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You are here: Home / Publications / Organic Agricultural Products: Marketing and Trade Resources / Guide to U.S. Organic Marketing Laws and Regulations  Printer Friendly Page
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U.S. Organic Marketing Laws and Regulations.  Organic Agricultural Products: Marketing and Trade Resources. Guide 1.

 

Lady with basket selecting pineapples.

Compiled by:

Mary V. Gold
Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
USDA, ARS, National Agricultural Library
Beltsville MD
20705-2351
January 2008


Organic Agricultural Products: Marketing and Trade Resources Series, Guide 1

About this Series:

This research guide is one of seven in the Organic Agricultural Products: Marketing and Trade Resources series. Each guide is a subject-oriented compilation that focuses on a separate type of information or research source.   [More...]

Go to other Guides in this series:

  1. Guide to U.S. Organic Marketing: Laws and Regulations
  2. Guide to International Trade in Organics: Laws and Regulations
  3. Guide to Organic Marketing and Trade How-to Publications
  4. Guide to Organic Marketing and Trade Research Tools Online
  5. Guide to Organic Marketing and Trade Periodicals, Calendars and Trade Shows
  6. Guide to Organic Market, Industry and Consumer Studies (2004-2008)
  7. Guide to Organic Marketing Support Organizations
  8. Series Combined Title and Author Indexes: Guides 1-7

For more information, or to request print copies, contact the Alternative Farming Systems Information Center.

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Guide to U.S. Organic Marketing: Laws and Regulations

Table of Contents

  1. About this Series
  2. Federal Laws and Regulations
  3. State Laws and Regulations Pertinent to Marketing Organic Products
  4. Other Organic-related Certification Programs
  5. Selected Background Documents about U.S. Standards
  6. General Federal Food-related Labeling and Regulatory Programs and Information: Selected Background Resources – U.S. Food Regulation and Labeling
  7. General Federal Food-related Labeling and Regulatory Programs and Information: Selected U.S. Agencies with Food Regulatory Functions
  8. General State Food-related Labeling and Regulatory Programs and Information
  9. Related Food Safety Resources
  10. Index to Agencies, Organizations and Titles
  11. Index to Book and Article Authors
  12. About the Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
  13. Disclaimers

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Federal Laws and Regulations

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has put in place a set of national standards that food labeled "organic" must meet – whether it is grown in the United States or imported from other countries. U.S. regulations were fully implemented on October 21, 2002, and are administered by the National Organic Program (NOP) within USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS). On February 4, 2008 AMS announced a reorganization of the NOP office into three branches: Accreditation, Auditing and Training Branch; Standards Development and Review Branch; and Compliance and Enforcement Branch. See: AMS Press Release, http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/getfile?dDocName=STELPRDC5066878
&acct=nopgeninfo
(accessed 6/3/08)

This section highlights information about/links to selected NOP resources and to other significant Federal and industry entities with roles in regulating organics. Also included: links to texts of pertinent Federal legislation and information about current Congressional committees and caucuses.

1. National Organic Program (NOP).
Contact: Associate Deputy Administrator, USDA-AMS-TMP-NOP, Room 4008 - South Building, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington DC 20250-0020; 202-720-3252; fax 202-205-7808.
Homepage: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=TemplateA
&navID=NationalOrganicProgram&leftNav=NationalOrganicProgram
&page=NOPNationalOrganicProgramHome&acct=nop
(accessed 6/3/08)
Description: The Organic Foods Production Act (OFPA) of 1990 required the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to develop and maintain national standards for organically produced agricultural products to assure consumers that agricultural products marketed as organic meet consistent, uniform standards. The OFPA and the National Organic Program (NOP) regulations require that agricultural products labeled as organic originate from farms or handling operations certified by a State or private entity that has been accredited by USDA.

2. National Organic Program Regulatory Text.
- Text with Preambles from NOP: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=
TemplateF&navID=RegulationsNOPNationalOrganicProgramHome&rightNav1=
RegulationsNOPNationalOrganicProgramHome&topNav=null&leftNav=
NationalOrganicProgram&page=NOPRegulations&resultType=&acct=
noprulemaking
(accessed 6/3/08)
- Text from the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (as of August 17, 2007):
http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr;
sid=11fd57b422b6314d866dc4b02f1a101d;rgn=div5;view=text;node=7:3.1.1.9.30;
idno=7;cc=ecfr
(8/21/07)
- Text from Federal Register (December 21, 2000), Volume 65, Number 246 pp. 80547-80684: http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs/fedreg/a001221c.html (Go to "Agricultural Marketing Services") (accessed 10/17/07)
Description: CFR Title 7, Chapter I, Agricultural Marketing Service (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), Department of Agriculture, Part 205 (as authorized under the Organic Foods Production Act of 1990, as amended).

3. NOP Reading Room.
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=TemplateJ
&navID=ReadingRoomNOPAQSSQuestions&rightNav1=ReadingRoomNOPAQSSQuestions
&topNav=&leftNav=NationalOrganicProgram&page=NOPReadingRoomHome&resultType=
&acct=AQSS
(accessed 6/3/08)
Description: Publications, fact sheets, reports and appeals decisions including How Retail Establishments Can Comply with National Organic Program Regulations; Organic Feed for Poultry and Livestock: Availability and Prices; Organic Labeling and Marketing Information; and Cosmetics, Body Care Products, and Personal Care Products Under the National Organic Program Regulations.

4. Questions and Answers.
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=
TemplateV&navID=NOPAQSSlinkNOPReadingRoomHome&rightNav1=
NOPAQSSlinkNOPReadingRoomHome&topNav=&leftNav=NationalOrganicProgram
&page=NOPAQSSQuestions&resultType=&acct=AQSS
(accessed 6/3/08)
Description: Questions and answers categorized by subject matter and updated on a monthly basis.

5. Accredited Certifying Agents.
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=
TemplateJ&navID=ACAsLinkNOPAQSSQuestions&rightNav1=ACAsLinkNOPAQSSQuestions
&topNav=&leftNav=NationalOrganicProgram&page=NOPACAs&resultType=
&acct=nopgeninfo
(accessed 6/3/08)
Description: Directories of Domestic Accredited Certifying Agents (including State Departments of Agriculture); and Foreign Accredited Certifying Agents.

6. National List Information.
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=
TemplateN&navID=NationalListLinkNOPNationalOrganicProgramHome
&rightNav1=NationalListLinkNOPNationalOrganicProgramHome&topNav=
&leftNav=NationalOrganicProgram&page=NOPNationalList&resultType=
&acct=nopgeninfo
(accessed 6/3/08)
Description: "The Organic Foods Production Act of 1990 requires the Secretary of Agriculture to establish a National List of Allowed and Prohibited Substances which identifies synthetic substances that may be used, and the nonsynthetic substances that cannot be used, in organic production and handling operations." [Web site] Includes The National List in the Final Rule (as amended 11/03/03); Proposed Amendments; Filing a Petition fact sheet; Petitioned Substances Database (updated October 4, 2007); and Database on National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) Recommendations for Materials Considered for Use in Organic Agricultural Production and Handling.

7. Policy Statements.
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=
TemplateL&navID=NationalOrganicProgram&leftNav=NationalOrganicProgram
&page=NOPPolicyStatements&description=Policy%20Statements&acct=nopgeninfo
(accessed 6/3/08)
Description: USDA response to NOSB feedback on issue statements: fishmeal, inerts, antibiotics, and scope of authority; certification of non-NOP agricultural products; letters; origin of livestock guidance; apiculture, greenhouse, and mushroom products; access to the outdoors for livestock; and conflict of interest.

8. Today’s News.
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=
TemplateN&navID=Today'sNewsNOPNewsroom&rightNav1=Today'sNewsNOPNewsroom
&topNav=&leftNav=NationalOrganicProgram&page=NOPToday'sNews
&resultType=&acct=nopgeninfo
(accessed 6/3/08)
Description: Lists updates to the NOP and NOSB sites within the most recent four month period.

9. Cost Share Program.
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template
=TemplateQ&navID=OrganicCostShareProgramNOPNationalOrganicProgramHome
&rightNav1=OrganicCostShareProgramNOPNationalOrganicProgramHome
&topNav=&leftNav=NationalOrganicProgram&page=NOPCostSharing&resultType=
&acct=nopgeninfo
(accessed 6/3/08)
Description: Funds are available under this program to help defray the cost of organic certification by organic crop and livestock producers in 15 states.

10. Johanns Offers $1 Million to Defray Costs of Organic Certification for Producers in 15 States. (Release, 0226.07), 2007.
URL: http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/!ut/p/_s.7_0_A/7_0_1OB?
contentidonly=true&contentid=2007/08/0226.xml
(accessed 10/17/07)
Description: USDA news release, Aug. 29, 2007.

11. Organic Exemption: Exemption of Organic Handlers from Assessments for Market Promotion Activities Under Marketing Order Programs.
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=
TemplateN&navID=Findinformationabouttheorganicexemptionfromassessment
&rightNav1=Findinformationabouttheorganicexemptionfromassessment
&topNav=&leftNav=IndustryMarketingandPromotion&page=
OrganicExemptionfromAssessment&resultType=&acct=lspromores
(accessed 6/3/08)
Description: The 2002 Farm Bill directed USDA to issue regulations exempting any person who produces and markets solely 100 percent organic products from paying assessments under a commodity promotion law. Effective date: February 14, 2005. Includes a downloadable Application for Exemption and AMS contact information.

12. Court Finds in Favor of USDA in Organic Case.
June 9, 2005. 4p.
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/getfile?dDocName=STELPRDC5049137
&acct=nopgeninfo
(accessed 6/3/08)
Description: "On November 2, 2006, the United States District Court, District of Maine, granted USDA’s ‘motion for relief from judgment’ in response to a second lawsuit brought against the Department by Arthur Harvey."

13. Memorandum to All USDA Accredited Certifying Agents: Certification of Agricultural Products That Meet NOP Standards.
August 23, 2005.
Full text: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/getfile?dDocName=STELPRDC5052491
&acct=nopgeninfo
(accessed 6/3/08)
Description: "There are agricultural products, including personal care products, that, by virtue of their organic agricultural product content, may meet the NOP standards and be labeled as ‘100 percent organic,’ ‘organic’ or ‘made with organic’ pursuant to the NOP regulations. Businesses that manufacture and distribute such products may be certified under the NOP, and such products may be labeled as ‘100 percent organic,’ ‘organic" or ‘made with organic’ so long as they meet NOP requirements. Additionally, products that may be labeled ‘100 percent organic’ or ‘organic’ may also carry the USDA organic seal. If additional rulemaking is required for such products to address additional labeling issues or the use of synthetics in such products, the NOP will pursue such rulemaking as expeditiously as possible." [Excerpt from Memo]

14. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Peer Evaluation Report and NOP Response.
2005.
Full text (2 documents): http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/
ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=TemplateN&navID=ANSIReportNOPCertifiers
&rightNav1=ANSIReportNOPCertifiers&topNav=&leftNav=NationalOrganicProgram
&page=NOPANSI&resultType=&acct=nopgeninfo
(accessed 6/3/08)
Description: "The American National Standards Institute (ANSI), a private, non-profit organization (501(c)3) that administers and coordinates the U.S. voluntary standardization and conformity assessment system, and who serves as the U.S. member of ISO and IEC, was contracted by USDA to conduct a peer evaluation of the NOP accreditation system." [Excerpt from Executive Summary]

15. National Organic Program, Sunset Review (Federal Register Notice).
October 16, 2007
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/getfile?dDocName=STELPRDC5066629&acct=nosb (accessed 6/3/08)
Description: "This rule amends the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) National List of Allowed and Prohibited Substances (National List) regulations to reflect recommendations submitted to the Secretary of Agriculture (Secretary) by the National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) from November 17, 2005 through October 19, 2006. The amendments addressed in this final rule pertain to the continued exemption (use) and prohibition of 168 substances in organic production and handling. Consistent with the recommendations from the NOSB, this final rule renews 165 exemptions and prohibitions on the National List (along with any restrictive annotations) and removes 3 exemptions from the National List." [Summary] This rule is effective October 21, 2007.

