies (in situ and ex situ management systems) to maintain animal, plant, and microbial diversity (Part II); and U.S. legislation and institutions (federal, state, and private); international laws, programs, and institutions; and development assistance (Part III). References append each chapter. Appendices provide glossaries, names of workgroup participants, subject index, and a list of several dozen commissioned papers and authors. With maps and other illustrations. Volume out of print. Accompanying this publication is a 1987 Summary report (47 p., NAL QH76.T42 1987). Several of the commissioned papers concern grassroots conservation activities; one of these, Grassroots Conservation of Biological Diversity in the United States: Background Paper no. 1, is cited in entry 74, this volume.

61. U.S. General Accounting Office. U.S. Department of Agriculture: Information on the Condition of the National Plant Germplasm System: Report to Congressional Committees. Washington, DC: The Office, [1997]. GAO/RCED-98-20. 89 p. NAL SB123.3.A38 1997

This recent report is the third assessment by the GAO on the nation's network of plant germplasm repositories (U.S. National Plant Germplasm System, USNPGS), since the system was first established in 1946 and expanded in the 1970s. It consists of an appraisal by 680 members of 40 Crop Germplasm Committees (CGCs), whose role is to provide technical quidance and expertise to USNPGS, with respect to the sufficiency of the network's principle mission areas, which are to acquire, preserve, and document information on crop germplasm. Among the major findings: CGC members stressed the continuing importance of acquiring germplasm to increasegenetic diversity, noting obstacles to acquisition; many found that their collections lacked information needed for crop breeding purposes; and preservation activities had fallen behind preservation needs. Ch. 1 outlines the value of germplasm collections to agricultural productivity; the reliance of U.S. agriculture on imported crops; and the activities of USNPGS. Ch. 2 through Ch. 4 provide details and examples on the principle findings. Includes appendices with supplemental information on the survey methodology and findings, and list of crop responsibilities. With Executive Summary (p. 4-9); the findings illustrated with numerous charts, and sources footnoted. The full text of the report is posted on the Internet at (Single printed copies are free; contact U.S. General Accounting Office, P.O. Box 37050, Washington, DC 20013, tel. 202-512-6000, fax 202-512-6061,
Related works: This 1997 report is summarized and analysed in the article, "State of germplasm system is focus of GAO report to U.S. Congress," in Diversity 13(4): 6-10 (1997/98), NAL SB123.3.D5. The article cites previous reports on USNPGS, including Diversity magazine's analysis of each.
The following governmental publications provide prior assessments (1981-1990) of USNPGS operations and programs, and related plant germplasm management topics:
U.S. Congress, House Committee on Agriculture, Subcommittee on Department Operations, Research, and Foreign Agriculture. National Plant Germplasm System: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on DepartmentOperations, Research, and Foreign Agriculture of the Committee on Agriculture, House of Representatives, Ninety-seventh Congress, First Session, June 24, 1981. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1981. 41 p. NAL KF27.A33277 1981e
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, National Plant Genetic Resources Board. Plant Germplasm: Conservation and Use. [Washington, DC]: The Board, 1984. 20 p. NAL aSB123.3.P5
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration. The National Plant Germplasm System: I. Current Status (1980), II. Strengths and Weaknesses, III. Long-Range Plan (1983-1997). Washington, DC: The Dept., 1981. 75,27,64 p. NAL aSB123.3.N3
U.S. General Accounting Office. Better Collection and Maintenance Procedures Needed to Help Protect Agriculture's Germplasm Resources: Report to the Secretary of Agriculture. Washington, DC: The Office, [1981]. 20 p. NAL SB123.3.U55 1981
U.S. General Accounting Office. The Department of Agriculture Can Minimize the Risk of Potential Crop Failures: Report to the Congress by the Comptroller General of the United States. Washington, DC: The Office, 1981. 35 p. NAL HD1761.U53
U.S. General Accounting Office. Plant Germplasm: Report to the Secretary of Agriculture. Washington, DC: The Office, [1990]. 2 vols. NAL SB123.3.U54, ARB SB123.3.U54
Vol. 1, Improving Data for Management Decisions; Vol. 2, A Data Collection Framework and Questionnaire.

62. Witt, Steven C. Biotechnology and Genetic Diversity. San Francisco, CA: California Agricultural Lands Project, 1985. 145 p. NAL SB123.3.W5

An introduction to the roles played by plant genes in modern agriculture, plant biotechnology, and international economics and politics, based on published literature as well as the author's many interviews with persons actively concerned with these issues at national and international levels. Intended as briefing material for journalists and public officials, it remains useful for its clear language, lively and nontechnical style, identification of key players, and presentation of various positions and concerns that remain important. Following a brief introductory chapter, Ch. 2 explains concepts relating to plant germplasm (dubbed "the living resource that roams"), including its role in controlling heredity and its physical nature. Ch. 3, entitled "Biobucks," assesses past and future economic values of crop germplasm. Ch. 4 through Ch. 8 cover historical and current aspects of plant breeding and impacts on crop biodiversity, touching on the types of germplasm used by breeders and traditional breeding techniques, the role of the Green Revolution in replacing traditional cultivars with high-yielding modern varieties, the founding of international organizations such as the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR), and other topics. Ch. 8 considers the impact of genetic engineering techniques developed in the 1970s on genetic diversity and plant breeding, as a lead-in to Ch. 9, which examines the development of plant patenting and other forms of plant breeders' rights (PBR) legislation to control use of genetic materials. Ch. 10 and 11 discuss the political controversy over germplasm ownership (the "Seed Wars"), including the role of IBPGR, and international events and agendas, with a glimpse into the future. The text contains useful charts and diagrams, plus a chronology of important events in the germplasm story, names and contact information for the "expert sources" interviewed, and glossary of terms. There is also alengthy bibliography of publications dealing with genetic diversity, biotechnology, and plant patenting/breeders' rights (including materials from the popular press as well as the scientific and trade literature, most not duplicated in this resource guide). Also known as Briefbook: Biotechnology and Genetic Diversity. Currently in print.

1F. Community- and Farmer-Based Conservation of Food Crops

63. Boef, Walter S. de, Trygve Berg, and Bertus Haverkort. "Crop genetic resources." In: Biotechnology: Building on Farmers' Knowledge. Joske Bunders,Bertus Haverkort, and Wim Hiemstra, eds. London: Macmillan, 1996. Ch. 6, p. 103-127. NAL S494.5.B563B46 1996

This volume, which stems from activities of the Special Program on Biotechnology and Development Cooperation for the Netherlands Government, defines "biotechnology" broadly as the application of "indigenous and/or scientific knowledge to the management [of living organisms or tissues, in order to] supply goods and services of use to human beings." Contents are grouped into three sections: Indigenous biotechnology, Science-based biotechnology, and Building on farmers' practices. In the chapter "Crop genetic resources" in Part 1, the authors review the activities of the "informal crop development system," also known as "local crop development," which relies on "[farmers' skills] in maintaining, enriching, and utilizing crop diversity," and in many areas of the world, co-exists and interacts with the formal system characterized by professional plant breeders in the public and private sectors. Examples of farmers' landraces and the processes of participatory breeding (including seed selection, production and distribution) are provided. Also reviewed: ex situ and in situ conservation and germplasm improvement approaches, and integrating local crop development with formal development programs. Examples are drawn from farming systems in developing countries in South America, Africa, and Asia. Chapter appended with lengthy bibliography; volume contains subject index. Volume currently in print.
Related work: Senior author Boef is also lead author for an earlier publication, Cultivating Knowledge: Genetic Diversity, Farmer Experimentation and Crop Research (W. de Boef et al., London: Intermediate Technology Publications, 1993, 206 p., NAL S540.A2C84 1993). The two dozen papers in this book stem from a 1993 seminar held in Zimbabwe, on the links among farmer's knowledge, institutional knowledge systems, and agricultural development. Currently in print.

64. Cooper, David, Renée Vellvé, and Henk Hobbelink, eds.; GRAIN [Genetic Resources Action International] and Centro Internazionale Corcevia. Growing Diversity: Genetic Resources and Local Food Security. London: Intermediate Technology Publications, 1992. 166 p. NAL SB123.3.G76 1992

An account of grassroots experiences in conserving and improving crop germplasm, intended to strengthen conservation activities, food security, and local knowledge systems in developing countries. The opening chapter discusses downsides of "Green Revolution" approaches to development, which have stimulated losses of local crop biodiversity and undermined farmers' traditional roles in managing their crop resources. Included are proposals for supporting farmer innovation at the grassroots level, and for reforming policies and finding common ground among participants within the formal and informal plant conservation sectors. Ch. 2 through Ch. 11, each contributed by activists and scientists working directly with community groups, describe a wide range of farmer- and community-based efforts to rescue and store traditional varieties in community genebanks that support ready access to local materials, and in some cases, conservation and breeding work done in cooperation with national organizations and formal genebanks. The projects embrace initiatives involving cereal crops, vegetables, medicinals, and tree and forage crops in Ethiopia, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Indonesia, Thailand, India, and Ecuador, and other parts of Latin America. Many chapters discuss values that accrue from farmer-based involvement in crop management. In Ch. 12, Pat Roy Mooney discusses the widespread underrating of folk knowledge, arguing that farmers, gardeners, and other folk innovators of the Third World must become the leaders in safeguarding and improving plant genetic resources. A final chapter cites challenges and priorities of grassroots conservation efforts. End materials include organizational contact information, glossary, annotated bibliography of books and periodicals, and endnotes. With black-and-white photos and drawings. Volume out of print.

65. Dahl, Kevin and Gary Paul Nabhan. Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources: Grassroots Efforts in North America. Nairobi, Kenya: ACTS Press, African Centre for Technology Studies; Maastricht, Netherlands: ACTS Biopolicy Institute, 1992. Biopolicy International Series no. 5. 24 p. NAL SB123.3.D34 1992

Profiles the grassroots plant conservation movement in the U.S., which offers a different model than the "Noah's Ark rescue mission" presented by most formal, institutional programs at national and international levels. It explores the underlying rationale, membership structures, and values of several informal community- and grassroots-based programs, to aid recognition and understanding by policymakers and to foster co-operation among participants in the formal and informal conservation sectors. The authors drew from their experiences as members of grassroots organizations (they were both affiliated with Native Seeds/SEARCH), and from written surveys from 26 groups and activists. The study addressed five topics: 1) resource diversity and its perceived value beyond simple economics and plant genes, 2) perceived threats to plant genetic resources and current constraints to conservation and development, 3) trends in organizational structure and growth, 4) strengthening the effectiveness of grassroots conservation efforts, and 5) the role of grassroots groups in defining and addressing emerging issues. Published in conjunction with the World Resources Institute. Includes bibliography. Volume out of print. A similar, condensed version of this report appeared in Diversity 8 (2): 28-31 (1992), NAL SB123.3.D5.

66. Hamilton, Neil D. Tending the Seeds: The Emergence of a New Agriculture in the United States. Des Moines, IA: Drake University Law School, Agricultural Law Center, 1996. Feeding America's Future: "Food for Thought" no. 3. 16 p.

This paper outlines various developments and ideas that embody movements towards regenerative farming and food systems that sustain people, communities, and resources. Grassroots efforts to preserve crop and livestock breeds are included in the review, along with other trends that re-establish linkages among participants in the food system; also considered are local, organic, and diversified food production, agricultural cooperatives, community supported agriculture, urban agriculture, and consumer education about food choices. Supplemented with a lengthy annotated bibliography plus contacts for the North American groups mentioned (sources cited in footnotes); for availability, refer to contact information in entry 176, this volume. An abbreviated version of this paper was presented at Seed Savers Exchange's annual campout convention (and printed in Seed Savers 1996 Harvest Edition, p. 29-35, NAL SB115.S452).

67. Madden, J. Patrick and Scott G. Chaplowe, eds. For All Generations: Making World Agriculture More Sustainable. Glendale, CA: OM Publishing (forWorld Sustainable Agriculture Association), 1997. 642 p. NAL S494.5.S86F67 1997

A guide to organizations around the globe that work to further the goals of sustainable agriculture and food security, most of them active at the grassroots level. Part I contains an introductory chapter and 12 essays from individual contributors, on various sustainability elements and issues, including organic farming, urban agriculture, people-centered development, corporatization of global agriculture, and the role of nongovernmental organizations. Bibliographies append each chapter. Part II presents informative profiles of 57 groups chosen to represent the diversity of existing efforts in Asia, Africa, Europe, Australia, and the Americas (emphazing the latter, since 28 of the 57 are based in the U.S., with 4 in Canada). This section profiles four nonprofit groups that are directly involved in aspects of crop genetic resources management (each of them more fully described in Volume 2, Resource Organizations). They are Ecology Action, a nonprofit California group promoting the bio-intensive mini-farming approach to small-scale food production, which makes open-pollinated seeds available through its affiliate, Bountiful Gardens (p. 294-298); Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (IATP), a Minneapolis-based group that works internationally to democratize policy-making (p. 336-341); Rural Advancement Foundation International (RAFI), a nonprofit policy research organization based in Canada and the U.S., which works on international issues relating to agricultural biodiversity management and technologies (p. 480-489); and Seed Savers' Network (SSN) /Seed Aid Trust, an Australian grassroots seed bank and exchange organization (p. 517-521). A few other organizations in this section (such as the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization in Rome) participate in some aspect of plant genetic resources management. Part III is a directory providing contact information for 84 additional organizations around the globe. With subject index. Volume currently in print. (For more information on Ecology Action, see entry 3; for IATP, entry 71; for RAFI, entry 75; and for SSN, entry 19, all in Volume 2, Resource Organizations.)

68. Maxted, N., B.V. Ford-Lloyd, and J.G. Hawkes. Plant Genetic Conservation: the In Situ Approach. London; New York: Chapman & Hall, 1997. 446 p. NAL SB123.P62 1997

Although its value and objectives are still much debated within the plant genetic resources community, in situ crop conservation (literally, conservation "in its original place") within traditional farm and community settings has come to be recognized as a viable strategy to complement ex situ preservation methods, the latter suffering from important limitations in terms of technical constraints, preservation priorities, and user access to stored materials. As much prior emphasis has dealt with the scientific and practical aspects of ex situ methods (or "genebanking"), this volume aimed to correct the imbalance by focusing on the problems of, and prospects for, conserving the genetic diversity of agricultural crops (via on-farm conservation), and their wild relatives and other wild plant species (via genetic reserve conservation). The book consists of 23 chapters contributed by international authorities, the contents arranged into four parts. Part I offers an introduction to the conservation of botanical diversity and complementary conservation strategies. Part II reviews aspects of farmer-based and genetic reserve in situ conservation in theory and practice, with chapters on planning, establishing, and maintaining conservation systems. Ch. 10 (p. 160-175) in this section focuses on farmer- and community-based conservation of crops and their wild relatives (termed here "locally based conservation" or LBC), which, when supported by ex situ strategies, the authors believe best serves the conservation objective. Part III presents practical case studies of in situ conservation projects in areas of high botanical diversity and where traditional farming systems remain (here, wild ancestral wheats in Israel, traditional rice landraces in Indonesia, and native grains in Ethiopia are the focus). Part IV presents models for in situ conservation and discusses future needs in terms of technology, policies, finances, and information management. With illustrations, plus lengthy bibliography and subject index. Currently in print.

69. Merrick, Laura C. "Crop genetic diversity and its conservation in traditional ecosystems." In: Agroecology and Small Farm Development. Miguel A. Altieri and Susanna B. Hecht, eds. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1990. Ch. 1, p. 3-11. NAL HD1476.D44A36

In this book chapter, the author examines varietal diversity within individual food crops grown in traditional agroecosystems, as a component of agricultural stability and sustainability. She cites numerous examples of intra-crop diversity strategies and discusses the advantages offered to farmers, patterns of distribution of crop diversity, genetic erosion, and conservation strategies. The author supports in situ crop conservation linked to rural development projects that seek to improve traditional farming systems. With lengthy bibliography. The volume contains 21 chapters dealing with production aspects of sustainable systems, and their physical and social dynamics; small farm development projects; research methodologies; and also case studies of traditional agricultural systems in differing environments within the developing world. With subject index. Several other chapters consider crop genetic diversity and small farm development topics; especially pertinent are the following: "The industrial model and its impacts on small farmers: The Green Revolution as a case," by Kenneth A. Dahlberg (Ch. 10, p. 83-90); and "Crop development in centers of domestication: A case study of Andean potato agriculture," by Stephen B. Brush (Ch. 17, p. 161-170). Currently in print.
Related work: Professor Altieri's article, "How best can we use biodiversity in agroecosystems?" in Outlook on Agriculture 20(1): 15-23 (1991), NAL 10 Ou8, reviews the benefits gained by incorporating biodiversity into modern, intensively managed farming systems that replace nature's complex diversity with limited genetic and species variability, and rely heavily on external inputs for high productivity. (This article's focus is the implications for agricultural pest management.) The journal issue contains two other articles on "biodiversity and sustainable agriculture."

70. Nabhan, Gary Paul. "Replenishing desert agriculture with native plants and their symbionts." In: Meeting the Expectations of the Land: Essays in Sustainable Agriculture and Stewardship. Wes Jackson, Wendell Berry, and Bruce Colman, eds. San Francisco, CA: North Point Press, 1984. Ch. 14, p. 172-182. NAL S441.M4

Centering on agroecosystems of the desert floodplains of the Sonoran Desert, this essay examines advantages gained from restoring ecological and genetic information to farmer's fields and associated native habitats. Nabhan suggests that replenishing the desert's "natural intelligence" includes growing desert-adapted cultivars in their native environments, along with their wild relatives and co-evolved symbionts. Chapter notes and bibliography on p. 244-245. The volume is an anthology of essays from 14 contributors who write about creating sustainable agriculturalsystems. Volume out of print.

71. Rhoades, Robert. "The role of farmers in the creation of agricultural technology." In: Farmer First: Farmer Innovation and Agricultural Research. Robert Chambers, Arnold Pacey, and Lori Ann Thrupp, eds. New York: Intermediate Technology Development Group of North America/Bootstrap Press, 1989. Ch. 1.1, p. 3-8. NAL S494.5.I5F37

The writer discusses farmer contributions to agricultural technology and practice, citing historical and contemporary evidence that farmers in subsistence and resource-poor settings continually experiment, adapt, and innovate. Examples include his own study of Peruvian farmers' selection and use of local and introduced potato varieties, the results of which contradicted prior notions of farm-level processes and farmer decision-making. Sources listed in general bibliography (p. 200-212). The volume consists of contributions from several dozen natural and social scientists who gathered for a workshop in the U.K. in 1987 to study "farmer-first" approaches to agricultural development in developing countries, along with presentations from additional workshops and summary materials. The farmer-first paradigm incorporates farmer and rural people's knowledge and participation in agricultural research and extension practice, to complement the conventional "transfer of technology" model. A number of other chapters examine specific cases of farmer participation in crop domestication, and their roles in variety adoption, improvement, and preservation, along with other farming systems elements. Currently in print.
Related work: A follow-up text entitled Beyond Farmer First, edited by Ian Scoones and John Thompson (London: Intermediate Technology Publications, 1994, NAL S540.A2B49 1994) likewise examines farmer knowledge with respect to crop improvement and germplasm resources. Volume out of print.

72. Thurston, H. David. "Selection, diversity, resistance." In: Sustainable Practices for Plant Disease Management in Traditional Farming Systems. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1991. Ch. 24, p. 193-210. NAL SB731.T48 1991

This book chapter examines the variation found within landraces of crops developed and maintained over the millennia by traditional farmers, along with the associated diversity and complexity found within traditional farming systems. The selection and preservation activities of farmers in Asia, Latin America, and Africa are the focus, with numerous examples provided of polyculture systems displaying interspecific and intraspecific diversity, and discussion of advantages in terms of enhanced disease resistance and other protective results. The author contrasts the limited species and cultivar diversity inherent within modern agricultural systems, which are accompanied by genetic erosion and loss of traditional cultures. Includes commentary on strategies for conserving the genetic richness of traditional crop repertoires. The author concludes that future plant pathologists "will be [challenged] to develop plant disease management strategies that incorporate traditional levels of diversity in a sustainable agroecosystem." Sources cited with general bibliography, p. 219-263. (Overall, the book reviews biological and cultural practices that traditional farmers use to limit plant diseases, to support better understanding of effective techniques that may have value for sustaining agriculture and the environment.) Volume out of print.
Related work: The author, a retired Cornell University plant pathologist, has created TAPP (Traditional Agriculture and Plant Pathology) Database, which contains references to scientific articles and books on international aspects of crop genetic resources and agroecology. Its Web address:

73. Unitarian Service Committee of Canada et al. Sowing Seeds for Change: Sustainable Agriculture, Biodiversity and Food Security: September 30 and October 1, 1994, Guelph, Ontario: Workshop Proceedings. Ottawa, Ontario: Unitarian Service Committee of Canada, 1994. 96 p. NAL S451.5.A1S68 1994

Consists of proceedings from a workshop sponsored by USC Canada on the contribution of small-scale farming and crop plant conservation, to sustainable agriculture and global food security. With specific goals to forge links between Ontario agriculture and agriculture in the developing South, the participants were Canadian organic farmers, scientists, and officials from government and nonprofit conservation organizations, and Ethiopian farmers and scientists working to develop, conserve, and distribute Ethiopia's wheat landraces and other indigenous crops. Contents include the text of presentations from, and discussions among, representatives of USC Canada's Seeds of Survival/Ethiopia program, Plant Gene Resources of Canada, Joywind Farm Rare Breeds Conservancy, and Canada'sHeritage Seed Program (now known as Seeds of Diversity Canada). Brad Fraleigh, Heather Apple, and Brewster Kneen were among the participants. Discussion topics centered on biodiversity, sustainable agriculture and food security, the changing role of farmers and farmer knowledge, and consumer/farmer relationships. The report is supplemented with a list of publications and resource oganizations, plus glossary and names of workshop participants.

74. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Grassroots Conservation of Biological Diversity in the United States: Background Paper #1. Washington, DC: U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, 1986. 67 p. NAL QH76.G73 1986

This report examines the contributions of citizens groups and individuals towards preserving biological diversity. It illustrates the range of activities of private sector groups not affiliated with large public or private institutions, towards conserving ecosystems, wild species, and domesticated livestock and crops, and their present and potential impacts on broader preservation initiatives. Ch. 1 examines briefly the importance of, and motivations for, grassroots activities. Ch. 2 describes more than 20 representative groups that maintain ecosystem diversity on-site, wild animal and plant species off-site, or agricultural crops and livestock. The latter category includes national organizations (Seed Savers Exchange and North American Fruit Explorers), regional seed exchanges (e.g., Native Seeds/Search), living historical farms and organizations (e.g., National Colonial Farm, Genesee Country Museum, Association for Living History Farms and Museums), and livestock preservation organizations and individuals (American Livestock Breeds Conservancy, and others). Ch. 3 presents summations on the positive values and limits of grassroots efforts, the effects (positive and negative) of federal and state laws and policies on groups' effectiveness, and the role of networks in coordinating activities. Appendix includes glossary and bibliography.
Related works: Gary Nabhan and Kevin Dahl of Native Seeds/SEARCH provided input to the OTA report. A similar article by them, entitled "The role of grassroots activities in the maintenance of biological diversity: Living plant collections of North American genetic resources," appeared in Seed Savers 1987 Harvest Edition, p. 35-71 (NAL SB115.S452). Background Paper #1 was commissioned as part of OTA's broader analysis, which was reported in Technologies to Maintain Biological Diversity, cited in entry 60, this volume.

2. Periodical Articles

2A. Heirloom Vegetables and Gardening Today

Several articles in this section profile the interests and activities of heirloom gardeners and orchardists, including seed and plant collectors and curators. Others offer vignettes of seed companies that specialize in traditional or regional plant varieties, and the activities of grassroots seed-saving organizations. Included here also are articles on the advantages and disadvantages of growing heirloom varieties; some provide comparisons of garden performances of heirlooms and other open-pollinated varieties, with available hybrids. Articles that focus on the practical aspects of saving seeds and backyard vegetable breeding are found in Section 2B, this volume; those concerned with broader aspects of food plant biodiversity and varietal conservation are found in Section 2D, and with farmer- and community-based conservation in the U.S. and abroad, in Section 2E.

75. Allan, Ken. "Hybrid opportunities." Cognition [Canadian Organic Growers], p. 8-9 (Wtr. 1996). NAL SB453.5.C6

Canadian grower discusses some of the advantages of hybrid vegetables for backyard gardeners, including hybrid vigor. For the experienced gardener willing to experiment, he notes that hybrids may offer a "partially completed breeding program." The author is founder of Garden Research Exchange (see entry 226, this volume) and owner of Ken Allan Seeds (see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 134). His article, "Experimenting in the garden," appeared in the Spring 1992 issue of Cognition, p. 34-35.

76. Aylsworth, Jean D. "Heirloom varieties offer taste of the past." American Vegetable Grower 44(4): 41-42 (April 1996). NAL 80 C733

A brief look at heritage varieties and the potential marketing edge offered to farmers able to capitalize on flavor benefits and novelty aspects. Cites briefly the work of Seed Savers Exchange and Abundant Life Seed Foundation.

77. Barrett, Thomas M. "A heritage of seeds and stories." Small Farm Today 9(6): 12-14 (Dec. 1992). NAL S1.M57

Horticultural writer and editor recounts some of the folk history retained in the names and stories associated with heirloom vegetables preserved by Seed Savers Exchange members. (Reprinted in Seed Savers 1993 Harvest Edition, p. 131-136, NAL SB115.S452.)

78. Berry, Elizabeth. "The kitchen garden: Treasures of the canyon." Horticulture 73(5): 34-37 (May 1995). NAL 80 H787

The author grows unusual produce, including heirloom beans (her specialty), peppers, and squash, at Gallina Canyon Ranch in New Mexico. Berry's heirloom beans are sought by Santa Fe chefs and are preserved by Seed Savers Exchange's members network. Sources listed on p. 85.

79. Blüm, Jan. "A good packet: Seed production at a small company." Fine Gardening 3: 48-51 (Sept./Oct. 1988).

The owner of Seeds Blüm, who grows heirlooms because they are "tough and reliable," passes on information on seed production gained from seven years of experience with the firm's network of trial gardeners and seed growers. Presents basic information on plant trials, controlling pollination, and seed harvesting and testing.

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80. Burby, Liza A. "Heirloom seeds." Country Journal 19(2) : 49-54 (March/April 1992). NAL S521.C65

Reviews some of the reasons for saving vegetable seed, including varietal adaptability to specific conditions, preserving diversity and heritage, and priority on aesthetics and taste. With advice for saving heirloom seeds, and a sampling of varieties available from Seed Savers Exchange. With list of seed and plant sources.

81. Creasy, Rosalind. "A visit to Heritage Farm." Flower and Garden 38(5): 56-60 (Oct./Nov. 1994). NAL SB403.F5

Centers on the activities of Seed Savers Exchange, based on the author's visit to Heritage Farm in Decorah, Iowa, the network's home-base. (The article's full text is available in Magazine Index.)

82. Dahl, Kevin. "Preserving southwestern crops: The work of Native Seeds/SEARCH." Historical Gardener 4(3): 4-5,11 (Fall 1995).

Describes the mission and programs of the Arizona-based organization, a recognized leader in conserving native crops and farming cultures of the desert Southwest. Describes some of the interesting plants listed in the group's annual seed catalog. (The author served as Native Seeds/SEARCH's Education Director.)

83. Dunn, Teri. "Seeds Blüm." Horticulture 69(7): 26-30,32-3436,38 (Aug./Sept. 1991). NAL 80 H787

On the founding and operations of Seeds Blüm, an Idaho-based mail-order seed company specializing in heirlooms. Includes discussion of hybrid versus open-pollinated varieties, notes on a dozen of owner Jan Blüm's favorite vegetables, plus explanation of terms and techniques for seed savers. The full text of this article, along with 28 others highlighting the firm, which were drawn from an array of gardening magazines and newspapers, is available at Seeds Blüm's Web site at; for contact information, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 119.

84. Elliot, Charles. "Vegetables at risk." Horticulture 74(2): 16-21 (Feb. 1996). NAL 80 H787

Offers background on the European Economic Community's action to regulate vegetable seed for sale. Reviews initiatives by the Henry Doubleday Research Association (HDRA) in England to overcome restrictions that limit choice among gardeners and may imperil the existence of non-commercial varieties. The full text of the article is available in Magazine Index, and reprinted in Seed Savers 1996 Summer Edition, p. 76-79, NAL SB115.S453. For an American writer's portrayal of the history and programs of HDRA, see June 1986 article by Deborah Wechsler, "Across the Atlantic," Rodale's Organic Gardening 33(6): 73-77, NAL S605.5.R64.

85. Fanton, Michel and Jude Fanton. "Our seeds Havana." Earth Garden 97: 30-31 (Sept./Nov. 1996). NAL SB453.5.E2

Provides an update on the activities of the Australian Seed Savers' Network (SSN), including the group's efforts to promote decentralized community seed banks in Cuba and the Solomon Islands. (For contact and other information on SSN, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 19.

86. Gillis, Anna Maria. "Keeping traditions on the menu." BioScience 43(7): 425-429 (July/Aug. 1993). NAL 500 Am322A

On the efforts of several nonprofit seed-saving organizations to preserve the cultural contexts associated with "the diverse, the beautiful, and the familiar" vegetable crops; Seed Savers Exchange focuses on North American heirlooms (many having northern European ancestry), and Native Seeds/SEARCH preserves southwestern U.S. desert crops and farming traditions. Also profiled is the work done by the Kansas-based Land Institute to create a more sustainable agriculture modeled on prairie ecosystems. Article was reprinted in Seed Savers 1993 Harvest Edition, p. 47-58, NAL SB115.S452.

87. Greider, Linda. "In quest of the Breast of Venus." Harrowsmith [U.S. edition] 2(12): 58-67 (Nov./Dec. 1987). NAL S522.U5H37

An interesting account of the work of Peter Hatch and others who have restored authentic plant varieties to Thomas Jefferson's vegetable and flower gardens, vineyards, and orchards at Monticello, and the programs of the (then) newly-opened Thomas Jefferson Center for Historic Plants. The "Breast of Venus" refers to a peach variety grown by Jefferson and long sought by current Center director Peter Hatch. For contact information for the Center, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 42.

88. Haldane, Susan. "Apple's seeds." Harrowsmith Magazine [Canadian edition] 89: 78-83 (Jan./Feb. 1990). NAL S522.C2H36

Centering on her visit with Heather Apple, president of Canada's Heritage Seed Program (HSP), the author discusses the reasons and means of food plant preservation efforts in the U.S. and Canada, which seek to preserve "the stories" and human culture that accompany heirlooms. Provides good background information on HSP, and Seed Savers Exchange in the U.S., and on the complexities of maintaining a heritage seed garden. For contact information for HSP (now known as Seeds of Diversity Canada), see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 20.

89. Hills, Lawrence D. "Britain's vegetable heritage." Country Life 166(4303): 2462-2463 (Dec. 27, 1979). NAL 80 C83

Reviews European seed regulations adopted in 1972 that prohibit the sale of unregistered old-time vegetable varieties and threaten their survival. Discusses the campaign by Henry Doubleday Research Association (HDRA) torescue "vanishing vegetables," including proposals for vegetable sanctuaries (which would operate like libraries) and easing restrictions to match those for British fruits. (Lawrence Hills was founding director of HDRA; for contact information for the Association, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 8.)

90. Ingle, Schuyler. "The exotic seedsman." Harrowsmith [U.S. edition] 4(20): 74-81 (March/April 1989). NAL S522.U5H37

A behind-the-scenes view of J.L. Hudson's mail-order seed business, an "uncommon purveyer of uncommon seeds" whose niche is "to sell everything that nobody else sells." (For contact information, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 100.)

91. Jabs, Carolyn. "Meet the seed savers." Organic Gardening 28(6): 52-55 (June 1981). NAL 57.8 Or32

In this article, the author of Heirloom Gardener (see entry 3, this volume) profiles a number of vegetable seed collectors around the U.S., many of them motivated to find varieties well-suited to their particular soil and climate conditions, and finding that "their gardening is enriched by the countless variations in old vegetables." The issue includes also three brief articles on Seed Savers Exchange's activities, how to save seeds, and some favorite potato and tomato varieties of two collectors, p. 56-62.

92. Kane, Mark. "The seed people." Rodale's Organic Gardening 33(4): 42,44,46,49-52 (April 1986). NAL S605.5.R64

Provides an early history of Seed Savers Exchange, with brief portraits of the collecting and seed-saving activities of several network members.

93. Lamb, Jane. "Medomak Valley: The first high school seed savers in the United States." Maine Organic Farmer & Gardener [Fairbook Issue], p. 48-49 (Sept./Aug. 1994). NAL S605.5.M3

High school horticulture students in Waldoboro, Maine, maintain and distribute vegetable seeds, their collection including old Maine heirlooms and more than 50 tomato varieties. Article tells how the project developed and the educational values offered to students who learn stewardship, practical gardening, "hands-on science," and local history and geography. (For contact information for the Medomak Valley High School Seed Savers, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 13.)

94. Larkcom, Joy. "An exhibition of Seventeenth Century vegetables." Garden: Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society 110(3): 106-110 (March 1985). NAL 84 L84J

British garden writer describes an event held at Kew Gardens the previous year, made possible with authentic seeds contributed by the Henry Doubleday Research Association, plus the study of several 17th-C. documents and "inspired guesswork." Plantings of salad vegetables, legumes, and other popular garden plants displayed some of the changes that have occurred in 300 years of gardening.

95. Laski, Karen. "Heirlooms of a revolutionary." American Horticulturist 73(4): 33-37 (April 1994). NAL 80 N216

Tells of garden restoration work at Monticello being carried out by the Thomas Jefferson Center for Historic Plants, aided by Jefferson's meticulous garden records. (For more information and to contact the Center, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 42.)

96. Levine, Adam. "William Woys Weaver rescues, preserves and grows heirloom vegetable seeds." Green Scene [Pennsylvania Horticultural Society] 24(5) : 8-12 (May 1996). NAL SB1.G7

Commentary on growing and using heirlooms, from food historian and Pennsylvania heritage plant grower andseed collector. Includes Weaver's vegetable favorites and discussion of his upcoming book, Epicure with Hoe (later published as Heirloom Vegetable Gardening, cited in entry 11, this volume). With source list and suggestions for further reading. This article by Weaver's garden manager was reprinted with slight changes in Seed Savers 1996 Harvest Edition, p. 77-82, NAL SB115.S452. For a recent article on Mr. Weaver's heirloom tomato collection, see his article, "A cook's favorite heirloom tomatoes," in Organic Gardening, p. 38-42, May/June 1998, NAL S605.5.O74.

97. Lindholm, Nicolas. "Saving seeds, part II: You can't judge a seed by its coat." Maine Organic Farmer & Gardener 22(1): 27-28 (March-May 1995). NAL S605.5.M3

The writer considers various new technologies that "add value" (and also cost) to agricultural seeds, including new types of seed treatments to modify seeds externally, and bioengineering. He is skeptical of seed technologies that remove control of seed materials from farmers and gardeners, arguing that "a positive, progressive use of seed would expand, not limit, a grower's relationship to the cycles of plant growth, maturation and reproduction..." Parts I and III appeared in the Nov./Dec. 1994 and June/Aug. 1995 issues, respectively. This article was reprinted in the Northeast Organic Farming Association's quarterly newspaper, Natural Farmer 2(27): 20-21, Wtr. 1995/96, NAL S605.5.N3. The author is founder of the Maine Seed Saving Network; for more information on MSSN, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 12.

98. Luoma, John R. "Heirlooms in your garden." Audubon 91(6): 46-53 (Nov. 1989). NAL S900.A8

Briefly highlights Seed Savers Exchange's (SSE) preservation of heritage plants, with seven full-page color photos of heirloom tomatoes, eggplants, beans, and corn, which were produced by SSE's garden manager, David Cavagnaro.

99. Mattern, Vicki. "Timeless tips from modern heirloom gardens." Organic Gardening 44(3): 52-58 (March 1997). NAL S605.5.O74

The author visits Old Sturbridge Village, Monticello, Genesee Country Village & Museum, and Old Salem, describing briefly some of the historical gardening methods employed at these living history museums. (The article contains minimal plant varietal information.) For contact information for the first three museums, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entries 45, 42, and 36, respectively.

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100. Nardozzi, Charlie. "Something old, something new." National Gardening 13(2): 38-41 (Feb. 1990). NAL SB450.9.G37

Profiles Wisconsin grower Wayne Jeidy's prize-winning garden. Includes comments on 15 of his favorite heirlooms, which he prefers for their flavor, disease tolerance, and seed-saving amenability, plus advice for saving seeds from several popular vegetables.

101. Phillips, Sue. "Vintage vegetables: Add variety to your menu, and play a part in preserving our heritage crops." Garden: Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society 117(11): 507-511 (Nov. 1992). NAL 84 L84J

British writer surveys some of the vegetable varieties available to 19th-C. gardeners, citing her own experiences with certain legumes, root crops, pot herbs and "oddities" still available. She found that some were excellent culinary vegetables, while others were disappointing compared to modern cultivars and better grown as curiosities. Part 2 of this series, "Growing for flavour," in Garden 118(111): 522-525 (Nov. 1993), features old cultivars of lettuce and other salad plants, brassicas, squash, potatoes, and additional peas and beans (the legumes as a group possessing "the greatest number of outstanding cultivars").

102. Pleasant, Barbara and Vicki Mattern. "Plants that protect themselves from pests." Organic Gardening 39(9): 26-30 (Dec. 1992). NAL S605.5 O74

Article names and reviews 30 vegetable varieties--including tomatoes, beans, peas, corns, brassicas, and cucurbits--that are relatively insect-resistant; among them are numerous open-pollinated and heirloom cultivars with physical traits that ward off insect attacks. Some examples: thick-skinned tomatoes (e.g., Red Cherry and Brimmer) that resist fruitworms, and corns (Rainbow Inca and Black Mexican) with tight husks that defy earworms. Cultivars keyed to list of nine commercial sources.

103. Schulz, Warren. "A breeder apart." National Gardening 12(8): 44-49 (Aug. 1989). NAL SB450.9 G37

An interview with pioneer plant breeder Dr. Oved Shifriss, who, during the 1940s, developed the first hybrid vegetables (including Big Boy tomato) for Burpee seed company. Discusses the hybridization process and its commercial advantages, qualities of hybrids versus open-pollinated crops, and conventional breeding versus plant biotechnology. (Contact information for W. Atlee Burpee & Company is found in Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 80.)

104. Schultz, Warren, Jr. "Scatterseed!" Organic Gardening 31(7): 59-62 (July 1984). NAL 57.8 OR32

Profiles Will and Molly Bonsall's nonprofit Scatterseed Project, "a trial ground, clearinghouse, and growers' network for rare or endangered crops," which grew out of their interest in finding varieties suited to their Maine climate and self-sufficient, vegetarian lifestyles. (Will Bonsall is currently Seed Savers Exchange's curator for potatoes and peas; for more information on Scatterseed, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 16.)

105. Smith-Heavenrich, Sue. "Saving seed: The circle of life." Maine Organic Farmer & Gardener [Fairbook Issue], p. 50-51 (Sept./Oct. 1994). NAL S605.5.M3

The author discusses values lost with the demise of garden heirlooms, then surveys basic techniques for varietal preservation (or breeding) of popular vegetables. Includes methods for easier plants (beans, lettuce, tomatoes, etc.) and more difficult corn and cucurbits. With short lists of publications and resources for seed savers.

106. Socha, Linda Hoy. "Building a future on treasures of the past." American Vegetable Grower 45(1): J-K (Jan. 1997). NAL 80 C733

Northern Ohio greenhouse grower Al Hirt and his partners achieve a marketing edge by selling 119 heirloom vegetable varieties, many of them tomatoes. Although heirlooms "retain that old-fashioned flavor," some drawbacks, such as greater disease vulnerability, are noted by Hirt.

107. Solomon, Steve. "My search for better broccoli." Rodale's Organic Gardening 34(11): 36-40 (Nov. 1987). NAL S605.5.R64

The writer compared eight open-pollinated and five hybrid broccolis, prompted by dissatisfaction with several of his company's open-pollinated cultivars, which had declined in quality and were not widely available. In general, the hybrids were more uniform, sweet-tasting, and dependable, with larger heads; several open-pollinated varieties were productive, but tended to produce off-type plants. Sources listed, p. 88-89. This issue contains two additional articles on growing broccoli. (Author Solomon founded Territorial Seeds in 1979; for more information on the company, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 128.)

108. Solomon, Steve. "Seeds of success." Harrowsmith [U.S. edition] 5(25): 54-60 (Jan./Feb. 1990). NAL S522.U5H37

Seedsman offers an insider's look at the mail-order seed trade and plant breeding, to help gardeners select quality seed. Solomon believes that hybrids are replacing some open-pollinated lines for "positive reasons," including enhanced vigor, uniformity, and disease resistance, but notes that "absolute uniformity can be a disadvantage."

109. Swain, Roger B. "Gene soup--Diversity is easier to celebrate than to maintain." Horticulture 70(4): 23-30 (April 1992). NAL 80 H787

New Hampshire garden writer and host of public television's "Victory Garden" ponders some of the challenges inherent in seed saving. He suggests that most of us can be "patrons of diversity" by otherwise supporting the seed collectors and sellers of lesser-known varieties. This essay appears in slightly different form in the author's 1994 book, Groundwork: A Gardener's Ecology (Houghton Mifflin, 162 p., NAL SB454.3.E53S88 1994, currently in print).

110. Watson, Ben. "Hybrid or open-pollinated." National Gardening 18(6): 54-58, 60-61 (Nov./Dec. 1995). NAL SB450.9.G37

From the author of Taylor's Guide to Heirloom Vegetables (cited in entry 10, this volume), an overview of the respective merits and limitations of heirlooms and open-pollinated garden varieties, in terms of vigor, yield, hardiness, cost, and taste. Includes lists of superior vegetables in both the "op honor roll" and "hybrid hall of fame," plus glossary of terms.

111. Whatley, Kirsten. "Sowing seeds of diversity." Mother Earth News 164: 38-40, 52 (Oct./Nov 1997). NAL AP2.M6

Reviews the goals and activities of seed savers and the heirloom movement, which has grown from anenvironmental movement to one more political and concerned with preserving choice and self-sufficiency. Profiles briefly Seed Savers Exchange and other grassroots conservation groups, with source list of seed exchanges and seed companies.