16. USDA Publishes Amendments to List of Substances Used in Organic Handling.
USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), June 22, 2007 (AMS News, 133-07).
Full text: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?
template=TemplateU&navID=LatestReleases&page=Newsroom&topNav=Newsroom
&leftNav=&rightNav1=LatestReleases&rightNav2=&resultType=Details
&dDocName=STELPRDC5060337&dID=69752&wf=false&description=
USDA+Publishes+Amendments+to+List+of+Substances+Used+in+Organic+Handling+
(accessed 6/3/08)
Description: USDA "will publish an interim final rule that will amend USDA’s National List of Allowed and Prohibited Substances (National List) to include 38 minor ingredients recommended by the National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) during meetings in May 2002 and March 2007. The interim final rule, which is effective as of June 21, 2007, will also provide a 60-day period for additional comment on the amendments." [Excerpt]

17. NOP and NOSB Collaboration on Grower Group Certifications, by Barbara Robinson.
May, 2007.
Full text: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/getfile?dDocName=STELPRDC5058882
&acct=nopgeninfo
(accessed 6/3/08)
Description: Letter to all USDA certifying agents addressing enforcement action and future rule-making by NOP related to grower group certification.

18. National Organic Standards Board (NOSB).
Homepage: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=
TemplateQ&navID=NOSBHomeNOPNationalOrganicProgramHome&rightNav1=
NOSBHomeNOPNationalOrganicProgramHome&topNav=&leftNav=
NationalOrganicProgram&page=NOSBHome&description=NOSB&acct=nosb
(accessed 10/17/07)
Description: "The Organic Foods Production Act of 1990, part of the 1990 Farm Bill, authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to appoint a 15-member National Organic Standards Board (NOSB). The board’s main mission is to assist the Secretary in developing standards for substances to be used in organic production. The NOSB also advises the Secretary on other aspects of implementing the national organic program." [Web site] Recommendations made by the NOSB are not official policy until they are approved and adopted by USDA. Includes member contact directory, meeting schedule, meeting and conference call archives, NOSB recommendations, and Aquatic Animals Task Force information.

19. Cloning Recommendation, by National Organic Standards Board Livestock Committee.
USDA, National Organic Standards Board (NOSB), February 20, 2007. 3p.
Full Text: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/getfile?dDocName=STELPRDC5067151 (accessed 6/3/08)
Description: "Conclusion: To strengthen and clarify the existing rules, the NOSB Livestock Committee recommends that the NOP amend the regulations to add animal cloning technology to the definition of "Excluded Methods" and that the NOP update other sections of the rule to ensure that animal cloning technology is excluded, and that products derived from organisms subjected to such technology be excluded from organic production." [Web site]

20. Organic Aquaculture Symposium.
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=
TemplateN&navID=NationalOrganicProgram&leftNav=NationalOrganicProgram
&page=Nov2007AquacultureSymposiumPanelists&description=
NOSB%20November%202007%20Meeting%20Panelists&acct=nosb
(accessed 6/3/08)
Description: Full text of panel member presentations on fish feed and fish meal and open cage net pens; and of poster sessions on consumer and market issues. Symposium presented by National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) Aquaculture Working Group, Nov. 27, 2007.

21. Organic Foods Production Act of 1990 (OFPA).
United States Code. 21p.
Full text as posted by Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry:
http://agriculture.senate.gov/Legislation/Compilations/AgMisc/OGFP90.pdf (accessed 10/17/07)
Description: Title XXI of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 (Public Law 101 624), as Amended through Public Law 109-97, Nov. 10, 2005.

22. National Organic Program.
National Agricultural Law Center, University of Arkansas School of Law (Reading Room).
URL: http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/readingrooms/organicprogram/ (accessed 10/17/07)
Description: Site provides information about and links to NOP overview, major statutes, regulations, case law, administrative law decisions, reference resources and center research publications.

23. Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI).
Homepage: http://www.omri.org/ (accessed 10/17/07)
Description: "OMRI provides organic certifiers, growers, manufacturers, and suppliers an independent review of products intended for use in certified organic production, handling, and processing. OMRI reviews applying products against the National Organic Standards. Acceptable products are OMRI Listed® and appear on the OMRI Products List. OMRI also provides subscribers guidance on the acceptability of various material inputs in general under the National Organic Program." [Web site]

24. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Agriculture.
Homepage: http://www.epa.gov/agriculture/index.html (accessed 10/30/07)
Description: EPA topics include: agribusiness, food safety, biopesticides and organic farming.

25. Agriculture: Organic Farming.
URL: http://www.epa.gov/agriculture/torg.html (accessed 10/30/07)
Description: Links to background documents on organic production as well as "Guidance for Labeling Pesticides Under the National Organic Program." See Pesticide Registration (PR) Notice 2003-1, Notice to Manufacturers, Formulators, Producers, and Registrants of Pesticide Products: Labeling of Pesticide Products under the National Organic Program, http://www.epa.gov/opppmsd1/
PR_Notices/pr2003-1.pdf
(accessed 10/30/07).

26. Labeling of Pesticide Products Under the National Organic Program.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
URL: http://www.epa.gov/oppbppd1/biopesticides/regtools/organic-pr-notice.htm (accessed 10/17/07)
Description: Pesticide Registration (PR) Notice 2003-1. Notice to Manufacturers, Formulators, Producers and Registrants of Pesticide Products. "This notice describes how registrants can obtain Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approval of label language indicating that all ingredients (active and inert) in a pesticide product and all uses of that pesticide meet the criteria defined in the United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) National Organic Program (NOP) Rule." [Web site]

27. Alcohol Beverages Labeled with Organic Claims.
U.S. Department of the Treasury Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB).
URL: http://www.ttb.gov/alfd/alfd_organic.shtml (accessed 10/17/07)
Description: U.S. Department of Agriculture provide "standards for the production, handling, processing, labeling and marketing of products labeled with organic claims. While these rules were not written or implemented by the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB), they do apply to alcohol beverages. For this reason, TTB has worked closely with the USDA to ensure that the alcohol beverage industry has been provided with current and accurate information regarding organic claims on labels. This web site and the resources catalogued within are designed to provide you with the most up-to-date information on organic claims on alcohol beverage labels." [Web site]

28. Frequently Asked Questions - Organic Alcohol.
URL: http://www.ttb.gov/faqs/alforganic.shtml (accessed 10/17/07)

29. Basic Provisions, Federal Crop Insurance Reform, Insurance Implementation, Regulations for the 1999 and Subsequent Reinsurance Years; Group Risk Plan of Insurance Regulations for the 2001 and Succeeding Crop Years; and the Common Crop Insurance Regulations - Final Rule.
USDA, Risk Management Agency (RMA). Note: Federal Register, June 25, 2003, as posted by USDA RMA.
Full text: http://www.rma.usda.gov/regs/2003/03basicprovisions.pdf (accessed 10/17/07)
Description: "The Agricultural Risk Protection Act of 2000 (ARPA) provides that organic farming practices be recognized as good farming practices. Prior to this ruling, crop insurance policies may not have covered production losses when organic insect, disease, and/or weed control measures were used and such measures were not effective." [Web site]

30. Organic Farming Practices: 2007 Insurance Fact Sheet.
(Organic Farming Practices/Program Aid Number 1912), December 2006.
Full text: http://www.rma.usda.gov/pubs/2006/organics.pdf (accessed 10/17/07)

31. Congressional Caucus on Organic Agriculture.
Note: Information posted by Organic Farming Research Foundation (OFRF).
URL: http://ofrf.org/policy/organic_caucus/organic_caucus.html (accessed 10/17/07)
Description: "The Organic Caucus is a bipartisan association of congressional members dedicated to enhancing the availability and understanding of information related to the production and processing of organic agricultural products. The caucus shall serve the public interest through the promotion of sound policies that advance organic production and marketing." [Mission statement] Information, meeting agendas and current membership included on the site.

32. House Committee on Agriculture, Subcommittee on Horticulture and Organic Agriculture.
URL: http://agriculture.house.gov/inside/subcomms.html (accessed 10/17/07)
Description: House of Representatives, U.S. Congress (110th). Dennis A. Cardoza, (D-CA) Chairman. Jurisdiction: fruits and vegetables; honey and bees; marketing and promotion orders; plant pesticides, quarantine, adulteration of seeds, and insect pests; and organic agriculture. Page includes list of current members.

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State Laws and Regulations Pertinent to Marketing Organic Products

Many states have legislation, regulations and/or a USDA-accredited organic certification programs that organic producers, handlers, processors and retailers should be aware of.

33. Environmental Laws Affecting State Agriculture.
National Association of State Departments of Agriculture Research Foundation.
URL: http://www.nasda.org/nasda/nasda/foundation/state/states.htm (accessed 6/3/08)

34. State Marketing Profiles.
USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS).
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=
TemplateJ&navID=StateMarketingProfilesLinkWholesaleAndFarmersMarkets
&rightNav1=StateMarketingProfilesLinkWholesaleAndFarmersMarkets&topNav=
&leftNav=WholesaleandFarmersMarkets&page=SMPStateMarketingProfilesHome
&resultType=&acct=stmktprfl
(accessed 6/3/08)
Description: Information about accredited state organic agriculture certifiers and programs is included with each state profile.

35. Accredited State Departments of Agriculture.
USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), National Organic Program (NOP), 2006.
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=
TemplateN&topNav=NationalOrganicProgram&leftNav=NationalOrganicProgram
&page=NOPSOPsAccreditedStateDeptsofAg&description=
Accredited%20State%20Departments%20of%20Agriculture&acct=nopgeninfo
(accessed 6/3/08)
Description: Fifteen State Departments of Agriculture have been accredited as certifying agents.

36. State Contacts.
USDA, National Organic Program (NOP), 2007.
Full text: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?startIndex=1
&startIndex=3&startIndex=2&template=TemplateJ&navID=NationalOrganicProgram
&leftNav=NationalOrganicProgram&page=NOPSOPsStateOrganicContacts
&description=State%20Organic%20Contacts&acct=nopgeninfo
(accessed 6/3/08)

37. "Summaries of State Organic Laws/States without Organic Laws,"
In National Organic Directory, pp. 145-161.Community Alliance with Family Farmers, 2001. Note: This publication is no longer in print.

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Other Organic-related Certification Programs

There are a growing number of organizations offering eco-labels and/or product certification for agricultural products. Many are related to organic standards but offer producers and consumers product-specific or alternative marketing options. This list is meant to be representative of such programs and not comprehensive in scope.

38. Greener Choices: Eco-Label Center.
Consumers Union, 2005.
Homepage: http://www.greenerchoices.org/eco-labels/eco-home.cfm (accessed 10/31/07)
Description: "Learn more about products that are eco-labeled compared to those that are conventionally farmed or produced and compare labels quickly with a shorthand report card." [Web site] Includes product and label indexes categorized as "Organic, Sustainable Agriculture," "Animal Welfare," "Pest Management," "No Genetic Engineering," "Environmental Persistence," and "Social Responsibility."

39. American Grassfed Association.
Homepage: http://www.americangrassfed.org/ (accessed 10/31/07)
Description: "The American Grassfed Association (AGA) family of logos and design marks were developed by the American Grassfed Association and trademarked to identify food and agriculture products, which meet the standards as set forth in the AGA Grassfed Ruminant Standards and certified through a program approved by the AGA." [Web sote]

40. American Organic Standards.
Organic Trade Association (OTA).
URL: http://www.ota.com/standards/aos/index.html (accessed 10/31/07)
Description: Adopted by OTA in October 1999, AOS is a "detailed document that compiles and codifies industry practices as they currently are understood and applied. OTA took this action to provide a unified voice to establish standards that will protect the integrity of organic agriculture. OTA intends to use these standards to work toward better harmonization of international standards." [Web site]

41. Cert ID Non GMO Standard.
Cert ID LC.
Contact: Cert ID LC, PO Box 1810, Fairfield IA 52556-0031; 877-384-6193 (toll-free in U.S/Canada) or 641-472-9979; e-mail info-na@cert-id.com
Homepage: http://www.cert-id.com/ (accessed 10/30/07)
Description: "CERT ID is a global company active in providing third-party certification programs to growers, agricultural processors, food ingredient producers, food and feed manufacturers, animal producers and food retailers." [Web site] Provides standards for CERT ID® EU Regulatory Compliance Standard and CERT ID® Non GMO Standard.

42. Certified Humane Raised and Handled.
Humane Farm Animal Care.
Contact: Humane Farm Animal Care, PO Box 727, Herndon VA 20172; 703-435-3883; e-mail info@certifiedhumane.org
Homepage: http://www.certifiedhumane.com/ (accessed 11/31/07)
Description: "Humane Farm Animal Care is a non-profit organization whose mission is to improve the lives of farm animals by providing viable, credible, duly monitored standards for human food production and ensuring consumers that certified products need these standards." [Web site]

43. Certified Naturally Grown.
Certified Naturally Grown.
Contact: Certified Naturally Grown, PO Box 156, Stone Ridge NY 12484; 877-211-0308; e-mail info@naturallygrown.org
Homepage: http://www.naturallygrown.org/ (accessed 10/31/07)
Description: "Certified Naturally Grown is a Grassroots Alternative to the USDA’s National Organic Program meant primarily for small farmers distributing through local channels - Farmer’s Markets, roadside stands, local restaurants, Community Supported Agriculture Programs and small local grocery stores - the farmer’s that make up your local landscape!" [Press summary and information]

44. Davis Fresh Pro-Safe Certification Program.
Davis FreshTech.
Contact: Davis FreshTech, 8 Seascape Village, Aptos CA 95003; 831-688-8900; e-mail solutions@nsfdavisfresh.org
Homepage: http://www.davisfreshtech.com/ (accessed 10/31/07)
Description: Provides food safety audits and consulting for the perishable food industry.

45. Demeter Certified Biodynamic®.
Demeter Association, Inc.
Contact: Demeter Association, Inc., PO Box 1390, Philomath OR 97370 USA; 541-929-7148.
Homepage: http://www.demeter-usa.org/ (accessed 10/31/07)
Description: "For the Certification of Biodynamic Agriculture." See also Demeter International, http://www.demeter.net (accessed 10/31/07).

46. Fair Trade Certified.
TransFair USA.
Contact: TransFair USA, 1500 Broadway, Suite 400, Oakland CA 94612; 510-663-5260; e-mail info@transfairusa.org
Homepage: http://www.transfairusa.org/ (accessed 10/31/07)
Description: "TransFair USA’s mission is to build a more equitable and sustainable model of international trade that benefits producers, consumers, industry and the earth. We achieve our mission by certifying and promoting Fair Trade products." [Web site]

47. Farmer’s Pledge.
Northeast Organic Farming Association of New York (NOFA-NY).
Homepage: http://nofany.org/farmerspledge.htm (accessed 10/31/07)
Description: "To further enable consumers to identify the farms they want to support with their food dollars, NOFA-NY has established a Farmer’s Pledge, separate and distinct from USDA Certified Organic... This pledge is based on the integrity of the farmer/gardener." [Web site]

48. Food Alliance Certified.
The Food Alliance (TFA).
Homepage: http://www.foodalliance.org/ (accessed 10/31/07)
Description: "Food Alliance certified farmers meet strict standards in the areas of pesticide reduction, soil and water conservation, wildlife habitat conservation and safe and fair working conditions." [Web site] Programs: Farm and Ranch Certification Program, and Handlers Certification Program

49. Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS).
International Working Group on Global Organic Textile Standard, 2006.
Homepage: http://www.global-standard.org/ (accessed 10/31/07)
Description: "The aim of the standard is to define requirements to ensure organic status of textiles, from harvesting of the raw materials, through environmentally and socially responsible manufacturing up to labelling in order to provide a credible assurance to the end consumer." Developed in cooperation with Organic Trade Association (OTA) and other organizations in the U.S. and Europe.

50. International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
Homepage: http://www.iso.ch/iso/en/ (accessed 10/31/07)
Description: "ISO has developed over 16500 International Standards on a variety of subjects and 1250 new ISO standards are published every year." In addition to standards for basic business practices, ISO current standards include those for: food management systems; traceability in the feed and food chain; foodstuffs - methods of analysis for the detection of genetically modified organisms and derived products; guidelines on the application of ISO 9001:2000 for the food and drink industry; and many related to environmental qualities. See also Audit, Review and Compliance Branch, Auditing Services, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) in this listing.

51. ISO 65: Agriculture.
Catalog listing: http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_ics/
catalogue_ics_browse.htm?ICS1=65
(accessed 10/31/07)

52. ISO 67: Food Technology.
Catalog listing: http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_ics/
catalogue_ics_browse.htm?ICS1=67
(accessed 10/31/07)

53. IPM Product and Service Recognition Programs and Information.
IPM Institute of North America, Inc.
URL: http://www.ipminstitute.org/links.htm (accessed 11/27/07)
Description: Descriptions and links for organizations providing eco-labeling options and related programs related to IPM (Integrated Pest Management) practices. See also the Institute’s Bibliography of IPM Certification, Labeling and Marketing at http://www.ipminstitute.org/ipm_bibliography.htm (accessed 11/27/07)

54. NSF International.
NSF International.
Contact: NSF International, 789 North Dixboro Road, P.O. Box 130140, Ann Arbor MI 48113-0140; 800-NSF-MARK (toll free in US); e-mail info@nsf.org
Homepage: http://www.nsf.org/ (accessed 10/31/07)
Description: "NSF works with both regulators and companies to find risk management solutions that all parties can live with." [Web site] Various certification programs are available including one for Organic Food administered by Quality Assurance International (QAI). Others food-related programs deal with Bottled Water and Packaged Ice, Dietary Supplements, Food Equipment, Food Safety Services, Functional Food and Beverages, GMO Testing Program, HACCP, and Meat and Poultry Processing Equipment.

55. Scientific Certification Systems (SCS).
Scientific Certification Systems (SCS).
Contact: SCS, Main Office, 2200 Powell Street, Suite 725, Emeryville CA 94608; 510-452-8000.
Homepage: http://www.scscertified.com/ (accessed 10/31/07)
Description: In addition to Organic certification, SCS programs include: Clean Food Certification; Antioxidant Rich™ Certification; Certification of Socially Responsible Practices; Pesticide Residue Free Certification; Specialized Pesticide Residue Testing Services; GAP/GMP Food Safety Audits; CertiClean® HACCP-based Food Safety Management Certification; EurepGAP, BRC, and Tesco Food Safety Certification; Fair Labor Practices and Community Benefits; Material and Recycled Content; and Biodegradability. Information about their Draft National Standard for Sustainable Agriculture (SCS-001) is at http://www.scscertified.com/foodag/sustainable/
key_principles.html
(assessed 10/31/07).

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Selected Background Documents about U.S. Standards

Organic standards have evolved over many years, and debate continues on many key topics. This reading list is intended to provide a taste of both historical and current issues pertinent to organic standards and certification. Representative opinion pieces and research analysis are included.

56. 2002 Farm Bill: ERS Analysis: Organic Agriculture Provisions.
USDA, Economic Research Service (ERS), 2002.
Full text: http://www.ers.usda.gov/Features/farmbill/analysis/organicagriculture.htm (accessed 10/17/07)

57. About Organic.
Organic Farming Research Foundation (OFRF), 2006 (Frequently Asked Questions about Organic Farming).
Full text: http://ofrf.org/resources/organicfaqs.html (accessed 10/17/07)

58. Agricultural Biotechnology and Organic Agriculture: National Organic Standards, Labeling and Second-Generation of GM Products, by Konstantinos Giannakas and Amalia Yiannaka.
American Agricultural Economics Association, 2003. 28p. Note: Selected Paper, Annual Meeting, July 27-30, 2003, Montreal, Canada.
Summary and full text: http://agecon.lib.umn.edu/cgi-bin/detailview.pl?paperid=9177 (accessed 10/17/07)

59. Agricultural Standards: The Shape of the Global Food and Fiber System, by Jim Bingen and Lawrence Busch.
Springer, 2006. 258p. (The International Library of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Ethics, 6). [NAL Call Number: HD1428 .A38 2006].
Information/abstract only: http://www.springer.com/west/home/social+sciences/
social+sciences%2C+general?SGWID=4-40437-22-75648294-0
(accessed 10/24/07)

60. Appetite for Change: How the Counterculture Took on the Food Industry, by Warren James Belasco.
2nd updated edition. Cornell University Press, 2007. 327p. [NAL Call Number: HD9005 .B44 2007].
Information/abstract only: http://www.cornellpress.cornell.edu/cup_detail.taf?ti_id=1994 (accessed 10/24/07)

61. Building Trust in Organics: A Guide to Setting Up Organic Certification Programmes, by Gunnar Rundgren.
Rev. edition. International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), 2007.
Information/abstract only: http://shop.ifoam.org/bookstore/product_info.php?
products_id=421
(accessed 10/24/07)

62. Comparative Analysis of the United States National Organic Program (7 CFR 205) and the European Union Organic Legislation (EEC 2092/91) and Amendments, by Sustainable Strategies Advisors in Food and Agriculture.
Organic Trade Association (OTA), 2002. 106p. Note: Prepared for the Organic Trade Association. Summary available at: http://www.ota.com/standards/other/eu_us.html (accessed 10/17/07).
Full text: http://www.ota.com/pics/documents/NOPEUunifiedreport.pdf (accessed 10/17/07)

63. "Consumer Preferences for Organic Standards: Does the Final Rule Reflect Them?" by David S. Conner.
Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 23, no. 3 (2004): pp. 125-143.
Information/abstract only: https://www.haworthpress.com/store/ArticleAbstract.asp?
sid=28J7CGHRECAG9HTJRUAUDV7JLT929B1E&ID=41954
(accessed 10/17/07)

64. "Conventional Stores Go Organic," by Laurie Budgar.
Natural Foods Merchandiser 28, no. 8 (Aug. 2007): p. 1.
Full text: http://www.naturalfoodsmerchandiser.com/ASP/articleDisplay.asp?
strArticleId=2470&strSite=NFMSite
(accessed 10/24/07)

65. "Differing Organic Standards Impede International Trade, Report," by Lorraine Heller.
Food Navigator USA (Nov. 2006).
Full text: http://www.foodnavigator-usa.com/news/ng.asp?id=72443 (accessed 10/24/07)

66. "Federal Court Requires Stricter Organic Rules on Synthetics, Non-Organic Ingredients, and Dairy Feed," In Analysis of the Decision on January 26, 2005, by U.S. Court of Appeals for First Circuit, Boston Massachusetts, in Case of Arthur Harvey V. Ann Veneman, Secretary of Agriculture, No. 04-1379.
Organic Trade Association (OTA), 2005.
Full text as reprinted by Organic Consumers Association:
http://www.organicconsumers.org/organic/harvey012805.cfm (accessed 8/8/05)

67. Federal Regulation of Organic Food: A Research Guide for Legal Practitioners and Food Industry Professionals, by Stephanie Jillian.
National Agricultural Law Center, 2006. Note: "An Agricultural Law Research Publication."
Full text: http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/research/#organicregulation (accessed 10/17/07)
Description: "This guide explores methods and resources for researching the federal regulation of organic food following the passage of the Organic Foods Production Act of 1990. This guide focuses on the current state of federal law and not on the pre-1990 history of organic food regulation, or on state regulation. There are countless resources available, including government documents, online electronic files, books, trade journals, government and non-government sponsored websites, agricultural search engines, and commercial databases. This guide examines these and other resources, providing the reader with a clear roadmap for approaching research on this topic."