112. Whealy, Kent. "Inventorying our seed heritage." Natural Farmer [Northeast Organic Farming Association] 2(27): 16-17 (Wtr. 1995/96). NAL S605.5.N3

Discusses negative and positive trends in the garden seed industry, which affect the vegetable abundance available to North American gardeners, and explains use of Seed Savers Exchange's Garden Seed Inventory as a preservation tool. The 1994 Inventory (cited in entry 241, this volume) revealed that 10 percent of 230 seed companies offered the greatest number of unique, "one source" varieties, the list topped by Native Seeds/SEARCH and Ronniger's Seed Potatoes. Statistics and trends for several vegetables are included. This article, which was excerpted from the introduction to the 4th edition of the Inventory, is contained in this Natural Farmer issue's "Special Supplement on Seeds," along with several other articles on heirloom vegetables and seed topics (including Brent Loy's article on seed physiology, entry 123, this volume.)

113. Whealy, Kent. "Rescuing traditional food crops." Washington Tilth: Journal of Organic and Sustainable Agriculture 5(1): 1,3-5 (Wtr. 1997). NAL IPSG (in process).

Seed Savers Exchange co-founder tells how his interest in heritage seeds began with the opportunity to save his own family heirlooms, and recounts recent Seed Savers International initiatives in funding seed collections in eastern Europe and the former USSR. The article's full text, which consists of Whealy's keynote address presented at the 1996 Tilth Producers Annual Conference, is available online at Web site, linked from Michael Yount's "Garden Diversity" site.

114. Williams, Greg and Pat Williams. "Interesting new vegetable cultivars for 1998." HortIdeas 15(1): 1-7 (Jan. 1998). NAL SB317.5.H67

Each January, HortIdeas publishers review "some of the most promising" cultivars newly available from U.S. seed suppliers. Over 100 new introductions, many of them open-pollinated varieties (including heirlooms and foreign introductions) from such companies as Bountiful Gardens, Burpees, Cook's Garden, and Fedco, as well as Seed Savers Exchange, are briefly described, based on catalog information. (The Williams express their preference for open-pollinated varieties so seeds can be saved, but list notable hybrids that they believe may offer significant performance improvements.) Some additional varieties are reviewed in the Feb. 1998 issue. For more information on HortIdeas, contact the publishers, Greg and Pat Williams, 460 Black Lick Rd., Gravel Switch, KY 40328.

2B. Seed Production and Plant Breeding--Practical Aspects

115. Ashworth, Suzanne. "Save some seeds for next season." Organic Gardening 39(7): 32-35 (Sept./Oct. 1992) NAL S605.5.O74

Seed-saving tips from the author of the seed savers' bible, Seed to Seed (cited in entry 13, this volume). A similar article by Ashworth, entitled "Seed savers alert: plan now to save later," appeared earlier the same year in Organic Gardening 39(3): 37-39 (March 1992). The writer serves currently as Seed Savers Exchange's curator for eggplants and ground cherries.

116. Baggett, James. "Saving your own vegetable seeds: A pollination primer." Horticulture 56(7): 18-25 (Aug. 1978). NAL 80 H787

Following an introduction to the reasons why gardeners save their own seeds (along with the pros and cons), this article provides fairly detailed information on the procedural aspects of saving seeds from standard garden vegetables. Explains basic pollination biology and types of varieties, with a glossary, diagrams, and useful table of reproductive characteristics relevant to seed production and backyard breeding. With short piece on saving specific crop seeds (p. 50-51). The author, a well-known plant breeder who has developed a number of improved open-pollinated vegetables, is currently professor of horticulture emeritus at Oregon State University.

117. Bubel, Nancy. "Saving seeds." Mother Earth News 107: 58-63 (Sept./Oct. 1987). NAL AP2.M6

On the benefits of seed-saving, including opportunities to preserve heirloom crops, with advice suited to a variety of specific open-pollinated garden crops, and suggested seed-handling techniques. Ms. Bubel is author of the popular guide to growing plants from seed, The New Seed-Starters Handbook (Rev. ed., Rodale Press, 1988, 385 p., NAL SB121.B8, currently in print). A portion of the book covers the practical aspects of saving seeds of garden vegetables.

118. Bunker, Roberta. "Grow your own seeds." Maine Organic Farmer & Gardener 25(2): 37-38 (July/Aug. 1998). NAL S605.5.M3

Reasons for saving seeds, with basic how-to information, and specific advice for the easier vegetable species. With short resource list. (The author writes often on heirloom gardening topics in the Maine Organic Farmers and Gardeners Association's newspaper.)

119. Cavagnaro, David. "Tales from the root cellar." National Gardening 16(5): 42-43,72 (Sept./Oct. 1993). NAL SB450.9.G37

Advice from Iowa gardener (and formerly garden manager at Seed Savers Exchange's Heritage Farm) on saving seed from biennial vegetables such as onions, carrots, beets, and the cabbage family.

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120. Cook, Jack. "What you see is not necessarily what you sow." Horticulture 68(4): 62-64 (April 1990). NAL 80 H787

"Looking behind the names on seed packets," the author examines vegetable varietal uniformity and selection, duplication in cultivar names, and other topics pertinent to seed saving.

121. Dunn, Gerald M. "Breeding plants: Learning the basics from Indian corn." Fine Gardening 22: 40-41 (Nov./Dec. 1991).

An insider's advice for getting started in vegetable breeding, from a retired University of New Hampshire plant breeder. The author describes technical fundamentals and his experience in producing early-maturing Indian corn cultivars and ornamental corns for northern areas.

122. Larkcom, Joy. "Background to vegetable seed production." Garden: Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society 104(2): 58-62 (Feb.1979). NAL 84 L84J

A "behind the scenes" survey of vegetable seed production, touching on historical aspects, commercial variables and processes, skills and conditions needed, and challenges in producing quality seed. This British writer, who contributes frequent articles on present-day and historical vegetable gardening for Garden and other publications, notes that home seed saving had, by the late 1970s, become a "lost art," and "seeds [are taken] completely for granted" by 20th-C. gardeners.

123. Loy, Brent. "Seed for thought: Seed development and physiology." Natural Farmer [Northeast Organic Farming Association] 2(27): 9-10 (Wtr. 1995/96). NAL S605.5.N3

Plant breeder surveys seed biology, nutrition, conditions for storage, quality (germinability and vigor), and dormancy. Includes short bibliography. (Article appeared in this issue's "Special Supplement on Seeds," along with several other articles on growing heirloom vegetables for home gardens and market sales, seed saving, and seed companies; see also Kent Whealy's article in this issue, cited in entry 112.)

124. Pleasant, Barbara and Mike McGrath. "How to read a seed catalog." Organic Gardening 41(1): 52-56 (Jan. 1994). NAL S605.5.O74

Advice on how to gain useful information from seed catalogs, including deciphering varietal names, differences between open-pollinated and hybrid seeds, disease resistance and hardiness, and more. Lists 12 dependable mail-order suppliers.

125. Relf, Diane and Alan McDaniel. "Seeds for the garden." Virginia Cooperative Extension Publication no. 426-316. 9 p. (Aug. 1996). Web site

Offers horticultural recommendations pertaining to garden seeds, including starting seeds indoors and out. With brief advice on saving seeds from popular, self-pollinating garden plants, and seed viability statistics.

126. Robinson, Raoul A. "Plant breeding clubs: Breeding crops which require fewer pesticides." Farmer to Farmer [Community Alliance with Family Farmers] 17: 10-11 (Nov./Dec. 1996). NAL S451.C2F37

Professional plant breeder describes the feasability of farmers or other scientific amateurs working together to produce crops with durable resistance to local pests and diseases. More information on developing so-called "horizontal resistance," and the aims and activities of plant breeding clubs, is contained in Ch. 24 (p. 253-276) of the author's 1996 book, Return to Resistance: Breeding Crops to Reduce Pesticide Dependence (Davis, CA: agAccess, 480 p., NAL SB123.R653 1996, currently in print). Dr. Robinson notes that, although it is concerned with a technical subject, the book has been written "in plain English" for nonscientists, including potential amateur breeders concerned with environmental and food supply issues.

127. Roos, E.E. and D.A. Davidson. "Record longevities of vegetable seeds in storage." HortScience 27(5): 393-396 (May 1992). NAL SB1.H6

Study conducted by two scientists at the U.S. National Seed Storage Laboratory confirmed previous findings that some vegetable seeds (especially carrot, onion, pepper) are relatively short-lived even under ideal storage conditions.Article discusses factors affecting seed viability, providing statistics for 15 vegetable species. With lengthy bibliography citing previous reviews of seed longevity.

128. Rowe, Jack. "Basic vegetable seed-saving practices." See update below.

Advice for saving seeds from popular garden vegetables. The article is linked to Michael Yount's "Garden Diversity" Web page, "an occasional online publication" first issued in March 1997, with several short articles on seed saving and preserving open-pollinated garden cultivars. The author coordinated the Seeds of Texas Seed Exchange (see group's description in Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 21).

Update December 2009. The Vegetable Seed Savers Handbook replaces "Basic vegetable seed-saving practices." The Handbook provides "how-to seed-saving instructions" for "healthy, true-to-type seeds from heirloom vegetables." Available free online at:

129. Stearns, Tom. "Saving pea seed for the backyard gardener and farmer." Natural Farmer [Northeast Organic Farming Association] 2(35): 14 (Wtr. 1997/98). NAL S605.5.N3

Covers planting and trellising, pest and disease problems, and also seed harvest, cleaning and sorting, and storage. This article is contained in this issue's "Special Supplement on Legumes," along with other articles on growing beans and other legumes organically, for food and cover cropping. (The writer is owner of High Mowing Organic Seed Farm in Vermont; see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 98.)

130. Waterman, Martin P. "Basic backyard breeding." Growing Edge 5(1): 44-50, 69 (Fall 1993).

Private Canadian breeder presents some basic considerations for getting started in developing new vegetable and fruit and varieties, from defining objectives and choosing materials. to making controlled crosses and evaluations. Some source information noted.

2C. Apples and Other Fruits, Including Heirlooms and Genetic Diversity

131. Anon. "Apples: Disease resistance." Pomona [North American Fruit Explorers] 27(4): 42-48 (Fall 1994). NAL SB354.N6

Consists of chart indicating resistance levels for apple varieties that show moderate or high-level resistance to at least one of five important apple diseases (apple scab, fireblight, and others); over 300 old and new cultivars are listed. Reprinted from Agroforestry News.

132. Arbury, Jim. "Pick of the pears." Garden: Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society 120(10): 609-613 (Oct. 1995). NAL 84 L84J

British fruit expert traces briefly the history of pear cultivation and breeding, and describes the Royal Horticultural Society collection of (mostly 19th-C.) European pears. A dozen quality varieties especially reliable for the British climate and growing conditions are indicated. Includes short bibliography and suppliers listing.

133. Blackburn-Maze, Peter. "Isle of apples." Garden: Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society 120(9): 547-550 (Sept. 1995). NAL 84 L84J

The author visits with a private apple grower who maintains, on the Isle of Wight, an important collection of over 100 apple varieties. Article includes notes on recommended varieties among dessert apples and "cookers." The fruits of several dozen varieties are shown in color photos.

134. Dierberger, James. "Not all apples are created equal." Mother Earth News 145: 78-83, 85 (Aug./Sept. 1994). NAL AP2.M6

Connecticut grower describes his experience in establishing a preservation apple orchard, particularly his study of the relative insect and disease resistance of old apple varieties and research into historical methods of organic pest control. With chart showing results for 50 apple varieties when low-spray schedule used, plus bibliography and shortlist of commercial sources. (For more information, contact Seek-No-Further Orchard, 144 Old Blackman Rd., Hebron, CT 06248.)

135. Dunphy, Paul. "The fruits of their labors: Tales of the North American Fruit Explorers." Harrowsmith Country Life [U.S. edition] 8(44): 40-47 (March/April 1993). NAL S522.U5H37

Portrays the membership of the North American Fruit Explorers (NAFEX), a diverse network of amateurs and professionals sharing an appreciation for new, unusual, and adaptable varieties of fruits and nuts. Includes profiles of some of the collectors and their collections. For a companion article that centers on the interests and activities of Canadian members of NAFEX, see Dunphy's article, "Finders, keepers: How committed collectors across the continent are saving the fruits of past labors," in Harrowsmith [Canadian edition] 18(114): 50-55 (March 1994), NAL S522.C2H36.

136. Hensley, Tim. "Rediscovering the heirloom southern apple." Mother Earth News 158: 34-40,42,103 (Oct./Nov. 1996). NAL AP2.M6

Highlights old-time apples uniquely suited to the U.S. South's long hot summers. Includes sketches of 33 notable varieties, once staples of southern subsistence farming but today largely ill-suited to the demands of commercial orcharding. With tips on selecting trees, planting advice, and source list of nurseries. The writer is co-owner of Urban Homestead, a Virginia nursery (see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 165). This issue contains also John Vivian's article, "Big returns on small orchards," p. 24-32,86,98, which describes a profitable Suffolk County, New York, orchard that emphasizes small, highly productive trees, organic management, direct marketing, and premium apple varieties. Nine heirlooms good for northern locales are noted, with source list.

137. Huyser-Honig, Joan. "Antiques in the orchard." National Gardening 14(4): 48-51 (July/Aug. 1991). NAL SB450.9.G37

Tells of the extensive collection of old apple varieties and other fruits available from Southmeadow Fruit Gardens in southwestern Michigan, citing owner Theo Gröotendorst's favorite apples (the "best tasting fruit with a history") and cultural tips for home orchardists. (For contact information for the nursery, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 164.)

138. Kennedy, C.T. "Rare fruits, but not new." California Rare Fruit Growers Yearbook 17: 40-51 (1985). NAL SB354.C3

Discusses deciduous fruits that the author believes should be considered by more northerly members of California Rare Fruit Growers (CRFG), who have been interested traditionally in subtropical and tropical fruits. With recommendations for classic and newer varieties of apples, pears and other pome fruits, peaches, nectarines, plums, cherries, and apricots. (For contact information for CRFG, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 25.)

139. Lape, Fred. "Apple varieties." Garden [New York] 4(5) : 15-19, 28-29 (Sept./Oct. 1980). NAL SB403.G3

Horticulturist comments on the features of some superior antique North American varieties, apples for varied uses, and the modern apple industry and breeding efforts. The writer, who served as Director of the George Landis Arboretum in Esperance, New York, is author of a 1979 book, Apples and Man (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, currently out of print). He wrote about the history and current attributes of the Granny Smith apple--which originated as a seedling in 1850s Australia--in the Oct. 1984 issue of Horticulture 62(10): 38-39,41-43 (NAL 80 H787).

Go to: Contents of Volume 1 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, 400, 420, 460 | Appendices (Volume 1)

140. Mattern, Vicki. "Apples: If you want great taste, you've got to grow your own." Organic Gardening 40(3): 84-89 (March 1993). NAL S605.5.O74

The best of dessert, processing, and storage apples--including regional favorites and heirlooms--as judged by breeders and commercial growers.

141. Mendelson, Anne. "Paradise lost: The decline of the apple and the American agrarian ideal." Journal of Gastronomy 5(2) (Sum./Autumn 1989).NAL GT2850.J68

Drawing from 19th-C. horticultural writings, the author contrasts the once-popular notion that small-scale American pomiculture was considered "good for mind and spirit," with modern commercial orchardry and its impacts on fruit quality and diversity. With bibliography. The journal volume collects eight other essays by Gary Nabhan, Wendell Berry, Wes Jackson, Frances Moore Lappé, Alice Waters, and three others, which together examine a number of current issues in modern farming, including dilemmas as well as reform measures. (The journal's content was reissued in 1990 as Our Sustainable Table, edited by Robert Clark, San Francisco: North Point Press, 176 p., NAL IPM960715750, volume out of print.)

142. Merwin, Ian A. and Marvin P. Pritts. "Are modern fruit production systems sustainable?" HortTechnology 3(2): 128-136 (April/June 1993). NAL SB317.5.H68

Cornell University scientists address sustainability with respect to perennial fruit crops. They review essential resources for fruit production, including genetic resources and fruit farms as a "national cultural heritage," and discuss several "new paradigms in horticulture" likely to affect future production. Comparisons are made of traditional fruit growing systems, diversified family farm production of 75 years ago, and modern commercial fruit growing systems. The writers conclude that "today's fruit production...approaches the goals of sustainability in some respects, but is seriously lacking in others, such as the narrow genetic base of existing plantings..." With bibliography.

143. Olcott-Reid, Brenda. "In search of excellence: Apples." National Gardening 10(9): 32-37,66 (Sept. 1987). NAL SB450.9.G37

Describes 18 apples, both antiques and newer introductions, all rated tops for "dessert quality," with general disease ratings from agricultural experiment station evaluations.

144. Olcott-Reid, Brenda. "Pear excellence." Harrowsmith Country Life [U.S. edition] 8(46): 54-61 (July/Aug. 1993). NAL S522.U5H37

Features new and old pear trees, with information on relative disease resistance, rootstock selection, and tree planting and care. Includes a chart comparing 16 varieties, with source information.

145. Pennell, David. "The Brogdale Horticultural Trust." Garden: Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society 119(8): 363-364 (Aug. 1994). NAL 84 L84J

This first of three articles tells of current research, education, and conservation projects at the National Fruit Collections of the Brogdale Horticultural Trust, established initially to evaluate new cultivars and later recognized as a valuable genebank. Pennell's article is followed by Joan Morgan's "Fruit history at Brogdale," p. 364-365; and Tom LaDell's piece, "The proposed master plan for Brogdale Gardens," p. 365-367. The Collections comprise over 4000 fruit cultivars, "from apples to nuts and quinces," whose social and economic histories will be conveyed in a series of theme gardens from different periods and countries, creating what may be "the world's first living outdoor scheme to demonstrate all aspects of fruit culture and its history." Includes color drawing of Brodale's present and future gardens. (More information on Brogdale Trust is on the Web at

146. Power, Brian and Edward Cocking. "How we saved the Bramley." Garden: Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society 116(2): 90-94 (Feb. 1991). NAL 84 L84J

Reviews the history of the Bramley Seedling apple, "perhaps the best culinary apple to emerge since the early 1800s." Tells how British fruit scientists saved the original specimen tree from extinction by using modern tissue culture techniques to produce cloned offspring, thus providing a unique opportunity to compare today's Bramley fruits with those of the original.

147. Ruttle, Jack. "Quest for flavor." Rodale's Organic Gardening 34(12): 42-44,46 (Dec. 1987). NAL S605.5.R64

To serve connoisseurs and others interested in sampling (and potentially growing) old apples, Applesource owners Tom and Jill Vorbeck sell unusual and antique apples by mail-order for taste-testing. After five years into the venture, they had learned much about apple flavors and preferences. (For more on Applesource, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 147.)

148. Sorells, Nancy. "Cultivating apple history in Virginia." Historical Gardener 4(3): 2-3,11-12 (Fall 1995).

A synopsis of the "historical trail" of the apple in Virginia, with notes on some superior old varieties still available. The author interviewed Tom Burford, apple historian and owner of Burford Brothers Nursery, a prominent heirloom apple nursery in Monroe, Virginia, which has recently ceased operations as a production nursery. (This issue contains also an article citing a number of U.S. and Canadian sources for heritage apples.)

149. Surett, Ralph. "Where are all the apples of yesteryear?--Old varieties are making a comeback." Canadian Geographic 107(5): 34-39 (Oct./Nov. 1987). NAL 470 C162

The history of the apple tree in North America, including its 20th-C. homogenization and renewed public and commercial interest in heritage varieties.

150. Wechsler, Deborah. "Great old-time southern apples." Country Journal 18(6): 48-53 (Nov./Dec. 1991). NAL S521.C65

The author interviews Lee Calhoun, southern apple enthusiast, author of Old Southern Apples, and owner of Calhoun's Nursery. Topics include preserving older apple cultivars, and southern orchardists' favorites, with notes on 17 varieties recommended for early-, mid-, and late-season ripening. (Mr. Calhoun's nursery is profiled in Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 150; his book is cited in Volume 3, Historical Supplement, entry 144.)

2D. Food Crops--Conserving Genetic Diversity and Related Topics

151. Alexandra, Andrew and Adrian Walsh. "Exclusion, commodification, and plant variety rights legislation." Agriculture and Human Values 14: 313-323 (1997). NAL HT401.A36

Two Australian ethicists examine the allocation of property rights over plant types, and accompanying issues raised in the generation of "so-called Plant Variety Rights (PVR) legislation" enacted in countries that include the U.S., U.K., and Australia. Includes a chronicle of Australian PVR legislation. Written for a professional audience, the article is included here for its exploration of relevant issues, international perspective, and lengthy bibliography that includes U.S. publications.

152. Altieri, Miguel A. "The environmental risks of transgenic crops: An agroecological assessment." Pesticides and You [National Coalition Against the Misuse of Pesticides] 18(1/2): 10-17 (Spring/Sum. 1998). NAL RA1270.P4P472

The author contends that if genetically engineered crops developed by agrichemical companies "follow closely the failed pesticide paradigm," their use will only exacerbate the "pesticide treadmill" in agroecosystems. In line with agroecological goals aimed at creating a more sustainable agriculture, here he outlines potential ecological hazards associated with bioengineered crops, including further prospects for genetic uniformity in farmers' fields. Includes a chart (reprinted from the Summer 1998 issue of Union of Concerned Scientists' Gene Exchange) outlining transgenic crops undergoing commercialization in the U.S. With bibliography. Professor Altieri is an agroecologist and entomologist at the University of California, Berkeley.

153. Anderson, Stacy. "The million dollar seed: Genetic diversity and the quest for profit." Our Planet [United Nations Environment Programme] 4(1) : 4-7 (1992). NAL HC79.E5U555

Profiles the pivotal role played by U.S. botanist Hugh Iltis (who, along with graduate student John Doebley and Mexican researcher Rafael Guzman, discovered an ancient Mexican corn variety, Zea diploperennis or teosinte), in order to convey the potential financial profits, as well as conservation incentives, which may accrue from greater use of plant genetic resources, in conjunction with new technologies and research efforts.

154. Anon. "Congressional passage of new PVP law a triumph for seed industry." Diversity 10(3): 34-35 (1994). NAL SB123.3.D5

On the amended Plant Variety Protection Act (PVPA), whose re-authorization was backed by "most members of the agricultural community." Outlines briefly prominent features of the 1994 Act, impacts on plant variety development, and "concerns and opposition" from Rural Advancement Foundation International's (RAFI), with respect to the future of farm-saved seed. Cites speakers at the Congressional hearings, and source information.

155. Anon. "Seed industry consolidation: Who owns whom?" RAFI Communique [Rural Advancement Foundation International], p. 1-10 (July/Aug. 1998). NAL S494.5.B563R3

This article reviews moves to greater consolidation in major seed and agrichemical corporations during 1997-1998, and impacts on global seed trade. (RAFI notes that, in light of ongoing changes, their industry ranking is short-lived.) Data are accompanied by RAFI's perspectives on seed industry trends, with focus on bioengineered varieties and restrictions on farmers' use of legally-protected varieties, and implications for international trade policies. With bibliography.

156. Anon. "WFD '93: Biodiversity and food security." PENpages. Pennsylvania State University, College of Agricultural Sciences. In: Seeds of Conflict: Biodiversity and Food Security. Oct. 15, 1993. 24 p. Web site

Reviews worldwide challenges in maintaining global biodiversity, explaining its connections to agricultural development, food security, and genetic resources conservation initiatives. Includes "great genetic treasure map" citing Old and New World origins for numerous food crops. Written for high school-level students and up, this article is 1 of 13 contained in a study/action packet prepared by the U.S. National Committee for World Food Day; see PENpages #121011167 for a table of contents and overview of the entire document, which can be accessed through PENpages' search engine.

157. Berland, Jean-Pierre and Richard Lewontin. "Breeders' rights and patenting life forms." Nature 322(6082): 785-788 (Aug. 28, 1986). NAL 472 N21

Two biologists discuss some of the economic and ethical issues that arise when plant seeds (and also animal breeding stocks) become "factors of production." They offer an economic analysis of the seed industry and examine property rights associated with seeds, especially "breeders rights" in Europe, and argue "the essential contradiction involved in patenting life forms." With bibliography.

158. Bretting, P.K. and D.N. Duvick. "Dynamic conservation of plant genetic resources." Advances in Agronomy 61: 1-51 (1997). NAL 30 Ad9

Two U.S. crop scientists review current thinking on conservation strategies and issues relating to plant genetic resources (PGRs). They point out ambiguities inherent in categorizing PGR conservation stategies as ex situ or in situ, and thus support use of the term "dynamic" conservation (DC), versus the "static" form, to stress the specific objectives of each. Topics considered include types of PGRs (briefly covered), plus management of DC ("the progress, promise, and prospects"), including assessment of key biological and geographical factors to guide such programs; "on-farm" conservation (termed DC reserves); on-farm DC, breeding and rural development; and future prospects. With domestic and international focus. The review is written for fellow scientists (with fitting language and focus), yet some portions (and references cited) may be useful to avid general readers. Includes extensive bibliography.

159. Buttel, Frederick H. "The 'environmentalization' of plant genetic resources: Possible benefits, possible risks." Diversity 8(1): 36-39 (1992). NAL SB123.3.D5

This article in the magazine's "Viewpoints" section examines the linkages developed in the last decade between the debates over preservation of plant genetic resources and global environmental issues (such as climate change and tropical forest protection), and prospects for beneficial and also harmful impacts on conservation efforts. The writer, a professor of rural sociology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, comments on the agendas of environmental and social justice activist organizations involved in plant genetic resources issues. With bibliography.

Go to: Contents of Volume 1 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, 400, 420, 460 | Appendices (Volume 1)

160. Campbell, K.W. and B. Fraleigh. "The Canadian Plant Germplasm System." Canadian Journal of Plant Science 75(1): 5-7 (Jan. 1995). NAL 450 C16

Surveys briefly the history of formal plant germplasm conservation in Canada, the system known as Plant Gene Resources of Canada, including components of the national program, and cooperative activities with universities, industry, and nongovernmental organizations. With bibliography. (Journal issue contains six other other papers from a 1993 symposium, "Plant Genetic Resources.")

161. Clunies-Ross, Tracey. "Mangolds, manure and mixtures: The importance of crop diversity on British farms." The Ecologist 25(5): 181-187 (Sept./Oct. 1995). NAL QH540.N38

Writer contends that reducing the use of on-farm chemical fertilizers and pesticides without accompanying steps to diversify crop production leaves crops more vulnerable to pests and disease and "invites potential disaster." Crop germplasm preservation strategies are outlined, with review of current legislation and marketing structures that pressure farmers and plant breeders, and otherwise work against introduction of greater varietal diversity at farm and regional levels. Provides numerous examples from within the U.K.'s agricultural sector. (Includes one-page inset citing intrinsic and management problems at the U.S. National Seed Storage Laboratory.) With bibliography.

162. Cohen, J.I., J.B. Alcorn, and C.S. Potter. "Utilization and conservation of plant genetic resources: International projects for sustainable agriculture." Economic Botany 45(2): 190-199 (1991). NAL 450 Ec7

The authors outline crop genetic resources (CGR) issues within the context of global biodiversity, then review U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) activities and collaborations supporting conservation (ex situ and in situ) and use of CGR. With bibliography.

163. Crisp, Peter and George Foster. "Banking seeds for the future." Garden: Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society 105(10): 410-413 (Oct. 1980). NAL 84 L94J

Scientists at the U.K.'s National Vegetable Research Station explain the processes that diminish vegetable diversity and their work at the Wellesbourne genebank to preserve endangered varieties. The Vegetable Gene Bank (VGB) was under construction at the time this article was written; more current information is available at VGB's Web page,

164. DeCrosta, Anthony. "The real scoop on the plant patent controversy." Organic Gardening 27(5): 108-114 (May 1980). NAL 57.8 Or32

Discusses widespread opposition by gardeners to the plant protection bills being weighed by the U.S. Congress, which would amend the original Plant Variety Protection Act of 1970 (and which were approved later during 1980). The writer dismisses fears that the amendment would create restrictive vegetable lists like those existing in Europe, but found more serious the amendment's potential to further displace crop genetic diversity.

165. Doyle, Jack. "Designs on nature--Part I." Rodale's Organic Gardening 32(11): 24-32 (Nov. 1985). NAL S605.5.R64

The first of two articles describing historical development of U.S. plant patenting legislation intended to protect the innovative work of plant breeders in creating new vegetable varieties. It chronicles events and players in the 1930 Plant Patent Act (PPA), and the 1970 Plant Variety Protection Act (PVPA) with its 1980 amendment, including portrayal of opposition voiced by those concerned with plant patenting's impact on small farmers, gardeners, and consumers, and genetic diversity. Part 2 continues in the Dec. 1985 issue, vol. 32(12), p. 62-68. The articles are excerpted from Ch. 4 of Doyle's 1985 book, Altered Harvest (cited in entry 37, this volume).

166. Duvick, Donald N. "Genetic diversity in major farm crops on the farm and in reserve." Economic Botany 38(2): 161-178 (April/June 1984). NAL 450 Ec7

U.S. plant breeder reports on a survey of commodity crop breeders to assess genetic vulnerability among U.S. crops, as follow-up to the National Academy of Sciences 1972 report, Genetic Vulnerability of Major Crops (cited in entry 49, this volume), which challenged breeders to take steps to broaden the genetic base of economically important food crops. The study compared cultivar concentrations in corn, wheat, soybean, cotton, and sorghum for 1970 and 1980, and examined other indicators of genetic diversity. The results indicated that "although the genetic base of U.S. field crop production is not as narrow as 1970, it is still concentrated on a relatively small number of favored cultivars." Also discussed are several ways (seldom recognized by nonbreeders) that modern breeding practices serve to broaden the existing gene pool (such as incorporating diversity over time and in reserve), and relative contributions of different forms of plant germplasm (from farmers' landraces to elite breeding lines) in enhancing diversity. With bibliography.

167. Duvick, Donald. "Industry and its role in plant diversity." Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy 6(3): 90-94 (Fall 1991).

The author considers the effects of commercial seed companies on the availability of genetic diversity, and on the evaluation, usage, and conservation of crop genetic resources. He observes that "genetic diversity, as an end in itself, has received little attention from seed companies," citing a few examples of direct support of conservation activities. Professor Duvick notes that the types of plant materials most often prized by private plant breeders are "elite advanced breeding materials, not basic genetic resources such as farmer varieties or...wild and weedy relatives of crop plants," and that economic constraints induce breeders, and also farmers, to rely on "the smallest number of superior varieties in their quest for the best performers." He concludes that commercial plant breeding "must be brought into the circle," by assuming "greater responsibility," in line with its "greater influence" on plant genetic resources. The author was a senior official at Pioneer Hi-Bred International, and serves currently as affiliate professor of plant breeding at Iowa State University. (See entry 175, this volume, for M. Goodman's and other's related articles in this journal issue.)

168. Duvick, Donald N. "Plant breeding, an evolutionary concept." Crop Science 36(3): 539-548 (May/June 1996). NAL 64.8 C883

U.S. plant breeder provides a "personal perspective" on the historical development of technologies to modify plants to suit human needs. He draws on examples from selection-breeding of crops in medieval Europe, to the development and adoption of hybrid corn in the U.S. in the 20th C., and comments on the role of biotechnology in plant breeding. Dr. Duvick finds some points of agreement with those who are skeptical of biotechnology's benefits, or fear its potential for misuse (especially by aiding "profits-first production agriculture"), but sees important advantages that may be compatible with the common goals of sustainable agriculture. Duvick contends that plant breeding has been integral to the daily life of mankind for 10,000 years, and, following a relatively brief period of "splendid isolation," must "[again] join the world" through concern for its effects on society and the environment. A similar synopsis was presented in a 1995 article, "Biotechnology is compatible with sustainable agriculture," in Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 8(2): 112-125 (NAL BJ52.5.J68), along with an opposing viewpoint. Professor Duvick addresses future demands of, and issues affecting, plant breeding in the article, "Plant breeding in the 21st Century," in Choices [American Agricultural Economics Association] 4: 26-29 (1992), NAL HD1751.C45.

169. Esquinas-Alcázar, José T. "Plant genetic resources: A base for food security." Ceres: The FAO Review 20(4): 39-45 (July/Aug. 1987). NAL TX341.F63

Discusses the "real and strategic importance" of crop genetic resources and the implications of genetic losses for world food security. Offers examples of plant materials used in breeding programs, and reviews conservation strategies, especially international conservation activities since the 1960s. With bibliography. The writer served as Secretary of the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization's Commission on Plant Genetic Resources.

170. Fowler, Cary and Pat Mooney. "Protecting plant diversity." Small Farmer's Journal 11(2): 20-21 (Spring 1987). NAL S1.S42

Consists of the written text of Fowler's and Mooney's speeches presented as co-recipients (in 1985) of the Right Livelihood Award, known as the "Alternative Nobel Prize." The writers discuss the importance of problems associated with crop uniformity, competing interests (community, political, and commercial) in ownership and control of plant genetic resources, and preservation options. Author Mooney urges governments, as well as communities and individuals, to learn to prize farmer-bred diversity as the common heritage of humanity. For two decades he has been affiliated with Rural Advancement Foundation International (see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 75). Mooney is author of Seeds of the Earth: A Private or Public Resource? (Ottawa: Inter Pares, 1979, 120 p., NAL SB123.M6), an influential and controversial early work on the politics of crop genetic resources management. Several other publications by Mooney and Fowler are described elsewhere in this volume.

171. Frankel, O.H., et al. "Landraces in transit--The threat perceived." Diversity 11(3): 14-15 (1995). NAL SB123.3.D5

Reviews the role of farmer-selected crop cultivars in "sustainable agriculture" based on traditional agricultural systems. Displacement of locally-adapted landraces (dubbed "gene treasures") by high-yielding modern varieties is described, with discussion of some situations in which landraces are retained in their centers of diversity, the role of landraces as "dynamic national labs" where host-pathogen co-evolution is played out into the future, and the growing impact of molecular biology. Dr. Frankel urges that ex situ conservation be emphasized as the "only reliable long-term conservation measure."

172. Frankel, O.H. "Genetic resources: The founding years." Diversity 7: 26-29 (Fall 1985). NAL SB123.3.D5

The first of four articles by a prominent Australian plant breeder, which trace the history of the international genetic resources movement to the mid-1980s, based on documentation as well as the author's recollections and impressions. Covering the period 1961-1966, this article outlines the beginnings of broader scientific concern over plant germplasm (stimulated by the work of Russian scientist N.I. Vavilov and colleagues), development of international organizations, and important conferences. For later articles, see Diversity 8: 30-32 (1986); 9: 30-33 (1986); and 11: 25-27 (1987). Over the last three decades, Sir Otto Frankel has contributed to a number of important publications on plant germplasm topics; a recent work, Conservation of Plant Diversity (O.H. Frankel, A.H.D. Brown, and J.J. Burdon, Cambridge University Press, 1995, 299 p., NAL QK86.A1F73 1995), offers an evolutionary perspective and reviews several plant conservation strategies. Currently in print.

173. Frenay, Robert and Mary Sidney Kelley. "Envirotech: Going to seed." Audubon 99(1): 22-25 (Jan./Feb. 1997). NAL S900.A8

Examines the role of seed banks in preserving food crop biodiversity and rare flora, highlighting the Center for Plant Conservation in Portland, Oregon, and U.S. National Seed Storage Laboratory in Colorado. Discusses funding constraints that impede the operations of both institutions.

174. Goodman, M.M. "Genetic and germ plasm stocks worth conserving." Journal of Heredity 81(1): 11-16 (Jan./Feb. 1990). NAL 442.8 Am3

Reviews the status, and also relative benefits and costs, of national and international genebank collections. The author, who is professor of crop sciences at North Carolina State University and well-recognized in plant germplasm circles, argues that a pressing need exists for germplasm systems that offer optimal utilization of plant materials, rather than acquisition and storage. With bibliography. This paper is one of three in this issue, each delivered at a 1989 symposium, "Plant Genetic Resources and Their Utilization in Agriculture."

175. Goodman, Major M. and Fernando Castillo-Gonzalez. "Plant genetics: Politics and realities." Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy 6(3): 74-85 (Fall 1991).

Here the authors address the vital issue of protecting the genetic resources (or germplasm) of the "15 essential crops upon which the human race depends for food," highlighting the roles of economics, and international and domestic politics in preservation efforts and controversies. They consider the roles of the international agricultural research centers, and national and transnational seed companies, along with strengths and flaws in the U.S. genebank system and some international programs. With bibliography. Also contained in this issue: Cary Fowler's article, "Stakes high in battle for genetic diversity," p. 86-89; and T.T. Chang's article, "Rice and plant variety: A practitioner's view," p. 95-99 (with bibliography); D. Duvick's article is cited above, entry 167. (Short overviews of all four articles are provided in a special section, "Forum in review," which is numbered separately, p. 6-8.)

176. Hamilton, Neil D. "Who owns dinner: Evolving legal mechanisms for ownership of plant genetic resources." University of Tulsa Law Journal 28(4) : 587-657 (Sum. 1993).

An in-depth review of various critical and urgent issues surrounding commercial access to and control over crop genetic resources, including the use of bioengineering to improve crop plants. The forms of legal protections (intellectual property rights or IPR) for plants in the U.S., impacts on U.S. farm structure, and the role of international IPR agreements are among the topics considered. Offers background on legal protections in the U.S., and discussion of patent uncertainties. Very extensive references and notes provided. The author is director of the Agricultural Law Center and has served on the governing board of Seed Savers Exchange. He writes widely on topics relating to the industrialization of U.S. agriculture, including plant genetic resources issues. (For availability, contact Professor Hamilton, c/o Drake University Law School Agricultural Law Center, Des Moines, IA 50311, tel. 515-271-2065.)

177. Hardon, J.J. "Conservation and use of agro-biodiversity." Biodiversity Letters 3: 92-96 (May 1996). NAL QH75.A1B573

Reviews recent developments and policy issues at the international level, with respect to conservation and use of plant genetic resources. Focus is on conservation strategies (in situ and ex situ), national sovereignty, and farmers' rights to compensation for their roles as originators and guardians of traditional crops. The author is affiliated with the Centre for Genetic Resources in the Netherlands.

178. Harlan, Jack. "Genetics of disaster." Journal of Environmental Quality 1(3): 212-215 (July-Sept. 1972). NAL QH540.J6

In this article, Dr. Harlan sounds the alarm over the increasing narrow genetic base of modern food crops, a situation receiving (at the time) scant attention from the broader scientific community or the general public. An historical perspective on connections between genetic erosion and the successes of modern plant breeding is offered. This issue contains additional technical reviews and analyses concerning plant breeding, disease and pest management, and the 1970 Southern corn leaf blight outbreak in the U.S.

179. Harlan, Jack. "Our vanishing genetic resources." Science 188(4188): 618-621 (May 1975) NAL 470 Sci2

Writer discusses the risks to future plant breeding and food security engendered by replacement of traditional, diverse crop populations by more uniform modern varieties. Provides a chronology (to the mid-1970s) of internationalplant conservation activities, and discusses U.S. and (briefly) other national programs. With bibliography. The late Professor Harlan was a distinguished plant explorer and crop scientist, as well as leading voice in the genetic resources movement.

Go to: Contents of Volume 1 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, 400, 420, 460 | Appendices (Volume 1)

180. Harlan, Jack R. "The plants that nourish animals and man." Scientific American 235(3): 89-97 (Sept. 1976). NAL 470 Sci25

Considers the "relatively small number of plants and animals" chosen for domestication by humankind, reviewing knowledge of when, where, and how our major crops were developed. Discusses the kinds of changes, both intentional and nondeliberate, that occur as plants are selected for useful traits. With numerous maps and other illustrations, plus bibliography on p. 220. This thematic journal issue on "food and agriculture" contains 11 other articles on subjects that include agriculture in the U.S., Mexico, and India; agricultural systems and resources; hunger; and human nutrition. Especially pertinent to the scope of this resource guide is P. Jennings article, "The amplification of agricultural production," on agricultural intensification via the Green Revolution, p. 179-194. The journal articles were reissued as a book entitled, Food and Agriculture (San Francisco: W.H. Freeman, 1976, 154 p., NAL S523.F65).

181. Harris, D.R. "Vavilov's concept of centres of origin of cultivated plants: Its genesis and its influence on the study of agricultural origins." BiologicalJournal of the Linnean Society 39(1): 7-16 (Jan. 1990). NAL QH301.B56

Russian scientist and plant explorer Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov's pioneering work earlier this century on thebiogeography of crop plants laid the foundations for modern studies of plant genetic resources and plant breeding work. His concept of the "centers of origin" for major crops and their wild relatives was first presented in 1926 in the Russian (and English) publication, Centers of Origin of Cultivated Plants. This article examines the intellectual history of the concept and its influence on later studies of the origins of agriculture. (The Vavilovian concept of centers of origin has since his time been reinterpreted as "centers of diversity.") This journal volume contains six other scientific papers from an international symposium held in 1987 to commemorate the 100-year anniversary of Vavilov's birth. They include A.H. Bunting's article, "The pleasures of diversity," on human selection of sorghum and groundnuts (peanuts) in Africa; and J.T. Williams' article, "Vavilov's centres of diversity and the conservation of genetic resources" (p. 89-93). The latter discusses the work of the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources in conserving farmers' landraces, in relation to Vavilov's proposed centers. N.I. Vavilov's important essays on plant geography, systematics, and genetics (including the 1926 volume, cited above) are available in English translation as Origin and Geography of Cultivated Plants (Doris Löve, translator, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992, 496 p, NAL SB73.V3813 1992). First published in Russian in 1987, also to honor the Russian's centenary, this scholary work was a joint effort of USDA's Agricultural Research Service and the N.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry in Russia.

182. Henkes, Rollie. "Tomorrow's seeds: Patent pending." The Furrow [Deere & Co.] 97(6): 10-13 (Sept. 1992).

Article outlines briefly the "power struggle" for ownership rights to agriculture's crop genetic base, with viewpoints from patent supporters and critics (among them seed dealers, breeders, and activists).

183. Johnson, Jan. "Genetic patents spark global industry debate." Seedsman's Digest 38(10): 6-8 (Oct. 1, 1987). NAL 61.8 SE35

Discusses briefly the "debate rippling through the entire seed industry": how to reward investments in biotechnology innovation "yet preserve a cooperative system [among private and public sector participants] that has yielded enormous benefits in crop productivity." Considers some of the impacts of patent protection for plant varieties, genes, and bioengineering processes, with a short history of legal protections for plant breeding work.