68. "Fish-Eye Lens Frames Wild and Organic Debate," by Mitchell Clute.
Natural Foods Merchandiser 28, no. 3 (February, 2007): pp. 78-79.
Full text: http://www.naturalfoodsmerchandiser.com/ASP/articleDisplay.asp?
strArticleId=2269&strSite=NFMSite
(accessed 10/24/07)

69. "How the Media Missed the Organic Story," by Samuel Fromartz.
Samuel Fromartz, 2007.
Full text as posted by Organic Trade Association (OTA):
http://www.ota.com/news/HowMediaMissed.html (accessed 10/17/07)

70. "How to Add Oomph to ‘Organic’," by Andrew Martin.
New York Times (Aug. 19, 2007).
Full text: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/19/business/yourmoney/
19feed.html?_r=2&ref=yourmoney&oref=slogin&oref=slogin
(accessed 10/24/07)

71. "Implications of Organic Certification for Market Structure and Trade," by Luanne Lohr.
American Journal of Agricultural Economics 80, no. 5 (1998): pp. 1125-1133.
Full text as posted by AllBusiness.com, The Gale Group, Inc. and American Agricultural Economics Association: http://www.allbusiness.com/north-america/united-states/734440-1.html (accessed 10/17/07)

72. "International Harmonisation of Organic Standards and Guarantee Systems," by Diana Bowen.
In Organic Agriculture: Sustainability Markets and Policies, OECD Workshop on Organic Agriculture, Washington DC, September 23-24, 2003, pp. 199-200. CABI Publishing/Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 2003.
Full text: http://www.oecdbookshop.org/oecd/display.asp?K=5LMQCR2K3D0S
&lang=EN&sort=sort_date%2Fd&sf1=Title&st1=organic+agriculture
&sf3=SubjectCode&st3=30&st4=not+E4+or+E5+or+P5&sf4=SubVersionCode
&ds=organic+agriculture%3B+Agriculture+%26+Food%3B+&m=2&dc=2&plang=en
(accessed 10/17/07)

73. "It’s a Natural," by Leslie Krasny.
Wellness Foods/Food Processing, April, 2007: p. 20.
Full text: http://www.foodprocessing.com/articles/2007/080.html (accessed 11/27/07)
Description: "A ‘natural’ claim for foods is still subject to uncertainty over standards."

74. Key Points about Regulations.
Organic Trade Association (OTA), 2003.
Full text: http://www.ota.com/standards/nop/keypoints.html (accessed 10/17/07)

75. A Legal Guide to the National Organic Program, by Harrison M. Pittman.
National Agricultural Law Center, 2004. 64p.
Full text: http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/articles/pittman_organicprogram.pdf (accessed 10/17/07)
Description: "This article examines the legal aspects of NOP. It focuses on the requirements set forth in the final rule and OFPA. This article is intended to be helpful for lawyers and non-lawyers alike who are interested or involved with organic production and handling." [Web site]

76. "The Legal Lowdown on the Organic Rule," by Susan D. Brienza.
Natural Foods Merchandiser 23, no. 10 (October, 2002): pp. 44, 46.
Full text: http://www.naturalfoodsmerchandiser.org/ASP/articleDisplay.asp?
strArticleId=654&strSite=NFMSITE&Screen=CURRENTISSUE
(accessed 10/17/07)

77. Market-Led Growth vs. Government-Facilitated Growth: Development of the U.S. and EU Organic Agricultural Sectors, by Carolyn Dimitri and Lydia Oberholtzer.
USDA, Economic Research Service (ERS), 2005. 26p. (Outlook Report, WRS0505).
Full text: http://www.ers.usda.gov/Publications/WRS0505/ (accessed 10/20/07)
Description: Organic farmland and sales are rapidly growing worldwide, and the two largest markets are in the European Union (EU) and the United States. The two regions have adopted different policy approaches to organic agriculture. Many EU countries have "green payments" available for transitioning and continuing organic farmers, as well as a variety of other supply and demand policies aimed at promoting growth of the organic sector. The U.S. Government, in contrast, has largely taken a free-market approach to the organic sector, and policy is aimed at facilitating market development. This report compares EU and U.S. organic agriculture policy and examines the organic sectors in the two regions.

78. "National Organic Program Background," by Sean L. Swezey.
In Organic Farming Compliance Handbook: A Resource Guide for Western Region Agricultural Professionals, by Brian Baker, Sean L. Swezey, David Granatstein, Steve Guldan and David Chaney. University of California, Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program (SAREP), 2005.
Full text: http://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/organic/complianceguide/national1.pdf (accessed 10/17/07)

79. National Organic Program: Background Information.
USDA, National Organic Program (NOP), 2002.
Full text: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3004443
&acct=nopgeninfo
(accessed 6/3/08)

80. "The National Organic Program (NOP): What Agricultural Professionals Need to Know."
In Organic Farming Compliance Handbook: A Resource Guide for Western Region Agricultural Professionals, by Brian Baker, Sean L. Swezey, David Granatstein, Steve Guldan and David Chaney.
University of California, Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program (SAREP), 2005.
Full text: http://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/organic/complianceguide/national2.pdf (accessed 10/17/07)

81. National Organic Rules Backgrounder: Implementing the Organic Foods Production Act.
Organic Trade Association (OTA), no date.
Full text: http://www.ota.com/standards/nop/norb.html (accessed 10/17/07)

82. "New Complaint Places Organic Fraud in Spotlight Again," by Lorraine Heller.
Food Navigator USA (Oct. 22, 2007).
Full text: http://www.foodnavigator-usa.com/news/ng.asp?
n=80758-nop-organic-fraud-organic-standards
(accessed 10/24/07)

83. "NOP Collaborate with NOSB on Organic Grower Group Certification,"
Organic Standard 73 (May, 2007): p. 1.
Full text: http://www.organicstandard.com/TOS-73-page1.pdf (accessed 10/24/07)

84. "NOSB Debates Organic Seafood," by Mitchell Clute.
Natural Foods Merchandiser 28, no. 5 (May, 2007): p. 9.
Full text: http://www.naturalfoodsmerchandiser.com/ASP/articleDisplay.asp
?strArticleId=2359&strSite=NFMSite
(accessed 10/24/07)

85. "Organic Dilemma: What Rules Personal Care?" by Mitchell Clute.
Natural Foods Merchandiser 26, no. 2 (February, 2005): p. 36.
Full text: http://www.naturalfoodsmerchandiser.com/ASP/articleDisplay.asp
?strArticleId=1285&strSite=NFMSITE&Screen=CURRENTISSUE
(accessed 10/17/07)

86. "Organic Food."
In Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, no date.
Full text: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_food (accessed 10/17/07)

87. Organic Foods and the USDA National Organic Program, by Jean M. Rawson.
Congressional Research Service, 2007.
Full text as posted by National Agricultural Law Center:
http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/crs/RL31595.pdf (accessed 10/17/07)
Description: Report produced by the Congressional Research Service, a branch of the Library of Congress providing nonpartisan research reports to members of the House and Senate.

88. Organic Foods Production Act Backgrounder.
Organic Trade Association (OTA), no date.
Full text: http://www.ota.com/pp/legislation/backgrounder.html (accessed 10/20/07)

89. "Organic Grapes, Organic Wine: The Harvest is Bountiful, but the Labeling Controversy is Still Fermenting," by Paul Gleason.
E/The Environmental Magazine 17, no. 6 (2006).
Full text: http://www.emagazine.com/view/?3423 (accessed 10/20/07)

90. Organic, Inc.: Natural Foods and How They Grew, by Samuel Fromartz.
Harcourt, 2006. 320p.
Information/abstract only: http://www.fromartz.com/main.php?sn=sn1&pc=oi2 (accessed 10/24/07)

91. "Organic Industry Roots Run Deep," by Ken Mergentime.
Natural Foods Merchandiser’s Organic Times (1994).

92. "‘Organic’ Milk Needs a Pasture," by Elizabeth Weise.
USA Today (March 9, 2005).
Full-text: http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2005-03-08-cows_x.htm (accessed 10/17/07)

93. Organic Personal Care Update, by Darrin C. Duber-Smith.
NPI International, 2005.
Full-text: http://www.npicenter.com/anm/templates/newsATemp.aspx
?articleid=12521&zoneid=43
(accessed 10/17/07)

94. Organic Producers and Marketers Exempted from Commodity Promotion Assessments.
USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), January 13, 2005 (AMS News, 276-04).
Full text: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=
TemplateU&navID=LatestReleases&page=Newsroom&topNav=Newsroom&leftNav=
&rightNav1=LatestReleases&rightNav2=&resultType=Details&dDocName=STELDEV3004783
&description=Organic+Producers+&+Marketers+Exempted+from+Commodity+Promoti
(accessed 6/3/08)

95. "Organic Standards and Certification," by Sasha Courville.
In Organic Agriculture: A Global Perspective, by Paul Kristiansen, Acram Taji and John Reganold, pp. 201-219. Cornell University Press; CSIRO Publishing; CABI Publishing, 2006. 480p.
Information/abstract only: http://www.cornellpress.cornell.edu/cup_detail.taf
?ti_id=4640
(accessed 11/27/07)
Description: This chapter highlights the history of the development of organic standards and certification; organic standards and standards setting processes; conformity assessment processes (international verification processes); and key challenges for the future of organic regulation. A list of references is included.

96. "Organic Standards: By Whom and for Whom?" by W. Lockeretz and V. Lund.
In Socio-Economic Aspects of Animal Health and Food Safety in Organic Farming Systems. Proceedings of the 1st SAFO Workshop, Florence, Italy, 5-7 September 2003, pp. 201-210., 2003.
Full text (go to p. 201): http://www.safonetwork.org/publications/ws1/wp1pub/
ws1_pro.pdf
(accessed 10/17/07)

97. Organic Trade Association Adopts Organic Fiber Processing Standards.
Organic Trade Association, February 23, 2004 (OTA Press Release).
Full text: http://www.ota.com/news/press/130.html (accessed 10/17/07)

98. "Organic ‘Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations’ – a Thing of the Past?" by Samuel Fromartz.
Organic Standard 77 (September, 2007): p. 1.
Full text: http://www.organicstandard.com/TOS-77-page1.pdf (accessed 10/24/07)

99. "Organics...Misbranding and Misrepresentation Under PACA...What It Means to You,"
PACA Administrative Newsletter 3, no. 2 (April, 2007).
Full text: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/getfile?dDocName=STELPRDC5057920 (accessed 6/3/08)

100. Personal Care Task Force Fact Sheet.
Organic Trade Association (OTA), Quality Assurance Committee, 2004.
Full text: http://www.ota.com/PersonalCareFact.html (accessed 10/17/07)

101. Regulating Organic: Impacts of the National Organic Standards on Consumer Awareness and Organic Consumption Patterns, by Ron Strochlic.
California Institute for Rural Studies, 2005. Note: Funded by the USDA Agriculture Marketing Service, USDA-AMS Agreement 12-25-A-4264.
Full-text: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3101425 (accessed 6/3/08)

102. "Retailers Ready for the National Organic Program," by Mark King.
Natural Foods Merchandiser 23, no. 1 (January, 2002): pp. 1, 5. Note: First of a 10-part series "outlining how the program will change the way business is done up and down the organic supply chain."
Full text: http://www.naturalfoodsmerchandiser.com/ASP/articleDisplay.asp
?strArticleId=249&strSite=NFMSITE&Screen=ARTICLEARCHIVE
(accessed 10/17/07)

103. "The Role of Government Standards and Market Facilitation," by Kathleen Merrigan.
In Organic Agriculture: Sustainability Markets and Policies, OECD Workshop on Organic Agriculture, Washington DC, September 23-24, 2003, pp. 277-228. CABI Publishing; Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 2003.
Full text: http://www.oecdbookshop.org/oecd/display.asp?K=5LMQCR2K3D0S&lang=EN
&sort=sort_date%2Fd&sf1=Title&st1=organic+agriculture&sf3=SubjectCode&st3=30
&st4=not+E4+or+E5+or+P5&sf4=SubVersionCode
&ds=organic+agriculture%3B+Agriculture+%26+Food%3B+&m=2&dc=2&plang=en
(accessed 10/17/07)