184. Kaplan, J. Kim. "USDA plant hunters bring 'em back alive and growing." Agricultural Research 39(7): 4-13 (July 1991). NAL 1.98 Ag84

Article illustrates the value that has accrued from USDA-sponsored collections of foreign fruit and vegetable materials--"genetic treasures" that support the work of U.S. plant breeders, taxonomists, and evolution scientists, and strengthen commercial agriculture. Provides a short history of pioneering plant collecting earlier this century, with maps indicating crop origins.

185. King, Jonathan W. "Breeding uniformity: Will global biotechnology threaten global biodiversity?" Amicus Journal [Natural Resources Defense Council] 15(1): 25-30 (Spring 1993).

With enormous profits at stake in the biotechnology era, the links among plant genetic resources, intellectual property rights issues, and geopolitics are outlined in this article, part of a special magazine section, "Biotechnology and ecology." Contains "Great Genetic Treasure Map" depicting germplasm centers of diversity for important crops. Other articles include Dick Russell's "Miracle or myth" (p. 20-24), on bioengineered "frankenfood" or "man-made miracles"; a short piece on ecological risks posed by transgenic crops (p. 31); and "Listening to the land" (p. 32-34), in which Wes Jackson argues for ecological and evolutionary perspectives ("native to place") as scientific and cultural goals.

186. Kloppenburg, Jack, Jr. and Daniel Lee Kleinman. "The plant germplasm controversy: Analyzing empirically the distribution of the world's plant genetic resources." BioScience 37(3): 190-198 (March 1987). NAL 500 Am322A

Authors analyze food crop dependence and independence among nations and world regions, by assessing specific regional contributions to "the global plant genetic estate." The nature of the international controversy over definition of plant genetic resources, and implications evolving from the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization's 1983 Undertaking, are outlined.

187. Lacy, William B. "The global plant genetic resources system: A competition-cooperation paradox." Crop Science 35(2): 335-345 (March/April 1995). NAL 64.8 C883

Examines the key roles of international organizations (the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources and others) in addressing central issues of access to plant genetic resources; topics include funding for biodiversity protection, the role of biotechnology and intellectual property rights, and technical and social challenges to preserving plant genetic materials. Includes discussion of the UNCED (or Rio Earth Summit) Convention on Biological Diversity, which included principles established to govern trade in plant germplasm. Professor Lacy notes that since "no nations...are independent with respect to germplasm," all are subject--to greater or lesser degree--to the conflicting needs of competition and cooperation for necessary resources. He calls for "efficient and socially just ways to cooperate" for the best interests of present and future generations. With bibliography. (Article is one of three papers presented at a symposium, "Global Implications of Germplasm Conservation and Utilization.")

188. Lewontin, R.C. and M. De Miranda Santos. "Current trends in intellectual property rights protection pose serious threats to future innovations in agricultural sector." Diversity 13(2/3): 25-27 (1997). NAL SB123.3.D5

Two Harvard-affiliated scientists discuss the impacts of patents and patent-like protections on public and private sector plant breeding research and the seed industry, pointing out key differences between the agricultural and pharmaceutical/chemical industries. They contend that present trends in "securing intellectual property rights in the agricultural sector--especially those related to patents over genes of wide utilization in plant breeding, the patenting of plant varieties, and basic techniques of genetic engineering--have gone much too far in the direction of allowing monopolies to the detriment of future innovation." With bibliography.

189. Lindholm, Nicolas. "Patents versus the people." Maine Organic Farmer & Gardener 22(2): 30-32 (June-Aug. 1995). NAL S605.5.M3

Part III of a series of articles on changes in U.S. breeding programs and the seed industry, which, for seed buyers, promise significant changes in varietal availability, seed costs, and regional autonomy. This article focuses on trends in the last 60 years in plant variety protection mechanisms that increasingly limit public access to plant genetic materials. The writer contends that "breeders should have their rights protected and their work recognized and financially rewarded. Yet, danger exists in cutting off those who may benefit most from maintaining and developing new crops--i.e., farmers and gardeners and the consumers they feed." Part I of this three-part series on seeds appeared in the Nov. 1994 issue, and Part II in the March 1995 issue.

190. Loewer, Peter. "A hedge against starvation." American Horticulturist 70(6): 38-44 (June 1991). NAL 80 N216

This article examines the value of plant germplasm diversity and consequences of genetic uniformity (exemplified by the Southern corn leaf blight episode in 1970), and also the origin and preservation activities of the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System and its National Seed Storage Laboratory, and constraints under which the system operates. More briefly, the work of the growers network of Seed Savers Exchange is profiled.

191. Lustgarden, Steve. "Draining the gene pool." Vegetarian Times 194: 88-94 (Oct. 1993). NAL TX392.A1V44

Writer addresses various issues relating to diminished diversity among food crops and their wild relatives. Includes brief discussion of U.S. government preservation efforts and the roles of nonprofit grassroots initiatives and regional seed companies, and how consumer choices affect varietal availability. Lists 11 seed sources for open-pollinated and heirloom vegetable varieties.

192. Nabhan, Gary Paul. "Do we care only about endangered species, or are we ready to pledge allegiance to all levels of biodiversity?" Arid Lands Newsletter 37: 2-5 (Spring/Sum. 1995). NAL S612.A753

A brief but thought-provoking commentary on valuing and conserving the planet's biodiversity. Nabhan argues that "to engage the unconverted" requires communicating the complexity of biodiversity, rather than reducing it to the least common denominator. With bibliography. The article is contained in a special Newsletter issue on conserving drylands biodiversity. Other articles include a chef's perspective on food crop biodiversity, discussion of ecosystem biodiversity and international conservation measures, and "hotlist" of biodiversity Web sites. Author Nabhan, who co-founded Native Seeds/SEARCH (see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 14), serves currently as Science Advisor to the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum in Tucson, and Research Associate with the University of Arizona's Office of Arid Land Studies. The article's full text is available at the Office's Web site, It was reprinted in Seed Savers 1997 Harvest Edition (p. 110-115), NAL SB115.S452, and reappears with modification as an essay (p. 16-29) in Nabhan's new book, Cultures of Habitat: On Nature, Culture, and Story (Washington, DC: Counterpoint, 338 p., NAL GF75.N33 1997).

193. Podoll, David. "Are we eating our seed wheat?" Synergy, p. 21-23 (Spring 1998).

Diversified organic grower in North Dakota examines the farmer's role in seed production and the possibility that as bioengineered seeds proliferate, "organic farmers may find themselves with only old, worn out varieties to grow." He describes briefly his experience in seeking out a wheat variety suitable for an organic production system. This article was reprinted in the newsletter of the Organic Crop Improvement Association, Upper Mississippi River Chapters, Organic Broadcaster 6(4): 1-2, 4-5 (July/Aug. 1998).

194. Power, J.F. and R.F. Follett. "Monoculture." Scientific American 256 (3): 78-86 (1987). NAL 470 Sci25

This article addresses the forces driving U.S. farmers' shift in this century to monocultural crop production, "growing the same crop on the same land repeatedly," and resulting in "21 percent of [Corn Belt] corn following a crop of corn." Economic and technological influences, and economic and management advantages are discussed, along with agroecological and economic disadvantages. Alternatives to crop monoculture--rotations, intercropping, and multiple cropping--are illustrated. (Although the authors write that "the hazard of monoculture can extend beyond a single farm to include an entire crop," this topic, the narrowing of a crop population's genetic base, is mentioned only in passing.) The authors are veteran soil scientists with USDA.

195. Powledge, Fred "The food supply's safety net." BioScience 45(4): 235-243 (April 1995). NAL 500 Am322A

Science writer provides an update on forces that challenge the security of plant germplasm, the "building blocks of the world's food supply." Variables that include absolute losses in biodiversity, limited funding, poor management of storage facilities, natural disasters, and war are discussed. The author reviews the "the variable condition of worldwide holdings," including focus on germplasm facilities in India (ICRISAT) and the Philippines (IRRI), which manage some of the world's staple crops, and the U.S.'s genebank network, the National Plant Germplasm System (USNPGS). The author writes about biotechnology, patents, and plant germplasm in the article, "Who owns rice and beans," in BioScience 45(7): 440-444, July/Aug. 1995, NAL 500 Am322A.

196. Prescott-Allen, Robert and Christine Prescott-Allen. "How many plants feed the world?" Conservation Biology 4(4): 365-374 (Dec. 1990). NAL QH75.A1C5

Based on national food supply data from the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization, this article presents a detailed accounting, by various measures (weight, calories, etc.), of the plant species and commodities that make up the top 90 percent of each of 146 countries per capita food supply. The authors review the literature relating to oft-cited figures of how few plants "feed the world" today. Using different methods and data, they found that 103 plant species feed the world, in contrast to lower figures in the range of 7-30 species. Their findings "allow for a more realistic portrayal of world food supply," towards crafting effective policies regarding food production and biological conservation. With bibliography.

197. Raeburn, Paul. "Seeds of dispair." Issues in Science and Technology 6(2): 71-76 (Wtr. 1989/90). NAL Q225.I7

Associated Press science editor discusses inadequacy in congressional funding of the U.S. National Seed Storage Laboratory and its umbrella organization, the National Plant Germplasm System, which has resulted, in his view, in failure to establish "a truly capable germplasm system." Includes bibliography. For Mr. Raeburn's more recent article, with similar theme, which was adapted from his 1995 book of the same title, see "The last harvest" in Popular Science 248(5): 70-75 (May 1996). This magazine article was reprinted in Seed Savers 1996 Harvest Edition, p. 84-89, NAL SB115.S452. (The Last Harvest is cited in entry 55, this volume.)

198. Rhoades, Robert E. "The world's food supply at risk." National Geographic 179(4): 74-105 (April 1991). NAL 470 N213

Anthropologist with Peru's International Potato Center examines the significance of the diverse heritage existing in domestic crops and their wild ancestors around the world, the trade-offs associated with wholesale adoption of modern varieties, and governmental, institutional, and grassroots efforts to counteract genetic erosion. With numerous color photos. (The writer serves currently as co-director of Southern Seed Legacy Project; see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 58.)

199. Rodale, Robert. "Germ plasm--Two words you need to know." Organic Gardening 27(2): 28-32,34-36 (Feb. 1980). NAL 57.8 Or32

Presents a straightforward explanation of crop germ plasm (or germplasm) resources, their relevence to gardeners, plant breeders, and everyone who eats, and how they are threatened. In this article, Mr. Rodale discusses briefly the growing controversy over plant patenting and argues for greater support of plant exploration and preservation.

Go to: Contents of Volume 1 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, 400, 420, 460 | Appendices (Volume 1)

200. Shands, Henry L. "The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System." Canadian Journal of Plant Science 75(1): 9-15 (Jan. 1995). NAL 450 C16

USDA scientist surveys the mission, service activities, and components of the U.S.'s formal plant germplasm system. Includes brief discussion of research activities, maintaining the integrity of stored plant materials, international issues and cooperation, and related topics. With short bibliography. The full text of the article is posted at American Genetic Resources Alliance's Web site at

201. Shell, Ellen Ruppel. "Seeds in the bank could stave off disaster on the farm." Smithsonian 20(10): 94-105 (Jan. 1990). NAL QH1.S5

Article provides background to current concern over vanishing plant genetic material and tells of public and private efforts to stem germplasm losses. Focus is on the central U.S. seed bank (National Seed Storage Laboratory), with a briefer look at Seed Savers Exchange's initiatives. Discusses the paradoxes offered by modern plant breeding, market demands for uniformity, and farmers' growing reliance on widely-adapted and high-yielding hybrids. With short bibliography, p. 162,164.

202. Strachan, Janice M. "Plant variety protection: An alternative to patents." Probe: Newsletter of the USDA Plant Genome Research Program 2(2) : 11-13,22 (Sum. 1992). NAL aQK981.4.P76

Official with the Plant Variety Protection (PVP) Office, part of USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service, explains the plant variety protection mechanisms existing in the U.S., which offer exclusive marketing rights. The role of the PVP Office in administering the PVP Act is described. (For more information, including access to PVP databases, contact the PVP Office, USDA-AMS, National Agricultural Library, Rm. 500, Beltsville, MD 20705-2351, tel. 301-504-5518, fax 301-504-5291, Web site

203. Tripp, Robert. "Biodiversity and modern crop varieties: Sharpening the debate." Agriculture and Human Values 13(4): 48-63 (Fall 1996). NAL HT401.A36

The author explores the use of language concerned with agricultural technology and plant genetic resources, especially terms such as "modern variety," "local variety," "hybrid," and "Green Revolution." He analyzes existing evidence on the effects of modern varieties on crop genetic diversity and farmer decision-making and risk, to illuminate the complexity of the roles played by products of modern plant breeding. With extensive bibliography. (The author is research fellow and anthropologist at London's Overseas Development Institute. Much of his work concerns the study of various aspects of seed supply systems in developing countries.)

204. Vellvé, Renée. "The decline of diversity in European agriculture." The Ecologist 23(2): 64-69 (March-April 1993). NAL QH540.N38

While noting that available data are fragmentary, the author reviews the state of genetic uniformity among horticultural and field crops in Western Europe, as compared to the previous century, by examining the numbers of crops grown in a given region, the numbers of available varieties, and the degree of genetic differences among available varieties. Includes commentary on corporate control and homogeneity in the seed industry, legislative influences, and modern plant breeders' tendency towards "recycling uniformity." The writer cites a "lack of serious assess where crop breeding is going with respect to genetic diversity." Includes 26 references. Vellvé is co-editor of Genetic Resources Action International's periodical, Seedling (see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 68). This article was condensed from Ch. 2 of the author's book, Saving the Seed: Genetic Diversity and European Agriculture (London: Earthscan Publications, 1991, 206 p., NAL SB123.3.V44 1992).

205. Wilkes, Garrison. "Breeding crisis for our crops--Is the gene pool drying up?" Horticulture 55(4): 53-59 (April 1977). NAL 80 H787

For a gardening audience, University of Massachusetts biologist offers a mid-1970s assessment of diminishing food plant genetic diversity (both interspecies and intraspecies decline), including the value of traditional land races, the price paid for genetically uniform crops, and (more briefly) seed bank strategies and progress, to date. Professor Wilkes has served on the advisory board of Seed Savers Exchange.

206. Wilkes, Garrison. "The world's crop plant germplasm--An endangered resource." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 33(2): 8-14 (Feb. 1977). NAL Q1.S25

The author calls attention to our dependence on cultivated food plants that originated outside U.S. borders. Includes discussion of problems and risks associated with genetic erosion, its relation to modern agriculture, and U.S. government action to date. With bibliography. (Similar in scope to the article just above, but intended for a scientific readership.)

2E. Food Crops--Community- and Farmer-based Conservation

207. Alvarez, Nelson. "Biodiverse farming produces more." Seedling [Genetic Resources Action International] 14(3): 6-14 (Oct. 1997). NAL SB123.3.S443

The writer contends that when agroecosystem productivity is broadly defined to include efficient resource use, agroecosystem resiliency, nutritional health, and social and economic integrity--rather than relying simply on net commodity yields--farming systems that optimize biological stability and structural diversity can compete with industrial agriculture. Presented are examples of traditional farming systems in Asia, Latin America, and Africa, with discussion of the role of high-yielding modern varieties versus locally-developed landraces. The writer argues that agricultural development will be successful when new technologies are carefully integrated into existing farming systems and consider innovative methods used by farmers. A longer version of this article, with complete source information, is available from GRAIN (see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 68, for contact information).

208. Brush, Stephen B. "Farmer conservation of New World crops: The case of Andean potatoes." Diversity 7(1/2): 75-79 (1991). NAL SB123.3D5

Drawing on studies undertaken by himself and others, of traditional potato agriculture in the Peruvian Andes, the author discusses factors that contribute to traditional farmers' continued nurturing of crop species and varietal diversity, including their persistent reliance, despite changing agricultural conditions, on native potatoes that offer economic, environmental, and culturally-significant benefits. Includes bibliography.

209. Brush, Stephen B. "A farmer-based approach to conserving crop germplasm." Economic Botany 45(2): 153-165 (April/June 1991). NAL 450 Ec7

Addresses the maintenance of crop germplasm in centers of crop diversity, through continued cultivation of traditional landraces in farmer's fields (in situ preservation). Case studies of potato farming in Peru, maize farming in Mexico, and rice farming in Thailand are presented. Reviews advantages and disadvantages of farmer-based conservation strategies; also discusses principles to guide in situ conservation planning and presents several pathways towards implementing conservation objectives, including participation by grassroots organizations. With bibliography. Journal issue includes three other articles from a 1989 symposium, "New Directions in Crop Genetic Resources Conservation."

210. Cleveland, D.A., Daniela Soleri, and Steven E. Smith. "Do folk varieties have a role in sustainable agriculture?" Bioscience 44(11): 740-751 (Dec. 1994). NAL 500 Am322A

Examines available data on the current and potential role of folk varieties (or landraces) in the development of sustainable farming systems, particularly for small-scale, indigenous-based agricultural settings. With bibliography. (Article was reprinted in Seed Savers 1996 Harvest Edition, p. 55-76, NAL SB115.S452.) For a recent article co-written by the senior author, see "The world's crop genetic resources and the rights of indigenous farmers" (D.A. Cleveland and S.C. Murray, Current Anthropology 38(4): 477-515, Aug./Oct. 1997). It explores the nature of intellectual property rights of indigenous farmers, in their folk varieties, addressing the general inadequacy of "industrial-world intellectual property rights mechanisms for protecting the intellectual property rights of indigenous farmers," and examining new approaches to safeguard farmers' rights, which are embedded in cultural, human, and environmental rights.

211. Fitzgerald, Deborah. "Farmers deskilled: Hybrid corn and farmer's work." Technology and Culture 34(2): 324-323 (April 1993).

To better understand how technological change influences the work people do, the author analyses hybrid corn as an agent of "industrial deskilling"--i.e., how it influenced the loss of the specialized knowledge inherent in growing distinctive open-pollinated corn varieties. She reviews farmers' skills prior to hybrids and considers farmers' unique roles as workers and participants in technological change. With bibliography (sources cited in footnotes). At the time of this writing, the author served as professor of the history of technology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She focuses also on the development of hybrid corn in an analysis of the tranformation of agricultural science into technology, in the book entitled, The Business of Breeding: Hybrid Corn in Illinois, 1890-1940 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990, 247 p., NAL SB191.M2F6).

212. Lacy, William B. "Biodiversity, cultural diversity, andfood equity." Agriculture and Human Values 11(1): 3-9 (Wtr. 1994). NAL HT401.A36

Cornell University professor contends that biodiversity and genetic resources must be viewed within a framework that includes cultural diversity and a humanistic view of nature. Here he examines various factors (technical, scientific, and capitalistic) that have contributed to decreased reverence and commodification of nature, concluding that the only way to conserve biodiversity in the field is to conserve cultural diversity among peoples. With bibliography. (This article appeared in abbreviated form in the Nov./Dec. 1995 issue of the Northeast Organic Farming Association of New York's newsletter, NOFA-NY News, p. 1,4-7. Dr. Lacy contributed to the 1995 book, Making Nature, Shaping Culture: Plant Biodiversity in Global Context (by Lawrence Busch, William B. Lacy, Jeffrey Burkhardt, et al., University of Nebraska Press, 261 p., NAL SB123.3.M34 1995, currently in print), which examines crop germplasm diversity, conservation, and property rights.)

213. Rodale, Robert. "Gardens of diversity." Organic Gardening 37(6): 19-20 (July/Aug. 1990). NAL S605.5.O74

In this article, the well-known proponent of organic agriculture called for a return to nature's model by increasing the diversity of species and varieties in our gardens and farms, citing disease and insect vulnerability when uniformity is the standard.

214. Shand, Hope. "People, innovation and agricultural biodiversity." Global Pesticide Campaigner [Pesticide Action Network North America] 8(1) : 1,12-13,17 (March 1998).

An overview of the importance of agricultural biodiversity--the part of biodiversity "that feeds and nurtures people"--considering its global decline; farmers as innovators and conservers of diversity; environmental benefits of traditional knowledge; the "hidden harvest" that wild resources provide to people's livelihoods; and the impact(especially on poor people's access to plant germplasm) of monopoly control of living organisms or genes through intellectual property rights systems. With bibliography. Author Shand is research director of a Canadian/U.S. NGO, Rural Advancement Foundation International. This article encapsulates the author's more comprehensive examination of these topics in the book, Human Nature: Agricultural Biodiversity and Farm-Based Food Security (Ottawa, Canada: RAFI, 1997, 93 p.). Prepared for the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization, it makes extensive use of the agency's documentation, addressing "the causes and the potential consequences of biodiversity loss for food security," with implications for institutional policies and programs. Both writings focus on traditional farmers and rural people in developing countries in the " South" (i.e., the southern hemisphere). The book's full text is posted at RAFI's Web page, (See Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 75, for additional contact information for RAFI.)

215. Shand, Hope and Pat Mooney. "'Terminator Technology' prevents farmers from saving seed." Global Pesticide Campaigner [Pesticide Action Network North America] 8(2): 6-8 (June 1998).

Presents background information and commentary on a new U.S. patent (issued in March 1998) that protects a genetic technology "designed to prevent unauthorized seed saving by farmers." The authors (who are affiliated with Rural Advancement Foundation or RAFI) discuss the new technology's potential impacts on resource-poor farmers in developing countries; they contend that it "threatens to restrict farmer expertise in selecting seed and developing locally adapted strains...and [threatens] food security and biodiversity, especially for the poor." With bibliography and source information. RAFI and a number of other nongovernmental organizations support a global ban on use of "Terminator Technology," as it has been dubbed by the group. For more on this subject, see RAFI's Web page cited in entry 214, this volume. The Web page includes RAFI's Occasional Paper Series vol. 5, no. 3 (Aug. 1998, 40 p.), entitled RAFI Impacts: The Terminator File, which provides a summary and chronology of the group's work in opposing and publicizing the patented seed technology. A paper from Indiana University biologist, Martha L. Crouch, entitled How The Terminator Terminates: An Explanation for the Non-scientist of a Remarkable Patent for Killing Second Generation Seeds of Crop Plants, is available from the Edmonds Institute. It sketches the technical process, plus potential problems. For availability, contact the Edmonds Institute, 20319-92nd Ave. West, Edmonds, WA 98020, tel. 425-775-5383, e-mail

3. Videos

216. Chedd, Graham, producer; WGBH Boston. Seeds of Tomorrow. Northbrook, IL: Coronet Film & Video, 1985. 1 VHS videocasette (59 min.); teacher's guide. NAL Videocassette no.945

This film explores the genetic basis of our 10,000-year legacy of agricultural crops, and various factors affecting "the raw material of the seeds of tomorrow." It centers on the precarious existence of the handful of staple plants that feed nations, illustrating preservation efforts and dilemmas. Topics include historical consequences of crop uniformity (e.g., the Irish potato famine and Southern corn leaf blight in the U.S.); displacement of old farmer-bred landraces and farming traditions by modern crop breeds; and how genetic diversity serves the needs of traditional farmers and provides breeders with raw materials for continued crop improvement. The promise offered by the biotechnologyindustry's early work to bioengineer plant genomes is suggested, although the growing controversy over control of plant materials is not addressed. Includes visits to various centers of crop diversity (Ethiopia, Peru, the North American Southwest), and interviews with plant collectors, private and public sector breeders, and genebank administrators. The program, which is hosted by Noel Vietmeyer from the National Academy of Sciences, concludes with focus on his particular interest, the food potential offered by some under-utilized root and grain crops grown locally in the South American Andes. A six-page teacher's guide accompanies the film, which aired on the television program Nova in January 1986.

217. Courtice, George, producer; Tyne Tees Television. The Great Gene Robbery. Oley, PA: Bulldog Films, 1990. Turning the Tide [series] no. 5. 1 VHS videocassette (26 min.). NAL Videocassette no.1058

A short film concerned with the convergence of issues relating to plant genetic diversity, and plant improvement by traditional methods and new gene-splicing techniques. It presents the dilemma of modern crop development and simplified farming systems, which together induce losses in old, gene-rich crop repertoires that provide the raw materials for genetic manipulation. Potato diversity among native cultivars grown in the Andes of Peru ("where collectors go to top up potato genes") is used to illustrate the ecological conditions, farming practices, and societal influences that foster local plant diversity. The program briefly describes genebanks, natural areas, and working farms as vehicles to maintain genetic diversity, and the widespread trend towards farm and garden uniformity, including loss of England's garden heritage. The film is hosted (and enlivened) by English scientist David J. Bellamy, who calls the continuing loss of genetic resources the "ultimate scandal" of our modern world. Part of a seven-video series on global environmental issues, for youth and adult audiences.
Related works: Besides Fragile Harvest (cited in entry 219, this volume), Bullfrog Films has produced several other films on genetic resources, biotechnology, and other agricultural subjects, including a 1996 video entitled, Risky Business: Biotechnology and Agriculture (NAL IPM960612657). For more information, contact Bullfrog Films, Box149, Oley, PA 19547, tel. 610-779-8226, e-mail, or see Web site

218. De Graaf, John and Vivia Boe, producers; Oregon Public Broadcasting. Genetic Time Bomb. Ben Lomond, CA: Video Project [distributor], 1994. 1 VHS videocassette (50 min). NAL Videocassette no.2572

A recent documentary film exploring the paradox of modern agriculture, whose breeding products undermine its resource base of plant and animal genetic diversity, and the consequences for world food security. It provides an overview of crop biodiversity and efforts by government and private organizations to counter genetic erosion, tracing the roots of germplasm conservation from the pioneering work of N.I. Vavilov in the Soviet Union, to the serious financial constraints faced today by institutional seed banks and international crop breeding programs. The story takes viewers to the U.S. National Seed Storage Laboratory, Vavilov Institute, and International Center for Improvement of Wheat and Maize (or CIMMYT), and other sites; included are interviews with a broad collection of individuals (scientists, policy makers, and activists from Seed Savers Exchange, Native Seeds/SEARCH, and other groups) involved in formal and informal conservation activities. There is little emphasis on agricultural biotechology or political aspects of genetic resources issues. The film aired on PBS stations in January 1996. (For availability, contact The Video Project, 5332 College Ave., Suite 101, Oakland, CA 94618, tel. 510-655-9050 or 800-4-PLANET.)

219. Kensington Communications, with National Film Board of Canada and Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Fragile Harvest. Oley, PA: Bullfrog Films, 1986. 1 VHS videocassette (49 min.). NAL Videocassette no.618

A Canadian film from the mid-1980s that examines some of the positive and negative aspects of modern industrial agriculture, with respect to plant genetic resources and food security. The focus is both domestic and international, illustrating the value of locally-adapted plant varieties to local agricultures and plant breeding, the processes of scientific crop development by conventional breeding methods and new biotechnologies, and the role of government seed banks in germplasm preservation. The story is told through visits to centers of crop diversity in Peru, Ethiopia, and Turkey, and genebanks in Canada and Ethiopia; included are interviews with Irish plant breeder Erna Bennet, Canadian agricultural economist and activist Pat Mooney, and also government officials and biotechnologists. Mixed blessings of the "Green Revolution" approaches to agricultural development, including subsequent economic and social changes brought on by a shift from local/regional to global agricultural economies and markets, are illustrated briefly.
Related work: A similar film called Seeds (produced by Robert Lang and Amanda McConnell, NAL Videocassette no.1071) is available also from Bullfrog Films. This 1987 film is shorter (27 min.) but has much the same footage and theme as Fragile Harvest.

Goto: Contents of Volume 1 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, 400, 420, 460 | Appendices (Volume 1)

4. Current and Recent Periodicals

Additional newsletters and other serial publications from seed-saving organizations and fruit-growing networks are cited in Volume 2, Resource Organizations, in Part I, "Vegetable Seed Exchanges or Seedbanks"; Part II, "Fruit Growers Organizations"; and Part V, "Other Resource Organizations."

4A. Heirloom Vegetables and Gardening

220. Back in Thyme (from Publications Office, P.O. Box 963, 517 E. Fourth St., Tonganoxie, KS 66086-0963, tel. 913-845-9309, fax 913-845-9313, e-mail
Nancy Smith, Editor

Newsletter highlights old-fashioned plants and garden history, emphasizing flowers, herbs, and prairie plants, with some content devoted to heirloom vegetables. Issues contain articles, resource information (including book reviews), profiles of growers and gardens, and a national calendar of heirloom garden events. Advertising accepted. Since January 1996, issued bimonthly ($20/yr U.S., $24/yr Canada, $30/yr elsewhere). Web page with selected newsletter articles includes numerous heirloom gardening links.

221. Chile Pepper (from Magnolia Media Group, P.O. Box 20279, Fort Worth, TX 76102, fax 817-215-9010; subscribers: P.O. Box 20279, Fort Worth, TX 76102, tel. 800-767-9377)

A glossy, full-color magazine for chile pepper and spicy foods fans, covering various aspects of fiery foods, including travel destinations, events, cuisines, and recipes. Paul Bosland, New Mexico State University pepper breeder and Director of the Chile Pepper Institute (see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 62) writes a regular column, "Pepper Patch," but otherwise pepper gardening is covered minimally. With product and book reviews, and abundant commercial ads, including pepper seed sellers. Subscription costs $18.95/yr (6 issues); also available on newstands. Formerly known as Whole Chile Pepper magazine.

222. The Historical Gardener (c/o Kathleen McClelland, 1910 North 35th Place, Mount Vernon, WA 98273-8981, tel. 360-424-3154)
Kathleen McClelland, Editor

"Plants and gardens of the past" provided the focus of this interesting and well-researched newsletter on recreated gardens and on-going research at historic sites in the U.S. and Canada. Issues contain sources for historical plant materials and book and media reviews, with feature articles on heirloom crops, profiles of heritage garden programs, old-time farming and gardening methods, and other aspects of garden history. Back issues of the newsletter may be useful to museum garden curators and educators, home gardeners, and plant collectors. Contact the publisher concerning issue availability. (Historical Gardener was issued quarterly from Spring 1992 to Winter 1995, back issues $4/U.S., $5/Canada.)

223. Off-the-Vine (c/o Carolyn J. Male, 121-2 Latham Village Lane, Latham, NY 12110, tel. 518-783-5565, e-mail; after July 1999: 137 Beattie Hollow Rd., Salem, NY 12865)
Carolyn J. Male and Craig LeHoullier, Co-editors

A newsletter for heirloom tomato growers and enthusiasts. Issues (3/yr) have covered garden aspects and seed saving, history and folklore, notable growers and collectors, and related topics. Dr. Male researches tomato histories and maintains an extentive garden collection in New York; she is also writing a book (from Workman Press) on heirloom tomatoes, due out in mid-1999. As Off-the-Vine has recently been discontinued, contact the editor for availability of back issues.

224. The Tomato Club (c/o Robert Ambrose, P.O. Box 418, Bogota, NJ 07603, tel. 201-488-2231, fax 201-489-4609)
Robert Ambrose, Publisher/Editor

Bimonthly newsletter for tomato enthusiasts, with gardening tips and favorite varieties, recipes, and related news and information on America's favorite garden "vegetable." The March/April 1997 issue reviewed for this publication contained articles on backyard tomato breeding and the recent popularity of heirloom vegetables. Subscription cost: $15.95/yr (U.S.), $18.95/yr (Canada, Mexico); $22.95/yr (elsewhere); back issues $1.25 each (all U.S. funds).

225. Traditional Gardening (from GardenWorks Ltd., 189 Cordaville Rd., Southborough, MA 01772, tel. 508-485-3637 or 800-244-2233 (orders), fax 508-624-7640, e-mail

Newsletter on historical plants and gardens, especially for gardeners seeking to renovate or design classical gardens. Covers all types of gardens (landscape, ornamental, kitchen); some content is devoted to historical fruits and vegetables. Quarterly issues ($15/yr, $5 single copy) contain articles and resource news and reviews, with commercial advertising; the "Internet edition" at GardenWorks' Web page contains selected articles. Since Summer 1996.

226. Vegetable Garden Research (from Garden Research Exchange, c/o Ken Allan, 61 South Bartlett St., Kingston ON K7K 1X3 Canada, e-mail
Ken Allan, Founder and Editor

Ontario gardener and garden writer Ken Allan formed Garden Research Exchange in 1989 to serve as a vehicle for information exchange among vegetable gardeners, to fill a perceived void in the availability of gardener-oriented research for home growers. Conceived as "a bulletin board for amateur experimenters," the Exchange publishes its findings in an annual yearbook, Vegetable Garden Research, with experimental reports and observations from U.S. and Canadian gardeners, and also book reviews. Issues (devoid of advertising to encourage free exchange of information) cover some subjects of interest to seed savers and amateur breeders, such as variety trials and breeding progress reports. Single copies (1990-1996) $12, each additional copy $10. Send SASE for information that includes an outline of yearbook contents.

4B. Crop Genetic Resources and Vegetable Seed Industry

227. American Vegetable Grower NAL 80 C733
(from Meister Publishing Co., 37733 Euclid Ave., Willoughby, OH 44094, tel. 440-942-2000, fax 440-942-0662, e-mail (circulation information)

Trade publication with news and information on production and business topics for commercial vegetable growers in the U.S. and Canada. With feature articles and regular columns, product news, and commercial advertising. The magazine issues an annual directory of companies, associations, government agencies, and university departments, and the December issue regularly announces new vegetable introductions from major seed companies. Although focus on specialty, exotic, ethnic, and heirloom vegetables is negligible (see, for example, several recent articles cited in other sections of this publication), current and back issues contain abundant information for seed activists and historians on developments and viewpoints in the seed industry, and coverage of legislation and regulation of plant materials, vegetable breeding and biotechnologies, seed technologies, and other topics. Originating in 1907 as a weekly magazine called Market Growers Journal (NAL 6 M34), it became American Vegetable Grower in 1953. Issued monthly ($15.95/yr U.S. and Canada, $60/yr elsewhere (airmail), single copy $2.75).

228. Diversity: A News Journal for the International Genetic Resources Community NAL SB123.3.D5
(from Genetic Resources Communications Systems (GRCS), 4905 Del Ray Ave., Suite 401, Bethesda, MD 20814, tel. 301-907-9350, fax 301-907-9328, e-mail

An essential resource for anyone interested in biodiversity and genetic resources topics. Diversity magazine provides news, commentary, and other information on plant and animal germplasm and its conservation and use, including ecological, economic, social, and political aspects. Quarterly issues from the nonprofit GRCS contain feature articles, news briefs, conference reports, bibliographies and book reviews, and an international events calendar. Content dealing with preservation aspects focuses largely on formal, institutional gene-banking programs throughout the world, with lesser emphasis on grassroots conservation initiatives. Regularly includes progress reports on U.S. programs, issues, and events, including the National Plant Germplasm System, National Germplasm Resources Program, and Crop Germplasm Committees (formerly known as Crop Advisory Committees). Some issues are thematic, featuring the genetic resources of particular regions; for instance, vol. 11, no. 1-2 (1995) focused on Mediterranean crops. Back issues (from 1982) provide a valuable chronicle of developments and resources in genetic resources management, including analytical reviews and diverse perspectives on many of the publications cited in this resource guide, and profiles of individuals and organizations. Older issues provided lists of current books and articles on crop genetic resources, economic botany, and related topics. Illustrated issues are 20-50 pages in length. Web site provides a list of articles (titles only) from recent issues. Subscription cost: $35/yr/individuals, government/nonprofits in North America, $50 elsewhere; other institutions: North America $55, elsewhere $70.

229. Ram's Horn (S-12, C-11, RR 1, Sorrento, BC V0E 2W0, Canada, tel./fax 250-835-8561, e-mail
Brewster Kneen, Editor; Cathleen Kneen, Publisher

"A monthly newsletter of food system analysis," providing analysis, commentary, news, and other information on North American food systems and technologies, including the structural and business aspects of transnational corporations. Articles include source information and resource news and reviews. Annual subscription for individuals costs $15 in Canada, US$20 to U.S. subscribers (plus additional rates). The editor has written a number of books that analyze and critique modern industrial food systems. They include Rape of Canola (Toronto: NC Press, 1992, 230 p., NAL SB299.R2K63 1992), on the industrial transformation of oilseed rape to canola, and Invisible Giant: Cargill and Its Transnational Strategies (London; Boulder, CO: Pluto Press, 1995, 232 p., NAL HD9014.C42C375 1995).

230. Seed World NAL 61.8 Se52
(from Scranton Gillette Communications, 380 E. Northwest Hwy., Des Plaines, IL 60016-2282, tel. 847-298-6622, fax 847-390-0408)

Trade publication "serving the seed marketers of the world" with news and information. With domestic and international focus, containing feature articles, regular departments, product news, and commercial advertising. Issued monthly, plus annual Seed Trade Buyers Guide (subscription costs $30/yr, single copies $6). Seed World is a useful resource for information on industry and market developments and perspectives on biotechnology and seed technologies, new plant introductions, plant breeding, federal and state seed regulations, plant patenting, and related topics. (Genetic diversity issues are seldom addressed.) Web site includes the full text of selected articles from 1995 to 1998 issues. Back issues (from 1915) containing market and crop reports, and seed trade news, events, and viewpoints may be useful for historical research regarding developments in commercial plant breeding, plant varieties, and seed production. (For instance, 1919 issues included editorials discouraging seed production by home and market gardeners, citing quality considerations and interference with the "business of legitimate seedsmen"; May 2, 1941 to Jan. 21, 1944 issues contained a series of articles on "the story of garden vegetables"; and 1990s issues include articles on proprietary technologies and legal protections for varieties, profiles of seed industry giants, and structural changes in the seed industry.)

4C. Gardening Magazines with Seed Exchanges and Other Heirloom Rsources

The following magazines contain occasional articles on heritage varieties and period gardens, a number of which are cited in other sections of this resource guide. In this volume, these are found in Part I, Section 2, and throughout Part II (on traditional Native American varieties and New World crops). In addition, Part III, "Histories of Vegetables and Fruits (Books and Articles)," in Volume 3, Historical Supplement, cites a number of current articles from gardening magazines, on historical subjects.

231. The American Gardener NAL SB1.A3
(from American Horticultural Society (AHS), 7931 East Boulevard Dr., Alexandria, VA 22308-1300, tel. 703-768-5700 or 800-777-7931, fax 703-768-7533,

Although there is minimal focus on heirloom vegetables and fruits in current issues of American Gardener, AHS offers several services and member benefits that may interest heirloom enthusiasts. Several resource bulletins, including one on heirloom seed sources, exchanges, and other resources are available ($1 each). Members may participate in a seed exchange (typically flowers, vegetables, herbs, and other garden plants are traded) and are entitled to free seeds from the January catalog. Seeds are donated by members, horticultural societies, and seed companies; surpluses are given to schools and nonprofits. AHS' book service sells a wide selection of currently-published titles on various gardening topics, including garden history and reference works (contact Barbara Catherwood, tel. 800-777-7931, ext. 36), with member discounts. Until 1996, American Gardener was known as American Horticulturist (NAL 80 N216); previous titles include American Horticultural Magazine (1960-1971) and National Horticulture Magazine (1922-1959). Membership dues ($45/yr in U.S.) include magazine subscription.

232. Mother Earth News NAL AP2.M6
(from Sussex Publishers, 49 E. 21st St., 11th Flr., New York, NY 10010; subscribers: P.O. Box 56302, Boulder, CO 80322-6302, tel. 303-678-0439)

Since 1970, "Mother" has featured do-it-yourself living, country skills and lore, and organic home gardening. Bimonthly issues ($18/yr U.S., $25/yr Canada, $30/yr elsewhere) contain occasional articles on seed-saving and heritage fruits and vegetables, plus a regular readers' forum for swapping vegetable, flowers, and herb seeds.

233. National Gardening NAL SB450.9.G37
(from National Gardening Association (NGA), 180 Flynn Ave., Burlington, VT 05401, tel. 802-863-1308 or 800-LETSGRO, e-mail

NGA's official magazine, its motto--"Gardens for all." Each bimonthly issue ($18/yr U.S., $24/yr elsewhere) includes a seed exchange column for readers seeking or offering particular open-pollinated vegetable, flower, and herb seeds. The seedswap listing can be accessed also at NGA's Web site, which includes the full text of severalarticles from recent magazine issues, and article indexes. The January issue typically contains an updated listing ofseed suppliers in the U.S. and Canada, and features "new" varieties available from seed sellers, which include new open-pollinated introductions and re-introduced heirlooms. In October 1985, NGA sponsored the "National Gardening Association Seed Conference," a gathering of a variety of seed people, including heirloom growers and collectors, seed company representatives, plant breeders, and government officials, held at the Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis. Speakers included Garrison Wilkes, William L. Brown, Alan Stoner, and Cary Fowler. A dozen of the presentations were printed in Seed Savers Exchange's Seed Savers 1985 Harvest Edition.

234. Organic Gardening NAL S605.5.O74
(from Rodale Press, 33 E. Minor St., Emmaus, PA 18098, tel. 800-666-2206 or 610-967-5171)

Issues regularly feature "Seed savers/seed sharers" column for readers' exchange of open-pollinated vegetable, flower, and herb seeds. In recent years, the magazine has provided an annual listing of "selected seed suppliers," with brief descriptions and thorough contact information; companies selling only untreated seed (without chemical fungicides or other synthetics) are noted. A more substantial listing, called the "Seed, Bulb, and Nursery Source List," is available by mail from Rodale Press (costs $1). The 1998 list contains over 360 seed and nursery suppliers in the U.S. and Canada, including heirloom specialists. Like National Gardening magazine, Organic Gardening reviews the year's "new" vegetables (including heirlooms) in its January issue. Annual subscription costs $19.96 (U.S.) or $24.96 (Canada) for eight issues. (Formerly Rodale's Organic Gardening, NAL S605.5.R64.)