104. "Should There Be a Limit on the Size of Organic Farms?" by Bob Anderson and Elizabeth Henderson.
Natural Foods Merchandiser (September, 2006).
Full text: http://www.naturalfoodsmerchandiser.com/ASP/articleDisplay.asp
?strArticleId=2042&strSite=NFMSite
(accessed 10/24/07)

105. Sociological Perspectives of Organic Agriculture: From Pioneer to Policy, by Georgina Holt and Matthew Reed.
CABI Publishing, 2006. 309p. [NAL Call Number: HD9000.5 .S657 2006].
Information/abstract only: http://www.cabi.org/bk_bookdisplay.asp?SubjectArea=
&Subject=&PID=1914
(accessed 10/24/07)

106. "State-Centered versus Nonstate-Driven Organic Food Standardization: A Comparison of the U.S. and Sweden," by Magnus Bostrëm and Mikael Klintman.
Agriculture and Human Values 23, no. 2 (2006): pp. 163-180.
Information/abstract only: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/klu/ahum/
2006/00000023/00000002/00006099
(accessed 11/27/07)

107. "Transforming Organic Agriculture into Industrial Organic Products: Reconsidering National Organic Standards," by Laura G. DeLind.
Human Organization 59, no. 2 (2000): pp. 198-208.
Information/abstract only (go to seventh entry): http://www.sfaa.net/ho/
2000/summer2000.html
(accessed 10/17/07)

108. "U.S. Congress Backs Organic Wild Fish Label; Stevens Adds Rider to War Spending Bill."
AlaskaLegislature.Com (Associated Press) (April 16, 2003).
Full text: http://www.alaskalegislature.com/stories/041603/organicfish.shtml (accessed 10/17/07)

109. "U.S. Has Huge Appetite for Organic Food: Industry," by Charles Abbott.
Reuters (April 24, 2007).
Full text: http://www.reuters.com/article/healthNews/idUSN2417592520070424?feed
Type=RSS
(accessed 10/24/07)

110. "USDA Publishes Final Rule to Revise NOP Regulations/Q&A’s on _Harvey V. Johanns_ (Harvey) Final Regulation."
Independent Organic Inspectors Association (IOIA) News (2006).
Full text: http://www.ioia.net/news.html#top (accessed 10/17/07)

111. "USDA Relents on Scope of National Organic Program: ‘Organic Agricultural Product Content’ Qualifies Products for Organic Labeling."
American Herbal Products Association (AHPA) News (August 24, 2005).
Full text: http://www.ahpa.org/Default.aspx?tabid=69&aId=204 (accessed 10/17/07)

112. "Variation in Organic Standards Prior to the National Organic Program," by T. Robert Fetter and Julie Caswell.
American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 17, no. 2 (2002); pp. 55-74.

113. Veneman Marks Implementation of USDA National Organic Standards.
USDA, October 21, 2002 (News Release, 0453.02).

114. "Who’s Watching the USDA’s Organic ‘Henhouse’," by Joe Mendelson.
Organic Farming Research Foundation Information Bulletin 12 (Winter, 2003): pp. 1, 8.
Full text: http://www.ofrf.org/publications/ib/ib12.pdf (accessed 10/17/07)

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General Federal Food-related Labeling and Regulatory Programs and Information: Selected Background Resources – U.S. Food Regulation and Labeling

Any organic handling, labeling or marketing scheme must address general commodity regulations as well as those specific to organic.

115. Reading Rooms: National Agricultural Law Center.
National Agricultural Law Center, University of Arkansas School of Law.
URL: http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/readingrooms/ (accessed 10/31/07)
Description: "Each reading room contains a comprehensive list of current electronic resources for an agricultural or food law topic. Links are provided to major statutes, regulations, case law, Federal Register Digest reports, Center-published research articles, government publications, Congressional publications, and numerous other research resources. Also contained in each room is an overview article that provides a thumbnail sketch of the history and development of that subject." [Web site]

116. Commercial Transactions.
National Agricultural Law Center, University of Arkansas School of Law (Reading Room).
URL: http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/readingrooms/commercial/ (accessed 11/16/07)
Description: "Modern agriculture is dominated by complex commercial transactions that are often highly regulated and involve legal issues unique to agriculture. These transactions are primarily governed by state law, which is subject to the vagaries of each state’s legislature and subsequent judicial interpretation. Agricultural transactions cover many areas of commercial law including the sale of goods, leasing, contract law, secured transactions, and commodity futures trading. In order to provide the business community with some certainty in transactions and to facilitate complex transactions that may cross state boundaries, most jurisdictions have adopted the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC), with only minor variations between different states, to govern the majority of commercial transactions." [Web site]

117. Country of Origin Labeling (COOL).
National Agricultural Law Center, University of Arkansas School of Law (Reading Room).
URL: http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/readingrooms/cool/ (accessed 11/16/07)
Description: "Under the Tariff Act of 1930, 19 U.S.C. §§ 1202-1681b, nearly every item imported into the United States must indicate to the ultimate purchaser its country of origin. Many imported agricultural products are either exempted from coverage of the Act or are deemed to have undergone sufficient additional manufacturing or processing so that they become products of the United States and therefore do not require labeling. The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002, Pub. L. No. 107-171 § 10816, 116 Stat. 134, 533-35, amends the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946, 7 U.S.C. §§ 1621-1637b (amendments to be codified at 7 U.S.C. §§ 1638-1638d), to require retail level country of origin labeling (COOL) for shellfish, peanuts, fruits, vegetables, and various meats. This change will inform consumers at the final point of sale of a covered commodity’s origins." [Web site]

118. Food Labeling.
National Agricultural Law Center, University of Arkansas School of Law (Reading Room).
URL: http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/readingrooms/foodlabeling/ (accessed 10/31/07)
Description: "Governmental intervention in food labeling typically aims at improving human health and safety, supporting domestic agricultural and food manufacturing industries, and averting international trade disputes. Pursuant to the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act and its amendments, food labeling addresses nutritional information and is required for most prepared foods, such as breads, cereals, canned and frozen foods, snacks, desserts, drinks, etc., whereas nutrition labeling for raw produce (fruits and vegetables) and fish is voluntary." [Web site]

119. Marketing Orders.
National Agricultural Law Center, University of Arkansas School of Law (Reading Room).
URL: http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/readingrooms/marketing/ (accessed 10/31/07)
Description: "Marketing orders and agreements are legal instruments issued by the USDA Secretary that are designed to stabilize market conditions for certain agricultural commodities by regulating the handling of those commodities in interstate or foreign commerce." [Web site]

120. Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act (PACA).
National Agricultural Law Center, University of Arkansas School of Law (Reading Room).
URL: http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/readingrooms/perishablecommodities/ (accessed 10/31/07)
Description: "The Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act ("PACA"), 7 U.S.C. §§ 499a-499t, was enacted in 1930 to regulate the marketing of perishable agricultural commodities in interstate and foreign commerce. The primary purposes of the PACA are to prevent unfair and fraudulent conduct in the marketing and selling of perishable agricultural commodities and to facilitate the orderly flow of perishable agricultural commodities in interstate and foreign commerce. The PACA is administered and regulated by the Agricultural Marketing Service, an agency within the USDA." [Web site]

121. Production Contracts.
National Agricultural Law Center, University of Arkansas School of Law (Reading Room).
URL: http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/readingrooms/productioncontracts/ (accessed 10/31/07)
Description: "Agricultural production contracts are agreements between producers and contractors, typically agricultural commodity processors, that detail an arrangement for raising agricultural commodities. These contracts usually identify the production practices to be used, identify the party responsible for supplying the required resources, and specify the quantity, quality, and method of payment for the product. Farmers and ranchers utilize production contracts as a tool to manage the risks inherent in agricultural production, and agribusinesses employ production contracts to manage risk and to control expenditures. The legal implications of production contracts are unique to each jurisdiction because the law of each state governs their interpretation. In addition, variations in terms and language contained in individual production contracts make each one distinct." [Web site]

122. Food Law and Regulations.
foodsafety.gov.
URL: http://www.foodsafety.gov/~fsg/foodlaw.html (accessed 10/24/07)
Description: Federal and International Web sites.

123. Food Law Org.
Law Office of Neal D. Fortin.
Homepage: http://www.foodlaw.org/ (accessed 10/31/07)
Description: Comprehensive clearinghouse for information on food law, labeling and safety, and related legal and regulatory resources. Site maintained by the Law Office of Neal D. Fortin, Director of the Institute for Food Laws and Regulations (http://www.iflr.msu.edu/ (accessed 10/31/07)) and assistant professor at Michigan State University.

124. "Food Laws and Regulations,"
In Improving the Safety and Quality of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables: A Training Manual for Trainers, Section IV. Joint Institute for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition/University of Maryland, 2002. Note: Also available in Spanish: "Leyes y Normativas Alimenticias, Seccion IV" http://www.jifsan.umd.edu/PDFs/GAPS_Espanol/
SECCI_N_IV.pdf
(accessed 8/8/05).
URL: http://www.jifsan.umd.edu/PDFs/GAPS_English/IV__Food_Laws_and_Regulatio.pdf (accessed 10/24/07)

125. United States Food Law Update, by Michael T. Roberts.
National Agricultural Law Center, 2006 (An Agricultural Law Research Article). Note: Originally published in the Journal of Food Law and Policy 517 (2006).
Full text: http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/articles/roberts_usupdate2.pdf (accessed 10/31/07)
Description: "This update summarizes significant changes and developments in food law over the first half of 2000 and provides a starting point for scholars, practitioners, food scientists, and policymakers to better understand the shaping of food law in modern society." [Introduction]

126. Guide to Food Laws and Regulations, by Patricia A Curtis.
Blackwell Publishing, 2005. 248p.
Information/abstract only: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/book.asp
?ref=9780813819464
(accessed 10/24/07)

127. Food Labeling Compliance Review, by James L. Summers and Elizabeth J. Campbell.
4th edition. Blackwell Publishing, 2007. 336p. Note: Available in book or searchable CD-ROM format.
Information/abstract only: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/book.asp
?ref=9780813821818&site=1
(accessed 10/24/07)

128. Code of Federal Regulations, Part 101 - Food Labeling. Title 21 - Food and Drugs, Chapter I - Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services.
National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), 1999.
URL: http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/waisidx_04/21cfr101_04.html (accessed 10/24/07)

129. Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
URL: http://www.epa.gov/oecaagct/lqpa.html (accessed 10/24/07)
Description: "This law amends the two major pesticide laws: the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA)." FQPA establishes a "strong, health-based safety standard for pesticide residues in all foods. It uses ‘a reasonable certainty of no harm’ as the general safety standard." Site includes a summary of the FQPA and links to related information.

130. Laws Enforced by the FDA and Related Statutes.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 2007 (updated).
URL: http://www.fda.gov/opacom/laws/ (accessed 10/24/07)
Description: Links to regulatory text and related information for more than a dozen federal laws handled, at least in part, by FDA.

131. "The Kosher and Halal Food Laws," by J. M. Regenstein, M. M. Chaudry and C. E. Regenstein.
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 2 (2003): pp. 111-127.
Full text: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/
j.1541-4337.2003.tb00018.x?cookieSet=1
(accessed 10/24/07)

132. "Navigating the Health Claim Maze," by David Joy.
Food Processing (Sept. 2007): p. 21.
Full text: http://www.foodprocessing.com/articles/2007/215.html (accessed 11/27/07)
Description: "FDA’s recent guidance focuses only on the process for evaluating evidence supporting a health claim."

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General Federal Food-related Labeling and Regulatory Programs and Information: Selected U.S. Agencies with Food Regulatory Functions

This listing is not comprehensive. This listing is not comprehensive. Thorough research on rules relevant to specific commodity, marketing purpose, jurisdiction – city, county, state and/or country, and more, is necessary for any business plan or marketing scheme.

133. USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS).
Homepage: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ (accessed 6/3/08)
Description: "The Agricultural Marketing Service includes six commodity programs- Cotton, Dairy, Fruit and Vegetable, Livestock and Seed, Poultry, and Tobacco. The programs employ specialists who provide standardization, grading and market news services for those commodities. They enforce such Federal Laws as the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act and the Federal Seed Act. AMS commodity programs also oversee marketing agreements and orders, administer research and promotion programs, and purchase commodities for Federal food programs." [Web site]

134. Programs.
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=
TemplateN&navID=FindanAMSProgram&rightNav1=FindanAMSProgram
&topNav=Home&leftNav=&page=FindanAMSProgram&resultType=&acct=AMSPW
(accessed 6/3/08)
Description: Includes links to all AMS programs.

135. Market News and Transportation Data.
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=
TemplateA&navID=MarketNewsAndTransportationData&leftNav=
MarketNewsAndTransportationData&page=MarketNewsAndTransportationData
&acct=AMSPW
(accessed 6/3/08)
Description: Program/commodity reports "include information on prices, volume, quality, condition, and other market data on farm products in specific markets and marketing areas. Reports cover both domestic and international markets." Transportation reports include: Ocean Rate Bulletin, Grain Transportation Report and Refrigerated Truck Quarterly.

136. Country of Origin Labeling.
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?
template=TemplateM&navID=CountryofOriginLabeling&rightNav1=
CountryofOriginLabeling&topNav=&leftNav=CommodityAreas&page=
CountryOfOriginLabeling&resultType=
(accessed 6/3/08)
Description: "On May 13, 2002, the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002, more commonly known as the 2002 Farm Bill, became law. One of its many provisions requires country of origin labeling (COOL) for beef, lamb, pork, fish, perishable agricultural commodities, and peanuts. On January 27, 2004, Public Law 108-199 delayed implementation of mandatory COOL for all covered commodities except wild and farm-raised fish and shellfish until September 30, 2006. On November 10, 2005, Public Law 109-97 delayed implementation of mandatory COOL for all covered commodities except wild and farm-raised fish and shellfish until September 30, 2008. As described in the legislation, program implementation is the responsibility of USDA‘s Agricultural Marketing Service." [Web site] Includes regulatory updates, press releases, guidelines and comments.

137. Fresh Produce Audit Verification Program.
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetch
TemplateData.do?template=TemplateN&navID=Good%20Agricultural/
GoodHandlingPracticesAuditVerificationProgram&rightNav1=Good%20Agricultural/
GoodHandlingPracticesAuditVerificationProgram&topNav=&leftNav=&page=
GAPGHPAuditVerificationProgram&resultType=&acct=freshgrdcert
(accessed 6/3/08)
Description: "State departments of agriculture, with USDA’s assistance, are developing an audit-based program that is helping the U.S. produce industry verify voluntary adherence to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables." [Web site] Includes information, audit sheets and a list of facilities that successfully passed verification audit.

138. Livestock and Seed Program.
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=
TemplateC&navID=CommodityAreas&leftNav=CommodityAreas
&page=LivestockandSeed&description=Livestock%20and%20Seed
(accessed 6/3/08)
Description: Includes links to Audit, Review, and Compliance Programs, Commodity Purchase Programs, Livestock and Grain Market News, Meat and Poultry Equipment Review Program, Meat Grading and Certification Branch and contact information for key personnel.

139. Grass Fed Marketing Claim Standards.
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?
template=TemplateN&navID=GrassFedMarketingClaimStandards
&rightNav1=GrassFedMarketingClaimStandards&topNav=&leftNav=
GradingCertificationandVerfication&page=GrassFedMarketingClaims
&resultType=&acct=lsstd
(accessed 6/3/08)
Description: On Oct. 15, 2007 the U.S. Department of Agriculture issued "a voluntary standard for grass (forage) fed marketing claims. The standard will be published as a Notice in the Federal Register and is titled the U.S. Standard for Livestock and Meat Marketing Claim, Grass (Forage) Fed Claim for Ruminant Livestock and the Meat Products Derived from Such Livestock." [AMS News Release 178-07]

140. Naturally Raised Marketing Claims.
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?
template=TemplateN&navID=NaturallyRaisedMarketingClaimStandards
&rightNav1=NaturallyRaisedMarketingClaimStandards&topNav=
&leftNav=GradingCertificationandVerfication
&page=NaturallyRaisedMarketingClaims &resultType=&acct=lsstd
(accessed 6/3/08)
Description: "The USDA is considering the development of a voluntary standard to address production practices associated with the term "naturally raised" for livestock." [AMS News Release 283-06, Nov. 21, 2006]

141. Standardization Certified Programs.
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?
template=TemplateI&navID=CertifiedPrograms&rightNav1=CertifiedPrograms
&topNav=&leftNav=GradingCertificationandVerfication&page=
LivestockStandardizationCertifiedPrograms&resultType=&acct=lsstd
(accessed 6/3/08)
Description: AMS Standardization Branch "promulgates, and revises the official U.S. grade standards for wool, mohair, and live animals and carcasses from the red meat species. Standards and specifications form the basis of the Livestock and Seed Program’s meat grading and certification, market news, and Federal red meat procurement programs." [Web site] Includes updated charts: Comparison of Certified Beef Programs; and Comparison of Certified Pork Programs.

142. Livestock and Seed Auditing Services.
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?
template=TemplateQ&navID=LivestockandSeedProcessVerified/
Audit%20Based%20Programs&rightNav1=LivestockandSeedProcessVerified/
Audit%20Based%20Programs&topNav=&leftNav=GradingCertificationandVerfication
&page=LSAuditingServices&resultType=&acct=audrevcom
(accessed 6/3/08)
Description: "The Audit, Review, and Compliance (ARC) Branch provides services for the Quality System Verification Programs (QSVP). The QSVP are voluntary, user-fee, audit-based programs that are available to suppliers of agricultural products and services. The QSVP are designed to provide independent verification that special processes or marketing claims are clearly defined and verified by an independent third party." [Web site] The following programs are conducted under the QSVP: USDA Process Verified Programs; USDA Quality System Assessment Program; USDA Export Verification Program (Beef, Bovine, and Ovine); Non-Hormone Treated Cattle (NHTC) Program; Pork for the European Union (PFEU) Program; USDA ISO Guide 65 Assessment Program; USA Accredited Seed Laboratory (ASL) Program; and USDA National Organic Program.

143. Federal-State Marketing Improvement Program (FSMIP).
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?
template=TemplateC&navID=WholesaleandFarmersMarkets&leftNav=
WholesaleandFarmersMarkets&page=FSMIP&description=
Federal%20State%20Marketing%20Improvement%20Program
(accessed 6/3/08)
Description: "The Federal-State Marketing Improvement Program (FSMIP) provides matching funds to State Departments of Agriculture and other appropriate State agencies to assist in exploring new market opportunities for U.S. food and agricultural products, and to encourage research and innovation aimed at improving the efficiency and performance of the U.S. marketing system." [Web site]

144. USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS).
Homepage: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/ (accessed 10/29/07)
Description: APHIS "is a multi-faceted Agency with a broad mission area that includes protecting and promoting U.S. agricultural health, regulating genetically engineered organisms, administering the Animal Welfare Act and carrying out wildlife damage management activities." [Web site]

145. National Animal Identification System (NAIS).
URL: http://animalid.aphis.usda.gov/nais/index.shtml (accessed 10/29/07)
Description: "To protect the health of U.S. livestock and poultry and the economic well-being of those industries, we must be able to quickly and effectively trace an animal disease to its source... NAIS - a modern, streamlined information system - consists of three voluntary components: premises registration, animal identification, and animal tracing." [Web site]

146. USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Nutrient Data Laboratory.
URL: http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12354500 (accessed 10/29/07)
Description: "The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) has the responsibility to develop USDA’s National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, the foundation of most food and nutrition databases in the US, used in food policy, research and nutrition monitoring. Our database products are available to the public and scientific community. NDL is one of seven units in the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC) of the Agricultural Research Service (ARS)." Includes Searchable USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 17 (2004) and Nutritive Value of Foods (Home and Garden Bulletin No. 72), reports by single nutrients, special interest databases including "flavonoids" and "isoflavones," classic USDA food composition publications, and a glossary.

147. USDA Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion.
Homepage: http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/ (accessed 10/29/07)
Description: "CNPP carries out its mission to improve the health of Americans by (1) advancing and promoting food and nutrition guidance for all Americans; (2) assessing diet quality; and (3) advancing consumer, nutrition, and food economic knowledge." [Web site] Products include "Dietary Guidelines for Americans," "Healthy Eating Index (HEI)," "Nutrient Content of the U.S. Food Supply," (historical data series, beginning in 1909) and "Cost of Food" plans.

148. USDA, Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) Regulations and Policies.
URL: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Regulations_&_Policies/index.asp (accessed 10/29/07)
Description: "The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is the public health agency in the U.S. Department of Agriculture responsible for ensuring that the nation’s commercial supply of meat, poultry, and egg products is safe, wholesome, and correctly labeled and packaged." [Web site] In addition to its regulatory programs, FSIS conducts tests for chemicals - including antibiotics, sulfonamides and various other drugs, pesticides and environmental chemicals - in meat, poultry and egg products destined for human consumption. See: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Science/index.asp (accessed 10/29/07).

149. Compliance Assistance.
URL: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Regulations_&_Policies/Compliance_Guides_Index/
index.asp
(accessed 10/29/07)
Description: Regulations and compliance assistance related to: HACCP; Humane Methods of Livestock Slaughter Act; labeling; new technologies and "Small and Very Small Outreach" (meat and poultry processing) issues. Tools include "Interactive Knowledge Exchange, "an index to compliance guides and access to information about Federal and State Inspection Programs.

150. Food Labeling Fact Sheets.
URL: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Food_Labeling_Fact_Sheets/index.asp (accessed 10/29/07)
Description: Information regarding meat or poultry product labeling information including dating, "fresh," additives and flavorings, etc.

151. Food Standards and Labeling Policy Book.
2005. 202p.
Full text: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/larc/Policies/
Labeling_Policy_Book_082005.pdf
(accessed 10/31/07)
Description: "The Policy Book is intended to be guidance to help manufacturers and prepare product labels that are truthful and not misleading." [Introduction]

152. Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms (Glossary).
URL: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Meat_&_Poultry_Labeling_Terms/index.asp (accessed 10/29/07)

153. Meat, Poultry and Egg Product Inspection Directory.
2007.
URL: http://www.nasda.org/nasda/nasda/foundation/state/states.htm (accessed 6/3/08)
Description: Available in 2 formats: alphabetically by establishment name and numerically by establishment number.

154. Packaging Materials.
URL: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Regulations_&_Policies/Packaging_Materials/index.asp (accessed 10/29/07)

155. Resources for Small and Very Small Plants.
URL: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Science/Small_Very_Small_Plant_Outreach/index.asp (accessed 10/29/07)

156. USDA Meat and Poultry Hotline.
Contact: 1-888-674-6854 (toll free); e-mail mphotline.fsis@usda.gov
URL: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/USDA_meat_&_poultry_hotline/
index.asp?src_location=content&src_page=FSEd
(accessed 10/29/07)
Description: Answers questions about the safe storage, handling, and preparation of meat, poultry and egg products.

157. U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC).
Homepage: http://www.ftc.gov/ (accessed 10/29/07)
Description: FTC is "the only federal agency with both consumer protection and competition jurisdiction in broad sectors of the economy. The FTC pursues vigorous and effective law enforcement; advances consumers’ interests by sharing its expertise with federal and state legislatures and U.S. and international government agencies; develops policy and research tools through hearings, workshops, and conferences; and creates practical and plain-language educational programs for consumers and businesses in a global marketplace with constantly changing technologies." [Web site]

158. Advertising Guidance.
URL: http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/guides/guides.shtm (accessed 10/30/07)
Description: Access information about general advertising, advertising substantiation and food advertising, as well as "FTC Guides for the Use of Environmental Market Claims (Green Guides)."