5. Resource Guides

5A. Heirloom Vegetables and Fruits--Plant-Finding Tools

235. Ashley, Anne and Peter Ashley. The Canadian Plant Sourcebook 1996/97 Edition. Ottawa, Ontario: A. & P. Ashley, 1996. 416 p. NAL SB44.A84 1996

A guide to hardy plant materials currently available from Canadian nurseries, with over 22,000 plant listings from 150 firms, both mail-order and local sellers. The main directory consists of plant listings grouped as edibles; irises, lilies, and related plants; perennials; bush and shrub roses; and shrubs, trees, and vines. The edibles section (p. 51-68) lists hundreds of apple varieties, both old and new, and lesser numbers of other tree and small fruits and nuts, and also sources for garden vegetables such as asparagus, rhubarb, and alliums. Plant information is arranged by common names, with cultivar names keyed to nursery listings in a separate section. Nursery entries include contact information, remarks on stock available, and other commercial details, including whether plants are shipped to the U.S. Preliminary "how-to-use" information and plant name indexes are in French as well as English. First published in 1990 and revised in 1992 (NAL SB44.A84 1992). Duplication in this resource guide is minimal; only one of the several dozens of nurseries that sell edible plants is included in the list of commercial fruit nurseries in Part VII of Volume 2, Resource Organizations. (For availability, contact A. & P. Ashley, 93 Fentiman Ave., Ottawa, ON K1S 0T7, tel. 613-730-0755, fax 613-730-2095, e-mail

236. Cherfas, Jeremy, ed. The Vegetable Finder: Sources for Nearly 3000 Commercially Available Vegetable Varieties. Ryton-on-Dunsmore, Coventry, England: Henry Doubleday Research Associa-tion, 1994. 296 p. NAL SB324.75.V44 1994

Known also as The Veg Finder, this inventory from HDRA's Heritage Seed Programme in the U.K. provides names and commercial sources for 2891 varieties of garden vegetables. Varietal information is grouped under each vegetable's common name, arranged alphabetically from amaranth to yacon (an Andean tuber). Named varieties (ranging from a handful to several dozens for popular crops such as cabbage, cauliflower, potatoes, and others) include both open-pollinated types and F1 hybrids. Brief comments on notable garden features (cold-hardiness, maturity, etc.) are included only for the non-hybrids, and a few named varieties include numbers that are intended to replace the former in commercial trade throughout the European Union. Supplier codes identify specific commercial sources in the U.K. (43 in all), which are listed in a separate section. There are also statistics on the numbers and types of seed offered by commercial sources. Similar in format and purpose to Garden Seed Inventory from Seed Savers Exchange, although the the U.S. publication lists only non-hybrid seed. The book's lack of synonyms, cross-references, and plant name index may hinder some users. First published in 1977 as The Vegetable Finder (by Lawrence Hills, NAL SB322.H5 1977), the 1994 edition is no longer in print. There is also an updated version, The Fruit and Vegetable Finder, published in conjunction with the U.K.'s National Fruit Collection. (For availability, and more information on HDRA, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 8.)

237. Facciola, Stephen, preface by Noel Vietmeyer.
Cornucopia: A Sourcebook of Edible Plants. Vista: CA: Kampong Publications, 1990. 677 p. NAL SB175.F33

An authoritative horticultural reference work and plant-finding tool aiding access to the tremendous diversity of food plants available to home gardeners, professional horticulturists, and others. Cornucopia consists of botanical listings of over 3000 species of plants, including vegetables, fruits, herbs, and wild edibles, with selected cultivar listings for popular food plants. Entries are annotated and cross-referenced, with literature references and codes keyed to each plant's availability among 1300 plant suppliers. The cultivar listings section (p. 227-534) covers the more common vegetables, fruits, and herbs, with concise descriptions and commercial sources for each. Older varieties of plants are often noted, and hybrid and open-pollinated vegetables are delineated. This section names hundreds of fruit tree varieties and an especially large listing of corns (over 100 open-pollinated dent, flint, sweet, and pop corns), beans, melons, squash, peppers, and tomatoes. Seed and plant sources are mostly U.S. and Canadian. Along with commercial suppliers are non-commercial entities serving either researchers or the general public, and suppliers of preserved plant food products. (Source listings include brief descriptions with addresses and phone numbers; U.S. government germplasm centers are included among the noncommercial sources.) With several useful name indexes and extensive bibliography. Currently in print; available BG,JO,NS.

238. Fogle, H.W. and H.F. Winters; U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration. North American and European Fruit and Tree Nut Germplasm Resources Inventory. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1981. Miscellaneous Publication/United States Department of Agriculture no. 1406. 732 p. NAL 1 Ag84M no. 1406, ARB aSB123.3.F64

To aid in preserving fruit germplasm for future breeding programs, this computerized inventory lists and very briefly describes breeding materials retained in clonal repositories among most major world collections, encompassing institutional and private curators of temperate and subtropical tree and small fruits, and nuts stored in the U.S., Canada, and Europe. Table entries list cultivars, species materials, advanced selections, and germplasm lines; single-line entries (grouped under fruit type--apples, apricots, cherries, etc.) include coded data on plant and fruit attributes and uses, and source information. Records are grouped into two sections, the first consisting of North American germplasm and the second, European and other materials. A separate section lists fruit germplasm literature cited (p. 6-8), and geographic locations and repositories keyed to source codes. Some listings from amateur fruit collectors and nursery growers are included. Updates ARS-NE-76, Fruit and Tree Nut Germplasm Resources Inventory (U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Northeastern Region, 1977, 321 p., ARB aSB123.3.F6).

239. Isaacson, Richard T. and Staff of the Andersen Horticultural Library. The Andersen Horticultural Library's Source List of Plants and Seeds: A Completely Revised Listing of 1993-1996 Catalogs. 4th ed. Chanhassen, MN: The Library, 1996. 332 p. NAL SB115.I8 1996

A selected listing of over 59,000 garden plants commercially available from mail-order suppliers in the U.S. and Canada, with over 450 sources represented. Ornamentals, vegetables, herbs, and fruits are listed by species name, with cross-references from common names. Many older varieties of vegetables and fruits are included, although no additional background information, other than commercial source and variety name, is offered. (There are several hundred open-pollinated and hybrid tomato varieties listed alphabetically under the genus name Lycopersicon, for instance, but without delineation.) Most of the suppliers are U.S. companies, plus a couple dozen Canadian nurseries. Information in this 4th edition is derived from 1993-1996 catalogs. (The publishers have noted that one-third of the garden plant cultivars change from year to year.) First issued in 1987, revised in 1989 (NAL SB115.I8 1989, ARB SB115.I8 1989) and 1993 (NAL SB115.I8 1993). For availability, contact Andersen Horticultural Library, Minnesota Landscape Arboretum, P.O. Box 39, 3675 Arboretum Dr., Chanhassen, MN 55317-0039.

Go to: Contents of Volume 1 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, 400, 420, 460 | Appendices (Volume 1)

240. L.H. Bailey Hortorium; Melissa Lucknow, ed. Hortus Source List, Winter 1992. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, The Hortorium, 1992. 229 p. NAL SB115.H67 1992

A directory to commercial plant sources for the northeastern U.S., compiled from the Hortorium's extensive collection of catalogs from nurseries located primarily in New York State. Each single line entry includes botanical name and cultivar designation, with codes for plant form available (e.g., root, bulb, or seed) and current commercial suppliers. Scientific names are updated and verified, with cross-references from old names. Many of the directory's entries are ornamentals, but food plants are included also, among them numerous alliums, brassicas, cucurbits, corn, peppers, tomatoes, and other garden vegetables, as well as apples, pears, and other fruits. Numerous antique varieties are listed, although they are not identified as such. The nursery listing of 60+ New York companies, plus a handful in other states, includes mailing addresses and telephone numbers. Although limited in geographical scope and losing currency, it may serve as a useful tool for tracking down particular vegetable and fruit varieties. This volume updates the 1990 edition, NAL SB115.H67 1990. For availability, contact Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium, 462 Mann Library, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, tel. 607-255-7829.

241. Whealy, Kent and Joanne Thuente. Garden Seed Inventory: An Inventory of Seed Catalogs Listing All Non-hybrid Vegetable Seeds Available in the United States and Canada. 4th ed. Decorah, IA: Seed Saver Publications, 1995. 628 p. NAL SB324.75.W47 1995

First published in 1985 and regularly revised, Seed Savers Exchange (SSE) 's directory is an invaluable guide to the commercial availability of open-pollinated vegetable seeds from U.S. and Canadian companies. It presents heirloom gardeners with comparative data on the commercial rarity of garden vegetable varieties, along with a comprehensive source listing. The main portion of the directory consists of individual plant descriptions; named cultivars are grouped with each type of vegetable, each of the latter arranged by common name--from amaranth to watermelon. For each, several lines of description include botanical names, descriptive notes (e.g., varietal origins, garden and food attributes, hardiness and disease resistance, and productivity), source codes, and source history (including the number of catalog listings in previous editions). Source codes refer to U.S. and Canadian firms listed in a separate section; for each, there is contact information along with catalog prices and brief descriptions. The Inventory covers the more popular seed-grown vegetable species and types (e.g., hundreds of beans, peppers, tomatoes, etc.), as well as clonally-propagated plants (e.g., potatoes and alliums), uncommon vegetables (e.g., celeriac, scorzonera), less common forms of particular plants (e.g., adzuki, mung, yardlong beans), and a few cereal grains or pseudocereals (e.g., sorghum, amaranth, quinoa). It includes a chapter with data and commentary on trends concerning seed companies and "commercially available vegetable diversity"; additional statistical data for each plant species or group are found within the text. Data for this 4th edition were based on 1994 and 1995 catalogs. The first three editions of SSE's Inventory appeared in 1985, 1988, and 1992 (NAL SB115.W4); a fifth edition of Garden Seed Inventory, which lists 7300 non-hybrid varieties from 254 U.S. and Canadian mail-order catalogs (including 1900 "new" varieties since the previous edition), has been issued in 1999. Currently in print; available AL,BG,PW,RC,SS.

242. Whealy, Kent and Steve Demuth, eds.; Joanne Thuente and Arllys Adelmann, compilers. Fruit, Berry and Nut Inventory: An Inventory of Nursery Catalogs Listing All Fruit, Berry and Nut Varieties Available by Mail Order in the United States. 2nd ed. Decorah, IA: Seed Savers Publications, 1993. 518 p. NAL SB115.F7 1993, ARB SB115.F7 1993

From Seed Savers Exchange, an important guide to locating mail-order sources for the vast variety of common and uncommon fruits and nuts--over 5800 named types--available to U.S. buyers. Descriptive entries are found in five sections: fruits (pome and stone fruits, and others), berries (brambles, blueberries, cranberries, grapes, etc.), nuts (tree nuts and several shrubs), tropicals (annona, banana, citrus, etc.), and miscellaneous (hops, rhubarb, and a variety of uncommon deciduous and evergreen fruits--prickly pear to sapodilla). Cultivar entries listed under each fruit type consist of concise plant descriptions (with notes on hardiness, limitations, growth requirements, and history--origin, parentage, patent information, etc.), source history, and source codes. (The authors point out that descriptions are compiled from catalog information, thus the Inventory is not intended to serve as a nomenclatural or botanical reference.) Source codes identify 300+ mail-order (retail and wholesale) nurseries in the U.S., which are listed and described in a separate section. In addition to varietal descriptions and sources, the Inventory provides documentation on commercially-endangered varieties, by indicating changes in source availability (i.e., total number of sources per variety) between 1988 (as gathered and reported in the first 1989 edition of the Fruit, Berry and Nut Inventory, NAL SB115.F7) and 1992. The Inventory identifies 1180 apple cultivars (antiques and introductions from modern breeding programs) and dozens of apple rootstocks, and includes numerous varieties of apricots, cherries, peaches, pears, plums, grapes--classic varieties among them. Volume currently in print; available AL,BG,PW,SA,SS.

5B. Other Resource Guides

In addition to the specific publications and organizations cited in this resource guide, the publications in this section may help to identify additional periodicals and books, commercial seed and plant suppliers, and gardening organizations that emphasize heirloom plants or specific plant groups. They provide information also on book sellers, libraries, and other resources that may interest those researching heirlooms and garden history. Additional resource lists and guides are available from Association for Living Historical Farms and Museums, and Seeds of Diversity Canada (cited in Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entries 61 and 20, respectively).

243. American Horticultural Society; Thomas M. Barrett, ed. North American Horticulture: A Reference Guide. 2nd ed. New York: Macmillan, 1992. 427 p. NAL SB317.56.U6N67 1992

Regularly updated since 1971, this comprehensive guide to horticultural institutions and organizations was created to serve home gardeners as well as professional horticulturists. Entries are grouped into categories that include garden clubs and horticultural societies (national, regional, and state or provincial), plant societies, scholarly and scientific organizations, plant conservation organizations, U.S. and Canadian governmental programs, educational programs, horticultural and botanical libraries, public and test/demonstration gardens, and horticultural periodicals. Entries provide mailing addresses and telephone numbers, statement of purpose, and for some organizations, publications information, contact persons, garden type, etc. Some sections mention useful resource publications offering more details on the organizations and topics listed. Many of the entries of interest to heirloom gardeners and collectors are duplicated (and updated) in this resource guide, however, certain sections of potential interest are not covered; these include U.S. agricultural experiment stations, and repositories and plant introduction stations within the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System; Agriculture Canada's (now known as Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada) research stations and other programs and offices (Ch. 11); and horticultural and botanical libraries (Ch. 14). Ch. 17 on "Historical horticulture and museum gardens" includes seed-saving organizations and living history farms and museums with heirloom gardens or orchards; the latter lists a number of living history sites that are not duplicated in this publication. With indexes to organizations, and states or provinces. Editions prior to the 1982 edition were entitled, Directory of American Horticulture. Second edition currently in print.

244. Barton, Barbara J. Gardening by Mail: A Source Book. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1994. var. pagings. NAL SB450.943.U6B37 1994

"Everything for the garden and gardener"--this annotated directory of mail-order resources for U.S. and Canadian gardeners includes seed companies and nurseries, garden suppliers, books and other publications, horticultural and plant societies, and horticultural libraries. The material is well-organized, with much to interest heirloom gardeners, such as contacts for specialty plant groups, garden suppliers, national and regional resource organizations, and important library collections. Includes indexes to plant and seed sources (by name and location), products and services, societies, and periodicals. The first editions were published in 1986 and 1987 by Tusker Press, and the 3rd edition by Houghton Mifflin in 1990; a newer, 394-page 5th edition (published in 1997) contains e-mail and Web addresses. Available also on the Internet as a searchable database at Currently in print; available available (or contact Tusker Press, P.O. Box 1338, Sebastopol, CA 95473, tel./fax 707-829-9189).

245. Buff, Sheila. The Gardener's Sourcebook. New York: Lyons & Burford Publishers, 1996. 268 p. NAL SB450.943.U6B84 1996

Although the focus of this resource directory is mostly flowers and ornamental plants, source information for seed-saving and historical vegetable gardeners is included, as well. Entries consist of commercial plant suppliers, equipment and tool sources, gardening organizations (including seed exchanges), government sources, gardening publications (periodicals, book dealers), libraries with significant horticultural collections, botanical gardens and arboreta, garden events, computer software and Internet sources, and "a gardening miscellany." Contact information with minimal added description is provided in the entries, which are arranged by major subject area, without supplemental indexes. Several sections list resources (e.g., book dealers, libraries) that were not covered in this bibliography, or contain additional relevant listings. Currently in print.

246. Council on Botanical and Horticultural Libraries. Nursery and Seed Catalogs: A Directory of Collections. Rev. ed. Bronx, NY: The Council, New York Botanical Garden, 1990. 87 p. NAL SB115.N87 1990, ARB SB115.N87 1990

A useful resource for historical gardeners, this inventory lists entities within the U.S. and Canada that maintain archival collections of nursery and seed catalogs. Collections held by 478 individuals, businesses, and institutions, including the National Agricultural Library's preeminent collection, are listed. The entries, which are grouped by U.S. state or Canadian province and arranged alphabetically for each locale, indicate mailing addresses, collection size and dates, geographic scope, and plant specialties. Includes name index. First published in 1985 (NAL SB115.N87 1985).

247. Farm Museum Directory: A Guide Through America's Farm Past. Lancaster, PA: Stemgas Pub. Co., 1996. 64 p. NAL S549.U6F37 1996

A directory of farm and garden museums in the U.S. and Canada, compiled in cooperation with the Association for Living Historical Farms and Agricultural Museums. Over 200 entries are grouped alphabetically by U.S. state or Canadian province, then sub-arranged by organization name. Brief descriptions of museum highlights (collections, demonstrations, and special events) are accompanied by mailing addresses and telephone numbers, and season and hours of opening. Many of the museums contain heritage gardens and events that are not mentioned in the short descriptions. First published in 1988 (NAL S549.U5F37), updated in 1993 (NAL S549.U5F37 1993). For availability, contact Stemgas Publishing Co., P.O. Box 328, Lancaster, PA 17608, tel. 717-392-0733.

6.Bibliographies and Guides to the Literature

This section cites published bibliographies and bibliographies available on the Internet. Section 6A includes indexes to general gardening and horticultural periodicals. Bibliographies dealing more broadly with the origins and genetic diversity aspects of food plants, and related topics (including the Green Revolution) are found in Section 6B. Several additional bibliographies on Native American agriculture and New World crops are cited in Part II of this volume. Bibliographies that focus largely on the historical literature (i.e., for this publication, dating from the 1960s and before), are found in Volume 3, Historical Supplement, Part I.

6A. Heirloom Varieties and Gardening Today

248. Hildebrand, John. "1997 NAFEX Library book list." Pomona 30(4): 47-73 (Fall 1997). NAL SB354.N6

Lists books and videos on fruit and fruit culture contained in North American Fruit Explorer's Library, which serves the group's membership comprised of amateur and professional growers and collectors. Brief citations are provided for several hundred titles, which are grouped by major subject and include such topics as specific fruits (both common and unusual), fruit culture and propagation, pruning and related subjects, tropical fruits, wild fruits, pomologist's biographies, and others. Both classic and modern works are cited. The Library maintains also document files on apple variety descriptions, apple variety information from Pomona issues, and other topics. The list is available also at NAFEX's Web site,; for more information on NAFEX, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 30.

249. McCann, Joy, ed. Gardener's Index. Kansas City, MO: Compudex Press. NAL SB450.97.G37

A subject index to five popular U.S. gardening magazines, including American Horticulturist, Fine Gardening, Horticulture, National Gardening, and Organic Gardening, which may be useful in accessing the periodical literature on specific heirloom or rare plant varieties. Indexes articles, letters, book reviews, and columns, covering the period 1986-1994. Citations are grouped broadly by plant type (e.g., fruits, vegetables, herbs, annuals and perennials, etc.), as well as by specific subject entries (for instance, "heirloom plants" and specific plant names). Listed under index entries for specific plants are named varieties of open-pollinated and heirloom vegetables (as well as hybrids), and heirloom and other fruits (e.g., there are many citations for antique varieties of corn, peppers, tomatoes, apples, and other popular plants). NAL owns the 1986-1990, 1991-1992, and 1993 volumes. Currently in print.

250. Williams, Sally, ed. Garden Literature: An Index to Periodical Articles and Book Reviews. Boston, MA: Garden Literature Press. NAL (in process).

Author and subject index to articles and book reviews from 150 English-language periodicals on horticulture, garden plants, garden history, landscape design, and related topics. Provides indexing by plant name as well as by general and specific subject topics, thus serves as an invaluable source for locating information on historical plants and gardening from current magazines and newsletters, including popular gardening magazines and more technical and professional journals. Established 1992, published yearly. Garden Literature Sprout, first available in 1994, is a smaller, lower cost edition for home gardeners and small libraries, which indexes 13 periodicals suited to general readers. More information at Web site For current availability, contact Garden Literature Press, 398 Columbus Ave., Suite 81, Boston, MA 02116, tel. 617-424-1784, e-mail

251. Williams, Sally. Garden Literature Review: Garden History and Period Gardens. Web site e-mail [undated]

Reviews a number of useful publications on garden history and period gardens, with detailed information onseveral current periodicals. Much of the focus is on ornamental and landscape gardens in the U.S. and Great Britain, although some content may be useful to vegetable and fruit gardeners and historians.

6B. Food Crops--Biodiversity and Genetic Conservation

252. Anon. "Diversity chronicles development of PGR Regime, 1982 - 1994." Diversity 10(3): 47-48 (1994). NAL SB123.3.D5

A list of more than 100 relevant Diversity magazine articles, news reports, and book reviews that offer signage to significant developments occurring in the international cooperative effort to conserve plant genetic resources, or the "PGR regime." The list includes critical reviews of a number of the books cited in this resource guide (especially in Sections 1E and 1F, both in Part I, this volume). It accompanies Daniel Witmeyer's article (p. 28-31), entitled "The Convention on Biological Diversity changes the rules of the game for international plant genetic resources regime." The article, which was based on Witmeyer's doctoral thesis, explores differing perspectives within the PGR community and explores how implementation of the Convention (or CBD) might affect cooperative efforts.

253. Anon. "The Green Revolution: References." Santa Fe, NM: National Center for Genome Resources, Genetics and Public Issues Program. Web site [note March 1999: document no longer available at this URL.]

Lists 27 books and articles from general magazines and scholarly journals, on "Green Revolution" approaches to crop improvement and agricultural development in Latin America, India, and other developing nations. Citations dating from the period 1972-1995 address technological, economic, ecological, social, and political aspects. Updated Sept. 1997.

254. Carling, R.C.J. and Jeremy Harrison. "Biodiversity information on the Internet: Cornucopia or confusion?" Biodiversity Letters 3(4/5): 125-135 (July/Sept. 1996). NAL QH75.A1B573

Surveys the range of information on biological diversity available on the Internet, highlighting some useful resources in terms of accessibility, utility, and relevance to biodiversity management, research, and policymaking. Covers international and national organizations, commercial organizations, universities, and nongovernmental organizations. Also covers tools to aid information access (e.g., search engines, newsletters and discussion lists, "virtual libraries," special interest networks, metadatabases). Includes chart listing Web pages for over 100 organizations, most not itemized in the text. Includes Web sites providing information on agricultural biodiversity.

255. Churcher, Tegan. "Bibliography." In: Biodiversity Research Protocols: Directory of Guidance Documents Relating to Biodiversity and Cultural Knowledge Research. Publ. no. 776. [1996]. Web site

A selective bibliography on biodiversity, cultural knowledge, biotechnology and bioprospecting, and intellectual property rights issues, consisting of several dozen English-language citations from books, and journal and magazine articles, most dating from the 1980s to 1990s. The publications list accompanies a directory of organizational guidelines for researchers and local steward communities, to guide in the study and use of plant biodiversity. The directory has NAL call no. QH541.15.B56D57 1997 (Berkeley, CA: University of California; Ernest Orlando Berkeley National Laboratory, 1997, 86 p.).

256. Center for Indigenous Knowledge for Agriculture and Rural Development. "Selected publications of CIKARD associates related to indigenous knowledge and international development." Web page [mirror site]: [note March 1999: site in progress]

Lists several dozen citations, including books and book chapters, articles, and bibliographies on topics relating to indigenous knowledge, biodiversity, and agricultural and rural development. With international scope and dealing primarily with developing countries, most references date to the 1980s-1990s. Based at Iowa State University and founded in 1987 as part of its Technology and Social Change Program, CIKARD serves as an international clearinghouse for information on traditional, local, and farmer-based knowledge systems around the world. Web pages include also a large, searchable database of citations (with abstracts) to documents on biodiversity and related subjects. For more information, contact CIKARD, 318 Curtiss Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, tel. 515-294-0938, fax 515-294-6058, e-mail

257. Dobert, Raymond. Biotechnology: Patenting Issues, January 1990 - July 1996. Beltsville, MD: National Agricultural Library. Quick Bibliography Series (QB) 96-09. 27 p. NAL aZ5071.N3 no.96-09

Contains 134 citations from the Library's AGRICOLA database, covering intellectual property legislation and issues relating to bioengineering, including technological, environmental, commercial, and social aspects of patent protection of plants, animals, and microbes. A portion deals with food plant biodiversity and genetic resource aspects, and bioengineered foods. Citations include articles from professional and trade journals, conference proceedings, monographs, videos, and other formats. Primarily English language, with international coverage. With author and keyword subject index. Updates QB 93-20. Currently available in hard copy from NAL, and in electronic form at the Library's Biotechnology Information Center Web site at The Web pages include additional recent bibliographies on technical, social, ethical, economic, and environmental aspects of biotechnology, as well as links to other biotechnology-related documents and information on agrichemical and seed companies.

258. Gepts, Paul L. PLB143: Evolution of Crop Plants [syllabus for Spring Quarter 1997]. Web site

Outlines Professor Gepts' course at the University of California-Davis, with his extensive lecture outline and an organized set of readings on the geographic origins, domestication, and biodiversity of major agricultural crops. With general bibliography. An excellent introduction to the subject area, the Web page includes many links to related information on crop plants and their developmental histories.

259. Guenther, Kim; Raymond Dobert and Jane Potter Gates, eds. Biotechnology and Sustainable Agriculture: A Bibliography. Beltsville, MD: National Agricultural Library, Biotechnology Information Center and Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, 1994. Special Reference Briefs (SRB) 94-13. 32 p. NAL aS21.D27S64

A compilation of citations intended as an "introduction to the literature and debate surrounding the use of biotechnology in sustainable farming systems." The publications cited are English language only and derive largely from AGRICOLA and CAB Abstracts databases, most dating to the late 1980s-early 1990s (with a few important earlier works) and with international scope, the majority contained in NAL's collection. Brief citations (with subject descriptors) include books and book chapters, conference reports, and articles from trade and scientific journals. Content encompasses broad aspects of agricultural biotechnology (including technological, economic, environmental, social, ethical, and policy perspectives) and includes references on genetic diversity and crop plant breeding. Also available in full text at Web site

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260. Hawkes, J.G., J.T. Williams, and R.P. Croston. A Bibliography of Crop Genetic Resources. Rome, Italy: International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, 1983. 442 p. NAL Z5354.P74H3, ARB Z5354.P7.H3 1983

Consists of citations from the international scientific literature on crop genetic resources, most dating from the 1970s to early 1980s, plus a few from the 1960s and earlier. Source materials (in English and other languages) include books, conference reports, periodical articles, and other formats. Section I citations are grouped into subject areas that include general topics; origins of agriculture; crop evolution; taxonomy; crop ecology; germplasm conservation, utilization, and exchange; institutional genebanks and genetic resources centers; formal organizations; training; and related subject areas. Section II citations cover specific plants, arranged by plant groups and covering the cereal grains, roots and tubers, grain legumes, sugar plants, oil plants, palms, vegetables, tropical fruits, temperate fruits, spices and related plants, economic plants, and forage crops. References are listed under general subject areas as well as specific crops, with cross references. Derived from CAB Abstracts and Biological Abstracts databases. This publication includes "nearly all" the citations from a previous compilation, Bibliography of Plant Genetic Resources (by J.G. Hawkes, J.T. Williams, and Jean Hanson, 1976, 179 p., NAL Z5354.P7H3), plus Bibliography of Plant Genetic Resources Supplement (by J.T. Williams, 1976, 36 p., ARB Z5354.P7.H3 Suppl.). (For availability, see International Plant Genetic Resources Institute in Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 52.)

261. Heide, W.M. van der, Robert Tripp, and W.S. de Boef. Local Crop Development: An Annotated Bibliography. Rome: IPGRI; Wageningen, Netherlands: Centre for Plant Breeding and Reproduction Research: Centre for Genetic Resources the Netherlands; London: Overseas Development Institute, 1996. 153 p. NAL Z5074.C9H44 1996

A rather comprehensive bibliography assembling key literature on plant genetic resources conservation and local crop development, including in situ and community-based maintenance of traditional varieties and intraspecific diversity. Citations, totalling 669, are grouped into one of the following four topics (each preceded by a brief introduction to relevant issues and existing information gaps): farmer knowledge and practices; genetic diversity and plant breeding; research methods and development activities; and policy and institutional factors supporting local initiatives. Citations include informative abstracts for journal articles, and more indicative content summaries for books and theses. Most describe situations in South and Central America, Asia, and Africa, although a few deal with traditional farming systems in the U.S. or with topics of more general application. The publication is a collaborative project that has grown out of the Community Biodiversity Development and Conservation (CBDC) Programme, an international initiative consisting of NGOs and national organizations, regionally implemented by the Centre for Genetic Resources in the Netherlands (or Cgn, the "Dutch genebank"), to study local crop development and conservation, participatory plant breeding, and local seed supply systems. For more information, see Web site Bibliography is available without charge from IPGRI; for contact information, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 52.

262. Karim, M. Bazlul. The Green Revolution: An International Bibliography. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986. Bibliographies and Indexes in Economics and Economic History no. 2. 288 p. NAL Z5075.D44K37

A comprehensive compilation of documents from a variety of disciplines, on the 1960s development and use of high-yielding varieties of rice and wheat, and also associated economic, social, and cultural changes, a process that came to be known as the "Green Revolution." Covers the English language literature from the late 1960s to 1984, including monographs, technical reports, and articles in scholarly and general interest periodicals. Over 2000 citations, some of them annotated, are grouped by the following geographic areas: Asia (general); South Asia; Southeast Asia and Far East; Africa; Latin America; additional subjects include "Green Revolution and related issues" and "World food problem." Includes an introductory section that reviews the Green Revolution experience. With subject and author index. Currently in print.

263. Larson, Jean A. Plant Germplasm Maintenance & Storage, January 1979 - November 1989. Beltsville, MD: National Agricultural Library, Biotechnology Information Center, 1989. Quick Bibliography Series (QB) 90-17. 49 p. NAL aZ5071.N3

Contains 556 citations from NAL's AGRICOLA database, consisting of references to books and book chapters, annual reports, and other monographs, plus periodical articles. English language only, with international scope; citations are arranged alphabetically by title words. Includes citations on food crop germplasm collection, preservation, characterization, and access, with coverage of both temperate and tropical crops. With author index.

264. Liao, T.R. The Green Revolution. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, Science and Technology Division, Reference Section, 1980. LC Science Tracer Bullet (TB) 80-1.10 p. NAL Z5074.I55L5

Intended to put researchers "on target," this bibliography contains selected references from the Library of Congress' (LC) collection on various aspects of the agricultural developments implemented widely in the 1960s and known as the "Green Revolution." Citations identify introductory materials; basic texts, additional and related titles; handbooks, encyclopedias, and dictionaries; bibliographies; conference proceedings; government publications; abstracting and indexing services (to periodical articles); relevant periodicals; representative periodical articles; and technical reports. With relevant LC subject headings list and LC call numbers. Many of the citations date to the 1970s, thus predate more recent concern over Green Revolution influences on crop genetic diversity.

7. Additional Internet Sites

The following include Web home pages for a variety of organizations and individuals, specific documents, and also Internet directories and clearinghouses. They supplement the Internet articles, reports, and bibliographies cited in other sections of Parts I and II of this volume, and also the Web sites belonging to conservation-oriented organizations and projects, and commercial seed and plant suppliers, which are cited throughout Volume 2, Resource Organizations.

7A. Vegetables and Fruits

265. American Seed Trade Association (ASTA),

Trade organization founded in 1883 and headquartered in Washington, D.C., composed of 800 companies in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. Its motto, "First--the seed," ASTA exists to serve as "as an effective voice of action in all matters concerning developing, marketing, and free movement of seed [and] associated products and services throughout the world with a minimum of regulation affecting its members." Web site contains information on ASTA's mission, activities, membership, governance, etc. (including ASTA's May 1998 resolution advocating increased support of the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System), with links to government and agricultural sites. For more information, contact ASTA, 601 13th St., NW, Suite 570 South, Washington, DC 20005-3807, tel. 202-638-3128.

266. Canadian Seed Trade Association (CSTA),

Established in 1923, CSTA is Canada's national organization of seed industry participants, from "plant breeders to seed bag manufacturers." Web page provides an outline of its objectives, programs, and membership benefits, with information on Plant Breeders' Rights (PBR), press releases, and links to related industry and government sites. For more information, contact CSTA, 39 Robertson Rd., Suite 302, Nepean, ON, K2H 8R2 Canada, tel. 613-829-9527, fax 613-829-3530, e-mail

267. The Food Museum (from Tom and Meredith Hughes),

"The Food Museum examines what in the world we eat and how we eat it, where it came from, how it has evolved, what its impact is on culture, what its future may be." Created by the founders of the Potato Museum. The site offers profiles of food plants, news briefs, educational programs, and publications on the histories and cultural aspects of foods. (For information on the Potato Museum, see entry 469 in this volume.)

268. The Food Resource (from Oregon State University's Dept. of Nutrition and Food Management),

Documents, images, and Internet links on food, health, and nutrition information. Includes horticultural and other information and resources on numerous specific vegetables and fruits, including some images of varieties. (The sponsor will hold a symposium, "Cultural and Historical Aspects of Foods - Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow," in April 1999.)

269. GardenWeb Forum: Heirloom Plants and Gardens,

Online discussion forum on old varieties and species of garden plants (vegetables, fruits, herbs, ornamentals, and others) and historical gardening. (There are also forums on such topics as fruits, vegetables, kitchen gardens, regional gardening, plant propagation, growing from seed, and many others.)

270. Internet Directory for Botany: Economic Botany, Ethnobotany (from Finnish Museum of Natural History's Botanical Museum),

Compiles links to various aspects of "useful plants," including sites dealing with food crops, crop diversity, and Native American ethnobotany and agriculture, scientific sites and otherwise. Server contains other pages of potential interest in "gardening" and "botany" subfiles, e.g., arboreta and botanical gardens, societies, etc.

271. Introduction to Permaculture: Concepts and Resources (from Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas),

A comprehensive guide to permaculture systems, whose design principles include ecological food production, emphasizing polyculture and biodiversity. Many publications, organizations, and Internet resources are described, covering U.S. and international resources. Document prepared by Steve Diver (originally called "Permaculture FAQ"), revised May 1998. For more information, contact ATTRA, P.O. Box 3657, Fayetteville, AR 72702, tel. 800-346-9140, fax 501-442-9842.

272. Many Tracks - Gardening (from Susan J. Robishaw and Steve Schmeck),

Web pages on homesteading, gardening, and alternative living, with selected back issues of the authors' newsletter, Northern Seed News, at the "Gardening" page. Includes information on vegetable gardening and seed-saving. (As of Aug. 1998, Spring 1993 to 1997 newsletter issues were posted.)

273. Permaculture International,

A clearinghouse for information on permaculture practices, resources, and initiatives around the world, with global directory (including North American projects and organizations) and numerous resource links. The term derived from "permanent agriculture," permaculture encourages a bioregional and self-reliant approach towards designing environments with "the diversity, stability, and resilience of natural ecosystems." From the publishers of Permaculture International Journal. (As of Aug. 1998, selected articles from 1997 and several previous issues were included.)

274. Plants by Mail FAQ (originated by Peter Leppik, maintained by Joe Robinson),

Information on ordering garden seeds and plants by mail, concerned with "its trials, tribulations, and successes," including how to evaluate companies. With a long listing of commercial firms, the site is regularly updated with reader's comments, positive and negative, on companies' products and service.

275. The Pollination Scene (from Dave and Janice Green),

Assembles practical information on pollinators and pollination, including information for gardeners, on seed saving and fruit and vegetable breeding, with many related links.

276. Seeds of Change Garden (from Smithsonian Museum and New Mexico State University Dept. of Agriculture),

"Come and explore the world of 1492 with us!" An educational project for children, on modern garden-making and garden history. Includes brief horticultural and social histories of New and Old World vegetables.

277. Tom Clothier's Garden Walk and Talk: Seeds,

"Green thumb site dedicated to beginning gardeners." Includes Seed FAQs and advice on seed cleaning, storing, and trading. Much of the content concerns ornamental plants and seeds, but a portion, including links to Internet seed exchanges and seed viability information, is relevant to vegetable gardeners.

278. The Virtual Orchard (from University of Vermont and Rutgers University),

For commercial growers, a "dedicated...Web site for sustainable apple production." It offers information on tree fruit production, marketing, research, genetic resources, and information exhange, with links to general academic sites and databases, professional and commercial organizations. Also hosts an e-mail discussion group, Apple-crop.

7B. Native American Agriculture and New World Crops

279. BeanRef (from M. Nenno, University of Kaiserslautern, Division of Cell Biology),

A collection of links to information on bean research, including genetic resources and germplasm collections (such as USDA's Western Regional Plant Introduction Station in Pullman, Washington, home of the national Phaseolus collection center), production aspects, etc. Although much is geared to scientific interests, some content may interest other bean enthusiasts and collectors.

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280. G. Caselton's Chile Pages,

Created by British chile pepper enthusiast, with information on all things chile--from cooking, to taxonomy, chemistry, chile pepper FAQs, and seed sources in the U.K. and U.S.

281. CGIAR Photos: Potatoes, Sweet Potatoes, Cassava,

Part of a collection of images from the archives of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research. These photos focus on crop diversity, CIP's genebank, and potato planting in Peru. (For more on CIP's genebank, see International Potato Center, entry 284, this volume.)

282. Chile-Heads Home Page (from Mike Bowers),

"Almost everything you might want to know about chile peppers"--growing, eating, festivals, chile pepper science, archives access, online mailing list, and links to other chile-related sites.

283. Daybreak Farming and Food Project Home Page,

Project supports and promotes traditional farming practices within the Iroquois Six Nations country in New York State, including developing and marketing organically-certified food products and marketing outlets for Iroquois white corn and other food products. Site includes program information and several traditional recipes.

284. International Potato Center (CIP),

CIP is the Spanish acronym for the International Potato Center, a genebank and research center working to develop and conserve potatoes, sweet potatoes, and other Andean root and tuber crops. (CIP is a member of the CGIAR network--see also CGIAR's Web sites, entry 281 and 306.) Web site includes publications and research information in English and Spanish.

285. Internet Shrine to the Tomato (from Randy Irmis),

Includes readers' favorite varieties of heirlooms and hybrids.

286. The Maize Page (from Iowa State University's Dept. of Agronomy),

"Maize resources for students, producers and specialists." Extensive and diverse site contains technical andproduction resources, reading list, information on genes and germplasm, recipes, and more.

287. Native Americans and the Environment (from Rice University's Center for Conservation Biology),

Well-organized site with links to sites and documents on agriculture, and grouped by cultural regions in the U.S. and Canada.

288. NativeWeb (from Syracuse University),

"A collective project of many people," NativeWeb serves as a resource center for news and information on the cultures of indigenous peoples, especially Native Americans. Site can be searched by geographic region, nation/people, or subject area; there are links to Internet documents on indigenous knowledge and history, also educational resources, bibliographies, library collections, museums, and other subject areas and resources relevant to Native American agriculture and crops.

289. Newton's Apple: Ethnobotany,

From an episode of public television's "Newton's Apple," this children's page deals with the use of maize in ancient Mayan society. With glossary, project suggestions, and reading list.

290. The On-line Tomato Vine (from V. Butler),

Tomato information and resources, with links to many tomato documents (academic and commercial, including seed companies) concerned with gardening and commercial production, botany, breeding, and garden varieties. Site is linked to creator's pages on Capsicum peppers and Solanum tuberosum potatoes, and also the eggplant (an Old World crop). Each assembles links to various documents and sites on commercial and home garden production, breeding, and related topics.

291. The Pepper King (from George Martin Czeiszperger),

Hot pepper page includes a seed exchange and listing of commercial pepper seed suppliers, mostly U.S. firms plus a few others.

292. Potato Information Exchange (from Oregon State University's Dept. of Crop and Soil Science, and Cooperative Extension Service),

Information clearinghouse for commercial growers, with lists of gourmet and special varieties accompanied by brief notes. With links to many potato sites, including industry-related, educational, and government sites.

293. Tomato Varieties (from Washington State's University Cooperative Extension),

Briefly describes several dozen open-pollinated and hybrid varieties, each keyed to seed source list.

294. The World of Corn (from National Corn Growers Association),

U.S statistics on corn yields, production, food and industrial uses, prices, trade, and composition, plus some international statistics. (No information on corn hybrids or genetic resources.) Includes corn industry contacts.

7C. Online Seed Exchanges

The following Web pages offer opportunities for trading a variety of garden seeds, including heirloom and open-pollinated vegetables. The Firegirl site focuses on growing and using chile peppers, but various other seed types are traded also.

295. Algy's Seed Exchange (linked to Algy's Herb page),

296. Bernie's Seed and Tip Exchange,

297. Firegirl Seed Exchange Bulletin Board (from Firegirl founder Mary Going),

298. GardensDWF Gardening Forum: Seed Exchange Postings,

299. GardenWeb's Garden Exchange,

300. Seed & Plant Exchange, [note March 1999: document no longer available at this URL.]

Go to: Contents of Volume 1 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, 400, 420, 460 | Appendices (Volume 1)

7D. Food Crops--Biodiversity and Genetic Conservation

301. AgBioForum (from Illinois-Missouri Agricultural Biotechnology Alliance),

Online newsletter with short articles on current issues in the economics and management of biotechnologies in agriculture, intended for a wide audience, to foster dialogue. The first issue (Sum. 1998) addressed public acceptance of bioengineered agricultural products and foods; the second issue (Fall 1998) dealt with industrial consolidation in agro-biotechnologies. (Contributors thus far are from academic and industrial circles.)

302. Biodiversity and Conservation: Electronic Resource List (from British Library for Development Studies),

Organized list of links to networks, organizations, international and government programs and conventions, and Internet discussion groups, on biodiversity conservation, technology transfer, indigenous knowledge, and related subject areas. The site is part of Eldis, a vast directory and gateway to Internet information sources, including databases, web sites, bibliographies, and e-mail discussion groups.

303. Biodiversity Forum Web Resources, [note March 1999: document no longer available at this URL.]

Includes general browsers, and government and other organizations, linking "high-quality" sites pertaining to biological diversity, plant genetic resources, biotechnology, intellectual property, and indigenous and farmers' knowledge and rights. The Virginia-based Biodiversity Forum is a nonprofit "devoted to the conservation of biodiversity worldwide, specializing in international conservation science and policy."

304. Biodiversity Theme Site (from World Resources Institute),

This portion of WRI's Web pages presents a wealth of information on "genes, species, and ecosystems" aspects of biodiversity. The Convention on Biological Diversity, and connections to food crops and sustainable agriculture are featured. In cooperation with the World Conservation Union and United Nations Environment Programme, WRI issued Global Biodiversity Strategy, a 244-page report detailing specific national and international actions for conserving biological resources (NAL QH75.W67 1992), whose text is available, linked from WRI's home page. For more information, contact WRI, 10 G. St. NE, Suite 800, Washington, DC 20002, or tel. 202-729-7600, fax 202-729-7610, e-mail

305. Biotechnology, Intellectual Property Rights and Regulations,

"Resources on the Internet for activists, legal professionals, and policy makers." Provides links to organizations and sites addressing economic, social, and environmental aspects, including genetic resources and biodiversity preservation.

306. Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR),

An international organization founded in 1971 and funded by 57 public and private sector organizations, CGIAR supports a network of research centers, many of which maintain important germplasm collections. Its mission: "to contribute, through its research, to promoting sustainable agriculture for food security in the developing countries." Site contains information on programs; member groups, sponsors, and partners (including some Web links); and publications. For instance, a recent CGIAR publication that assesses the global conservation status of important food crops and germplasm collections is the book, Biodiverity in Trust: Conservation and Use of Plant Genetic Resources in CGIAR Centres (D. Fuccillo et al., eds., Cambridge University Press, 1997, 371 p. CGIAR's document, "...25 Years of Improvement: IX. Plant Genetic Resources," is available at the World Bank's (one of CGIAR's sponsors) Web site, Issued in 1996, it is part of a larger document entitled "25 Years of Food and Agricultural Improvement in Developing Countries."

307. Finding Practical Ways to Increase Farmer Participation in Plant Breeding,

This site describes a conference planned for Sept. 24, 1998 in Guelph, Ontario, described as a "first forum in Canada on participatory and farmer-led plant breeding." Its intent: to "showcase positive examples of how farmers in Canada, and around the world, are taking control of their futures by becoming active in plant improvement programs." Sponsors include Ecological Farmers Association of Ontario (EFAO) and Resource-Efficient Agricultural Production (REAP) -Canada. Speakers included plant breeders (among them Raoul Robinson, author of Return to Resistance, cited in entry 126, this volume) and farmers. (For more information, contact EFAO's President, Hubert Earl, Box 127, Wroxeter, ON NOG 2XO, Canada, tel. 613-924-2052, fax 613-924-9755; or REAP-Canada's Roger Samson, e-mail, Web site http://InfoSys.AgrEnv.McGill.CA/~reap/.)

308. International Development Resource Center (IDRC),

A public corporation established by the Canadian government to support research in agriculture, public health, social sciences, and related fields. Headquartered in Canada with a number of international offices, its focus is on development issues in Canada and also many countries overseas. Web pages offer information on biodiversity in crop and animal production systems and related topics, such as farmer- and community-based conservation and participatory plant breeding, including full-text articles and reports. The site provides, for instance, the full-text of the book, People, Plants, and Patents: The Impact of Intellectual Property on Trade, Plant Biodiversity, and Rural Society (IDRC, 1994, 140 p., NAL SB123.5.C78 1994). This publication comes from the Crucible Group, a network of individuals with diverse viewpoints on the intellectual property rights debate, which grew out of the Keystone International Dialogue on Plant Genetic Resources. The site includes also the full text of a publication entitled, Using Diversity: Enhancing and Maintaining Genetic Resources On-farm (Louise Sperling and Michael Loevinsohn, eds., IDRC, 1997), which focuses on South Asia and Africa. For more information contact IDRC, P.O. Box 8500, Ottawa, K1G 3H9, Canada, tel. (+1-613) 236-6163, fax (+1-613) 238-7230, e-mail

309. Indigenous Genetic Resources: Issues of Property Rights and Biodiversity Prospecting,

Page created by University of Oregon graduate student Lisa J. Peterson, for course PS477: International Environmental Politics. Outlines international efforts to manage concerns about unequal distribution of genetic resources and rights to access and ownership, with links to more information on biodiversity and plant genetic resources.

310. International Ag-Sieve (from Rodale Institute),

This periodical offers information on regenerative agriculture and forestry for practitioners and development workers in (primarily) less-developed countries, with abundant resource information. Web pages archived at the Sustainable Earth Electronic Library (SEEL) contain the full text of back issues from 1988 to 1995. Especially pertinent to this resource guide are issues on biodiversity and underexploited species (vol. 2, no. 6, 1989), traditional agriculture (vol. 5, no. 3, 1993), and seed saving and biodiversity (vol. 5, no. 4, 1993).

311. National Agricultural Library's Plant Genome Data & Information Center (PGDIC),

Compiles PGDIC publications and others, some available in full text, along with Internet links on plant breeding, gene mapping, commercialization aspects, and related topics of interest to plant scientists. Especially useful to more general audiences are several bibliographies on biotechnology and plant patents, bioethics, and biosafety, compiled from searches of AGRICOLA database. (For contact information, see entry 316, this volume.)

312. Plant Genetic Resources Information (from United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization,

Along with numerous other FAO documents and information, this site includes "Country Report for the United States of America" (prepared Oct. 1995), which reviews the status of plant genetic resources conservation and utilization activities in the U.S. It presents a synopsis of food, forage, and medicinal plants native to the U.S. (blueberries, grapes, sunflowers, etc.) and wild relatives of important world crops, plus overviews of new crop development and the agricultural sector and its farming regions. Canada's report is available also, along with many others from developed and developing countries around the world. The site contains many links to organizations and documents dealing with biodiversity, plant genetic resources, genetic erosion, ex situ and in situ conservation, intellectual property rights, plant breeding and biotechnology, indigenous knowledge, and related topics. (Many links are to governmental and other formal sector programs and organizations.)

313. Sustainable Agriculture Food and Environment (SAFE) Alliance,

The London-based SAFE Alliance "exists to unite farmer, environmental, consumer, animal welfare and development organizations" over issues and public policy relating to sustainable food production. It participates in the UK Agricultural Biodiversity Coalition, a network of NGOs concerned with confronting diminishing genetic diversity in agricultural crops, which is part of the UK Food Group. (See Web site SAFE Alliance produced a 30-page report, Bringing Rio Home: Biodiversity in Our Food and Farming, by Robin Jenkins (NAL QH77.E85J46 1992), which explores the value of enhancing biodiversity in crop production, with focus on EC countries. (For more information, contact SAFE Alliance, 94 White Lion St., London, N1 9PF U.K., tel. 0171 837 8980, e-mail

314. System-wide Information Network for Genetic Resources (SINGER),

Coordinated by the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research, SINGER pulls together the gene-bank records (over 600,000 accessions comprising the world's food and other crops) of 12 major international agricultural research centers. Site contains links to plant genetic resources information.

Go to: Top of Volume 1 | Contents of Volume 1 | Introduction | Notes and References | Part I. Vegetables and Fruits | Part II. New World Crops: Heirloom Varieties and Genetic Diversity | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, 400, 420, 460 | Appendices (Volume 1): 1) Current Books, 2) AFSIC, 3) Publication Titles Index, 4) Periodical Articles Index, 5) Persons / Organizations Index

Part II. New World Crops: Heirloom Varieties and Genetic Diversity

1. Native American Agriculture and New World Crops

1A. Bibliographies

315. American Indian Heritage Foundation. Bibliography: Native Americans and the Environment.
Web site

Web documents consisting of 60 hyperlinked files organized into 15 subject areas and also by geographical/cultural region. Two of the subject areas, "Agriculture" and "Traditional cultural knowledge," include bibliographic citations on Native American agriculture, cultivated food plants, and ethnobotany. Citations refer to monographs, periodical articles, agricultural bulletins, and bibliographies dating from the early 20th C. to the present (most from the 1980s-1990s). (For further information, contact American Indian Heritage Foundation, 6051 Arlington Boulevard, Falls Church, VA 22044, tel. 202-INDIANS or 703-237-7500, fax 703-532-1921, e-mail

316. Meil, Joanne. New World Plants and Their Uses: A Guide to Selected Literature and Genetic Resources 1980-1993. Beltsville, MD: National Agricultural Library, 1993. 38 p. NAL aQK98.4.A1M45 1993

A selective bibliography on Native American agricultural practices and wild and domesticated plants used for food, medicine, and other purposes, as well as guide to resource organizations. Recent citations for periodical articles and books, derived from NAL's AGRICOLA database, are grouped under the following subject headings: New World agricultural practices/diversity issues; native plants for food; native plants--medicinal uses; and native plants--other uses. Includes a listing of germplasm and data sources (U.S. and international), seed banks and exchanges (U.S.), commercial sources of "native" (i.e., New World) seeds (U.S.) and plants (U.S. and Canada), and botanical gardens and libraries (U.S. and Canada). The directory section lists contact information for USDA's National Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) collection sites, as well as other germplasm collection centers and resource organizations. (Most of the listed seed banks and exhanges, and crop seed suppliers listed have been updated for this publication.) With author index. Available free from Plant Genome Data and Information Center (4th Flr., National Agricultural Library, tel. 301-504-6613, e-mail

1B. Books, Book Chapters, Periodical Supplement

317. Bretting, P.K., ed. New Perspectives on the Origin and Evolution of New World Domesticated Plants. Economic Botany 44(3): 1-116 (July/Sept. 1990 Suppl.). NAL 450 Ec7

This special journal supplement consists of nine scientific papers on botanical relationships, centers of origin, and genetic diversity of New World crops of both global and local importance. Includes seven reports on each of the following plants: maize (by author J. Doebbley), Phaseolus beans (P. Gepts), Solanum tuberosum potatoes (P. Grun), cucurbits (M. Nee), tomatoes (C.M. Rick and M. Holle), sunflowers (L.H. Eieseberg and G.J. Seiler), and quinua (also called quinoa) and its relatives (H.D. Wilson). Reports rely on molecular analyses as well as other more traditional (e.g., archaeological and botanical) methodologies. Some of the reports, which were presented at a 1988 symposium, are rather technical; the volume is included here, however, for its potential utility to some readers. Includes an introduction by P.K. Bretting, and summary by C. Heiser, the latter writer reviewing what is known about these and also other important New World crops. Each paper appended with bibliography. Includes maps.

318. Eames-Sheavly, Marcia. The Three Sisters: Exploring an Iroquois Garden. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Cooperative Extension, 1993. 20 p. NAL E99.17E12 1993

This publication, which was designed as an educational tool for 4-H programs in New York State, centers on Iroquois gardeners' cultivation of corn, beans, and squash--the Three Sisters. Along with accounts of legends and various customs associated with these important food crops, there is discussion of the importance of plant diversity and basic plant breeding concepts. With corn as the book's main focus, there is information on the various types (or races) of corn, some traditional foods prepared from corn (based on William Fenton's Parker on the Iroquois; see Volume 3, Historical Supplement, entry 55), and other household uses of parts of the corn plant. Stepwise instructions for interplanting the Three Sisters using a traditional garden design are included. Topics for discussion and project suggestions accompany each subject. With black-and-white photos and drawings, plus resource list (publications and contacts) for further information. Currently in print; available BG.

319. Nabhan, Gary Paul. Enduring Seeds: Native American Agriculture and Wild Plant Conservation. San Francisco, CA: North Point Press, 1989. 225 p. NAL E98.A3N3, ARB E98.A3N3

A collection of 12 essays, beautifully-written, portraying the "intermingled destinies" of Native American food plants and associated farming systems and human societies. Much of the narrative focuses on the plants and people of the Sonoran bioregion, which the writer, a well-known ethnobotanist and conservationist, knows well. The opening pieces in Part I, "A New World perspective," provide historical and scientific contexts to aid the reader in understanding and appreciating plant biodiversity. Topics include the "flowering of diversity" among land plants (and their pollinators) in the distant past; present-day extinctions within tropical gene pools; "the balance of wildness and culture"--on links between farmers' fields and their uncultivated margins; and various contemporary approaches (e.g., biosphere reserves to seed banks, both community and government efforts) to preserve crop diversity. Essays in Part II are "local parables" exploring forms of traditional farming among several Native American societies, from Lake Superior to Guatemala. Particular focus is on the planting and seed-preservation traditions that have produced an array of highly-adapted food crops to meet local needs, and also the effects, largely negative, of modern agricultural development on native farming systems and crops. Throughout the narrative there are examples of highly-adapted crop cultivars that have permitted agriculture to exist in various, sometimes extreme, environments, and promise to continue serving commercial agriculture. Writing of cultivated native beans in particular, Nabhan contends that the only way that varietal diversity among these and other native crops "will persist on this earth is if human cultures care wisely for them." Text includes bibliography and subject index. Currently in print; available AL,PW.
Related work: More recently, Dr. Nabhan has written Cultures of Habitat: On Nature, Culture, and Story (Washington, DC: Counterpoint, 1997, 338 p.), which assembles 25 wide-ranging essays that illuminate the vital links among cultural diversity, community stability, and biodiversity conservation in natural habitats and farmers' fields. Currently in print.

Go to: Contents of Volume 1 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, 400, 420, 460 | Appendices (Volume 1)

320. Nabhan, Gary Paul, Angelo Joaquin Jr., Nancy Laney, and Kevin Dahl. "Sharing the benefits of plant resources and indigenous scientific knowledge." In: Valuing Local Knowledge: Indigenous People and Intellectual Property Rights.Stephen B. Brush and Doreen Stabinsky, eds. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1996. Ch. 9, p. 186-208. NAL GF21.V37 1996

This book chapter describes methods used by the Tucson-based conservation organization, Native Seeds/SEARCH, to ensure that culturally-appropriate rewards are returned to the community-based stewards of local plant biodiversity. Several ongoing projects are reviewed, among them Arizona Regis-TREE (a program supporting in situ conservation and recognizing the stewards of historic fruits and other plants; see also Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 29), North American Diabetes Project, and a proposed wild chile pepper botanical preserve. There is general discussion of the ethical dilemmas affecting use and ownership of farmer-bred crop varieties and other forms of ethnobotanical knowledge, and a synopsis of preliminary efforts to create an internationally regulated scheme for ethical use of plant germplasm. The authors argue that current legal mechanisms and ethical means to deal with ethnobotanical knowledge fall short in assessing the true value of knowledge that is produced as common heritage, which, they posit, is most meaningful within the cultural and ecological setting where it was developed or managed. The piece is supplemented with hypothetical stories and a questionnaire illustrating ethical conflicts relating to indigenous knowledge, plus bibliography. The book itself consists of 13 chapters based on presentations at a 1993 California conference, "Intellectual Property Rights and Indigenous Knowledge," on valuing botanical knowledge generated by farmers and tribal stewards, and compensatory schemes. Several other chapters offer case studies of the crops and products of particular cultures within modern industrial societies; Ch. 11 (p. 230-243), for instance, deals with cultural diversity and local agricultural foodstuffs in France; Ch. 12 (p. 244-256), with native Hawaiian crop cultivars. Currently in print.

321. Rea, Amadeo M., foreword by Gary Paul Nabhan. At the Desert's Edge: An Ethnobotany of the Gila River Pima. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 1997. 430 p. NAL E99.P6R43 1997.

Serving as both a comprehensive ethnobotany and ethnography, this monumental book documents and examines closely the specific local knowledge of the Piman people, who live near the middle Gila River in the northern Sonoran Desert. The author's extensive research relied on historical documentation and also interviews with elderly Piman men and women, and other native consultants (all of whom are profiled in some detail in Ch. 2). Part I, "The Pima and their country," consists of eight chapters that examine the Piman's physical habitats, cultural ecosystems, and diets of previous periods, and their modern habitats, language, and folk taxonomies. Part 2, "Gila Pima plants," considers 12 groups of wild and domesticated plants used for food, beverage, fiber, medicine, and other purposes. Most relevant to the scope of this resource guide are the sections, Group I, "E'es: Crops, planted things" (p. 286-352), and Group J, "Ha'ichu libdag: Planted fruit trees" (p. 353-363). Among the vegetables and grains in Group I are onions, garlic, grain amaranth, brassicas, beans (teparies, common beans, limas, lentils, etc.), chile peppers, cucurbits, prickly pear, devil's claw (Proboscidea species), sorghum, wheat, maize, and others. The narrative offers physical descriptions of the kinds grown (with native names), their historical uses and importance, current uses, and for some (such as maize), planting methods and ceremonies, and associated songs and myths. Group J describes a dozen fruit- and nut-bearing trees (most of them Old World plants), including oranges and other citrus fruits, apricots, peaches, and pomegranates, and also wine grapes. With black-and-white illustrations, including line drawings of plants. Appendices include tables of plant names and folk taxa, with lengthy bibliography and subject index.

1C. Periodical Articles

322. Apenlund, Sarah and Suzanne Pelican. "Traditional food practices of contemporary Taos Pueblo." Nutrition Today 27(2): 6-12 (April 1992). NAL RA784.N8

Taos Pueblo inhabitants continue to grow and consume a variety of traditional foods despite ready access to the standard modern food supply. This article discusses the people's commitment to their traditional foods, including crops grown (particular kinds of corn, pumpkins, and chili peppers among them) and how they are used, and also the use of traditional livestock, and wild plants and game.

323. Cleveland, David A., et al. "Zuni farming and United States Government policy: The politics of biological and cultural diversity in agriculture." Agriculture and Human Values 12(3): 2-18 (Sum. 1995). NAL HT401.A36

Reviews historical and present-day Zuni farming in central Arizona and New Mexico, with respect to the biological and cultural impacts of U.S. Government agricultural and Indian policies. The authors contend that official policies have led to degraded natural resources, consolidated farm fields, loss of indigenous farmer knowledge and control of local resources, and declining agricultural biodiversity. The article discusses indigenous Zuni farming methods that build upon ecological and biological diversity, including selection and maintenance of locally-adapted varieties of corn and other crops. Reports briefly on the work of the Zuni Folk Varieties Project (ZFVP) and its parent, the Zuni Sustainable Agriculture Project (ZSAP), to revitalize sustainable Zuni agriculture through community empowerment. Extensive bibliography contains several citations on traditional crop varieties and their context of use. (The senior author served as Director of ZFVP from 1992-1994 and is currently co-director of the Tucson-based Center for People, Food, and Environment; see entry 15 for contact information. To contact ZFVP, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 23.)
Related work: For another piece concerned with stewardship of Zuni folk crop varieties, particularly legal and ethical rights to their usage, see Ch. 2 (p. 19-40) by Daniela Soleri, David Cleveland, Donald Eriacho, Fred Bowannie, Jr., Andrew Laahty, and Zuni Community Members, "Gifts from the creator: Intellectual property rights and folk crop varieties," in the book, Intellectual Property Rights for Indigenous Peoples: A Sourcebook. (Tom Greaves, ed., Oklahoma City, OK: Society for Applied Anthropology, 1994, NAL K1507.I57 1994). Currently in print.

324. Creasy, Rosalind. "Three Sisters of life: Squash, beans and corn in the Native American garden." Harrowsmith [U.S. edition] 3(17): 80-87 (Sept./Oct. 1988). NAL S522.U5H37

Explores Native American gardening practices, including the types of native corns and how they are used, with notes on particular historical varieties or modern equivalents adapted to particular U.S. regions. The author tells of her visit with Bill Bennet of Plimoth Plantation in Massachusetts, who describes traditional food gardens of the local Wampanoag Indians. Bennet and others helped the author to create a list of recommended varieties of beans, versatile grinding and sweet corns, and summer and winter squashes. Varieties are keyed to commercial sources. (Article excerpted from the author's book, Cooking in the Garden, cited in entry 21, this volume.)

325. Erney, Diane. "Long live the Three Sisters." Organic Gardening 43(8): 37-40 (Nov. 1996). NAL S605.5.O74

On selecting antique varieties of the "three sustainers"--corn, beans, and squash--with recommendations from commercial growers and collectors in different U.S. locales. Growing strategies are offered and sources for heirloom varieties are listed.

326. Goodstein, Carol. "Interview: Gary Nabhan." Omni 16(10): 69-70,72-74,88,93-94 (July 1994). NAL AP2.O55

Interview with Gary Nabhan includes discussion of his work with Native Seeds/SEARCH, and the values of traditional knowledge of Native American desert farmers, as it pertains to ancestral crops, diet, and conservation practices. For a similar article by author Goodstein, see "Seeding the desert: An interview with writer and ethnobotanist Gary Nabhan," Amicus Journal [Natural Resources Defense Council] 15(3): 16-19 (Feb. 1993). Nabhan was awarded a MacArthur Fellowship in 1990 for his conservation work.

327. Gulya, Tom J. "Native American variety may provide sunflower crop with crucial resistance." Diversity 8(4): 29-30 (1992). NAL SB123.3.D5

Describes the discovery of resistance to a serious fungal disease, found in a sunflower (Helianthus annuus) grown traditionally by Havasupai farmers in northern Arizona. (The sunflower variety was the only 1 out of 400 genebank accessions that displayed total immunity to the rust pathogen.) The author mentions sunflower cultivation and use by North American tribes, and calls for measures to safeguard the "potentially priceless traits" found in traditional varieties (traits that, in this case, proved invaluable to the commercial sunflower industry of the U.S.).

328. Lewandowski, Stephen. "Diohe'ko, the Three Sisters in Seneca life: Implications for a native agriculture in the Finger Lakes region of New York State." Agriculture and Human Values 4(2/3): 76-93 (Spring/Sum. 1987). NAL HT401.A36

Provides a detailed examination of the corn-beans-squash complex--"where agriculture and horticulture and human culture meet"--which formed the basis of Iroquoian gardens in western New York State prior to and following European contact. Considers the relevance of Seneca practices to modern agriculture and examines the agronomic, ecological, and nutritional benefits of the Three Sisters and their roles in ceremony and legend. With information on local varieties of corn, beans and squash, plus an extensive bibliography of historical references on Native American crops and cropping systems.

329. Nabhan, Gary P. "Native American crop diversity, genetic resource conservation, and the policy of neglect." Agriculture and Human Values 2(3) : 14-17 (Sum. 1985). NAL HT401.A36

The author argues for conservation of native crop diversity in conjunction with traditional farming systems, citing official governmental neglect (in policies and priorities) of the rich heritage of crops domesticated or semi-domesticated by Native American farmers and gardeners. Discusses the 20th-C. demise of Native American farming and loss of long-valued crops. With bibliography.

330. Nabhan, Gary Paul. "Native crop diversity in Aridoamerica: Conservation of regional gene pools." Economic Botany 39(4): 387-399 (Oct./Dec. 1985). NAL 450 Ec7

Reviews botanical and gene-pool relationships among native crops that have become adapted to the soils andclimates of "Aridoamerica," the bi-national region consisting of northwestern Mexico and the southwestern U.S.Cites reasons beyond gene preservation for commercial agriculture's conservation of native crops and discusses factors influencing the losses of regional ecotypes of particular crop species, and also conservation strategies and alternatives. With lengthy bibliography. The journal issue contains additional papers that were likewise presented at a 1994 symposium, "Ethnobotany of the Greater Southwest"; an article on corn, by E. Hernández Xolocotzi, is cited in entry 355, this volume.

331. Pierce, Dick. "A return to the land: Traditional agriculture is gaining momentum." Winds of Change [American Indian Science and Engineering Society] 8(4): 80-87 (Autumn 1993). NAL E97.W56

Describes the work of Native American families and communities who continue to grow, or are growing once again, their native crops, using traditional methods. Briefly discusses the work of the Indigenous Preservation Networking Center (INPC) at Cornell University, the Zuni Sustainable Agriculture Project (ZSAP) in New Mexico, and other projects in Wisconsin, Arizona, and elsewhere. Includes contacts for seeds and organizations, and publications list for further information. (Note: INPC is no longer active; see entry 65 for contact information for the affiliated American Indian Program at Cornell, and entry 23 for ZSAP, both in Volume 2, Resource Organizations.) The author served as Director of the American Indian Education Foundation.

332. Poncavage, Joanna. "Native American vegetables." Organic Gardening 39(1): 48-53 (Jan. 1992). NAL S605.5.O74

On selecting varieties of traditional Native American food crops, including squash, corn, sunflowers, grains, and others. The author recounts her visit to Living History Farms in Des Moines, Iowa, which grows "historically correct" crop varieties. Includes source list. (See Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 41, for more on Living History Farms.)

333. Soleri, Daniela. "Hopi gardens." Arid Lands Newsletter [Office of Arid Lands Studies] 29: 11-14 (Fall/Wtr. 1989). NAL S612.A753

Surveys the management strategies--a combination of tradition and innovation--employed in Hopi fields, gardens, and orchards, to cope with dryland limitations encountered in the high desert environment of Arizona. With short bibliography on Hopi agriculture. Its theme "dryland gardening," this Newsletter issue contains other articles and resources concerned with the subject, focusing particularly on the developing world.

334. Soleri, Daniela and David A. Cleveland. "Hopi crop diversity and change." Journal of Ethnobiology 13(2): 203-231 (Wtr. 1993).

Reports on a study of the dynamics of change and persistent crop repertoires (including folk varieties or FVs) of Hopi farmers of the high deserts of northeastern Arizona. Includes discussion of problems in identifying FVs, their in situ conservation as part of small-scale farming systems, and some general aspects of Hopi agriculture and society. Crop repertoires included Hopi blue corn and other sweet corns, and traditional varieties of beans, cucurbits, and other plants. The authors' findings are compared with those reported in Alfred F. Whiting's classic study, Ethnobotany of the Hopi (Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin no. 15, Flagstaff: Northern Arizona Society of Science and Art, 1939). They concluded that the fate of each FV depended on the "unique biophysical and sociocultural selection environment." With bibliography and maps.

335. Soleri, Daniela and David A. Cleveland. "Seeds of strength for Hopis and Zunis." Seedling [Genetic Resources Action International] 10(4): 13-18 (1993).

Portrays the dynamics affecting Native American farmer's continued cultivation of folk crop varieties, focusing on Hopi maize varieties now grown as "one point in a continually changing Hopi crop repertoire." Describes the Zuni Folk Varieties Project (ZFVP) undertaken to "safeguard [Zuni folk varieties] for sustainable agriculture at the community level." The article's full text is available at Web site (To contact ZFVP, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 23.)

336. Wolkomir, Richard. "Bringing ancient ways to our farmer's fields." Smithsonian 26(8): 99-106 (Nov. 1995). NAL QH1.S5

Describes the work of Jane Mt. Pleasant, a Cornell agronomist (and currently Director of Cornell University's American Indian Program) who studies traditional Iroquois crops and farming methods for the values they may offer to modern agriculture. Intercropping with the "Three Sisters" and research on soil-conserving cover crops are discussed. (See Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 65, for more information on the American Indian Program.)

2. Corn (Maize)

2A. Books, Book Chapters, Agricultural Reports

337. Aung, T., et al. Characterization of Open-pollinated Corn Varieties. State College, MS: Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station. Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station Research Report 16 (3). Feb. 1991. 6 p. NAL S79.E37

Mississippi State University researchers evaluated 43 open-pollinated corn varieties for grain yields and other agronomic traits, plus resistance to several insect and nematode pests predominant in southern states. They found much variability in the traits studied, and judging that the varieties offered potentially useful germplasm, all were placed in the U.S. National Seed Storage Laboratory for preservation. Includes references on corn diversity and related topics.

338. Barreiro, José, ed. Indian Corn of the Americas: Gift to the World. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, American Indian Program, 1989. Northeast Indian Quarterly 6 (1/2), Spring/Sum. 96 p. NAL SB191.M2I49

A special double issue of Northeast Indian Quarterly, centering on maize as the most important contribution by Native Americans to world civilization. The publication stems from a symposium whose aim was to reexamine "the enduring aspects of nature and culture" and their connections to modern agriculture. Contained within are presentations from agronomists, anthropologists, rural sociologists, and Native American gardeners who gathered at Cornell University in 1988 for the second forum in a series sponsored by the University's American Indian Program. Presentation topics included the cultural and spiritual meanings of corn to ancient Mayans and present-day Guatemalans; maize as an organizing principle (i.e., on how corn shaped space, time, and relationships in the New World) and world food crop; indigenous corn cropping systems in Nicaragua; ecological stability of Iroquois planting systems in the Northeast; the Three Sisters crop complex grown by Iroquois farmers; Hopi and Mohave farming in the 1940s; economic development from an Iroquoian perspective; cultural meanings of corn in aboriginal America; and the semantic roots of Iroquoian corn. Includes descriptions of varied Iroquoian corn-based foods, plus several poems and short stories. With an extensive bibliography on corn culture in the Americas. (See Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 65, for contact information for Cornell's American Indian Program.)

339. Dickerson, George W. Specialty Corns. Las Cruces, NM: New Mexico State University, Cooperative Extension Service, 1992. Guide H. 4 p. NAL SB319.2.N6G84

A brief survey of the characteristics and market uses of specialty corns. Covers corn classification (according to morphology of the kernal endosperm, depicted in a diagram), with general descriptions of dent, sweet, pop, high-lysine, high-oil, waxy endosperm, blue, and ornamental corns. This report is available online, along with other horticultural publications from NMSU Cooperative Extension, at Web site

Go to: Contents of Volume 1 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, 400, 420, 460 | Appendices (Volume 1)

340. Fussell, Betty. The Story of Corn. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992. 356 p. NAL SB191.M2F86 1992, ARB SB191.M2F86 1992

Preeminent food writer Betty Fussell presents in this volume a well-researched account of the New World people who were sustained by corn, among them the Mayan, Incan, and Aztec cultures, the Hohokam and Pueblo farmers of the Southwest desert, and the American Midwest's immigrant culture of the 1880s "corn boom" period. Both informative and entertaining, it explores corn culture over time in the Americas, from "the language of the seasons" to "the language of the machine," as it examines corn in myth and ceremony, in history, literature, and language, and in science and technology. A significant portion of the book focuses on corn's past and present role in providing food and drink, from the traditional corn varieties divided "by season and ceremony" and rendered as staples, sweets, and beverages, to the modern multitude of corn-based food products, and most recently, its refinement and commodification into a range of industrial materials. The text provides a glimpse of Native American farming methods and the farm tools and technologies of the 19th and 20th C. With numerous black-and-white photos and line drawings, plus an extensive bibliography on corn culture in South, Middle, and North America, and agricultural and food references, plus subject index. Volume out of print.

341. Gerdes, J.T., et al. Compilation of North American Maize Breeding Germplasm. Madison, WI: Crop Science Society of America, 1993. 202 p. NAL SB191.M2C764 1993

Devised as a research tool for corn breeders and other researchers, this publication provides historical record of the pedigrees and origins of the vast variety of maize germplasm. Corn breeders who developed first cycle inbred lines and recalled the once widespread use of open-pollinated varieties served the project by acting as "historians." As the authors note, many of the lines and populations covered in the publication are extinct. Part I covers field corns (encompassing inbred lines; synthetics, composites, and other breeding materials; and open-pollinated varieties); Part II, sweet corns (inbred lines; open-pollinated varieties) and Part III, popcorns (inbred lines; synthetics; and open-pollinated varieties). Single-line entries for each line or breeding material include pedigree or brief background information, and for the inbred lines, codes designating origins (state or commercial firm) for each. Literature references append each of the three sections. The relevant portions of the text for the (mostly older) open-pollinated corn varieties are, for field corns (650+ flints and dents), p. 126-152; for sweet corns (750+ variety names including synonyms), p. 173-193; and for popcorns, p. 201-202. W.T. Tapley et al.'s 1934 report in the Vegetables of New York series served as the source material for most of the sweet corn varieties; see Volume 3, Historical Supplement, entry 70. (For availability, contact Crop Science Society of America, 677 S. Segoe Rd., Madison, WI 53711, tel. 608-273-8080, e-mail, Web

342. Goodman, Major M. "Maize: Zea mays (Gramineae - Maydeae)." In: Evolution of Crop Plants. 2nd ed. J. Smartt and N.W. Simmonds, eds. Harlow, Essex, England: Longman Scientific and Technical, 1995. Ch. 40, p. 192-202. NAL SB106.O74E96 1995

This book chapter reviews the early domestication of maize, historical developments during the 19th C. and 20th C., and taxonomic relationships among maize and its close relatives (teosinte and tripsacum) within the tribe Maydeae. Also, future breeding methodologies and prospects are considered. With bibliography listing publications on maize germplasm and breeding. This chapter on corn is contained in a multi-authored work of international scope, which covers temperate and tropical fruits, vegetables, grains, and also important herbs, spices, and forest trees. Five other chapters on New World vegetables (tomatoes, peppers, Phaseolus beans, squash and pumpkins, and Solanum tuberosum potatoes) are cited elsewhere in this volume; see entries 369, 407, 422, 435, and 465, respectively. (None of the specific fruit chapters are cited.) Volume first published in 1976 (NAL SB71.E88), intended for researchers and educators. Contains glossary, plus author and plant name indexes. Currently in print.

343. Hallauer, Arnel R., ed. Specialty Corns. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1994. 410 p. NAL SB191.M2S6252 1994

Specialty corns, which make up less than five percent of total U.S. production, have received less emphasis in genetics and breeding than the yellow dent, commodity corns. Nine of this book's 12 chapters focus on particular specialty corns, with reviews of germplasm resources, methods of development, and special considerations for each corn type. The book was written for corn breeders and others with professional concern for specialty corns, but several chapters may be of particular interest to avid collectors or amateur breeders for their reviews of early breeding history, information on older open-pollinated corns, and useful reference lists. Among these are: Ch. 6, "Sweet corn" (p. 167-187); Ch. 7, "Popcorn" (p. 189-223); Ch. 8, "Breeding white endosperm corn" (p. 225-262); and Ch. 12, "Breeding early corn" (p. 341-396). Ch. 8, for instance, provides tabular data on several hundred older open-pollinated white-kernaled corns (among them dents, flints, and floury, pop, and sweet corns) developed in the U.S. and primarily farmer-selected. Ch. 12 takes a broad look at early-maturing corns, briefly reviewing the histories of the northern flints and early dent corns, with detailed histories of the development and pedigrees of important 19th-C. corns, such as Leaming Corn and Reid Yellow Dent; this chapter describes pollination methods and the history of hybrid corn development, with both general and historical references. Ch. 9, "Food uses of regular and specialty corns and their dry milled fractions" (p. 263-298) includes information on the diverse traditional corn-based foods and beverages used in New and Old World cultures. (Remaining chapters consider high quality portein, waxy, corn cob pipe, and other specialty corns, and also kernal mutants and corn starch properties.) Text supplemented with charts and illustrations; bibliography appends each chapter; with subject index. Currently in print.

344. Kahn, E.J., Jr. "Corn: The golden thread." In: The Staffs of Life. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Co., 1985. Ch. 1, p. 1-82. NAL SB175.K34 1985

Journalist Kahn devotes one chapter each to five important plant food staples on which humans have become profoundly dependent; the five include corn and potatoes from the Americas, and also wheat, rice, and soybeans from the Old World. Ch. 1 ranges widely to tell the story of corn and also to illuminate the personalities who, in recent times, furthered its development. While the piece touches on geography, economics, politics, and science, covering pre-Columbian era to modern times, the essay's main emphasis is on 20th-C. events. Much of the tale is devoted to portrayal of the eminent corn statesman, the geneticists and breeders who contributed to corn's modern enhancement and elucidated its biological secrets; among them are Paul Mangelsdorf, George Beadle, Hugh Iltis, Walton Galinat, Garrison Wilkes, Edgar Anderson, and Henry A. Wallace. Offers numerous anecdotes on the corn plant and itspatrons, including the waging of the "Corn Wars," the decades-long scientific debate on corn's ancestry and wild relatives, corn's sustaining role and broad influence on ancient cultures as well as early American society, hybrid corn development, and Corn Belt agriculture today. The text appeared originally in similar form in New Yorker magazine; the chapter on Solanum tuberosum potatoes is cited in entry 463, this volume. Volume out of print.

345. Mathers, Sherry; Bill Brescia, ed. Our Mother Corn. Seattle, WA: United Indians of All Tribes Foundation, 1981. 80 p. NAL E98.S7M3

A handsome and interesting narrative on the corn-centered lifeways of several Native American tribes, mainly the Hopi of the Southwest, the Pawnee of Nebraska, and the Seneca tribe, whose people once lived in an area ranging from western New York to eastern Ohio. For each tribal group, the author discusses basic lifestyles and corn's role within each human environment, including the types of corn grown, and the methods to prepare fields and to plant, harvest, and store corn, along with a short story offering a glimpse of life before European contact. Includes a section with corn-based songs, prayers, and legends translated from original languages, plus a section on corn-based foods; the latter discusses corn preparation methods, with specific recipes for a variety of dishes contributed by Native American tribeswomen. Many of the recipes originated in the book, Hopi Cookery, by Juanita Tiger Kavena (University of Arizona Press, 1980, 115 p., NAL TX715.K35), and some other portions of the book are excerpted from other sources, as well. The book is supplemented with a 30-page teacher's guide (which was not available for examination) and is tailored especially to younger readers, but may be of interest also to an older audience. With numerous line drawings, plus a map depicting the U.S. tribes that once grew, or still grow, corn. Supplemented with a glossary of terms, and lengthy bibliography citing general references and materials on tribal agriculture and cookery. Tribal contacts (including corn seed suppliers) cited within the text.

346. Sprague, G.F. and J.W. Dudley, eds. Corn and Corn Improvement. 3rd ed. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy, 1988. Agronomy [monograph series] no. 18. 986 p. NAL 4 Am392 no.18 1988

An important reference publication reviewing current knowledge of corn and its production, consisting of individual contributions from noted corn scientists. Topics include corn's botanical origins; corn races (Latin and Central American, and U.S.): genetics; corn breeding (including development of special nutritional and industrial types); production of hybrid seed corn; agronomic production requirements (climate, soils, etc.); corn diseases and insect pests; corn as livestock feed; and corn marketing, processing, and utilization. Although some sections are quite technical, certain portions offer information on corn history and access to the corn literature (each chapter is supplemented with a lengthy bibliography). For instance, Ch. 1 (p. 1-31) by Walton C. Galinat discusses corn's botanical origins. Ch. 2 (p. 33-79) by Major M. Goodman and William L. Brown reviews the nine race complexes of U.S. corns and their botanical relationships, and includes an extensive reference list of (mostly) 20th-C. publications. With black-and-white illustrations and photos, plus subject index. The text has been substantially revised since first published in 1955 (NAL 59.22 Sp7) and revised in 1976. Currently in print (see contact information for publisher, entry 341, this volume).

347. Visser, Margaret. "Corn: Our mother, our life." In: Much Depends on Dinner. New York: Grove Press, 1987. Ch. 1, p. 22-55.

From a food historian who describes herself as "an anthropologist of everyday life," this essay considers the history and present-day uses of corn as a staple crop, food product, and industrial and genetic raw material. Topicsinclude corn's origins and multi-dimensional role in various native societies, its travels beyond the Americas, its forms in various corn-eating nations, and also the products of modern corn breeding, and decline of traditional varieties and associated farming systems. Includes bibliography on corn (p. 329-330). Intended to inform as well as entertain general readers, the book is subtitled, "The Extraordinary History and Mythology, Allure and Obsessions, Perils and Taboos, of an Ordinary Meal." To elicit greater attention to, and appreciation of, commonplace foods, the author writes in Ch. 2 through Ch. 9 on eight other plant, animal, and mineral substances that make up a typical Western meal; salt, butter, chicken, rice, lettuce, olive oil, lemon juice, and ice cream are the subjects, respectively. The book is appended with bibliography and subject index.

2B. Periodical Articles

348. Albright, Letha. "Corn: New lessons from old practices--Open-pollinated corn." Missouri Farm 6(3): 40-42 (May/June 1989). NAL S1.M57

Reviews some of the reasons (e.g., economics, nutrition, genetic diversity, and farmer independence) for the revival of interest in open-pollinated corns among a new generation of Midwestern farmers. Lists five U.S. seed sources.

349. Allan, Ken. "Pop goes the kernal." Harrowsmith Country Life [U.S. edition] 9(53): 50-55 (Oct. 1994). NAL S522.U5H37

Southeastern Ontario grower Ken Allan shares his experience with homegrown popcorns. Includes information on varieties (both hybrids and heirlooms), planting, seed saving, and popping methods, with popcorn recipes.

350. Anderson, Kit. "The golden treasure of El Batan." National Gardening 9(7): 31-37,54 (July 1986). NAL SB450.9.G37

Explores the genetic diversity of corn, via the author's visit to the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (known as CIMMYT) in Mexico, a seed bank that supplies corn and other crop germplasm to researchers. Includes an interview with Garrison Wilkes, a prominent U.S. corn geneticist and breeder.

351. Bunker, Roberta. "Corn, "she who sustains us." Maine Organic Farmer & Gardener 17(4): 10-12 (July/Aug. 1990)

On corn--"the mainstay of modern society"--its origins and types, and how corn came to be "swept into thegears of the agribusiness industry." Mentions the open-pollinated varieties grown in the author's Maine garden. (The author serves as coordinator for Fedco Trees nursery; see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 154.)

352. Cavanaugh, Joe. "The return of a legendary corn." Organic Gardening 45(4): 52-54 (April 1998). NAL S605.5.O74

Author tells of the revival of Luther Hill corn, a fine-flavored sweet corn popular in turn-of-the-century New Jersey, and once again available commercially. Also, several magazine readers cite their favorite all-time corn favorites (most of them hybrids) with specific seed sources cited. (The author is co-founder of Garden State Heirloom Seed Society; for contact information see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 7.)

353. Deppe, Carol. "Parching corn." National Gardening 20(3): 42-48 (May/June 1997). NAL SB450.9.G37

Features versatile, little-known corn varieties suitable for parching (or toasting) to produce a flavorful snack food. The author discusses the best eight varieties (all heirlooms and other non-hybrids) and how to grow and prepare them. Includes keyed sources. (For author Deppe's "how-to" book, Breed Your Own Vegetable Varieties, see entry 16, this volume.)

354. Hart, Ed. "Open-pollinated corn: Old-fashioned, but still valuable." Countryside & Small Stock Journal 81(5): 28-30 (Sept./Oct. 1997). NAL S521.C62

Following a brief discussion on growing open-pollinated corns, this article describes nine varieties (Anasazi Flour, Bloody Butcher, Oaxacan Green, Reid's Yellow Dent, and others), including their values to small farmers, homesteaders, and gardeners. Lists seed sources for each.

355. Hernández Xolocotzi, Efraím "Maize and man in the Greater Southwest." Economic Botany 39(4): 416-430 (Oct.-Dec. 1985). NAL 450 Ec7

An ethnobotanical study of the numerous racial types of maize found in northwestern Mexico, where varietal diversity is related to climate and soil conditions, human migrations, and differential selection by maize farmers. Article reviews traditional agricultural practices, illustrating the forces that influence varietal introductions and maintenance. With photos of representative maize races, and bibliography (including several sources with maize recipes). The late author, a renowned ethnobotanist and maize and bean collector, is known also as Efraim Hernández Xolocotzi Guzmán. The journal issue contains additional papers that were likewise presented at a 1994 symposium, "Ethnobotany of the Greater Southwest"; see entry 330 for G. Nabhan's article on native crop diversity in Aridoamerica.