159. Consumer Protection.
URL: http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/index.shtml (accessed 10/30/07)
Description: Pages under "Business Information" and "Resources" include: Advertising Guidance; Complying with the Environmental Marketing Guides; Frequently Asked Advertising Questions; Environmental Marketing Claims; Threading Your Way Through the Labeling Requirements Under the Textile and Wool Acts; The Fair Packaging and Labeling Act; Weight Loss Advertising; and Alcohol.

160. Enforcement Policy Statement on Food Advertising.
May, 1994.
URL: http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/policystmt/ad-food.shtm (accessed 10/29/07)
Description: Focus on nutrient content and health claims.

161. FTC Models Advertising Policy on FDA Food Labeling Standards.
September, 1994.
URL: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/ftc.html (accessed 10/30/07)

162. Guidance Documents: Textile, Wool, Fur Apparel, Leather.
URL: http://www.ftc.gov/os/statutes/textilejump.shtm (accessed 10/29/07)

163. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Contact: FDA, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville MD 20857; 888-INFO-FDA (1-888-463-6332) (toll free).
Homepage: http://www.fda.gov (accessed 10/30/07)
Description: "FDA is the federal agency responsible for ensuring that foods are safe, wholesome and sanitary; human and veterinary drugs, biological products, and medical devices are safe and effective; cosmetics are safe; and electronic products that emit radiation are safe. FDA also ensures that these products are honestly, accurately and informatively represented to the public." [Web site] This includes food labeling and safety of all food products (except meat and poultry) and bottled water, as well as livestock feeds, pet foods and veterinary drugs and devices.

164. Laws Enforced by the FDA and Related Statutes.
URL: http://www.fda.gov/opacom/laws/ (accessed 10/30/07)
Description: Links to original text and significant amendments for the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and many other related statutes.

165. Small Business Guide to FDA.
2004.
URL: http://www.fda.gov/ora/fed_state/small_business/sb_guide/default.htm (accessed 10/30/07)

166. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN).
Homepage: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/list.html (accessed 10/30/07)
Description: "CFSAN is one of six product-oriented centers, in addition to a nationwide field force, that carry out the mission of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)... It is responsible for promoting and protecting the public’s health by ensuring that the nation’s food supply is safe, sanitary, wholesome, and honestly labeled, and that cosmetic products are safe and properly labeled." [Web site]

167. Food and Cosmetic Guidance Documents.
URL: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/guidance.html (accessed 10/30/07)
Description: Comprehensive directory of online documents in twenty categories including Chemical and Pesticide Contaminants, Food Labeling, Food Processing, Retail Food Protection and Small Entity Compliance Guides.

168. Food Labeling and Nutrition.
URL: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/label.html (accessed 10/30/07)
Description: Resources under "Information for Industry" include Food Labeling Guidance and Regulations; Compliance and Warning Letters; Food Label Surveys; Inspections, Compliance, Enforcement, Warnings and Recalls; as well as information about other Federal agency activities and how to request information.

169. Guidance for Industry: Voluntary Labeling Indicating Whether Foods Have or Have not Been Developed Using Bioengineering (Draft Guidance).
January, 2001.
URL: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/biolabgu.html (accessed 10/30/07)

170. Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 - Prior Notice of Imported Foods.
URL: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~pn/pnoview.html (accessed 10/30/07)
Description: "In 2002 Congress passed the Bioterrorism Act as a part of its ongoing effort to combat terrorism - in this instance, by reducing the ability for international terrorists to carry out terrorist attacks in the U.S. by contaminating imported foods. The Act requires that FDA receive prior notice before food is imported or offered for import into the United States. Advance notice of import shipments allows FDA, with the support of the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP), to target import inspections more effectively and help protect the nation’s food supply against terrorist acts and other public health emergencies." [Web site] Overview and background.

171. Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 - Registration of Food Facilities.
URL: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~pn/pnoview.html (accessed 10/30/07)
Description: "The Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (the Bioterrorism Act) requires domestic and foreign facilities that manufacture, process, pack, or hold food for human or animal consumption in the United States to register with the FDA " [Web site]

172. Information about Food Allergens.
URL: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/wh-alrgy.html (accessed 11/27/07)
Description: Site includes full text for and information about the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 (Title II of Public Law 108-282).

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General State Food-related Labeling and Regulatory Programs and Information

Municipal, county and regional jurisdictions may have additional regulations that require attention by agricultural and food marketers.

173. State and Local Governments, Food Laws and Regulations Division.
Institute of Food Technologists (IFT).
URL: http://www.ift.org/divisions/food_law/jump_loc.htm (accessed 10/31/07)
Description: Directory and links to general government resources including FindLaw Internet Legal Resources - State resources; Municipal Code Corporation, National Association of State Information Resources Executives; National Conference of State Legislatures, Stateline from Pew Center on the States and State, and Local Government Directory from the Library of Congress.

174. FoodSafety.Gov: Government Agencies.
URL: http://www.foodsafety.gov/~fsg/fsggov.html (accessed 10/31/07)
Description: State and local government entities and links.

175. FDA Office of Regulatory Affairs Directory of State and Local Officials - 2006 Edition.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
URL: http://www.fda.gov/ora/fed_state/directorytable.htm (accessed 10/31/07)

176. "State Agriculture Departments."
In State and Local Government on the Net: A Directory of Official State, County, and City Government Web Sites.
URL: http://www.statelocalgov.net/50states-agriculture.cfm (accessed 10/31/07)

177. State and National Partners: Directory of State/Territorial Land-Grant Universities and Cooperative Extension Programs.
USDA, Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES).
URL: http://www.csrees.usda.gov/qlinks/partners/state_partners.html (accessed 10/31/07)
Description: Clickable map provides links to the land-grant institutions and their key constituent units, most notably state Cooperative Extension Services.

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Related Food Safety Resources

Concerns about food safety, in both conventional and organic agriculture, have gained urgency in recent years. A thorough knowledge of practices for the safe handling of fresh and processed foods including HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point), and familiarity with food safety regulations pertaining to the marketing and sale of agricultural products are essential.

178. The Federal Food Safety System: A Primer, by Geoffrey S. Becker and Donna V. Porter.
Congressional Research Service, 2007.
Full text as posted by the National Agricultural Law Center: http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/crs/RS22600.pdf (accessed 10/30/07)
Description: "Numerous federal, state, and local agencies share responsibilities for regulating the safety of the U.S. food supply, which many experts say is among the safest in the world... This report provides a brief introduction to the system and the debate on whether reorganization is needed." [Summary]

179. Food Safety.
(Reading Room) National Agricultural Law Center, University of Arkansas School of Law.
URL: http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/readingrooms/foodsafety/ (accessed 10/31/07)
Description: "Regulating food safety in the United States is complex. This complexity is due largely to the historical division of food safety responsibility amongst different federal agencies and to evolving public attitudes towards the safety of food and concern about the changing nature of foodborne illnesses. Although this overview focuses on federal regulation of food safety, it is important to note that state regulatory agencies also play an important role in food safety regulation, primarily with food sanitation and safe food handling by food retailers, foodservice providers, and food-vending operations." [Web site]

180. Food Safety: A Team Approach.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 1998.
URL: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/foodteam.html (accessed 10/24/07)
Description: Lists individual federal agencies that provide ongoing food monitoring, their duties and how they work together.

181. United States Food Safety System.
USDA; Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 2000.,
Full text: http://www.foodsafety.gov/~fsg/fssyst2.html (accessed 10/31/07)

182. FoodSafety.Gov: Gateway to Government Food Safety Information.
Homepage: http://www.foodsafety.gov/ (accessed 10/31/07)
Description: Information and links to government programs under National Food Safety Programs; Industry Assistance; and Government Agencies - a directory of federal, state and international agencies.

183. Industry Assistance.
URL: http://www.foodsafety.gov/~fsg/fsgind.html (accessed 10/31/07)
Description: Covers information sources related Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP); retail and food service; pesticides and other chemical contaminants; produce; eggs; food allergies; and miscellaneous topics.

184. Food Safety Information Center (FSIC).
USDA, National Agricultural Library (NAL).
Homepage: http://foodsafety.nal.usda.gov/ (accessed 10/31/07)
Description: Center provides food safety information to educators, industry, researchers and the general public on a variety of food safety topics. It includes the Food Safety Research Information Office (FSRIO) that focuses on providing information and reference services to the research community: http://fsrio.nal.usda.gov/ (accessed 10/31/07).

185. Food Safety Briefing Room.
USDA, Economic Research Service (ERS).
URL: http://www.ers.usda.gov/briefing/FoodSafety/ (accessed 10/31/07)
Description: Economic issues related to food safety: "Economic Costs of Foodborne Illnesses;" "Private Market Mechanisms and Government Regulation;" "Consumer Demand and the Value of Safe Food;" "Labeling and Traceability."

186. Agriculture: Food Safety (EPA).
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
URL: http://www.epa.gov/agriculture/tfsy.html (accessed 10/30/07)
Description: Site maintains "regularly updated guidance on legal requirements, sources of assistance in meeting those requirements, and information about some of the latest research and technology available to support food producers, processors, and marketers in their efforts to maintain and improve the nation’s food supply." [Web site] Topics include: Food Bioterrorism Regulation; Pesticide Residues in Food; Strategy To Prevent Foodborne Disease.

187. Growing Sprouts in Retail Food Establishments: CFP Issues 02-III-01 and 04-III-012.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 2004.
URL: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/sprouret.html (accessed 10/31/07)

188. Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 1998.
Full text: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/prodguid.html (accessed 10/30/07)
Description: Covers water applications; manure and municipal biosolids; worker health and hygiene; sanitation facilities; field sanitation; packing facility sanitation; transportation and traceback procedures. An abbreviated version of this guide is available at http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/prodglan.html (accessed 10/30/07)

189. State HACCP Contacts and Coordinators.
USDA, Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS).
URL: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Contact_Us/State_HACCP_Contacts_&_Coordinators/
index.asp
(accessed 11/27/07)
Description: "HACCP [Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point] Contacts and Coordinators provide technical advice, assistance, resources and conduct activities to support HACCP implementation in small and very small plants. The Contact is generally the State meat and poultry program director or another representative of the State government. Coordinators are affiliated with Universities and provide additional one-on-one advice and assistance to small and very small plants. Coordinators also develop and provide training and HACCP seminars." [Web site]

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Index to Agencies, Organizations and Titles

Numbers refer to reference numbers in the text

2002 Farm Bill: ERS Analysis: Organic Agriculture Provisions   56
About Organic   57
Accredited Certifying Agents   5
Accredited State Departments of Agriculture   35
Advertising Guidance (FTC)   158
Agricultural Biotechnology and Organic Agriculture: National Organic Standards, Labeling and Second-Generation of GM Products   58
Agricultural Standards: The Shape of the Global Food and Fiber System   59
Agriculture: Food Safety (EPA)   186
Agriculture: Organic Farming (EPA)   25
Alcohol Beverages Labeled with Organic Claims   27
American Grassfed Association   39
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Peer Evaluation Report and NOP Response   14
American Organic Standards   40
Analysis of the Decision on January 26, 2005, by U.S. Court of Appeals for First Circuit, Boston Massachusetts, in Case of Arthur Harvey v. Ann Veneman, Secretary of Agriculture, No. 04-1379   66
Appetite for Change: How the Counterculture Took on the Food Industry   60

Basic Provisions, Federal Crop Insurance Reform, Insurance Implementation, Regulations for the 1999 and Subsequent Reinsurance Years; Group Risk Plan of Insurance Regulations for the 2001 and Succeeding Crop Years; and the Common Crop Insurance Regulation   29
Building Trust in Organics: A Guide to Setting Up Organic Certification Programmes   61

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)   166
Cert ID Non GMO Standard   41
Certified Humane Raised and Handled   42
Certified Naturally Grown   43
Cloning Recommendation   19
Code of Federal Regulations, Part 101 - Food Labeling. Title 21 - Food and Drugs, Chapter I - Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services   128
Commercial Transactions   116
Comparative Analysis of the United States National Organic Program (7 CFR 205) and the European Union Organic Legislation (EEC 2092/91) and Amendments   62
Compliance Assistance (FSIS)   149
Congressional Caucus on Organic Agriculture   31
Consumer Preferences for Organic Standards: Does the Final Rule Reflect Them?   63
Consumer Protection (FTC)   159
Conventional Stores Go Organic   64
Cost Share Program   9
Country of Origin Labeling (COOL)   117
Country of Origin Labeling   136
Court Finds in Favor of USDA in Organic Case   12