356. Lee, Jill and Ben Hardin. "GEM searches for treasures in exotic maize." Agricultural Research/U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 45(9): 4-6 (Sept. 1997). NAL 1.98 Ag84

Describes the Germplasm Enhancement for Maize (GEM) project, a collaborative effort begun in the late 1980s among private and public corn breeders in the U.S., to create new hybrid lines containing "exotic" germplasm from Latin America. Its goals: to broaden corn's genetic base, limit disease vulnerability, and incorporate new useful traits, while enhancing yields. Includes interviews with participating U.S. scientists. For more information on GEM, see Web site

357. Peach, Roger. "Open-pollinated corn in Illinois." Missouri Farm 8(2): 20-21 (March/April 1991). NAL S1.M57

Recounts increasing popularity, during the last two decades, of Illinois farmer/seedsman Joseph Borries' open-pollinated corn seed. Cites non-hybrid corn's lower seed costs, enhanced genetic diversity, favorable nutritional qualities, and seed-saving potential that, for some farmers, can offset the advantages of hybrid corn seed. For more recent information on the Borries' open-pollinated corns, see Leonard J. Borries' article in Rural Heritage 21(2): 36 (Spring 1996), NAL SF311.E9; and for contact information, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 79.

358. Revilla, Pedro and W.F. Tracy. "Morphological characterization and classification of open-pollinated sweet corn cultivars." Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 120(1): 112-118 (Jan. 1995). NAL 81 SO12

One of a series of recent articles by University of Wisconsin agronomists Revilla, Tracy, and colleagues, on the genetic relationships and level of diversity among existing sweet corn cultivars. The authors studied 58 open-pollinated sweet corns (95 percent of those judged "readily available"), noting that sweet corn is one of the U.S.'s most important vegetables, yet poorly represented in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System. This rather technical report is included here for its list of existing corn types, and for readers interested in the nature of current scientific work involving open-pollinated corns. Includes bibliography citing references on historical corns. Two other articles in this series: P. Revilla and W.F. Tracy's "Isozyme variation and phylogenetic relationships among open-pollinated sweet corn cultivars," Crop Science 35(1): 219-227 (Jan./Feb. 1995), NAL 64.8 C883; and J.T. Gerdes and W.F. Tracy's "Diversity of historically important sweet corn inbreds as estimated by RFLPs, morphology, isozymes, and pedigree," Crop Science 34(1): 26-33 (Jan./Feb. 1994), NAL 64.8 C883.

359. Rezelman, John. "Flour corn." Small Farm Today 14(6) : 36-38 (Dec. 1997). NAL S1.M57

Writer tells of his experience in growing White Iroquois Flour corn, and also other open-pollinated flour (or grinding) corns, in New York State. Lists a number of commercial and other seed sources.

Go to: Contents of Volume 1 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, 400, 420, 460 | Appendices (Volume 1)

360. Rosenthal, Eric. "Cultivating colorful corns." Organic Gardening 40(3): 30-35 (March 1993). NAL S605.5.O74

On the diversity in "rainbow" corns for fresh-eating or processing. Author discusses varieties of heirloom, tribal corns, and newer open-pollinated introductions, which are preferred by selected growers and breeders, and also explains the major corn types (flints, dents, flour and starch corns), with space-saving growing advice. With notes on 16 varieties, each keyed to sources.

361. Ruttle, Jack. "Ears to you." National Gardening 12(8) : 22-27 (May 1990). NAL SB450.9.G37

Compares and contrasts the taste and keeping qualities of traditional, open-pollinated corns and newer "supersweets," with advice on corn cultivation, pollination, and harvest. Includes notes on four American "corn classics": Country Gentleman, Black Mexican, Golden Bantam, and Stowell's Evergreen. With sources for 13 varieties, p. 62.

362. Soleri, Daniela and Steven E. Smith. "Morphological and phenological comparisons of two Hopi maize varieties conserved in situ and ex situ. Economic Botany 49(1): 56-77 (Jan./March 1995). NAL 450 Ec7

The authors studied the consequences of conserving two Hopi maize folk varieties either in a national germplasm program (ex situ) or by native farmers as part of their traditional farming operations (in situ), to better understand the effects of these different strategies. They found a number of physical differences in the plants and seeds grown from the different sources, which are reported along with discussion of the implications. Includes a useful review of current ideas on conservation strategies (both ex situ and in situ) that may serve the immediate needs of traditional farmers and professional plant breeders. With bibliography. Although the substance of the report is rather technical, the article contains a wealth of background information on Hopi maize varieties, and the workings of the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System, and illustrates how differences in the selection environment may affect inherited crop characters.

363. Sprague, G.F. "King corn--Our gift from the Indians." Science of Food and Agriculture 4(4): 12-19 (Nov. 1986). NAL S1.S44

Surveys corn's ancestry and evolution, the beginnings of scientific corn breeding, and how inbred lines and hybrids are produced. Includes color photos of corn relatives' plants and seeds, and steps in hybrid corn production.

364. Widrlechner, Mark and Sherry Dragula. "Ornamental corn for northern gardens." Minnesota Horticulturist 109(7): 221-223 (Aug./Sept. 1991). NAL 81 M66

Summarizes the authors' evaluations of 10 types of commercially-available ornamental corns (including flint, sweet, and pop corns) in Minnesota, part of a long-term project to select and breed for hardy, superior open-pollinated types. For more information on breeding results from the Ornamental Corn Improvement Project, see authors' Dec. 1992 article in HortScience 27(12): 1338-1339, and follow-up article in 1998, "Eight ornamental corn inbreds: Lines OC12 through OC19," in HortScience 33(2): 351-352 (NAL SB1.H6). The senior author, currently a horticultural researcher at the USDA's North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station, has served on the governing board of Seed Savers Exchange.

3. Tomatoes

3A. Books, Book Chapters

365. Cutler, Karan Davis, ed. Tantalizing Tomatoes: Smart Tips & Tasty Picks for Gardeners Everywhere. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 1997. 21st-Century Gardening Series no. 150. 111 p. NAL SB1 P56 no.150

A handbook consisting of contributions from noted gardening experts on various topics relevant to tomato culture and usage. Subjects include tomato history and lore, basic botany, cultivation (from seeding, to continuing care, and pest and disease control), and using the harvest. Several chapters contain information on named tomato varieties, including growing tips and varieties recommended for particular climates, cultivars recommended by tomato experts from 20 regions in the U.S., and a list of 75 "outstanding" tomatoes, all commercially available, with brief notes on their distinguishing features. Heirloom and hybrid origins are noted, as well as disease resistance characteristics. Contains black-and-white and color illustrations, with a list of sources for seeds and plants, plus bibliography. For availability contact Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 1000 Washington Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11225-1099, tel. 718-622-4433, Web site

366. Dubose, Fred. The Total Tomato: America's Backyard Experts Reveal the Pleasures of Growing Tomatoes at Home. New York: Harper & Row, 1985. 206 p. NAL SB349.D82 1985

Offering abundant varietal and source information in reference-type format, this book is a useful guide to the vast diversity among garden tomatoes. It was compiled from the author's own garden experience and supplemented with tips gleaned from a variety of amateur and professional growers. The author, who believes that "taste [in modern tomato varieties] has usually been sacrificed to the needs of commercial growing and marketing," aims in this book to help tomato lovers to distinquish between home garden and commercial tomatoes, and between modern hybrids and older standard types. For serious tomato collectors and connoisseurs, one-half of the book presents abundant varietal information. One-hundred open-pollinated varieties (including time-tested heirlooms) and hybrids are described in some detail, with information on growth characteristics, relative maturity, fruit appearance, and cultivar history, plus notes on regional suitability, disease resistance, and other aspects. Another 225 varieties are briefly described, and there are lists of tomatoes for special purposes: large-fruited, non-red, and paste types, tomatoes for container growing or hot climates, etc. Specific commercial sources for each variety are listed. A portion of the book gives advice on tomato culture, from seed to harvest, detailing standard techniques and also some developed by a variety of home growers who were contacted via survey; there is also a chapter on tomato history and lore. Appended with a source list of 40 seed companies in the U.S. and Canada, and subject index. The culture section includes black-and-white illustrations and diagrams. Volume out of print.

367. Esquinas-Alcazar, J.T. Genetic Resources of Tomatoes and Wild Relatives: A Global Report. Rome, Italy: IBPGR Secretariat, 1981. 65 p. NAL SB349.E8

From the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR), an assessment of germplasm diversity in tomatoes and related species, and their conservation. The subject matter is arranged in eleven chapters that cover the tomato's economic and nutritional importance; origin and domestication; genetics and genetic improvement; germplasm variation and erosion; major world collections; collecting, conservation, and evaluation activities; and wild species. Supplemented with numerous charts, plus maps and black-and-white photos. Appendices contain collection data summaries (1778-1978), descriptor terms for Lycopersicon species, for use in storing and evaluating stored accessions, and other data. (IBPGR is known currently as International Plant Genetic Resources Institute or IPGRI; for further information, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 52.)

368. Hendrickson, Robert. The Great American Tomato Book: The One Complete Guide to Growing and Using Tomatoes Everywhere. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1977. 226 p. NAL SB349.H36

One of several useful references to the many tomato varieties, including old standards and newer introductions, which are more-or-less available to today's gardeners. Following an overview of tomato history and lore, the author presents very detailed and comprehensive information on growing conditions, starting seeds, garden maintenance (feeding, watering, dealing with insects and disease), extending the season, harvesting, and saving seeds (the author acknowledging that hybrids are a "great development," but suggesting that gardeners save seeds of varieties that are difficult to acquire commercially). Includes chapters on tomato preserving methods and a "love apple cookbook" with 18 favorite recipes. Contains abundant varietal information, listing tomatoes for special purposes (stakeless, seedless, for borders, or regional winners, for example) and including notes on 100+ early-ripening tomato varieties (45-65 days) and main-season and late tomatoes (66-100 days). Lists addresses for 60 seed sources (primarily U.S.) by region. With numerous black-and-white photos. This publication is similar to Dubose's tomato tome (entry 366, this volume), although Hendrickson's book is slightly more dated. The Great American Tomato Book emphasizes tomato culture rather than varieties, and fails to mention source information for the varietal descriptions--whether derived from his own experience or elsewhere. Volume out of print.

369. Rick, Charles M. "Tomato: Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae)." In: Evolution of Crop Plants. 2nd ed. J. Smartt and N.W. Simmonds, eds. Harlow, Essex, England: Longman Scientific & Technical; New York: Wiley, 1995. p. 452-457. NAL SB106.O74E96 1995

This book chapter reviews current knowledge of the botany, taxonomy, and early and recent history of the tomato (the second most popular U.S. crop among vegetables), with discussion of its future prospects for commercial improvement. Includes bibliography citing references on germplasm resources and other topics. (See M. Goodman's chapter on corn, entry 342, this volume, for general description of the text and and other chapters cited.)

3B. Periodical Articles

370. Allan, Ken. "The taste of sunshine." Harrowsmith [Canadian edition] 104: 56-61 (Aug. 1992). NAL S522.C2H36

Canadian grower comments on the flavor qualities and other garden characteristics of modern commercial and garden-grown tomatoes, and also tomato breeding. With tips for growing tomatoes and saving seed from non-hybrid cultivars. Includes brief Canadian seed source list.

371. Allen, Judy. "A thaw in the cold war." National Gardening 13(2) :18-21 (Feb. 1990). NAL SB450.9.G37

Describes hardy tomatoes from Eastern Europe, Sweden, and the U.S., which are suited to short-season northern gardens. Growers agree that, for these conditions, open-pollinated determinates are superior to more popular indeterminate hybrids. Includes "planting particulars" and keyed seed sources, p. 62.

372. Anon. "How to make heirlooms a profitable crop." Growing for Market 5(11): 1,4,5 (Nov. 1996).

On the pluses and minuses of growing and selling heirloom tomatoes, including the best varieties, according to several U.S. market growers. This issue also contains a short article, "Tomato pros tell all," starting on p. 8. (For more information on the Growing for Market, a monthly publication for small-scale market growers, contact Fairplain Publications, P.O. Box 3747, Lawrence, KS 66046, tel. 785-748-0605.)

373. Benjamin, Joan. "Paste tomatoes are plum tasty." Organic Gardening 44(4): 28-32 (April 1997). NAL S605.5.O74

The author consulted with gardeners and fresh-market growers around the U.S., to identify the best multi-purpose paste tomatoes in their regions. Includes comparison of 17 open-pollinated and heirloom pastes, and 5 newer hybrids, each keyed to seed sources.

374. Bubel, Nancy. "Saving tomato seeds." Horticulture 66(9): 26-27 (Sept. 1988). NAL 80 H787

Offers stepwise instructions for harvesting seeds from tomatoes, easy plants for beginning seed savers. With illustrations. (Ms. Bubel is author of the book, New Seed-Starters Handbook; see entry 117, this volume.)

375. Byczynski, Lynn. "Colorful tomatoes." Organic Gardening 39(2): 26-32 (Feb. 1992). NAL S605.5.O74

Citing new interest in "technicolor" tomatoes, this article describes favorite non-red and bi-color open-pollinated varieties among growers and collectors around the U.S. Also describes California breeder Tom Wagner's tomato introductions (available through Southern Exposure Seed Exchange; see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 126), with growing tips and seed source list, p. 32. (The author is editor of the market gardeners' newsletter, Growing for Market; for contact information, see entry 372, this volume.)

376. Cavagnaro, David. "Cushions, stuffers & oxhearts." Harrowsmith [U.S. edition] 22(4): 54-61 (July/Aug. 1989). NAL S522.U5H37

From the garden manager of Seed Savers Exchange (SSE) 's Heritage Farm, a brief account of the cultivated tomato's origins, plus notable varieties among 1500 maintained by SSE: beefsteaks (formerly known as cushions), slicers, stuffers, and novelty tomatoes in a "rainbow of colors." Varieties keyed to seed source list.

377. Cavagnaro, David. "Seed sleuths: Our master gardeners track down the best of five home-grown vegetables." Harrowsmith Country Life [U.S. edition] 8(43): 37-38 (Jan./Feb. 1993). NAL S522.U5H37

Master gardener and photographer David Cavagnaro notes the distinguishing features among 15 superior paste tomato varieties (both open-pollinated and hybrid) grown and evaluated in his Midwest garden. Varieties keyed to seed sources.

378. Christopher, Thomas. "The great tomato quest." Horticulture 63(3): 18-22 (March 1985). NAL 80 H787

The author tells of his quest to find flavorful tomatoes "bred for flavor as well as profit," to evaluate charges of inferior tomatoes in John F. Adams' 1983 book, Guerilla Gardening. Includes a summary of his evaluation of 13 varieties from the U.S. and elsewhere, whch were compared for disease-resistance, productivity, and taste. He concludes that tomatoes from the American seed industry remain "a first-rate product." His list included both open-pollinated and hybrids although neither are identified in the article; some commercial sources are noted. (Adams' book, one of the first to laud heirloom crop varieties, was revised and re-issued as Grow Fruits & Vegetables the Way They Used to Taste, New York: Wynwood Press, 1988, 207 p., NAL SB357.24.A32 1988, currently out of print.)

379. Johnson, Elaine and Laura Bonar Swezey. "Heirloom tomatoes." Sunset: The Magazine of Western Living, p. 80-84,86 (Sept. 1995). NAL 110 Su7

In this article, several commercial tomato growers rate their top 12 for quality and productivity, among antique varieties. With seed-saving and planting advice, also recipes and seed source list.

Go to: Contents of Volume 1 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, 400, 420, 460 | Appendices (Volume 1)

380. LeBlanc, Amy. "The joys of heirloom tomatoes." Maine Organic Farmer & Gardener 24(4): 14-16 (Dec. 1997/Feb. 1998). NAL S605.5.M3

Maine grower cites advantages in preserving and using garden tomato diversity. Includes some notable varieties from the collection offered by Seed Savers Exchange's growers network, plus notes on her personal favorites for cooking or fresh-eating. With listing of commercial and nonprofit seed sources. The author indicates that she has compiled a "Guide to 301 Tomato Varieties," including heirlooms and hybrids. For availability of the tomato list, write to the author c/o Whitehill Farm, P.O. Box 273, East Wilton, ME 04234.

381. Male, Carolyn J. "Rediscovery of 'extinct' heirloom commercial tomatoes." Historical Gardener 4(1): 2-3 (Spring 1995).

Tomato collector tells of discovering eight old tomato varieties that were introduced commercially in the late 19th C. and early 20th C., which were stored in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System. Includes discussion of the pedigrees of each, including Paragon, Favorite, Alpha Pink, Triumph, and four others. With bibliography.

382. Male, Carolyn J. "Tomatoes: Where, when, how, & why." Natural Farmer [Northeast Organic Farming Association] 2(30): 7-8 (Fall 1996). NAL S605.5.N3

The writer recounts the origin and travels of the tomato and distinguishing garden features. Also, she surveys tomato diversity and describes some interesting varieties from her extensive collection dating from pre-1800s to the 1930s. Historical information is derived largely from Andrew Smith's 1994 book, Tomato in America (cited in Volume 3, Historical Supplement, entry 169). This article from the co-editor of Off-the-Vine newsletter is one of several in this Natural Farmer issue's "Special Supplement on Tomatoes"; other articles from a variety of contributors deal with saving tomato seeds, pros and cons of heirlooms from a market perspective, and organic tomato production and disease management. (For a related article by Dr. Male, see the July 1994 article, "Heirloom tomatoes," in American Cottage Gardener 1(3): 9-10. For more information on Off-the-Vine, see entry 223, this volume.)

383. Meyer, Scott. "33 top tomatoes." Organic Gardening 40(1): 42-46 (Jan. 1993). NAL S605.5.O74

Professional tomato growers around the U.S. name their favorites among open-pollinated and hybrid tomatoes. With keys to seed sources, p. 48-49.

384. Meyer, Scott. "Twilight-zone tomatoes." Organic Gardening 41(3): 38-40,42-44 (March 1994). NAL S605.5.O74

Consists of notes on 30 heirloom tomatoes with strange appearances and uncommon colors, including keys to seed sources.

385. Noble, Dorothy. "Tantalizing tomatoes from the past." American Vegetable Grower 42(12): 44-47 (Dec. 1994). NAL 80 C733

Commentary on heirloom popularity at fresh markets, and a Penn State University researcher's 5-year evaluation of 200 traditional varieties. Article lists 29 varieties that performed well under commercial conditions. With seed source list.

386. Pleasant, Barbara. "Move over 'Roma.'" Organic Gardening 35(9): 43-48 (Sept. 1988). NAL S605.5.O74

U.S. tomato growers and collectors sing the praises of their favorite heirloom varieties (while noting also certain trade-offs). Some of the improved hybrid pastes are identified also. With notes on tomato diseases, and keys to seed sources.

387. Poncavage, Joanna. "Great-tasting early tomatoes." Organic Gardening 44(1): 41-45 (Jan. 1997). NAL S605.5.O74

Highlights the best among early tomatoes (those ripening in 60-70 days), as rated by commercial growers and tomato collectors with short growing seasons or less patience. With notes on 13 heirloom and open-pollinated varieties, each keyed to seed sources, p. 39.

388. Poncavage, Joanna. "Timeless tomatoes." Organic Gardening 44(3): 34-39 (March 1997). NAL S605.6.O74

Top-ranked heirloom tomatoes are rated for taste and productivity by tomato connoisseurs, collectors, and commercial growers around the U.S.--from the Northwest, Southwest, Northeast, Southeast, and points between. With notes and specific seed sources for the 14 varieties named.

389. Rick, Charles M. "The tomato." Scientific American 239(2): 76-87 (1978). NAL 470 Sci25

Prominent tomato breeder surveys the tomato's history, genetic variation, breeding, fruiting biology, and commercial production practices. Includes bibliography, p. 148.

390. Ruttle, Jack. "Mr. Tomato." National Gardening 19(2) : 60-63 (March/April 1996). NAL SB450.9.G37

Focuses on Charles Rick, University of California breeder and director of the Tomato Genetics Resource Center (TGRC) in Riverside, California, who discusses the genetic roots and diversity of cultivated tomatoes. The Center maintains 3000 different tomato strains, including wild relatives and primitive cultivars; only a few are commercial orfamily "heirlooms." Dr. Rick values heirlooms as "wonderful novelties" lacking deep genetic diversity. More information on TGRC--its full name, the C.M. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center--is available at Web page

391. Ruttle, Jack. "On the trail of the lost tomatoes." National Gardening 15(6): 36-42 (Nov./Dec. 1992). NAL SB450.9.G37

North Carolina grower and collector Craig LeHoullier (who co-edits the newsletter, Off-the-Vine; see entry 223, this volume) prizes heirloom tomatoes. This article describes his six top candidates for best flavor and color (all obtained from other seed savers but most also available commercially), with notes on five additional classic tomatoes. With keyed seed sources for 21 types, p. 78.

392. Ruttle, Jack. "Weird tomatoes." National Gardening 19(1): 44-45 (Jan./Feb. 1996). NAL SB450.9.G37

For tomato lovers who are "round-and-red-weary": what to expect from traditional varieties, and notes on five top heirlooms. Varieties keyed to seed sources, p. 94. The article's full text, without sources, is posted at the magazine's Web site at

393. St. Ives, Tiffany. "A longing for heirloom tomatoes." Small Farm Today 9(2): 33-35 (April 1992). NAL S1.M57

Commentary on the increasing popularity of heirlooms, relating briefly the history of tomatoes in America. Includes notes on 70 of the "best-rated" tomato varieties among the beefsteaks, bi-colors, pastes, cherries, and pink, yellow, and white tomatoes, with brief cultural advice.

394. Schultz, Warren, Jr. "Where's the taste in tomatoes?" Organic Gardening 32(3): 82,84,86-88 (March 1995). NAL 57.8 Or32

Describes the flavor tradeoffs in some modern hybrid tomatoes bred for firmness, earliness, and high yields, along with the efforts of some breeders to bring back the flavor. Also examines the highly subjective nature of taste preferences, and some of the positive and negative aspects of old and new tomato cultivars.

395. Sokolov, Ray. "Square, gassed tomatoes and other modern myths." Natural History, p. 70-72 (July 1989). NAL 500 N483J

Food writer explores the consumer rebellion against commercial "square tomatoes without taste," asking "What exactly makes the industrial tomato taste so blah?" (His answer relates as much to off-season culture and premature harvest, as to breeding efforts.) This theme is explored also in "The hunt for real tomatoes," a chapter (p. 112-116) in the writer's 1991 book on food plants, diets, and foodways around the world, entitled Why We Eat What We Eat: How the Encounter Between the New World and the Old Changed the Way Everyone on the Planet Eats (New York: Summit Books, NAL TX631.S65, volume out of print).

396. Swan, John P. "A passion for heirloom tomatoes." Green Scene [Pennsylvania Horticultural Society] 20(4): 11-15 (March/April 1992). NAL SB1.G7

Examines current interest in heritage vegetables, and tomatoes in particular, with a profile of Craig Lehoullier and other Pennsylvania heirloom tomato growers and collectors who believe that "the best-tasting, highest-yielding tomatoes are to be found among the old-time heirloom varieties." Notes growers' favorites, with source list.

397. Wolf, Thomas H. "How the lowly 'love apple' rose in the world." Smithsonian 21(5): 110-117 (Aug. 1990). NAL QH1.S5

On various aspects of the tomato, the "top crop" of home gardeners in the U.S. Among the topics briefly considered: historical highlights, the tomato's adoption into numerous cuisines, and genetic engineering efforts. According to the author, "The day may dawn when [supermarket tomatoes] will be so indescribably delicious the year round that no one will bother to grow the common, or garden, variety ever again." With bibliography, p. 136.

4. Capsicum Peppers

4A. Bibliographies

398. Bosland, Paul W. Capsicum: A Comprehensive Bibliography. Las Cruces, NM: Chile [Pepper] Institute, 1992. 1 vol., var. pagings. NAL Z5074.P39B67 1992

Citations to (mostly) English language publications on all aspects of Capsicum research are listed under general and specific subject headings. Twentieth Century publications predominate, most dating to the 1970s to 1990s. Citations to articles from research journals, trade publications, and experiment station reports are arranged under the following subject headings: taxonomy; pollination; seeds; genetics; plant breeding (including variety trials); production; harvesting; plant biochemistry; pungency; postharvest; disorders, pests, and diseases; and biotechnology. There is a final section listing Capsicum books. This publication is regularly updated by the Chile Pepper Institute; the 4th edition contains 6300 citations, and the most recent (and expanded) 5th edition was issued in 1997. For availability from the Institute, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 62.

399. DeWitt, David A. Chile Peppers: A Selected Bibliography of the Capsicums. Las Cruces, NM: Chili Institute, 1992. 74 p. NAL Z5074.P39D49 1992

An ongoing bibliography from the Chili Institute (also known as Chile Pepper Institute), containing more than 1100 chile pepper citations expected to be most informative for "literate chileheads." Citations were selected from newspapers, magazine and journal articles, books, and agricultural reports; highly technical citations were excluded. Most date from the 1930s to the 1990s (with publications from the last two decades predominant). Citations are arranged into the following four sections: "General history" (Part 1, includes nomenclature, legend and lore, and sociological aspects); "From plant to product" (Part 2, includes physiology, chemistry, food science, and commercial cultivation); "Nutrition and medicine" (Part 3); and "Culinary arts" (Part 4). Several Capsicum bibliographies (dating from 1964 to 1986) are listed. To contact the Institute for availability, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 62.

Go to: Contents of Volume 1 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, 400, 420, 460 | Appendices (Volume 1)

4B. Books, Book Chapters

400. Andrews, Jean, foreword by W. Hardy Eshbaugh.Peppers: The Domesticated Capsicums. 2nd ed. Austin, TX: University of Austin Press, 1995. 186 p. NAL SB307.P4A53 1995

An essential text for pepper enthusiasts, this definitive work on sweet and hot peppers grew out of the author's initial desire to illustrate the genus Capsicum in the 1970s. A compendium of pepper history and lore, botany, art, and science, it provides a detailed examination of pre-Columbian domestication, observations by early Europeans, and the pepper's dissemination from its South American origins to the Old World. Other topics treated in-depth include biological and taxonomic description, pepper agronomy, and pepper uses (modern economic uses, including medicinal, and also traditional). Thirty-four Capsicum cultivar groups representing the domesticated and two semi-wild species are described in detail, including origins and culinary uses, with examples of named varieties. Each verbal description is complemented by the author's superb full-page color illustration of fruiting plants (the text portion contains black-and-white drawings and photos). Includes a chapter on preparing and serving peppers, with two dozen recipes typical of the cultivars pictured in the book. Appendices include contacts for pepper events and information sources, glossary (both terms and pictures), and subject index, as well as commercial suppliers selling more than a dozen named peppers (each keyed to varietal types) and an extensive bibliography covering the historical and modern pepper literature. First published in 1984 (NAL SB307.P4A53 1984). Revised edition currently in print.
Related work: Jean Andrews' newest book on identifying and using peppers is entitled, The Pepper Lady's Pocket Pepper Primer (University of Texas Press, 1998, 184 p., currently in print). It provides details on 42 common types, with full-color photos.

401. Bosland, Paul W. "Chiles: History, cultivation, and uses." In: Spices, Herbs and Edible Fungi. George Charalambous, ed. New York: Elsevier, 1994. Developments in Food Science vol. 34. p. 347-366. NAL TX541.D33

Focusing on the pungent Capsicum species, this book chapter from a pepper scientist discusses taxonomy, botanical relationships, C. annuum varieties and cultivars, cultivation, nutrition, medicinal aspects, pungency (its biology and chemistry), and other topics. With extensive bibliography. The report is contained in a volume on various botanical substances used to flavor foods and uses language accessible to avid general readers as well as food scientists.

402. Burge, Weldon. Grow the Best Peppers. Pownal, VT: Storey Communications, 1995. Storey Publishing Bulletin A-138. 32 p. NAL SB351.P4B87 1995

A concise, practical guide to growing and using sweet and hot (chile) peppers. Much of the publication deals with cultivation aspects; subjects include planning for best production, starting seeds, transplanting, dealing with pests and diseases, and other maintenance topics, with organic methods emphasized. Additional topics include a brief look at pepper history and classification, how to harvest and store peppers, using ornamental peppers, and general kitchen tips. Of particular interest to heirloom growers and pepper collectors are tabular notes from the author's survey of the pepper cultivars available from 19 U.S. seed suppliers. For each variety (totalling 54 sweet types and 33 hot peppers) there is a brief physical description, with days to harvest and keys to sources. A handful are identified as hybrids, and there are comments on regional suitability, geographical or other source, disease resistance, and uses. With list of suppliers (many of them updated in this publication). Currently in print; available NS; or contact Storey Communications, entry 432, this volume.

403. Dewitt, Dave and Paul Bosland. The Pepper Garden. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press, 1993. 240 p. NAL SB351.P4D47 1993

A useful garden guide for growers and collectors, and also reference for pepper lovers, from two pepper experts (the founding editor of Chili Pepper magazine and New Mexico State University pepper breeder, respectively). Topics include a brief history of pepper culture (domestic origins and taxonomy); pod types and representative varieties of Capsicum annuum; other pepper species and pod types; pepper cultivation (starting seeds, maintenance, pest and disease problems, and harvest); and commercial growing, based on the experiences of several commercial operations in the U.S. For the five recognized Capsicum species and cultivars, several named varieties (with brief notes and specific commercial sources) are recommended. With black-and-white drawings and color plates. Includes a lengthy bibliography of chili pepper books, technical reports, and articles, plus hot pepper production statistics, glossary, contact information for commercial seed suppliers, and index. Volume currently in print; available SC,SS. (For information on Chili Pepper magazine, see entry 221, this volume.)
Related works: In recent years, Dave Dewitt has written or co-written a number of popular books on the hot peppers. Also with Paul Bosland, he has collaborated on the book, Peppers of the World: An Identification Guide (Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press, 1996, 232 p.). It describes and illustrates over 300 pepper cultivars from around the world, with source information and color photos. Currently in print; available NS,SB,SS.

404. DeWitt, Dave and Nancy Gerlach. The Whole Chile Pepper Book. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1990. 373 p. NAL TX803.P46D49 1990

From the editors of The Whole Chile Pepper magazine (now known as Chili Pepper; see entry 221, this volume), this book combines text and recipes to illustrate the history, lore, and culinary usage of the pungent Capsicum species and varieties. Two chapters present background information on identifying pod types and varieties of each, as well as their usage, origins, and culture, with a short account on growing and preparing peppers. Succeeding chapters focus on chile cuisines around the world, including the Caribbean and Latin America, the American Southwest, Europe, Africa, and East and South Asia. Each includes recipes (over 180 total) --"both the most traditional and the tastiest"--with heat scale ratings. The text contains color plates of two dozen representative varieties, plus a handful of black-and-white illustrations. Also supplemented with a list of recommended mail-order seed sources, chile product sources, and extensive bibliography citing mostly late 20th-C. sources on Capsicum history, production, nutrition and medicine, and culinary arts, including several other Capsicum bibliographies. Currently in print; available NS.

405. Eshbaugh, W. Hardy. "Peppers: History and exploitation of a serendipitous new crop discovery." In: New Crops. National Symposium New Crops: Exploration, Research, and Commercialization (2nd; 1991; Indianapolis, Ind.); Jules Janick and James E. Simon, eds. New York: Wiley, 1993. p. 132-139. NAL SB160.N38 1991

Pepper botanist and plant explorer reviews the origins and domestic evolution, botany, and horticulture of the Capsicum genus, focusing on the four domesticated species and the pungent forms of C. annuum. A brief discussion of confusing pepper nomenclature, and an outline of germplasm collection initiatives and exploitation, are provided. With an extensive bibliography. This chapter is contained in a volume resulting from a 1991 symposium on the exploration, research, and commercialization of new crops in North America; the full text is available at the Indiana Center for New Crops and Plant Products' Web site, (Refer to entry 39, this volume, for Cary Fowler's article in New Crops. See Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 70, for more information on Purdue University's New Crops Center.)

406. Heiser, Charles B., Jr. "How many kinds of peppers are there?" In: Of Plants and People. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1985. Ch. 9, p. 142-154. NAL SB87.A45H45

This chapter on garden peppers is 1 of 13 contained in a book on "old-fashioned botany" from a well-known botanist. Most of them deal with one or more native American plants with "interesting interactions with people." Ch. 9 delves into the botanical and horticultural aspects of the Capsicum peppers, a topic of practical interest for pepper breeders and anthropologists, as well as serious gardeners and collectors. Includes a brief survey of pepper classification (from Linnaeus onward), descriptions of species cultivated in the U.S. and elsewhere, and studies by the author, a noted pepper expert, on genus members. With author's black-and-white photos, plus bibliography. (The chapter on squash and pumpkins is cited in entry 434, this volume.) Currently in print.

407. Heiser, Charles B., Jr. "Peppers: Capsicum (Solanaceae)." In: Evolution of Crop Plants. 2nd ed. J. Smartt and N.W. Simmonds, eds. New York: Wiley, 1995. Ch. 89, p. 449-451. NAL SB106.O74E96 1995

This chapter reviews current knowledge of the botany, taxonomy, and early and recent history of the domesticated Capsicum species. Bibliography includes references dealing with pepper germplasm resources. (See entry 342, this volume, for general description of the text and other chapters cited.)

408. International Board for Plant Genetic Resources. Genetic Resources of Capsicum: A Global Plan of Action. Rome: IBPGR Secretariat, 1983. 49 p. NAL SB351.P4G45

A scientific assessment of germplasm diversity and conservation of the Capsicum peppers. Topics reviewed include their economic and nutritional importance (Ch. 1); taxonomy of the genus' domesticated and wild members (Ch. 2); distribution, origin, and diversity (Ch. 3), genetic improvement (Ch. 4); major germplasm collections (Ch. 5) ; collecting activities and priorities (Ch. 6); conservation and collection maintenance (Ch. 7); documentation of collection materials (including a descriptor list to describe accessions, Ch. 8); and bibliography (Ch. 9). Supplemented with numerous maps and tables, and black-and-white photos and line drawings. Appendices contain diagnostic descriptions of the five domesticated species, information on major and minor Capsicum collections, and other data. (IBPGR is known currently as International Plant Genetic Resources Institute or IPGRI; for further information, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 52.)

409. Miller, Mark, with John Harrisson. The Great Chili Book. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press, 1991. 156 p. NAL TX803.P46M56 1991

An illustrated guide to the world's more popular chile peppers, rather than gardening text. Mark Miller, who is founder and chef at Santa Fe's Coyote Cafe (and also writer of numerous books on Southwestern foods and cooking), recommends learning to use the chiles "first for flavor, then for heat." The major portion of the book consists of brief descriptions of over 90 popular types, including many from Latin America and elsewhere, each accompanied by a full-color photo of the fresh or dried fruit. Descriptions consider identifying features, recommended uses, heat ratings, other names, and region of importance. Includes a chapter surveying the Capsicum genus, with information on pepper names, origins, and commercial and folk usage. Supplemented with contact details for 10 commercial sources of fresh and dried chiles, and also seed sources. Includes a dozen recipes adapted by the Coyote Cafe for home use. Currently in print; available PG,PW.

4C. Periodical Articles

410. Andrews, Jean. "Peppers: The world's favorite all-American spice." Pacific Discovery [California Academy of Sciences] 39(1): 20-33 (Jan./March 1986). NAL 500 P112

A rather detailed survey of the origin and distribution of the cultivated peppers, also considering hot pepper pungency, various hot pepper products, and modern production. For general readers, from the author of the 1995 book, Peppers: The Domesticated Capsicums (cited in entry 400, this volume).

411. Bosland, Paul W. "Chiles: A diverse crop." HortTechnology 2(1): 6-10 (Jan./March 1992). NAL SB317.5.H68

This review article addresses various aspects of chile peppers, including taxonomy and terminology, uses, and horticultural characteristics. Includes discussion of horticultural groupings of the pungent Capsicum annuum chiles (anaheim, jalapeno, serrano, mirasol, etc.) and ornamental types, and other Capsicum species. With color photos, and bibliography.

412. Jesiolowski, Jill. "Pick a peck of purple peppers and red and orange and brown and lavender." Organic Gardening 39(3): 24-26,28-30 (March 1992). NAL S605.5.O74

Noting that pepper flavor is closely related to color, the author describes some popular varieties from the "psychedelic pepper palette." With growing advice, plus a chart citing disease resistance and specific sources for 28 types, including 11 open-pollinated varieties.

413. Kopcinski, Peter. "Hungarian peppers." National Gardening 19(3): 46-47,86-87 (May/June 1996). NAL SB450.9.G37

On diverse sweet and hot peppers from Eastern Europe, all of them early-maturing, open-pollinated varieties. Includes traditional uses, growing advice, and seed sources for seven named varieties. The article's full text, without seed sources, is available at Web site

414. Meyer, Scott. "Sweet peppers that aren't bells." Organic Gardening 41(4): 50-55 (April 1994). NAL S605.5.O74

Features the "unbells," including pimento, frying, paprika, and Caribbean banana and pickling peppers. Gardeners, collectors, and breeders (all active seed savers) cite their favorites. With table outlining the features of 22 cultivars, and seed source list.

415. Phinney, M.D. "Don't stop at green: Go for the colors and flavors of ripe sweet peppers." Harrowsmith Country Life [U.S. edition] 10(57): 38-43 (June 1995). NAL S522.U5H37

The author discusses various kinds of peppers he has grown, with tips on their culture in Massachusetts. With notes on the pertinent features of 20 varieties, including seed source listing.

416. Pleasant, Barbara. "Peppers: Ornamental and edible." Organic Gardening 42(8): 36-38 (Nov. 1995). NAL S605.6.O74

Features 16 hot and sweet pepper varieties, including both antique and new breeds. With growing tips and keys to seed sources.

417. Poncavage, Joanna. "The Guinness OG book of peppers." Organic Gardening 44(2): 30-36 (Feb. 1997). NAL S605.6.O74

Describes notable pepper varieties among a dozen categories, among them the "the sweetest, the hottest, the biggest, the smallest." With chart noting the traits of 28 cultivars (both open-pollinated and hybrid types, although not identified as such), plus brief advice for growing "perfect peppers." Includes seed company source list.

418. Proulx, E.A. "Some like them hot." Horticulture 63(1) : 46-54 (Jan. 1985). NAL 80 H787

On the growing popularity of chile peppers, highlighting Capsicum history, known wild and domesticated species, what makes chiles hot, and chile diversity. Describes in some detail the breeding work done in New Mexico since the early 20th C., and mentions numerous chile types and named varieties. Commercial source list, p. 78-79.

419. Robbins, Jim. "Care for a little hellish relish? Or try a hotsicle." Smithsonian 22(10): 42-51 (Jan. 1992). NAL QH1.S5

On chili pepper fans and the object of their affection, considering chili pepper history and "personality" (what makes them so hot), fiery cuisines, chili pepper culinary culture, and genetic diversity. With bibliography, p. 124.

Go to: Contents of Volume 1 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, 400, 420, 460 | Appendices (Volume 1)

420. Salt, Steve. "Hot! hot! hot peppers! [Part 1]" Small Farm Today 14(6): 22-35 (Dec. 1997/Jan. 1998). NAL S1.M57

Missouri grower cites important considerations for growing chile peppers as a specialty crop, including notable horticultural types, novelties, and cultivars, the author's favorites among them. Lists 17 commercial sources with good pepper selections. Part II of this article continues in the Feb./March issue, p. 53-55, with focus on the "rainbow kaleidescope" of sweet, semi-hot, and ornamental peppers.

421. Smith, Paul G., Benigno Villalon, and Philip L. Villa. "Horticultural classification of peppers grown in the United States." HortScience 22(1): 11-13 (Feb. 1987). NAL SB1.H6

Reviews classification--on the basis of fruit size, shape, and color--of Capsicum annuum and C. frutescens (tabasco) cultivars of commercial importance in the U.S. Briefly describes seven horticultural groups (each depicted by a line drawing) and subgroups (bell, pimento, ancho, anaheim chili, serrano, jalapeno, etc.), with examples of named cultivars for each. Includes a brief overview of the distinguishing features of other Capsicum species, both cultivated and wild forms, and pepper terminology. With bibliography.

5. Phaseolus Beans

5A. Books, Book Chapters, Special Periodical Issue

422. Debouck, Daniel G. and Joseph Smartt. "Beans: Phaseolus spp. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae)." In: Evolution of Crop Plants. 2nd ed. J. Smartt and N.W. Simmonds, eds. New York: Wiley, 1995. Ch. 58, p. 287-294. NAL SB106.O74E96 1995

This book chapter reviews current knowledge of the botany, taxonomy, and early and recent history of the domesticated Phaseolus beans, including commercial improvement. Includes maps denoting origins and traditional cultivation, plus bibliography. (See M. Goodman's chapter on corn, entry 342, for general description of volume and other chapters cited.)

423. Gepts, Paul, ed. Genetic Resources of Phaseolus Beans: Their Maintenance, Domestication, Evolution, and Utilization. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1988. Current Plant Science and Biotechnology in Agriculture vol. 6. 613 p. NAL S494.5.B563C87 v.6

Assembles state-of-the-art scientific knowledge on the genetic resources of Phaseolus beans. Although much of the book is quite technical and intended for researchers and "advanced students," some portions may be useful to serious amateur bean growers, collectors, and breeders. Section I (consisting of six chapters) reviews various aspects of germplasm maintenance, covering plant exploration, preservation and storage methods, databases, important world collections, and international networks of institutions and individuals. Section II (five chapters) considers domestication, evolution, and variability in the common bean, P. vulgaris, including chapters reviewing archaeological evidence and changes exhibited by beans under domestication. Section IV (three chapters) deals with genetic resources, taxonomy, domestication, and evolution of other cultivated Phaseolus species; the lima bean (P. lunatus), tepary bean (P. acutifolius), and runner bean (P. coccineus) are considered, in turn. Section V (five chapters) is concerned with the utilization of Phaseolus genetic resources, focusing on common bean selection methods and the use of genetic resources in the development of commercial bean cultivars in the U.S. The last chapter provides an overview of the bean seed industry and major production areas in the U.S., public and private breeding programs, genetic vulnerability, cooperation among national and international bean research agencies (including the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System), and other topics. (Four chapters in Section III review the genetics of P. vulgaris.) Each chapter contains comprehensive bibliography.

424. Nabhan, G. P., ed. The Desert Tepary as a Food Resource. Desert Plants vol. 5, no. 1 (1983). 64 p. NAL QK938.D4D4

Special periodical issue on the tepary bean, Phaseolus acutifolius, consisting of nine papers addressing various aspects of this dryland-adapted legume. Topics include tepary cuisine and nutritional significance, traditional O'odham farmers and tepary bean cultivation, modern tepary farming, traditional tepary varieties in Mexico, teparies as genetic sources of useful traits to improve common beans, and tepary seed sources. With guest editorial by Gary Nabhan. Articles include bibliographies. With numerous black-and-white and color photos throughout.

5B. Periodical Articles

425. Dorschner, Cheryl. "Horticultural has-beans." National Gardening 15(5): 34-37 (Sept./Oct. 1992). NAL SB450.9.G37

On the popularity of beans among seed savers and collectors. Several bean devotees cite their favorites for particular U.S. hardiness zones, with tips for growing and saving seed. With classification of types of comon beans and outline of bean problems in the garden.

426. Gepts, Paul. "Biotechnology sheds light on bean domestication in Latin America." Diversity 7(1/2): 49-50 (1991). NAL SB123.3.D5

Reviews current knowledge of the ancestry of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Recent evidence provided by biomolecular studies, which offer "signposts" of crop evolution, suggests the independent domestication of the common bean from wild progenitors in Mexico, as well as the southern Andes. Article discusses conservation and breeding implications.

427. Jesiolowski, Jill. "Grow a dry bean bonanza." Organic Gardening 42(8): 42-46 (Nov. 1995). NAL S605.5.O74

Growers recommend traditional bean varieties for the U.S. Midwest, West, Pacific Maritime, South, and Northeast. With growing and harvest tips, and keys to seed sources.

428. Kaplan, Lawrence. "New World beans." Horticulture 58(10): 42-49 (Oct. 1980). NAL 80 H787

Bean scientist sketches the history, uses, and improvement of the better-known Phaseolus beans, based on archaeological records and historical writings. A few common, lima, and scarlet runner bean varieties are noted. With illustrations.

429. Kapuler, Alan. "Seeds on trial: Pole green beans." Harrowsmith Country Life [U.S. edition] 7(37): 70-71 (Jan./Feb. 1992). NAL S522.U5H37

For this article, an Oregon grower evaluated 37 pole beans; the best garden producers among them included 5 heirlooms, 2 traditional Native American varieties, and 3 modern hybrids. Includes source information. (Other articles in this series described the results of trials of eggplants, cherry tomatoes, lettuce (several heirlooms among them), and sugar snap peas, p. 68-75.) Dr. Kapuler has championed the concepts of five plant "kin-doms" and "coevolutionary gardening," which underpin conservation gardens organized by kinship relationships among plants. He founded and directed the seed company, Peace Seeds, and is currently affiliated with Seeds of Change seed company. (For more on the seed companies, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 120.)

430. MacCaskey, Michael. "Elizabeth's beans." National Gardening 17(5): 42-45,67 (Sept./Oct. 1994). NAL SB450.9.G37

New Mexican grower, Elizabeth Berry, works to grow out heirloom beans for preservation and market introduction via creative chefs. In this article, 16 dry bean varieties are described, with growing and harvest advice and keys to sources. For an update on Berry's work to popularize heirloom beans, see Elaine Johnson's article in Sunset: The Magazine of Western Living, p. 120-125, March 1997, NAL 110 Su7. It includes notes on seven bean varieties, recipes, and bean sources for growing and cooking. With New York Times food writer Florence Fabricant, Ms. Berry has written The Great Bean Book (Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press). To be issued in 1999, it profiles and illustrates 30 heirloom beans. (For more on Ms. Berry's seed company, Gallina Canyon Ranch, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 92.)

431. Nabhan, G.P., C.W. Weber, and J.W. Berry. "Variation in composition of Hopi Indian beans." Ecology of Food and Nutrition 16(2): 135-152 (1985). NAL TX341.E3

Reports on a comparative study of several species of Phaseolus beans grown on a Hopi reservation using traditional farming techniques, with beans grown off the reservation. Reservation-grown beans were generally superior in protein content, but no clear differences in protein quality could be attributed to bean types or fieldenvironments. Article includes information on traditional bean uses for food and other purposes. With bibliography citing literature on Hopi ethnobotany and beans cultivated in the Southwest.

6. Squashes and Pumpkins (Cucurbita species)

6A. Books, Book Chapters

432. Damerow, Gail. The Perfect Pumpkin. Pownal, VT: Storey Communications, 1997. 219 p.

For home and market gardeners, a valuable growers guide and reference to the "versatile pumpkin" crop and its many varieties, from a practicing farmer and author of farming books who currently edits Rural Heritage magazine. The book is organized into seven chapters that cover pumpkin biology and taxonomy (including, from a botanical viewpoint, what makes a pumpkin a pumpkin and not a squash); general pumpkin culture, from seed starting to fruit and seed harvest; competitive pumpkin growing; pest and disease management techniques, emphasizing organics; pumpkin arts and crafts; and pumpkins in the kitchen, with storage tips and more than 30 recipes of all types. Pumpkin varietal information appears primarily in tables in Ch. 1, covering p. 18-37. This section lists heirloom, other open-pollinated varieties, and hybrids, plus Plant Variety Protected (PVP) types among the 4 distinct pumpkin groups--the pepos, "cheese" pumpkins, cushaws, and maximas; included are 4 minis, 38 culinary varieties, 8 naked-seed pumpkins, 37 carving and ornamental pumpkins, and 8 giants. For each named type, brief descriptions include species name and varietal synonyms, along with notes on growth habit, relative maturity, fruit size and appearance, and for some, varietal comparisons, disease resistance, and other notable traits. Text contains numerous illustrations and diagrams. Appended with bibliography, list of U.S. and Canadian seed suppliers, and pumpkin organizations, plus subject index. Currently in print; available FE,SS; or contact Storey Communications, P.O. Box 445, Pownal, VT 05261, tel. 800-441-5700.

433. Esquinas-Alcázar, J.T. and P.J. Gulick. Genetic Resources of Cucurbitaceae: A Global Report. Rome: IBPGR Secretariat, 1983. 101 p. NAL SB351.C8E77 1983

A scientific assessment of germplasm diversity and conservation of members of Cucurbitaceae, the plant family that includes squashes, pumpkins, gourds, melons, cucumbers, and lesser-known types. Topics include historical, economic and nutritional aspects (Ch. I); biological and agricultural aspects, including wild species (Ch. II); origin, evolution, and distribution (Ch. III), genetics and genetic improvement (Ch. IV); variability and genetic erosion (Ch. V); existing world germplasm collections (Ch. VI); collection priorities and techniques (Ch. VII); collection maintenance and conservation (Ch. VIII); and evaluation and characterization (Ch. IX). Ch. X consists of literature references. Supplemented with numerous maps and tables, plus black-and-white photos and line drawings. Appendices contain descriptor lists for characterizing germplasm collections, and other information. (For contact information for IBPGR, now known as International Plant Genetic Resources Institute or IPGRI, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 52.)

434. Heiser, Charles B., Jr. "Of pepos and people." In: Of Plants and People. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1985. Ch. 1, p. 1-28. NAL SB87.A45H45

From a book of essays by a noted U.S. botanist, which center on various cultivated plants native to the Americas. Twelve chapters consider some of the better-known indigenous plants, including members of the cucurbit family, and peppers, and also lesser-known plants, such as amaranth, quinua (or quinoa), naranjilla, peperomia, and sumpweed. Along with profiles of (mostly) food plants with interesting histories, the book includes a chapter on religion and the origins of agriculture, titled "Seeds, sex, and sacrifice." Ch. 1 highlights the pumpkins and squashes, touching on their roles as food plants, in language, and in folk usage (such as the Halloween Jack-o-lantern), and also studies of cross-breeding among cucurbits, and other topics. Botanical cousins to the pepos, including the bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) and luffa sponge plant (Luffa species), are discussed also. With author's black-and-white photos, plus bibliography (p. 221-222). Ch. 9 on Capsicum peppers is cited in entry 406, this volume. The author is professor emeritus at Indiana State University.

435. Merrick, Laura C. "Squashes, pumpkins and gourds: Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae)." In: Evolution of Crop Plants. 2nd ed. J. Smartt and N.W. Simmonds, eds. New York: Wiley, 1995. Ch. 23, p. 97-104. NAL SB106.O74E96 1995

University of Maine scientist updates scientific knowledge of the ancient Native American genus Cucurbita, reviewing the origins, evolution, and taxonomy of the five cultivated species. Also considered: the plant group's recent agricultural history in the U.S. and elsewhere, developments in breeding work since 1930, and future prospects for breeding and conservation. With bibliography. The author has served on the advisory board for Seed Savers Exchange. (See entry 342 for general description of volume.)

436. Robinson, R.W. and D.S. Decker-Walters. Cucurbits. Wallingford, Oxon, UK; New York: CAB International, 1997. Crop Production Science in Horticulture vol. 6. 226 p. NAL SB317.5.C76 no.6

For practicing horticulturists, students, and other nonspecialist readers (including serious gardeners and cucurbit collectors), this text provides comprehensive coverage of all aspects of the biology and production of cucurbit crops (or Cucurbitaceae). This highly diverse group includes squashes, pumpkins, gourds, melons, and cucumbers. Following a group overview in Ch. 1 (covering nomenclature, taxonomy, morphology, and growth and development), succeeding chapters discuss evolution and exploitation (Ch. 2); genetics and breeding (Ch. 3); cultural requirements for field and also greenhouse production (Ch. 5); fruit and seed production, including harvest, storage, and seed collection (Ch. 6); cucurbit diseases and nematodes (Ch. 7); and insects and mites (Ch. 8). Ch. 4 discusses major and minor members of the family, with focus on horticultural classifications, food and other uses, and breeding developments. The histories of several notable cultivars among the squashes, melons and cucumbers, and others, are noted briefly within this chapter. With a listing of common cucurbit names and their scientific equivalents, and extensive bibliography. With black-and-white photos and illustrations.

6B. Periodical Articles

437. Besal, Betty. "The natives are restless." National Gardening 11(9): 38-41 (Sept. 1988). NAL SB450.9.G37

Recounts a University of Nebraska squash breeder's project to improve the flavor and reduce the size of a Native American heirloom squash with a well-documented history. With advice on growing and storing winter squashes.

438. Cavagnaro. David. "Homemade hybrids." National Gardening 10(7): 47-49 (July 1987). NAL SB450.9.G37

Describes basic hand-pollination methods for pollinating squashes, to perpetuate favorites or to create new varieties. With brief outline to aid in distinquishing the four cultivated Cucurbita species.

439. Deppe, Carol. "Custom-crafted vegetables" National Gardening 21(3) :46-48, 50-53 (June 1998). NAL SB450.9.G37

The first of a two-part series on creating your own varieties of squashes and pumpkins. With step-by-step instructions, this article covers pollination biology, varietal selection, and hand pollination. Part 2 in the July/Aug. issue, p. 42-45, covers seed harvest, with advice for processing large batches. (Plant breeder Deppe's guidebook, Breed Your Own Vegetable Varieties, is cited in entry 16, this volume.)

Go to: Contents of Volume 1 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, 400, 420, 460 | Appendices (Volume 1)

440. Drowns, Glenn. "A world of squash beyond zucchini." Fine Gardening 3: 58-62 (Sept./Oct. 1988).

Advice on growing and saving seed from the squashes. Discusses garden characteristics of Cucurbita pepo, C. maxima, C. moschata, and C. mixta, including how to identify each type, and hand-pollination basics. With list of commercial seed sources. The author serves currently as Seed Savers Exchange's curator for cucurbits and garden corns.

441. Jankowiak, James. "Chicago Hubbard to Guatemala Blue." Rodale's Organic Gardening 32(10): 78-80, 82-84 (Oct. 1985). NAL S605.5.R64

Illinois gardener profiles his favorite winter squashes, based on five years of cultivar trials. With notes on a dozen old and newer cultivars, with growing tips, and several commercial sources.

442. Kapuler, Alan. "Winter squash." Harrowsmith Country Life [U.S. edition] 8(43): 38-39 (Jan./Feb. 1993). NAL S522.U5H37

Plant breeder and research director of Seeds of Change seed company reviews the winter maximas (or hubbards), with garden and culinary ratings obtained from comparing 16 varieties in his Oregon garden. Heirlooms and new bush types, chosen to reflect the winter maxima's history and diversity, were analyzed. Sources listed for each.

443. Loy, Brent. "Make room for pumpkins and squash." Horticulture 65(8): 44-47 (Aug. 1987). NAL 80 H787

University of New Hampshire squash breeder comments on the merits and challenges of growing winter squashes and pumpkins. Distinctions between squashes and pumpkins are discussed, and some popular varieties, including space-saving bush are noted. The author anticipates greater introduction of hybrids ("generally more vigorous and productive than open-pollinated varieties") but hopes that "there will remain seed companies selling seed of our traditional cultivars and would-be gardeners eager to plant them."

[note: entries 444-453 do not exist]

454. Paris, Harry S. "Historical records, origins, and development of the edible cultivar groups of Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae)." Economic Botany 43: 423-443 (1989). NAL 450 Ec7

Cucurbit scientist reviews in some detail the history, modern development, and present status of eight distinct cultivar groups within C. pepo, which are grown for their mature fruits (pumpkins and acorns) or immature fruits (scallops, crooknecks, straightnecks, vegetable marrows, cocozelles, and zucchinis). Bibliography cites numerous historical sources.

455. Paris, Harry S. "Summer squash: History, diversity, distribution." HortTechnology 6(1): 6-13 (Jan./March 1996). NAL SB317.5.H68

For general readers as well as professional horticulturists, this article considers the values, uses, and diversity among summer squashes (young, edible fruits of Cucurbita pepo). Discusses the terminology used to denote various members of the group, and botanical relationships. Most of the article describes the distinguishing features of members of six summer squash groups with distinct shapes: scallops, crooknecks, straightnecks, vegetable marrows, cocozelles, and zucchinis. Includes commentary on usage of each type in early U.S. history. With minimal varietal information, although some extant older varieties and popular hybrids are mentioned. With black-and-white photos, and bibliography citing primarily late 20th-C. publications.

456. Rezelman, John. "A squash to "keep"--It stores well, but we might lose it." Countryside & Small Stock Journal 80(4): 61 (July/Aug. 1996). NAL S521.C62

Reader's comments on the pluses and minuses of Mooregold squash, a commercially-endangered buttercup variety offered by a single commercial firm and listed by Seed Savers Exchange members.

457. Robinson, R.W. "Genetic resistance in the Cucurbitaceae to insects and spider mites." Plant Breeding Reviews 10: 309-360 (1992). NAL SB123.P55 v.10

Cornell University cucurbit scientist reviews insect and spider mite resistance among squash, melons, cucumbers, watermelon, and other family members, citing literature studies dating from the 1940s to 1990s, with commentary on plant breeding issues and sources of resistance. Following an introduction that lists species and common plant names considered in the study, Part II, "Sources of resistance" (p. 311-323) cites 14 insects in turn (squash vine borers, cucumber beetles, and others) and discusses for each one the resistance relationships among cucurbit species and cultivars. Cucurbit cultivars with resistance, including older open-pollinated varieties, are noted. Parts III-V discuss resistance testing techniques, resistance mechanisms, and inheritance of resistance, respectively. General discussion of breeding for insect resistance is provided in Part VI, along with a lengthy bibliography. (Although intended for cucurbit specialists, this article compiles information useful to heirloom gardeners, collectors, and curators.)

458. Salt, Steve. "The great pumpkin." Small Farm Today14(5): 24-28 (Oct. 1997). NAL S1.M57

Concerned with growth requirements and strategies for the prospective commercial pumpkin grower. The author reviews existing types of "pumpkins" (more a marketing distinction than horticultural grouping), citing old and new open-pollinated varieties and heirlooms among carving, pie, and ornamental pumpkins. He recommends on-farm variety trials to select the most suitable types.

459. Staw, Jane and Mary Swander. "Awash in squash." National Gardening 13(10): 18-23 (Nov./Dec. 1990). NAL SB450.9.G37

Iowa grower Glenn Drowns preserves hundreds of varieties of Cucurbita species and distributes seeds to Seed Savers Exchange members. The article describes various squash types and their uses, with growing advice. Lists seed sources, p. 70, for eight varieties mentioned. (Mr. Drowns is co-owner of the seed company, Sand Hill Preservation Center; see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 116.)

Go to: Contents of Volume 1 | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, 400, 420, 460 | Appendices (Volume 1)

460. Sussman, Vic. "Which winter squash?" Organic Gardening 30(6): 44-49 (June 1983). NAL 57.8 OR32

On choosing winter squash varieties to suit one's region, taste, and space requirements. With advice from squash experts, including Brent Loy, University of New Hampshire squash breeder; Glenn Drowns of eastern Idaho, Rob Johnston from Johnny's Selected Seeds company; and Thomas Whitaker, retired USDA breeder and cucurbit authority. Some open pollinated classics and hybrids are noted, along with good keepers, and tips on dealing with squash bugs. Some availability information provided.

7. Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum)

7A. Books, Book Chapters

461. Burton, W.G. The Potato. 3rd ed. New York: Wiley, 1989. 742 p. NAL SB211.P8B8 1989

A technical treatise on the nature, value, and production of the potato as a foodstuff and also as raw material for processing, first published in England in 1948 and revised in 1966. Includes two chapters in particular that may interest readers of this publication. Ch. 1 ("The origin and spread of the potato," p. 1-34) considers in some detail the botany and taxonomy of the cultivated potato and its wild tuber-bearing relatives. Also reviewed are aspects of its early cultivation; present-day production in the South American highlands; its 16th-C. spread to Europe, North America, and elsewhere; and current world production. Ch. 2 ("Potato varieties, breeding and propagation," p. 35-67) describes early varietal forms of the potato grown in the British Isles during the 18th C. to early 20th C. (American potatoes of the period are not considered). The author cites (without review) ten earlier publications, including U.S. reports, containing potato cultivar descriptions. This chapter discusses various criteria used to identify varieties differing in morphological traits (such as tuber shape and color patterns) and also chemical and physiological traits. Topics considered in Ch. 3 to Ch. 14 include physiological parameters and processes in commercial potato production, potato diseases and insect pests, and potato composition and nutrient values. Text supplemented with black-and-white photos and drawings. Appendices include the original text of herbalist Gerard's description of the potato (from his 1597 Herball). With a comprehensive bibliography, plus author and subject indexes. The 1948 edition is entitled, The Potato: A Survey of Its History and Factors Influencing Yield, Nutritive Value, and Storage (Chapman and Hall, 319 p., NAL 75 B952). Third edition currently out of print.

462. Hawkes, J.G. The Potato: Evolution, Biodiversity and Genetic Resources. London: Belhaven Press, 1990. 259 p. NAL SB211.P8H37, ARB SB211.P8 H37 1990b

Several chapters in this recent volume on the cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum, may interest potato collectors and historians. Ch. 1 surveys its importance as a world food crop, wild relatives and other cultivated solanums, wild potato diversity, the potato's history prior to Columbus, and its introduction to Europe. Ch. 2 considers the potato's origins in the Andes, including its depiction in art, historical accounts, and archaeological remains. Ch. 3 examines diffusion of the potato to Europe, with early botanical and taxonomic descriptions, and Ch. 5 surveys potato evolution following domestication. Ch. 7 discusses early attempts at resistance breeding; genetic resources exploration; important potato collections and evaluation; and use of wild species in breeding. (Ch. 4 on potato reproductive biology and cytology, and Ch. 6 on potato systematics and biodiversity, are especially technical; the latter, which is the largest section, p. 62-197, includes botanical descriptions of hundreds of species in the genus Solanum). With black-and-white photos and drawings, including maps depicting geographic distributions and drawings from old texts. Appendices contain additional taxonomic information, plus glossary of botanical terms, bibliography, and subject index. Currently in print.

463. Kahn, E.J., Jr. "Potatoes: Man is what he eats." In: The Staffs of Life. Jr. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1985. Ch. 2, p. 83-138. NAL SB175.K34 1985

For general readers, a biographical essay on the cultivated potato, Solanum tubersum, recounting its contrasting roles as "poor man's staff of life" and also, according to other tastes or contexts, "the lordly spud" and "noble tuber." Provides historical anecdotes on the potato's eventual popularity following its migration from the Peruvian highlands to other locales, and also gleanings from potato mythology, art, cuisine, and science. Includes, for instance, a sketch of research and preservation work at the International Potato Center (known as CIP) in Peru, which holds the world's largest potato cultivar collection, and outline of the potato's many pests and scourges (totalling more than 260, according to the author), which challenge potato production in many parts of the world. Other topics include the potato's rise to respectability in continental Europe in the latter part of the 18th C., the Irish potato famine, the 19th-20th-C. potato industry in the U.S. (the crop eventually grown in every state, including Alaska), its nutritional value, and comparisons with other important root crops, the sweet potato and cassava. Cites important works in the potato literature and offers vignettes of potato scientists and devotees, such as Redcliffe Salaman, a British potato historian, geneticist, and breeder who devoted his career to potato research earlier in this century. (Salaman authored an important potato text, History and Social Influence of the Potato, first published in 1949 and reprinted in 1970; rev. ed. edited by W.G. Burton, Cambridge University Press, 1985, 685 p., NAL SB211.P8S2 1985, currently in print.) With subject index. (For further description of the volume, including a chapter on corn, see entry 344, this volume.)

464. Oster, Maggie, foreword by Jim Wilson. The Potato Garden: A Grower's Guide. New York: Harmony Books, 1993. 128 p. NAL SB211.P8088 1993

Prolific food garden writer Maggie Oster shares her knowledge of, and enthusiasm for, the two distinct food plants known commonly as "potatoes." Her subjects include Solanum tuberosum, the "white" or "Irish" potato (although called routinely "common" here since varieties may be yellow, pink, red, or purple, as well as white-fleshed) and Ipomoea batatas, the sweet potato. The topics covered are potato history and lore, botany, names in various languages, garden culture and care (with lists of disease-resistant potatoes), and potatoes in the kitchen, with a dozen recipes. Some 200 common and sweet potato varieties are described briefly, with notes on maturity (early-, mid-, or late-maturing) and the appearance of the tuber (or root, in the case of the sweet potato), and comments on hardiness, yield, origins, and cooking uses. Illustrated with line drawings, and the book's pages are appropriately russet colored. With a lengthy listing of commercial U.S. and Canadian potato suppliers, and also organic gardening suppliers, and potato councils and other organizations, plus bibliography of gardening and cook books, and subject index. Currently out of print.

465. Simmonds, N.W. "Potatoes: Solanum tuberosum (Solanaceae)." In: Evolution of Crop Plants. 2nd ed. J. Smartt and N.W. Simmonds, eds. NewYork: Wiley, 1995. Ch. 93, p. 466-471. NAL SB106.O74E96 1995

Chapter reviews the botany and taxonomy of the cultivated potato, and also early and later phases of its evolution from wild ancestors to modern 20th-C. breeds. Briefly discusses potato breeding methods and objectives, with commentary on future prospects regarding potato germplasm resources and commercial improvement. Withbibliography, plus illustrations that include a map showing distribution of tuber-bearing Solanum species. (See M. Goodman's chapter on corn, entry 342, for general description of the volume and chapters cited.)

7B. Periodical Articles

466. Daniels, Stevie. "Choosing yellow potatoes." Organic Gardening 32(1): 34-35,38-39 (Jan. 1985). NAL 57.8 OR32

Highlights potatoes with "intriguing color and subtle taste difference" from the six white-fleshed varieties planted on 80 percent of U.S. acreage. The author describes a variety of fingerlings and regular types, most of them from German and Swedish immigrants, which are available from U.S. and Canadian sources.

467. Drowns, Glenn. "Special spuds: The rewards of growing your own." Fine Gardening 13: 66-71 (May/June 1990).

Advice from Iowa grower on raising specialty spuds, plus brief comments by Maine grower Will Bonsall on wild and primitive potato diversity in South America. Includes notes on 19 unusual cultivars, along with color photos of each, and a listing of several seed tuber sources. (When this article was written, both contributors served as potato curators for Seed Savers Exchange. Mr. Bonsall coordinates the Scatterseed Project; for more information, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 16.)

468. Giacchetti, Nicola. "One potato, blue potato." American Vegetable Grower, p. 48-49 (May 1996). NAL 80 C733

Demand for specialty potatoes has increased as more and more consumers taste the difference with traditional white-fleshed types. This article briefly examines the phenomenon, but notes that specialty types may be impractical for most large growers, since "tonnage, disease resistance, and storage are the three criteria that have driven potato breeding in the American market for the past 100 years," thus "if you breed for taste, that's what you get, you don't get those other things."

469. Hughes, Meredith Sayles. "Potayto, potahto--Either way you say it, they a'peel." Smithsonian 22(7): 138-149 (Oct. 1991). NAL QH1.S5

A wide-ranging article on the food and social history of Solanum tuberosum. With bibliography, p. 178. The author and her husband E. Thomas Hughes co-founded the Potato Museum, located near Washington, DC. For more information, contact them at the Potato Museum, P.O. Box 791, Great Falls, VA 22066, tel. 703-759-6714, e-mail, Web site,

470. Mattern, Vicki. "Grow a rainbow of potatoes." Organic Gardening 44(8): 36-39 (Nov./Dec. 1997). NAL S605.5.O74

Featuring "potato possibilities," for this article the author consulted several market and home gardeners around the U.S., on their favorite potatoes. Cites the best varieties (with unique shapes, color, and texture) for flavor and disease-resistance, with growing tips and chart noting characteristics of a dozen types, each keyed to sources.

471. Nardozzi, Charlie. "Fingerling potatoes [vegetable profile]." National Gardening 21(3): 54,56,58 (June 1998). NAL SB450.9.G37

On the merits of some of the small potatoes turning up in fine restaurants and receiving greater attention from gardeners. With notes on cooking qualities and other traits of nine of the best varieties, with growing advice.

472. Noble, Dorothy. "Grow a variety of potatoes." Green Scene [Pennsylvania Horticultural Society] 21(4): 25-30 (Mar. 1993). NAL SB1.G7

A survey of potato diversity (both old types and new) available to home and market gardeners. Sketches qualities and uses of a number of color varieties and heirlooms, with notes on two dozen varieties recommended for southeastern Pennsylvania. Also with advice for producing a reliable crop, and list of suppliers. Source list, p. 30.

473. Rhoades, Robert E. "The incredible potato." National Geographic 161(5): 668-694 (May 1992). NAL 470 N213

Portrays the versatile potato--"the peasant's staff of life, the gourmet's delight"--as an important world food crop. Reviews also its history and current value, tracing the potato's origins in the Peruvian Andes, to current commercial production and preservation of the vast diversity of native and wild strains stored in a South American germplasm bank.

474. St. Ives, Tiffany. "No small potatoes." Maine Organic Farmer & Gardener [Fairbook Issue], p. 41-43 (Sept./Oct. 1992). NAL S605.5.N3

Describes potato cultivars available to gardeners and farmers, beyond "the Big Six" grown commercially by With notes on 33 colorful varieties from North America, Europe, the Caribbean, and South American Andes. Includes brief growing advice, with five recipes, plus source list. (Issue includes short article on reliable varieties and organic potato production in Maine, p. 43.)

475. Sorensen, Erik J. and George B. Holcomb. "Specialty potatoes." U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Office for Small-Scale Agriculture, 1992. A Small-Scale Agricultural Alternative [factsheet series]. 2 p.

General information on production and marketing of specialty potatoes and promising commercial varieties. Includes sources, and bibliography. Factsheet is available from Small Farm Program, USDA-CSREES, Plant and Animal Systems, Stop 2220, 901 D Street, S.W, 868 Aerospace Center, Washington, DC 20250, tel. 800-583-3071, fax 202-401-5179, Web site (The factsheet indicates that evaluations of nearly 200 specialty potatoes in Washington state are available from Erik Sorensen, Washington State University Cooperative Extension, Franklin County Courthouse, Pasco, WA 99301.)

476. Stetson, Emily. "Specialty spuds." National Gardening 14(5): 30-33,66 (Sept./Oct. 1991). NAL SB450.9.G37

Portrait of Ronniger's Seed Potatoes, a small Idaho company selling more seed potatoes than any other firm in North America, and maintaining 100+ varieties for Seed Savers Exchange. With notes on various "spuds of distinction" and David Ronniger's organic growing methods. With keyed sources for 30+ varieties, p. 70-71. (Formore information on Ronniger's Seed Potatoes, see Volume 2, Resource Organizations, entry 115.)

477. Stiles, Shelly, et al. "Hot potatoes." National Gardening 17(4): 29-34 (July/Aug. 1994). NAL SB450.9.G37

Considers the diversity of potatoes available to home gardeners, with planting and growing information. With notes on 30+ heirloom and non-standard types. Specific sources, p. 70-71.

478. Waterman, Martin P. "Rediscovering potatoes." Growing Edge 9(1): 26-33 (Sept./Oct. 1997).

Surveys potato varietal availability, current research, and plant improvement. Includes a short history of potato origins, "strange facts," use of wild Bolivian potatoes to improve cultivated plants' disease and insect resistance, and work at the Wisconsin potato germplasm station. Also "varieties to try and why"--two dozen colorful types, old and new introductions from the U.S. and Europe are mentioned. Author names six U.S. and Canadian sources, with cultivars available from each.

Go to: Top of Volume 1 | Contents of Volume 1 | Introduction | Notes and References | Part I. Vegetables and Fruits | Part II. New World Crops: Heirloom Varieties and Genetic Diversity | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, 400, 420, 460 | Appendices (Volume 1): 1) Current Books, 2) AFSIC, 3) Publication Titles Index, 4) Periodical Articles Index, 5) Persons / Organizations Index

Volume1: Appendices

Volume 1: Selected Sources for Current Books

The following are seed banks/exchanges and commercial plant and seed suppliers that distribute a number of the books cited within this volume. (The two-letter codes indicating availability occur at the end of the respective annotations.) Additional information on each of these organizations and companies is provided in Volume 2, Resource Organizations, Part I, "Vegetable Seed Exchanges or Seed Banks"; Part VI, "Commercial Seed Companies"; and Part VII, "Commercial Fruit Nurseries."

Abundant Life Seed Foundation, P.O. Box 772, 930 Lawrence St., Port Townsend, WA 98368, tel. 360-385-5660 or 385-7192 (orders), fax 360-385-7455, e-mail

Bountiful Gardens, 18001 Shafer Ranch Rd., Willits, CA 94590-9626, tel. 707-459-0150, fax 707-459-5409

Fedco Seeds, P.O. Box 520, Waterville, ME 04903-0520, tel. 207-873-7333 (-SEED), fax 207-872-8317

Garden City Seeds, 778 Hwy 93 North, Hamilton, MT 59840, tel. 406-961-4837, fax 406-961-4877, e-mail

Seeds Trust - High Altitude Gardens, P.O. Box 1048, Hailey, ID 83333, tel. 208-788-4363, fax 208-788-3452

Henry Doubleday Research Association, Heritage Seed Library, c/o Ryton Organic Gardens, Coventry, CV8 3LG U.K., tel. +44 1203 303517, fax +44 1203 639229, e-mail

Heritage Seed Co., P.O. Box 505, Star City, AR 71667-0505, tel. 505-628-4820

Johnny's Selected Seeds, Foss Hill Rd., Albion, ME 04910-9731, tel. 207-437-4301; fax 800-437-4290 (U.S.) or 207-437-2165 (elsewhere), e-mail

Maine Seed Saving Network, (c/o Nicolas Lindholm, P.O. Box 126, Penobscot, ME 04476, tel. 207-326-0751

Native Seeds/Search, 526 North 4th Ave., Tucson, AZ 85705, tel. 520-622-5561, fax 520-622-5991,

Pepper Gal, P.O. Box 23006, Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33307-3006, tel. 954-537-5540, fax 954-566-2208

Pinetree Garden Seeds, Box 300, New Gloucester, ME 04260, tel. 207-926-3400, fax 888-52-SEEDS (73337), e-mail

Peters Seeds & Research, P.O. Box 1472, Myrtle Creek, OR 97457, tel./fax 541-863-3693

Plants of the Southwest, Agua Fria, Route 6, Box 11A, Santa Fe, NM 87501, tel. 505-471-2212 or 800-788-SEED (-7333) (orders), fax 505-438-8800

Redwood City Seed Co., P.O. Box 361, Redwood City, CA 94064, tel. 650-325-7333

Ronniger's Seed Potatoes, P.O. Box 307, Ellensburg, WA 98360, tel. 509-925-6025, fax 509-925-9238, e-mail

Sonoma Antique Apple Nursery, 4395 Westside Rd., Healdsburg, CA 95448, tel. 707-433-6420, tel./fax 707-433-6479

Seeds Blüm, HC 33 Idaho City Stage, Boise, ID 83706-9725, tel. 800-742-1423 or 208-342-0858 (customer service), 800-528-3658 (orders), fax 208-338-5658, e-mail

Seeds of Change, P.O. Box 15700, Santa Fe, NM 87506-5700, tel. 888-SOC-SEED (762-7333), fax 888-FAX-4-SOC (329-4762)

Southern Exposure Seed Exchange, P.O. Box 170, Earlysville, VA 22936, tel. 804-973-4703, fax 804-973-8717

Seed Savers' Network, Box 975, Byron Bay, NSW 2481, Australia, tel./fax (066) 856 624 (within Australia), 61-66-856-624 (international), e-mail

Salt Spring Seeds, P.O. Box 444, Ganges P.O., Salt Spring Island, BC V8K 2W Canada, tel. 250-537-5269

Seed Savers Exchange, 3076 North Winn Rd., Decorah, IA 52101, tel. 319-382-5990, fax 319-382-5872, e-mail

Territorial Seed Co., P.O. Box 157, Cottage Grove, OR 97424, tel. 541-942-9547, fax 888-657-3131 (toll free), e-mail; Canadian customers: Territorial Seed Ltd., Box 845, 206-8475 Ontario St., Vancouver, BC V5X 3E8 Canada, tel. 604-482-8800, fax 604-482-8822, e-mail

Go to: Top of Volume 1 | Contents of Volume 1 | Introduction | Notes and References | Part I. Vegetables and Fruits | Part II. New World Crops: Heirloom Varieties and Genetic Diversity | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, 400, 420, 460 | Appendices (Volume 1): 1) Current Books, 2) AFSIC, 3) Publication Titles Index, 4) Periodical Articles Index, 5) Persons / Organizations Index

Volume 1: Index to Publication Titles (Books, Periodicals, Videos)

Go to: A| B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

(Numbers within parentheses and preceded by "p." refer to page numbers within the WordPerfect version of the text; all other numbers refer to entry numbers, 1-478.)

Advances in Fruit Breeding, 27
AgBioForum [online periodical], 301
Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies, 50
Agroecology and Small Farm Development, 69
Altered Harvest, 37, 165
American Gardener [periodical], 231
American Horticultural Magazine [periodical], 231
American Horticulturist [periodical], 231, 249
American Varieties of Garden Beans, (p.17)
American Vegetable Grower [periodical], 227
America's First Cuisines, (p.17)
Andersen Horticultural Library's Source List of Plants and Seeds, 239
Apple Tree, (p.18)
Apples, 35
Apples: A Guide to the Identification of International Varieties, 30
Apples and Man, 39
Apples for the 21st Century, 33
Apples of New York, 33
At the Desert's Edge: An Ethnobotany of the Gila River Pima, 321

[Top of Title Index]

Back in Thyme [periodical], 220
Becoming Native to this Place, (p.18)
Better Collection and Maintenance Procedures Needed to Help Protect Agriculture's Germplasm Resources: Report to the Secretary of Agriculture, 61
Beyond Farmer First, 71
Bibliography of Crop Genetic Resources, 260
Bibliography of Plant Genetic Resources, 260
Bibliography of Plant Genetic Resources Supplement, 260
Biodiversity, 44
Biodiversity in Trust: Conservation and Use of Plant Genetic Resources in CGIAR Centres, 306
Biodiversity Research Protocols: Directory of Guidance Documents Relating to Biodiversity and Cultural Knowledge Research and Prospecting, 255
Biopiracy: The Plunder of Nature and Knowledge, 56
Biotech '85, 46
Biotechnology and Genetic Diversity, 62
Biotechnology and Sustainable Agriculture: A Bibliography, 59
Biotechnology: Building on Farmers' Knowledge, 63
Biotechnology: Patenting Issues, Jan. 1990 - July 1996, 57
Blue Corn and Square Tomatoes: Unusual Facts About Common Vegetables, 8
Book of Apples, 34
Breed Your Own Vegetable Varieties, (p.18), 16
Breeding Vegetable Crops, 14
Briefbook: Biotechnology and Genetic Diversity, 62
Bringing Rio Home: Biodiversity in Our Food and Farming, 313
Buffalo Bird Woman's Garden, (p.18)
Business of Breeding: Hybrid Corn in Illinois, 1890-1940, 211

[Top of Title Index]

Canadian Plant Sourcebook, 235
Capsicum: A Comprehensive Bibliography, 398
Celebration of Heirloom Vegetables: Growing and Cooking Old-Time Varieties, 35
Centers of Origin of Cultivated Plants, 181
Chile Pepper [periodical], 221
Chile Peppers: A Selected Bibliography of the Capsicums, 399
Competing Paradigms: The Debate Between Alternative and Conventional Agriculture, (p.18)
Compilation of North American Maize Breeding Germplasm, 341
Complete Guide to Organic Gardening West of the Cascades, 23
Conservation of Plant Diversity, 172
Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources: Grassroots Efforts in North America, (p.17), 65
Cooking from the Garden, 2, 324
Corn and Corn Improvement, 346
Cornucopia: A Sourcebook of Edible Plants, 237
Cucurbits, 436
Cultivating Diversity: Agrobiodiversity and Food Security, 58
Cultivating Knowledge: Genetic Diversity, Farmer Experimentation and Crop Research, 63
Cultural Memory and Biodiversity, 6
Cultures of Habitat: On Nature, Culture, and Story, 192, 319

[Top of Title Index]

Department of Agriculture Can Minimize Risk of Potential Crop Failures: Report to the Congress by the Comptroller General of the United States, 61
Desert Plants [special periodical issue], 424
Directory of American Horticulture, 243
Directory of Apple Cultivars, 31
Diversity [periodical], 228, 252
Diversity of Crop Plants, 43

[Top of Title Index]

Eco-Pioneers: Practical Visionaries Solving Today's Environmental Problems, 5
Ecological Risks of Engineered Crops, 48
Edible Heirloom Vegetable Garden, 3
Enduring Seeds: Native American Agriculture and Wild Plant Conservation, (p.17, 18), 319
Epicure with Hoe, 96
Erosion of Crop Genetic Resources: Challenges, Strategies and Uncertainties, 59
Ethnobotany of the Hopi, 334
Evolution of Crop Plants, 342, 369, 407, 422, 435, 465
Exploring the Role of Diversity in Sustainable Agriculture: Proceedings of a Symposium..., 51

[Top of Title Index]

Farm Museum Directory, 247
Farmer First: Farmer Innovation and Agricultural Research, 71
Farmers' Rights and Plant Genetic Resources: Recognition & Reward: A Dialogue, 39
Field and Garden Vegetables of America, (p.18)
Final Consensus Report of the Keystone International Dialogue on Plant Genetic Resources: Madras Plenary Session, Second Plenary Session, 29 January - 2 February, 1990, Madras, India, 39
Final Report of the Keystone International Dialogue on Plant Genetic Resources: Session I: Ex Situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources, First Plenary Session, August 15-18, 1988, 39
Fine Gardening [periodical], 249
First the Seed: The Political Economy of Plant Biotechnology, 1492-2000 (p.17, 18), 47
Food and Agriculture, 180
Food from Dryland Gardens, 15
For All Generations: Making World Agriculture More Sustainable, 67
Forest Trees, 50
Fragile Harvest [video], 219
Fruit and Tree Nut Germplasm Resources Inventory, 238
Fruit, Berry and Nut Inventory, 242
Fruit and Vegetable Finder, 236
Future Horizons: Recent Literature in Sustainable Agriculture, (p.18)

[Top of Title Index]

Garden Literature: An Index to Periodical Articles and Book Reviews, 250
Garden Literature Sprout, 250
Garden Seed Inventory, (p.17), 112, 241
Gardener's Index, 249
Gardener's Sourcebook, 245
Gardening By Mail: A Sourcebook, 244
Gardening for Profit, (p.18)
Genes from the Wild, 54
Genetic Resources of Capsicum: A Global Plan of Action, 408
Genetic Resources of Cucurbitaceae: A Global Report, 433
Genetic Resources of Phaseolus Beans: Their Maintenance, Domestication, Evolution, and Utilization, 423
Genetic Resources of Temperate Fruit and Nut Crops, 28
Genetic Resources of Tomatoes and Wild Relatives, 367
Genetic Time Bomb [video], 218
Genetic Vulnerability of Major Crops, 49, 166
Global Biodiversity Strategy, 304
Going Local: Creating Self-reliant Communities in a Global Age, (p.17)
Gourmet Gardener, 7
Grassroots Conservation of Biological Diversity in the United States: Background Paper #1, 74
Great American Tomato Book, 368
Great Bean Book, 430
Great Chili Book, 409
Great Gene Robbery [video], 217
Green Revolution [bibliography], 264
Green Revolution: An International Bibliography, 262
Greening the Garden: A Guide to Sustainable Growing, 18
Groundwork: A Gardener's Ecology, 109
Grow Fruits & Vegetables the Way They Used to Taste, 378
Grow the Best Peppers, 403
Growing and Saving Vegetable Seeds, 22
Growing Diversity: Genetic Resources and Local Food Security, 64
Growing Organic Vegetables West of the Cascades, 23
Growing Vegetables West of the Cascades: Steve Solomon's Complete Guide to Natural Gardening, 23
Guerilla Gardening, 378
Guide to Historical Research at the National Agricultural Library: The General Collection, (p.18)

[Top of Title Index]

Handbook for Fruit Explorers, 25
Heirloom Gardener, (p.17, 18), 3
Heirloom Vegetable Garden: Gardening in the 19th Century, 4
Heirloom Vegetable Gardening: A Master Gardener's Guide to Planting, Growing, Seed Saving, and Cultural History, 11, 96
Historical Gardener [periodical], 222
History and Social Influence of the Potato, 463
Hopi Cookery, 345
Horticulture [periodical], 249
Hortus Source List, Winter 1992, 240
Human Nature: Agricultural Biodiversity and Farm-based Food Security, (p.17), 214

[Top of Title Index]

Indian Corn of the Americas: Gift to the World, 338
Intellectual Property Rights for Indigenous Peoples: A Sourcebook, 323
International Ag-Sieve [periodical], 310
International Crop Science I, 38
Invisible Giant: Cargill and Its Transnational Strategies, 229

[Top of Title Index]

Last Harvest, 55, 197
Laws of Life: Another Development and the New Technologies, 40
Linking Biodiversity and Agriculture: Challenges and Opportunities for Sustainable Food Security, 58
Livestock, 50
Living Fields: Our Agricultural Heritage, Volume 3, no. 114
Living Lightly on the Land: Self-reliance in Food & Medicine, 18
Livingston and the Tomato, (p.18)
Local Crop Development: An Annotated Bibliography, 261