Davis Fresh Pro-Safe Certification Program   44
Demeter Certified Biodynamic®   45
Differing Organic Standards Impede International Trade, Report   65

Enforcement Policy Statement on Food Advertising   160
Environmental Laws Affecting State Agriculture   33
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Agriculture   24

Fair Trade Certified   46
Farmer's Pledge   47
FDA Office of Regulatory Affairs Directory of State and Local Officials - 2006 Edition   175
Federal Court Requires Stricter Organic Rules on Synthetics, Non-Organic Ingredients, and Dairy Feed   66
The Federal Food Safety System: A Primer   178
Federal Regulation of Organic Food: A Research Guide for Legal Practitioners and Food Industry Professionals   67
Federal-State Marketing Improvement Program (FSMIP)   143
Fish-Eye Lens Frames Wild and Organic Debate    68
Food Alliance Certified   48
Food and Cosmetic Guidance Documents   167
Food Labeling and Nutrition   168
Food Labeling Compliance Review   127
Food Labeling Fact Sheets   150
Food Labeling   118
Food Law and Regulations   122
Food Law Org   123
Food Laws and Regulations   124
Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996   129
Food Safety   179
Food Safety: A Team Approach   180
Food Safety Briefing Room   185
Food Safety Information Center (FSIC)   184
Food Standards and Labeling Policy Book 151
Foodsafety.Gov: Gateway to Government Food Safety Information   182
Foodsafety.Gov: Government Agencies   174
Frequently Asked Questions - Organic Alcohol   28
Fresh Produce Audit Verification Program   137
FTC Models Advertising Policy on FDA Food Labeling Standards   161

Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS)   49
Grass Fed Marketing Claim Standards   139
Greener Choices: Eco-Label Center   38
Growing Sprouts in Retail Food Establishments: CFP Issues 02-III-01 and 04-III-012   187
Guidance Documents: Textile, Wool, Fur Apparel, Leather   162
Guidance for Industry: Voluntary Labeling Indicating Whether Foods Have or Have Not Been Developed Using Bioengineering (Draft Guidance)   169
Guide to Food Laws and Regulations   126
Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables   188

House Committee on Agriculture, Subcommittee on Horticulture and Organic Agriculture   32
How the Media Missed the Organic Story   69
How to Add Oomph to ‘Organic’   70

Implications of Organic Certification for Market Structure and Trade   71
Improving the Safety and Quality of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables: A Training Manual for Trainers, Section IV   124
Industry Assistance (FoodSafety.gov)   183
Information about Food Allergens   172
International Harmonisation of Organic Standards and Guarantee Systems   72
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)   50
IPM [Integrated Pest Management] Product and Service Recognition Programs and Information   53
ISO 65: Agriculture   51
ISO 67: Food Technology   52
It's a Natural   73

Johanns Offers $1 Million to Defray Costs of Organic Certification for Producers in 15 States   10

Key Points about Regulations   74
The Kosher and Halal Food Laws   131

Labeling of Pesticide Products under the National Organic Program   26
Laws Enforced by the FDA and Related Statutes   130
Laws Enforced by the FDA and Related Statutes   164
A Legal Guide to the National Organic Program   75
The Legal Lowdown on the Organic Rule   76
Livestock and Seed Auditing Services (AMS)   142
Livestock and Seed Program   138

Market News and Transportation Data   135
Market-Led Growth vs. Government-Facilitated Growth: Development of the U.S. and EU Organic Agricultural Sectors   77
Marketing Orders   119
Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms (Glossary)   152
Meat, Poultry and Egg Product Inspection Directory   153
Memorandum to All USDA Accredited Certifying Agents: Certification of Agricultural Products That Meet NOP Standards   13

National Animal Identification System (NAIS)   145
National List Information   6
National Organic Directory   37
National Organic Program   22
National Organic Program Background   78
National Organic Program: Background Information   79
National Organic Program (NOP)   1
The National Organic Program (NOP): What Agricultural Professionals Need to Know   80
National Organic Program Regulatory Text   2
National Organic Program, Sunset Review (Federal Register Notice)   15
National Organic Rules Backgrounder: Implementing the Organic Foods Production Act   81
National Organic Standards Board (NOSB)   18
Naturally Raised Marketing Claims   140
Navigating the Health Claim Maze   132
New Complaint Places Organic Fraud in Spotlight Again   82
NOP and NOSB Collaboration on Grower Group Certifications   17
NOP Collaborate with NOSB on Organic Grower Group Certification   83
NOP Reading Room   3
NOSB Debates Organic Seafood   84
NSF International   54

Organic Agriculture: A Global Perspective   95
Organic Agriculture: Sustainability Markets and Policies, OECD Workshop on Organic Agriculture, Washington DC, September 23-24   72,    103
Organic Aquaculture Symposium   20
Organic Dilemma: What Rules Personal Care?   85
Organic Exemption: Exemption of Organic Handlers from Assessments for Market Promotion Activities under Marketing Order Programs   11
Organic Farming Compliance Handbook: A Resource Guide for Western Region Agricultural Professionals   78, 80
Organic Farming Practices: 2007 Insurance Fact Sheet   30
Organic Food   86
Organic Foods and the USDA National Organic Program   87
Organic Foods Production Act Backgrounder   88
Organic Foods Production Act of 1990 (OFPA)   21
Organic Grapes, Organic Wine: The Harvest is Bountiful, but the Labeling Controversy is Still Fermenting   89
Organic, Inc.: Natural Foods and How They Grew   90
Organic Industry Roots Run Deep   91
Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI)   23
‘Organic’ Milk Needs a Pasture   92
Organic Personal Care Update   93
Organic Producers and Marketers Exempted from Commodity Promotion Assessments   94
Organic Standards and Certification   95
Organic Standards: By Whom and for Whom?   96
Organic Trade Association Adopts Organic Fiber Processing Standards   97
Organic ‘Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations’ – A Thing of the Past?   98
Organics...Misbranding and Misrepresentation under PACA...What It Means to You   99

Packaging Materials   154
Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act
(PACA)   120
Personal Care Task Force Fact Sheet   100
Production Contracts   121
Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 - Prior Notice of Imported Foods   170
Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 - Registration of Food Facilities   171

Reading Rooms: National Agricultural Law Center   115
Regulating Organic: Impacts of the National Organic Standards on Consumer Awareness and Organic Consumption Patterns   101
Resources for Small and Very Small Plants   155
Retailers Ready for the National Organic Program   102
The Role of Government Standards and Market Facilitation   103

Scientific Certification Systems (SCS)   55
Should There Be a Limit on the Size of Organic Farms?   104
Small Business Guide to FDA   165
Socio-Economic Aspects of Animal Health and Food Safety in Organic Farming Systems. Proceedings of the 1st SAFO Workshop, Florence, Italy, 5-7 September 2003   96
Sociological Perspectives of Organic Agriculture: From Pioneer to Policy   105
State Agriculture Departments   176
State and Local Government on the Net: A Directory of Official State, County, and City Government Web Sites   176
State and Local Governments, Food Laws and Regulations Division   173
State and National Partners: Directory of State/Territorial Land-Grant Universities and Cooperative Extension Programs   177
State-Centered versus Nonstate-Driven Organic Food Standardization: A Comparison of the U.S. and Sweden   106
State Contacts (NOP)   36
State HACCP Contacts and Coordinators   189
State Marketing Profiles   34
Summaries of State Organic Laws/States without Organic Laws   37

Transforming Organic Agriculture into Industrial Organic Products: Reconsidering National Organic Standards   107

U.S. Congress Backs Organic Wild Fish Label; Stevens Adds Rider to War Spending Bill   108
U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC)   157
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)   163
U.S. Has Huge Appetite for Organic Food: Industry   109
United States Food Law Update   125
United States Food Safety System   181
USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS)   133
USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Nutrient Data Laboratory   146
USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)   144
USDA Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion   147
USDA, Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) Regulations and Policies   148
USDA Meat and Poultry Hotline   156
USDA Publishes Amendments to List of Substances Used in Organic Handling   16
USDA Publishes Final Rule to Revise NOP Regulations/Q&A’s on _Harvey v. Johanns_ (Harvey) Final Regulation   110
USDA Relents on Scope of National Organic Program: "Organic Agricultural Product Content" Qualifies Products for Organic Labeling   111

Variation in Organic Standards Prior to the National Organic Program   112
Veneman Marks Implementation of USDA National Organic Standards   113

Who’s Watching the USDA’s Organic ‘Henhouse’   114

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Index to Book and Article Authors

Numbers refer to reference numbers in the text

Abbott, Charles   109
Anderson, Bob   104

Baker, Brian   78,    
Becker, Geoffrey S.   178
Belasco, Warren James   60
Bingen, Jim   59
Bostrëm, Magnus   106
Bowen, Diana   72
Brienza, Susan D.   76
Budgar, Laurie   64
Busch, Lawrence   59

Campbell, Elizabeth J.   127
Caswell, Julie A.   112
Chaney, David   80, 78
Chaudry, M.M.   131
Clute, Mitchell   68, 84, 85
Conner, David S.   63
Courville, Sasha   95
Curtis, Patricia A   126

DeLind, Laura G.   107
Dimitri, Carolyn   77
Duber-Smith, Darrin C.   93

Fetter, T. Robert   112
Fromartz, Samuel   69, 90, 98

Giannakas, Konstantinos   58
Gleason, Paul   89
Granatstein, David   78, 80
Guldan, Steve   78, 80

Heller, Lorraine   65, 82
Henderson, Elizabeth   104
Holt, Georgina   105

Jillian, Stephanie   67
Joy, David   132

King, Mark   102
Klintman, Mikael   106
Krasny, Leslie   73
Kristiansen, Paul   95

Lockeretz, W.   96
Lohr, Luanne   71
Lund, V.   96

Martin, Andrew   70
Mendelson, Joe   114
Mergentime, Ken   91
Merrigan, Kathleen   103

National Organic Standards Board Livestock Committee   19

Oberholtzer, Lydia   77

Pittman, Harrison M.   75
Porter, Donna V.   178

Rawson, Jean M.   87
Reed, Matthew   105
Reganold, John   95
Regenstein, C.E.   131
Regenstein, J.M.   131
Roberts, Michael T.   125
Robinson, Barbara   17
Rundgren, Gunnar   61

Strochlic, Ron   101
Summers, James L.   127
Sustainable Strategies Advisors in Food and Agriculture   62
Swezey, Sean L.   78, 80

Taji, Acram   95

Weise, Elizabeth   92

Yiannaka, Amalia   58

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About the Alternative Farming Systems Information Center

The Alternative Farming Systems Information Center (AFSIC) specializes in locating and accessing information related to many aspects of sustainable and alternative agriculture, crops and livestock - sustainable and organic crop and livestock farming systems; renewable farm energy options; alternative marketing practices; crop and livestock diversification including aquaculture, exotic and heritage farm animals, alternative and specialty crops, new uses for traditional crops, and crops grown for industrial production; and small farm issues.

AFSIC was founded in 1985 and is an integral part of the National Agricultural Library (NAL) in Beltsville, Maryland. The Center is supported, in part, by USDA’s Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) program, and a cooperative agreement with the University of Maryland, College Park, MD. NAL is part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS).

A current list of AFSIC information products and full-text publications are available electronically on the AFSIC Web site. Recent publications are also available, on request, in hard copy.

For further information:

Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
National Agricultural Library, ARS, USDA
10301 Baltimore Ave., Room 132
Beltsville MD 20705-2351
phone: 301-504-6559; fax: 301-504-6927
E-mail form: http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/contact/ask.php
Web site: http://afsic.nal.usda.gov/

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