[Top of Title Index]

Making Nature, Shaping Culture: Plant Biodiversity in Global Context, 212
Market Growers Journal [periodical], 227
Meeting the Expectations of the Land, 70
Modern Fruit Breeding, 27
Monocultures of the Mind: Perspectives on Biodiversity and Biotechnology, (p.18), 56
Mother Earth News [periodical], 232
Much Depends on Dinner, 347

[Top of Title Index]

National Gardening [periodical], 233, 249
National Horticultural Magazine [periodical], 231
National Plant Germplasm System: I. Current Status, 61
National Plant Germplasm System: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Department Operations, Research, and Foreign Agriculture Committee on Agriculture, House of Representatives, Ninety-seventh Congress, First Session, June 24, 1981, 61
New World Plants and Their Uses: A Guide to Selected Literature and Genetic Resources 1980-1993, 316
New Perspectives on the Origin and Evolution of New World Domesticated Plants, 317
New Crops, 39, 405
New Seed-Starters Handbook, 117
1959 Potato Handbook, (p.18)
North American and European Fruit and Tree Nut Germplasm Resources Inventory, 238
North American Horticulture: A Reference Guide, 243
Northeast Indian Quarterly [special periodical issue], 338
Northern Seed News [online periodical], 272
Nursery and Seed Catalogs: A Directory of Collections, 246

[Top of Title Index]

Of Plants and People, 406, 434
Off-the-Vine [periodical], 223
Old Southern Apples, (p.17), 150
Organic Gardening [periodical], 234, 249
Origin and Geography of Cultivated Plants, 181
Oslo Plenary Session, Final Consensus Report: Global Initiative for the Security and Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic
Resources, Third Plenary Session, 31 May - 4 June, 1991, Oslo, Norway, 39
Our Mother Corn, 345
Our Sustainable Table, (p.17,18), 141

[Top of Title Index]

Parker on the Iroquois, 318
Parts of Life: Agricultural Biodiversity, Indigenous Knowledge, and the Role of the Third System, 40
Pepper Garden, 403
Peppers of the World: An Identification Guide, 403
Peppers: The Domesticated Capsicums, 400
People, Plants, and Patents: The Impact of Plant Intellectual Property on Trade, Plant Biotechnology, and Rural Society, 308
Perfect Pumpkin, 432
Perils Amid the Promise: Ecological Risks of Transgenic Crops in a Global Market, 48
Permaculture International Journal [periodical], 273
Plant Genetic Conservation: The In Situ Approach, 68
Plant Genetic Resources, (p.17)
Plant Germplasm: Conservation and Use, 61
Plant Germplasm: Report to the Secretary of Agriculture, 61
Plant Germplasm Maintenance & Storage: January 1979 - November 1989 [bibliography], 263
Plant Germplasm Preservation and Utilization in U.S. Agriculture, 36
Pomona [periodical], 25, 248
Potato Garden: A Grower's Guide, 44
Potato, 461
Potato: A Survey of Its History and Factors Influencing Yield, Nutritive Value, and Storage, 461
Potato: Evolution, Biodiversity and Genetic Resources, 462
Principles of Seed Science and Technology, 21
Proceedings of Biotech '85, 46

[Top of Title Index]

RAFI Impacts: The Terminator File, 215
Rape of Canola, (p.18), 229
Restoring the Earth: Visionary Solutions from the Bioneers, 1
Return to Resistance: Breeding Crops to Reduce Pesticide Dependence, 126, 307
Risky Business: Biotechnology and Agriculture [video], 217

[Top of Title Index]

Saving Seeds: The Gardener's Guide to Growing and Storing Vegetable and Flower Seeds, 22
Saving the Seed: Genetic Diversity and European Agriculture, 204
Scientists, Plants and Politics: A History of Plant Genetic Resources, 53
Seed Production: Principles and Practices, 21
Seed Savers Exchange: The First Ten Years, 12
Seed Savers' Handbook, 17
Seed Savers' Handbook for Australia and New Zealand, 17
Seed Saving Techniques of the National Colonial Farm, 19
Seed to Seed: Seed Saving Techniques for the Vegetable Gardener, 13
Seed World [periodical], 230
Seeds [video], 219
Seeds [U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Yearbook 1961], 24
Seeds and Sovereignty: The Use and Control of Plant Genetic Resources, 47
Seeds of Change, 1
Seeds of Change: A Quincentennial Commemoration, (p.18)
Seeds of the Earth: A Private or Public Resource?, 170
Seeds of Tomorrow [video], 216
Seeds: The Definitive Guide to Growing, History, and Lore, 20
Shattering: Food, Politics, and the Loss of Genetic Diversity, (p.17, 18), 40
Sowing Seeds for Change: Sustainable Agriculture, Biodiversity: September 30 and October 1, 1994, Guelph, Ontario: Workshop Proceedings, 73
Specialty Corns [Dickerson], 339
Specialty Corns [Hallauer], 343
Spices, Herbs and Edible Fungi, 401
Staffs of Life, 344, 463
Story of Corn, 340
Sustainable Practices for Plant Disease Management in Traditional Farming Systems, 72
Sustainable Agriculture Systems, 42

[Top of Title Index]

Tantalizing Tomatoes, 365
Taylor's Guide to Fruits and Berries, 26
Taylor's Guide to Heirloom Vegetables, 10, 110
Technologies to Maintain Biological Diversity, 60
Temperate-Zone Pomology, 29
Tending the Seeds: The Emergence of a New Agriculture in the United States, 66
That We May Eat [U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Yearbook 1975], 32
Threatened Gene: Food, Politics, and the Loss of Genetic Diversity, 40
Three Sisters: Exploring an Iroquois Garden, 318
Tomato Club [periodical], 224
Tomato in America, 382
Total Tomato, 366
Traditional Gardening [periodical], 225

[Top of Title Index]

U.S. Department of Agriculture: Information on the Condition of the National Plant Germplasm System: Report to Congressional Committees, 61
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System, 50
Unnatural Selection: Technology, Politics, and Plant Evolution, 40
Using Diversity: Enhancing and Maintaining Genetic Resources On-Farm, 308

[Top of Title Index]

Valuing Local Knowledge: Indigenous People and Intellectual Property Rights, 320
Vanishing Feast, 52
Vavilov and His Institute, 53
Veg Finder, 236
Vegetable Finder: Sources for Nearly 3000 Commercially Available Vegetable Varieties,236
Vegetable Garden, (p.18), 11
Vegetable Garden Research [periodical], 226
Vegetables of New York, 341

Water-wise Vegetables for the Maritime Northwest Gardener, 23
What Are People For?, (p.17)
Whole Chile Pepper [periodical], 221
Whole Chile Pepper Book, 404
Why We Eat What We Eat, 395
World Biotech Report 1985, Vol. 1, Europe: Proceedings of Biotech '85 Europe, Geneva, May 1985, 46

Yesterday's Ways...Tomorrow's Treasures: Heirloom Plants and Memory Banking, 6

[Top of Title Index]

Go to: Top of Volume 1 | Contents of Volume 1 | Introduction | Notes and References | Part I. Vegetables and Fruits | Part II. New World Crops: Heirloom Varieties and Genetic Diversity | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, 400, 420, 460 | Appendices (Volume 1): 1) Current Books, 2) AFSIC, 3) Publication Titles Index, 4) Periodical Articles Index, 5) Persons / Organizations Index

Volume 1: Index to Articles in Periodicals

Go to: A| B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

Advances in Agronomy, 158
Agricultural Research/U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 184, 356
Agriculture and Human Values, (p.17), 151, 203, 212, 323, 328, 329
Agroforestry News, 131
American Cottage Gardener, 382
American Horticulturist, 95, 190
American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, (p.17)
American Vegetable Grower, 76, 106, 385, 468
Amicus Journal, 185, 326
Audubon, 98, 173
Arid Lands Newsletter, 15, 192, 333

[Top of Article Index]

Biodiversity Letters, 177, 254
Biological Journal of the Linnaean Society, 181
BioScience, (p.18), 86, 186, 195, 210
Biotechnology/Diversity Week, (p.17)
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 206

[Top of Article Index]

California Rare Fruit Growers Yearbook, 138
Canadian Geographic, 149
Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 160, 200
Ceres: The FAO Review, 56, 169
Choices, 168
CIAT International, (p.17)
Cognition, 75
Conservation Biology, 196
Country Journal, 80, 150
Country Life, 89
Countryside & Small Stock Journal, 354, 456
Crop Science, 168, 187, 358
Current Anthropology, 210

[Top of Article Index]

Desert Plants, 424
Diversity, (p.17), 38, 57, 61, 65, 154, 159, 171, 172, 188, 208, 252, 327, 426

Earth Ethics, (p.17)
Earth Garden, 85
Ecologist, 161, 204
Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 431
Economic Botany, 162, 166, 209, 330, 355, 362, 454

[Top of Article Index]

Farmer to Farmer, 126
Fine Gardening, 79, 121,440, 467
Flower and Garden, 81
Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, 167, 175
Furrow, 182

[Top of Article Index]

Garden: Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society, 94, 101, 122, 132, 133, 145, 146, 163
Garden [New York], 139
Gene Exchange, 152
Global Pesticide Campaigner, (p.17), 214, 215
Green Scene, 96, 396, 472
Growing Edge, 130, 478
Growing for Market, 372

[Top of Article Index]

Harrowsmith; Harrowsmith Magazine [Canadian edition], 88, 135, 370
Harrowsmith; Harrowsmith Country Life [U.S. edition], 87, 90, 108, 135, 144, 324, 349, 376, 377, 415, 429, 442
Historical Gardener, 82, 148, 381
Horticulture, 78, 83, 84, 109, 116, 120, 139, 205, 374, 378, 418, 428, 443
HortIdeas, 114
HortScience, 127, 364, 421
HortTechnology, 142, 411, 455

[Top of Article Index]

In Good Tilth, (p.17)
Issues in Science and Technology, 197

Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 168
Journal of Environmental Quality, 178
Journal of Ethnobiology, 334
Journal of Gastronomy, 141
Journal of Heredity, 174
Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 358

[Top of Article Index]

Maine Organic Farmer & Gardener, 93, 97, 105, 118, 189, 351, 380, 474
Minnesota Horticulturist, 364
Missouri Farm, 348, 357
Mother Earth News, 111, 117, 134, 136

[Top of Article Index]

National Gardening, 100, 103, 110, 119, 137, 143, 350, 353, 361, 371, 390, 391, 392, 413, 425, 430, 437, 438, 439, 459, 471, 476, 477
National Geographic, 198, 473
Natural Farmer, 97, 112, 123, 129, 382
Natural History, 395
Nature, 157
Nutrition Today, 322

[Top of Article Index]

Omni, 326
Organic Broadcaster, 193
Organic Gardening; Rodale's Organic Gardening, 84, 91, 92, 99, 102, 104, 107, 115, 124, 140, 147, 164, 165, 199, 213, 325, 332, 352, 360, 373, 375, 383, 384, 386, 387, 388, 394, 412, 414, 416, 417, 427, 441, 460, 466, 470
Our Planet, 153
Outlook on Agriculture, 69

[Top of Article Index]

Pacific Discovery, 410
Pesticides and You, 152
Plant Breeding Reviews
Pomona, 131, 248
Popular Science, 197
Probe: Newsletter of the USDA Plant Genome Research Program, 202

[Top of Article Index]

RAFI Communique, 155
Rodale's Organic Gardening; Organic Gardening, 84, 91, 92, 99, 102, 104, 107, 115, 124, 140, 147, 164, 165, 199, 213, 325, 332, 352, 360, 373, 375, 383, 384, 386, 387, 388, 394, 412, 414, 416, 417, 427, 441, 460, 466, 470
Rural Heritage, 357

[Top of Article Index]

Science, 179
Science of Food and Agriculture, 363
Scientific American, (p.17), 180, 194, 389
Seed Savers...Harvest Edition, 66, 74, 77, 86, 96, 192, 197, 210, 233
Seed Savers...Summer Edition, 84
Seedling, 207, 335
Seedsman's Digest, 183
Small Farm Today, (p.17), 77, 359, 393, 420, 458
Small Farmers Journal, 170
Smithsonian, 201, 336, 397, 419, 469
Sunset: The Magazine of Country Living, 379
Synergy, 193

[Top of Article Index]

Technology and Culture, 211

University of Tulsa Law Journal, 176

Vegetarian Times, (p.17), 191
Virginia Cooperative Extension Publication, 125

Washington Tilth, 113
Winds of Change, 331

[Top of Article Index]

Go to: Top of Volume 1 | Contents of Volume 1 | Introduction | Notes and References | Part I. Vegetables and Fruits | Part II. New World Crops: Heirloom Varieties and Genetic Diversity | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, 400, 420, 460 | Appendices (Volume 1): 1) Current Books, 2) AFSIC, 3) Publication Titles Index, 4) Periodical Articles Index, 5) Persons / Organizations Index

Volume 1: Index to Persons and Organizations

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Abundant Life Seed Foundation, 76
Accokeek Foundation, National Colonial Farm, 19, 74
Adams, John F. (Festus), 378
Adelmann, Arllys, 12, 242
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 243
Albright, Letha, 348
Alcorn, J.B., 162
Alexander, N.C., (p.17)
Alexandra, Andrew, 151
Allan, Ken, 75, 226, 349, 370
Allen, Judy, 371
Alternative Farming Systems Information Center (National Agricultural Library), 259
Altieri, Miguel A., 44, 69, 152
Alvarez, Nelson, 207
Ambrose, Robert, 224
American Genetic Resources Alliance, 200
American Horticultural Society, 243
American Indian Heritage Foundation, 315
American Indian Program (Cornell University), 318, 331, 338
American Livestock Breeds Conservancy, 52, 74
American Seed Trade Association, 265
Andersen Horticultural Library, 239
Anderson, Edgar, 344
Anderson, Kit, 350
Anderson, Stacy, 153
Andrews, Jean, 400, 410
Apenlund, Sarah, 322
Apple, Heather, 73, 88
Applesource, 147
Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas, 271
Arbury, Jim, 132
Ashley, Anne, 235
Ashley, Peter, 235
Ashworth, Suzanne, 13, 115
Association for Living Historical Farms and Museums, 74, 247
Aung, T., 337
Ausubel, Kenny, 1, 5, 15
Aylsworth, Jean D., 76

[Top of Name Index]

Baggett, James, 116
[L.H.] Bailey Hortorium, 240
Bailey, L.H. (Liberty Hyde), (p.18)
Ballington, James R., Jr., 28
Barnes, Carl, 12
Barreiro, José, 338
Barrett, T. (Thomas) M., (p.17), 77, 243
Barton, Barbara J., 244
Bassett, Mark J., 14
Beadle, George, 344
Becker, Robert F., 4
Bellamy, David J., 217
Belluscio, Lynn, 4
Benjamin, Joan, 373
Bennet, Bill, 324
Bennet, Erna, 219
Berg, Trygve, 63
Berland, Jean-Pierre, 157
Berry, Elizabeth, 78, 430
Berry, J.W., 431
Berry, W. (Wendell), (p.17), 70, 141
Besal, Betty, 437
Beus, C. (Curtis) E., (p.18)
Biodiversity Forum, 303
Biotechnology Information Center (National Agricultural Library), 257, 259, 263
Blackburn-Maze, Peter, 133
Blüm, Jan, 79, 83
Boe, Vivia, 218
Boef, W. S. de (Walter), 63, 261
Bonsall, Will, 104, 467
Borries, Joseph, 357
Borries, Leonard J., 357
Bosland, Paul W., 221, 398, 401, 403, 411
Bountiful Gardens/Ecology Action, 67
Bowannie, Fred., Jr., 323
Bowers, Mike, 282
Brescia, Bill, 345
Bretting, P. (Peter) K., 158, 317
British Library for Development Studies, 302
Brogdale Experimental Horticulture Station, 30
Brogdale Historical Trust, 34, 145
Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 244, 365
Brown, A.H.D., 172
Brown, William L., 47, 233, 346
Brush, Stephen B., 69, 208, 209, 320
Bubel, Nancy, 117, 374
Buff, Sheila, 245
Bullfrog Films, 217, 219
Bultitude, John, 30
Bunders, Joske, 63
Bunker, Roberta, 118, 351
Bunting, A.H., 181
Burby, Liza A., 80
Burdon, J.J. (Jeremy James), 172
Burford Brothers Nursery, 148
Burford, Tom, 148
Burge, Weldon, 402
Burkhardt, Jeffrey, 212
Burpees [W. Atlee Burpee & Company], 103
Burr, F. (Fearing, Jr.), (p.18)
Burton, W.G. (William Glynn), 461, 463
Busch, Lawrence, 212
Butler, V., 290
Buttel, Frederick H., 159
Byczynski, Lynn, 375

[Top of Name Index]

C.M. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center, 390
Calgene, 42
Calhoun, C.L. (Creighton Lee), (p.17), 150
Calhoun's Nursery, 150
California Rare Fruit Growers, 138
Campbell, K.W., 160
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 219
Canadian Seed Trade Association, 266
Carling, R.C.J., 254
Caselton, G., 280
Castillo-Gonzalez Fernando, 175
Cavagnaro, David, 9, 98, 119, 376, 377, 438
Cavanaugh, Joe, 352
Center for Indigenous Knowledge for Agriculture and Rural Development, 256
Center for People, Food and Environment, 15
Centre for Genetic Resources, 177, 261
Centro Internazionale Corcevia, 64
Chambers, Robert, 71
Chang, T.T., 175
Chaplowe, Scott G., 67
Chapman, S. (Susan), (p.18)
Charalambous, George, 401
Chedd, Graham, 216
Cherfas, J. (Jeremy), 17, 236
Chile Pepper Institute [Chili Institute], 221, 398, 399
Christopher, Thomas, 378
Churcher, Tegan, 255
Clark, Robert, 141
Cleveland, David A., 15, 210, 323, 334, 335
Clothier, Tom, 277
Clunies-Ross, Tracey, 161
Cocking, Edward, 146
Coe, S. (Sophie D.), (p.17)
Cohen, J. (Joel) I., 38, 162
Colman, Bruce, 70
Commonweal Research Institute, 5
Community Biodiversity Development and Conservation Programme, 261
Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research, 40, 55, 281, 306, 314
Convention on Biological Diversity, 56, 187, 252
Cook, Jack, 120
Cooper, David, 64
Copeland, Lawrence, 21
Cornell University American Indian Program, 318, 331, 338
Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, 36
Council on Botanical and Horticultural Libraries, 246
Courtice, George, 217
Crawford, Martin, 31
Creasy, Rosalind, 2, 81, 324
Crisp, Peter, 163
Crop Science Society of America, 38, 341
Croston, R.P., 260
Crouch, Martha L., 215
Crucible Group, 308
Cutler, Karan Davis, 365
Czeiszperger, George Martin, 291

[Top of Name Index]

Dag Hammerskjöld Foundation, 40
Dahl, K. (Kevin), (p.17), 65, 74, 82, 320
Dahlberg, Kenneth A., 69
Damerow, Gail, 432
Daniels, Stevie, 466
Darling, H.M., (p.18)
Davidson, D.A., 127
Daybreak Farming and Food Project, 283
De Graaf, John, 218
Debouck, Daniel G., 422
Decker-Walters, D. S. (Deena), 436
DeCrosta, Anthony, 164
Demuth, Steve, 242
Deppe, C. (Carol), (p.18), 16, 353, 439
DeWitt, Dave (David A.), 399, 403, 404
Dickerson, George W., 339
Dierberger, James, 134
Diver, Steve, 271
Dobert, Raymond, 257, 259
Doebley, J. (John), 153, 317
Dorschner, Cheryl, 425
Dowle, Elizabeth, 34
Doyle, Jack, 37, 165
Dragula, Sherry, 364
Drowns, Glenn, 440, 459,460, 467
Dubose, Fred, 366
Dudley, J.W. (John Wesley), 346
Dunn, Gerald M., 121
Dunn, Teri, 83
Dunphy, Paul, 135
Duvick, Donald N., 38, 158, 166, 167, 168

[Top of Name Index]

Eames-Sheavly, Marcia, 318
Earl Hubert, 307
Ecological Farmers Association of Ontario, 307
Ecology Action/Bountiful Gardens, 67
Edmonds Institute, 215
Edwards, Clive A., 42
Eieseberg, L.H., 317
Elliot, Charles, 84
Enote, James, 5
Eriacho, Donald, 323
Erney, Diane, 325
Eshbaugh, W. Hardy, 405
Esquinas-Alcázar, J.T. (José T.), 169, 367, 433

[Top of Name Index]

Fabricant, Florence, 430
Facciola, Stephen, 237
Fanton, Jude, 17, 85
Fanton, Michel, 17, 85
Feenstra, G. (Gail) W., (p.17)
Fenton, William, 318
Finnish Museum of Natural History, Botanical Museum, 270
Fishman, Ram, 25
Fitzgerald, Deborah, 211
Fogle, H.W., 238
Follett, R.F., 194
Food and Agriculture Organization (United Nations), 40, 47, 67, 169, 186, 196, 214, 312
Food Museum, 267
Ford-Lloyd, B.V. (Brian), 68
Foster, George, 163
Fowler, Cary, (p.17, 18), 12, 39, 40, 170, 175, 233
Fox, Sally, 5
Fraleigh, B. (Brad), 73, 160
Francis, Charles A., (p.18), 51
Frankel, O.H. (Otto Hertzberg), (p.17), 47, 53, 171, 172
Frenay, Robert, 173
Fuccillo, D., 306
Fussell, Betty, 340

[Top of Name Index]

Galinat, Walton C. (Clarence), 344, 346
Gallina Canyon Ranch, 78
Garden Research Exchange, 226
Garden Literature Press, 250
GardenWorks Ltd., 225
Gates, Jane Potter, 259
Genesee Country Village & Museum, 74, 99
Genetic Resources Action International, 64, 204, 207
Genetic Resources Communication Systems, 228
Gepts, Paul L., 258, 317, 423, 426
Gerdes, J.T., 341, 358
Gerlach, Nancy, 404
Germplasm Enhancement for Maize (GEM) Project, 356
Giacchetti, Nicola, 468
Gillis, Anna Maria, 86
Going, Mary, 297
Goodman, Major M., 174, 175, 342, 346
Goodstein, Carol, 326
Greaves, Tom, 323
Green, Dave, 275
Green, Janice, 275
Greenmantle Nursery, 155
Greider, Linda, 87
Gröotendorst, Theo, 137
Grun, P., 317
Guenther, Kim, 259
Gulick, P.J., 433
Gulya, Tom J., 327
Guzmán, Efraim Hernández Xolocotzi, 355
Guzman, Rafael, 153

[Top of Name Index]

Haldane, Susan, 88
Hallauer, Arnel R., 343
Hamilton, Neil D., 66, 176
Hanson, Jean, 260
Hardin, Ben, 356
Hardon, J.J., 177
Harlan, Jack R. (Rodney), 47, 178, 179, 180
Harris, D.R., 181
Harrison, Jeremy, 254
Harrisson, John, 409
Hart, Ed, 354
Hatch, Peter, 87
Hauptli, Holly, 42
Haverkort, Bertus, 63
Hawkes, J.G. (John Gregory), 43, 68, 260, 462
Hecht, Susanna B., 69
Hegyes, G. (p.18)
Heide, Wieneke (M.) van der, 59, 261
Heiser, C. (Charles Bixler, Jr.), 317, 406, 407, 434
Henderson, P. (Peter), (p.18)
Hendrickson, Robert, 368
Henkes, Rollie, 182
Henry Doubleday Research Association, 17, 84, 89, 94, 236
Hensley, Tim, 136
Heritage Seed Program, 73, 88
Hernández Xolocotzi, Efraím, 355
Hiemstra, Wim, 63
High Mowing Organic Seed, 129
Hildebrand, John, 248
Hills, Lawrence D., 89, 236
Hobbelink, Henk, 64
Holcomb, George B., 475
Holle, M., 317
Holmes, Roger, 26
Hudson, J.L., Seedsman, 90
Hughes, Meredith (Sayles), 267, 469
Hughes, Tom (E. Thomas), 267, 469
Huyser-Honig, Joan, 137

[Top of Name Index]

Illinois-Missouri Agricultural Biotechnology Alliance, 301
Iltis, Hugh, 44, 153, 344
Indiana Center for New Crops and Plant Products (Purdue University), 405
Indigenous Preservation Networking Center, 331
Ingle, Schuyler, 90
Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, 67
International Board for Plant Genetic Resources; International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, 36, 53, 62, 181, 187, 260, 367, 408, 433
International Center for Improvement of Wheat and Maize (CIMMYT), 218, 350
International Development Resource Center, 308
International Potato Center (CIP), 198, 284, 463
International Plant Genetic Resources Institute; International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, 36, 53, 62, 181, 187, 260, 367, 408, 433
Iowa State University, Dept. of Agronomy, 286
Irmis, Randy, 285
Isaacson, Richard T., 239

[Top of Name Index]

J.L. Hudson, Seedsman, 90
Jabs, C. (Carolyn), (p.17, 18), 3, 91
Jackson, W. (Wes), (p.18), 70, 141, 185
Janick, Jules, 27, 39, 45, 405
Jankowiak, James, 441
Jason, Dan, 18
Jefferson, Thomas, 87, 95
Jenkins, Robin, 313
Jennings, P., 180
Jesiolowski, Jill, 412, 427
Jha, Mitra N., 39
Joaquin, Angelo Jr., 320
Johnny's Selected Seeds, 460
Johnson, Duane L., 39
Johnson, Elaine, 379, 430
Johnson, Jan, 183
Johnston, Rob, 460
Joywind Farms Rare Breeds Conservancy, 73

[Top of Name Index]

Kaffka, Stephen, 51
Kafton, David, ed
Kahn, E.J. (Ely Jacques), Jr., 344, 463
Kane, Mark, 92
Kaplan, J. Kim, 184
Kaplan, Lawrence, 428
Kapuler, Alan, 429, 442
Karim, M. Bazlul, 262
Kavena, Juanita Tiger, 345
Kelley, Mary Sidney, 173
Kennedy, C.T., 138
Kennsington Communications, 219
Keystone Center, 39
Keystone International Dialogue on Plant Genetic Resources, 39, 40, 308
Kidd, George H., 46
King, Jonathan W., 185
Klein, Mary Ann, 19
Kleinman, Daniel Lee, 186
Kline, Roger A., 3
Kloppenburg, (J.) Jack, Jr., (p.17, 18), 47, 186
Kneen, B. (Brewster), (p.18), 73, 229
Kneen, Cathleen, 229
Kopcinski, Peter, 413

[Top of Name Index]

L.H. Bailey Hortorium, 240
Laahty, Andrew, 323
Lacy, William B., 187, 212
LaDell, Tom, 145
Lamb, Jane, 93
Land Institute, 86
Laney, Nancy, 320
Lang, Robert, 219
Lape, Fred, 139
Lappé, Frances Moore, 141
Larkcom, Joy, 94, 122
Larsen, R. Paul, 32
Larson, Jean A., 263
Laski, Karen, 95
LeBlanc, Amy, 380
Lee, Jill, 356
LeHoullier, Craig, 223, 391
Leppik, Peter, 274
Lerner, Steve, 5
Levine, Adam, 96
Lewandowski, Stephen, 328
Lewontin, R.C. (Richard C.), 157, 188
Liao, T.R. (Tien-Ren), 264
Library of Congress, 264
Lindholm, Nicolas, 97, 189
Living History Farms, 332
Livingston, A. (Alexander) W., (p.18)
Loevinsohn, Michael, 308
Loewer, Peter, 20, 190
Loskutov, Igor, 53
Löve, Doris, 181
Loy, Brent (J. Brent), 123, 443, 460
Lucknow, Melissa, 240
Luoma, John R., 98
Lustgarden, S. (Steve), (p.17), 191

[Top of Name Index]

MacCaskey, Michael, 430
Madden, J. Patrick, 67
Maine Organic Farmers and Gardeners Association, 118
Maine Seed Saving Network, 97
Male, Carolyn J., 223, 381, 382
Mangelsdorf, P. (Paul) C., (p.17), 344
Manhart, Warren, 33
Margolis, C. (Carolyn), (p.18)
Mathers, Sherry, 345
Mattern, Vicki, 99, 102, 140, 470
Maxted, N. (Nigel), 68
McCann, Joy, 249
McClelland, Kathleen, 222
McConnell, Amanda, 219
McDaniel, Alan, 125
McDonald, Miller B., 21
McGrath, Mike, 124
Medomak Valley High School Seed Savers, 93
Meil, Joanne, 316
Mellon, Margaret, 48
Mendelson, Anne, 141
Merrick, Laura C., 44, 69, 435
Merwin, Ian A., 142
Meyer, Scott, 383, 384, 414
Miller, D.R., (p.18)
Miller, Mark, 409
Mitgang, Lee, 55
Monticello, Thomas Jefferson Center for Historic Plants, 87, 95, 99
Mooney, P. (Patrick R.), (p.17, 18), 40, 64, 170, 215, 219
Moore, James N., 27, 28
Morgan, Joan, 34, 145
Mt. Pleasant, Jane, 336
Murray, S.C., 210

[Top of Name Index]

[N.I.]Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry, 53, 180, 218
Nabhan, G.P (Gary Paul), (p.17, 18), 12, 65, 70, 74, 141, 192, 319, 320, 326, 329, 330, 424, 431
Nardozzi, Charlie, 100, 471
National Agricultural Library, Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, 259
National Agricultural Library, Biotechnology Information Center, 257
National Agricultural Library, Plant Genome Data & Information Center, 311, 316
National Center for Genome Resources, 253
National Colonial Farm (Accokeek Foundation), 19, 74
National Corn Growers Association, 294
National Film Board of Canada, 219
National Fruit Collections [Brogdale Horticultural Trust], 145, 236
National Gardening Association, 233
National Research Council, Committee on Genetic Vulnerability of Major Crops, 49
National Research Council, Committee on Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Imperatives, 50
National Vegetable Research Station, Vegetable Gene Bank, 163
Native Seeds/SEARCH, 65, 74, 82, 86, 112, 192, 218, 320, 326
Native Seeds/SEARCH, Arizona Regis-TREE, 320
Natural Cotton Colors, 5
Nazarea, Virginia (D.), 6
Nee, M. (Michael), 317
Nenno, M., 279
New Mexico State University, Dept. of Agriculture, 267
Noble, Dorothy, 385, 472
North American Fruit Explorers, 25, 52, 74, 131, 135, 248

[Top of Name Index]

Olcott-Reid, Brenda, 143, 144
Old Salem, 99
Old Sturbridge Village, 99
Olson, Richard K., 51
Oregon Public Broadcasting, 218
Oregon State University, Dept. of Crop and Soil Science, and Cooperative Extension Service, 292
Oregon State University, Dept. of Nutrition and Food Managment, 268
Ornamental Corn Improvement Project, 364
Oster, Maggie, 464
Overseas Development Institute, 57, 59, 203, 261
Overseas Development Institute, Seed and Biodiversity Programme, 57

[Top of Name Index]

Pacey, Arnold, 71
Paris, Harry S., 454, 455
Patent, Dorothy Hinshaw, 52
Peach, Roger, 357
Pelicon, Suzanne, 322
Pennell, David, 145
Pesticide Action Network North America, 214, 215
Peterson, Lisa J., 309
Phillips, Sue, 101
Phinney, M.D., 415
Pierce, Dick, 331
Pistorius, Robin, 53
Plant Gene Resources of Canada, 73, 160
Plant Genome Data & Information Center (National Agricultural Library), 311, 316
Plant Variety Protection Office (U.S.), 102
Pleasant, Barbara, 102, 124, 386, 416
Plimoth Plantation, 324
Podoll, David, 193
Poncavage, Joanna, 332, 387, 388, 417
Potato Museum, 267, 469
Potter, C.S., 162
Power, Brian, 146
Power, J.F., 194
Powledge, Fred, 195
Prescott-Allen, Christine, 54, 196
Prescott-Allen, Robert, 54, 196
Pritts, Marvin P., 142
Proulx, E.A. (Annie), 7, 418

[Top of Name Index]

Raeburn, Paul, 55, 197
Rea, Amadeo, M., 321
Resource-Efficient Agricultural Production (REAP) -Canada, 307
Relf, Diane, 125
Research Foundation for Science, Technology, and Ecology, 56
Revilla, Pedro, 358
Rezelman, John, 359, 456
Rhoades, Robert E., 71, 198, 473
Rice University, Center for Conservation Biology, 287
Richards, Alison, 34
Rick, C. (Charles) M., 317, 369, 389, 390
Rissler, Jane, 48
Robishaw, Susan J., 272
Robbins, Jim, 419
Robinson, Joe, 274
Robinson, R.W., 436, 457
Robinson, Raoul A., 126, 307
Rodale Institute, 310
Rodale Press, 234
Rodale, Robert, 199, 213
Rogers, Marc, 22
Ronniger, David, 476
Ronniger's Seed Potatoes, 112, 476
Roos, E.E. (Eric Eugene), 127, 360
Rosenthal, Eric, 360
Rossman, A.Y., (p.18)
Rowe, Jack, 128
Royal Horticultural Society, 94, 101, 122, 132, 133, 145, 146, 163
Rupp, Rebecca, 8
Rural Advancement Foundation International, 40, 67, 154, 155, 170, 214, 215
Russell, Dick, 185
Rutgers University, 278
Ruttle, Jack, 147, 361, 390, 391, 392

[Top of Name Index]

S.A.F.E. Alliance, 313
St. Ives, Tiffany, 393, 474
Salaman, Redcliffe (Nathan), 463
Salt Spring Seeds, 18
Salt, Steve, 420, 458
Samson, Roger, 307
Santos, M. De Miranda, 188
Scatterseed Project, 104, 467
Schmeck, Steve, 272
Schultz, Warren, (Jr.), 103, 104, 394
Scoones, Ian, 71
Seeds Blüm, 79, 83
Seed Savers Exchange, 10, 12, 50, 52, 55, 74, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81, 86, 88, 91, 92, 98, 111, 112, 113, 201, 218, 241, 242, 376, 380
Seed Savers International, 113
Seed Savers' Network/Seed Aid Trust, 67, 85
Seeds of Change, 1, 5, 429, 442
Seeds of Diversity Canada, 73, 88
Seeds of Texas Seed Exchange, 128
Seek-No-Further Orchard, 134
Seiler, G. (Gerald) J., 317
Shand, Hope, (p.17), 214, 215
Shands, Henry L., 38, 200
Shell, Ellen Ruppel, 201
Shifriss, Oved, 103
Shiva, V. (Vandana), (p.18), 56
Shuman, M.H., (p.17)
Simmonds, N.W. (Norman Willison), 342, 369, 407, 422, 435, 465
Simon, James E., 1, 39, 405
Smartt, J. (Joseph), 342, 369, 407, 422, 435, 465
Smith, Andrew F., 382
Smith, Nancy, 220
Smith, Paul G., 421
Smith, Stephen E., 210, 362
Smith-Heavenrich, Sue, 105
Smithsonian Institution, 276
Socha, Linda Hoy, 106
Southern Exposure Seeds Exchange, 375
Sokolov, Ray (Raymond A.), 395
Soleri, Daniela, 15, 210, 323, 333, 334, 335, 362
Solomon, Steve, 23, 107, 108
Sorensen, Erik J., 475
Sorrels, Nancy, 148
Southmeadow Fruit Gardens, 137
Southern Seed Legacy Project, 6, 198
Sperling, Louise, 57, 308
Sprague, G.F. (George Frederick), 346, 363
Stabinsky, Doreen, 320
Staw, Jane, 459
Stearns, Tom, 129
Stetson, Emily, 476
Stickland, Sue, 9
Stiles, Shelly, 477
Stoner, Alan K., 233
Storey Communications, 402, 432
Strachan, Janice M., 202
Surett, Ralph, 149
Sussman, Vic, 460
Sustainable Agriculture Food and Environment (S.A.F.E.) Alliance, 313
Sustainable Earth Electronic Library, 310
Swain, Roger B., 109
Swaminathan, M.S., 39
Swan, John P., 396
Swander, Mary, 459
Swezey, Laura Bonar, 379
Syracuse University, 288

[Top of Name Index]

Tapley, W.T., 341
Territorial Seeds, 23, 107, 108
Thomas Jefferson Center for Historic Plants, 87, 95
Thompson, John, 71
Thrupp, Lori Ann, 58, 71
Thuente, J. (Joanne), (p.17), 241, 242
Thurston, H. David, 72
[C.M. Rick] Tomato Genetics Resource Center, 390
Tracy, W.F (William Francis), 358
Tracy, W.W. (William Woodbridge), Jr., (p.17)
Traditional Agriculture and Plant Pathology (TAPP) Database, 72
Tripp, Robert, 59, 103, 203, 261
Tyne Tees Television, 217

[Top of Name Index]

Union of Concerned Scientists, Agriculture and Biotechnology Program, 48
Unitarian Service Committee (USC) of Canada, 73
UK Agricultural Biodiversity Coalition, 313
United Nations Environment Programme, 304
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, (p.17), 40, 47, 67, 169, 186, 196, 214, 312
U.S. Agency for International Development, 162
U.S. Congress, House Committee on Agriculture, Subcommittee on Department Operations, Research, and Foreign Agriculture, 61
U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, 60, 74
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 24, 32, 184,238, 356
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 181, 238
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Plant Genome Research Program, 202
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, National Plant Genetic Resources Board, 61
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station, 364
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Plant Variety Protection Office, 202
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration, 61, 238
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Small Farm Program, 475
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Western Regional Plant Introduction Station, 279
U.S. General Accounting Office, 61
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System, 36, 45, 50, 52, 55, 61, 90, 190, 195, 197, 200, 228, 237, 243, 358, 362
U.S. National Seed Storage Laboratory, 20, 90, 127, 161, 173, 190, 197, 201, 218, 337
University of Vermont, 278
Urban Homestead, 136

[Top of Name Index]

[N.I.]Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry, 53, 181, 218
Vavilov, N.I. (Nikolai Ivanovich), 53, 172, 181, 218
Vegetable Gene Bank (National Vegetable Research Station), 159
Vellvé, Renée, 64, 204
Video Project, 218
Vietmeyer, Noel (D.), 216
Villa, Philip L., 421
Villalon, Benigno, 421
Vilmorin (of Paris), (p.18)
Viola, H. (Herman) J., (p.18)
Visser, Margaret, 347
Vivian, John, 136
Vorbeck, Jill, 147
Vorbeck, Tom, 147

[Top of Name Index]

Wagner, Tom, 375
Wallace, Henry A., 344
Walsh, Adrian, 151
Walter, A., (p.17)
Washington State University Cooperative Extension, 293
Waterman, Martin P., 130, 478
Waters, Alice, 141
Watson, Benjamin, 10, 110
Weaver, William Woys, 11, 96
Weber, C. (Charles) W., 431
Wechsler, Deborah, 84, 150
Westwood, Melvin Neil, 29
WGBH Boston, 216
Whatley, Kirsten, 111
Whealy, K. (Kent), (p.17), 9, 12, 13, 112, 113, 241, 242
Whitaker, Thomas, 460
Whiting, Alfred F., 334
Widrelechner, Mark, 364
Wilkes, (H.) Garrison, 38, 47,205, 206, 233, 344, 350
Williams, J.T. (John Trevor), 38, 44, 181, 260
Williams, Greg, 114
Williams, Pat, 114
Williams, Sally, 250, 251
Wilson, G.L. (Gilbert Livingstone), (p.18)
Wilson, H.D., 317
Wilson, E.O. (Edward Osborne), 44
Winters, H.F. (Harold Franklin), 238
Withee, John, 12
Witmeyer, Daniel, 252
Witt, Stephen C., 62
Wolf, Thomas H., 397
Wolkomir, Richard, 336
World Bank, 306
World Conservation Union, 304
World Resources Institute, 58, 65, 304
World Sustainable Agriculture Association, 67

[Top of Name Index]

Yepsen, Roger B., 35
Yount, Michael, 113, 128

Zuni Conservation Project, 5
Zuni Folk Varieties Project, 323, 335
Zuni Sustainable Agriculture Project, 323, 331

[Top of Name Index]

Go to: Top of Volume 1 | Contents of Volume 1 | Introduction | Notes and References | Part I. Vegetables and Fruits | Part II. New World Crops: Heirloom Varieties and Genetic Diversity | Bibliography, citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, 400, 420, 460 | Appendices (Volume 1): 1) Current Books, 2) AFSIC, 3) Publication Titles Index, 4) Periodical Articles Index, 5) Persons / Organizations Index

Alternative Farming Systems Information Center

The Alternative Farming Systems Information Center (AFSIC) is one of several topic-oriented Information Centers at the National Agricultural Library (NAL). The Library, located in Beltsville, Maryland, is the foremost agricultural library in the world, and is one of four U.S. national libraries, long with the Library of Congress, the National Library of Medicine, and the National Library of Education. AFSIC is supported, in part, by USDA's Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) program.

AFSIC specializes in locating and accessing information related to non-conventional cropping and livestock systems, including sustainable, organic, low-input, biodynamic, and regenerative agriculture. AFSIC focuses also on alternative crops, new uses for traditional crops, and crops grown for industrial production. AFSIC staff create and publish Quick Bibliographies (QBs), Special Reference Briefs (SRBs), and Agri-Topics (ATs). These publications focus on specific topics of current interest. Most AFSIC publications are available in ASCII text from the Center's Web site, under "AFSIC Publications." To obtain AFSIC publications on computer diskette, or in hardcopy (limited availability), please make requests by contacting the AFSIC office by phone, mail, or e-mail. A complete list/printable order form of all AFSIC publications and format availability is available under "List of AFSIC Publications" at the Web site.

Books, articles, and videocassettes cited in AFSIC's bibliographic publications are not available directly from AFSIC. For information on how to obtain these materials, refer to the following NAL "Document Delivery" information.

Specific topics not covered by AFSIC QBs, SRBs, and ATs may be addressed, on request, by AFSIC reference staff through brief, complimentary database searches.

For further information concerning the services and activities of the Center, contact:

Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
National Agricultural Library, Rm 132
10301 Baltimore Ave.
Beltsville MD 20705-2351
Telephone: 301/504-6559 or 301/504-5724
FAX: 301/504-6409
TDD/TTY: 301/504-6856
Web site:

Go to: Top of Volume 1 | Contents of Volume 1 | Appendices (Volume 1)
Citation no.: 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, 400, 420, 460

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Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
National Agricultural Library

The Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, March 9, 1999

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