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You are here: Home / Publications / Organic Agricultural Products: Marketing and Trade Resources / Guide to International Trade in Organics: Laws and Regulations  Printer Friendly Page
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International Trade in Organics: Laws and Regulations.  Organic Agricultural Products: Marketing and Trade Resources. Guide 2.

 

Lady with basket selecting pineapples.

Compiled by:

Mary V. Gold
Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
USDA, ARS, National Agricultural Library
Beltsville MD
20705-2351
January 2008


Organic Agricultural Products: Marketing and Trade Resources Series, Guide 2

About this Series:

This research guide is one of seven in the Organic Agricultural Products: Marketing and Trade Resources series. Each guide is a subject-oriented compilation that focuses on a separate type of information or research source.   [More...]

Go to other Guides in this series:

  1. Guide to U.S. Organic Marketing: Laws and Regulations
  2. Guide to International Trade in Organics: Laws and Regulations
  3. Guide to Organic Marketing and Trade How-to Publications
  4. Guide to Organic Marketing and Trade Research Tools Online
  5. Guide to Organic Marketing and Trade Periodicals, Calendars and Trade Shows
  6. Guide to Organic Market, Industry and Consumer Studies (2004-2008)
  7. Guide to Organic Marketing Support Organizations
  8. Series Combined Title and Author Indexes: Guides 1-7

For more information, or to request print copies, contact the Alternative Farming Systems Information Center.

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Guide to International Trade in Organics: Laws and Regulations

Table of Contents

  1. About this Series
  2. Exporting and Importing Organic ProductsU.S. Regulations and Information Sources
  3. Selected International Organic-specific Law and Policy Resources
  4. Selected Resources Pertaining to U.S. Trade Issues: Specific Countries
  5. General U.S. Export and Import Regulations, Certifications and Information
  6. Selected International General Food Law and Policy Sites
  7. Index to Agencies, Organizations and Titles
  8. Index to Book and Article Authors
  9. About the Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
  10. Disclaimers

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Exporting and Importing Organic Products – U.S. Regulations and Information Sources

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has put in place a set of national standards that food labeled "organic" must meet – whether it is grown in the United States or imported from other countries. U.S. regulations were fully implemented on October 21, 2002, and are administered by the National Organic Program (NOP) within USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS).

On February 4, 2008 AMS announced a reorganization of the NOP office into three branches: Accreditation, Auditing and Training Branch; Standards Development and Review Branch; and Compliance and Enforcement Branch. See: AMS Press Release, http://www.ams.usda.gov/
AMSv1.0/getfile?dDocName=STELPRDC5066878&acct=nopgeninfo
(accessed 6/24/08) This section highlights information about/links to selected NOP resources and to other significant Federal and industry entities with roles in regulating organics. Also included: links to texts of pertinent Federal legislation and information about current Congressional committees and caucuses.

1. National Organic Program (NOP).
Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Contact: Associate Deputy Administrator, USDA-AMS-TMP-NOP, Room 4008 - South Building, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington DC 20250-0020; 202-720-3252; fax 202-205-7808.
Homepage: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=
TemplateA&navID=NationalOrganicProgram&leftNav=NationalOrganicProgram&page=
NOPNationalOrganicProgramHome&acct=nop
(accessed 6/24/08)
Description: The Organic Foods Production Act (OFPA) of 1990 required the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to develop and maintain national standards for organically produced agricultural products to assure consumers that agricultural products marketed as organic meet consistent, uniform standards. The OFPA and the National Organic Program (NOP) regulations require that agricultural products labeled as organic originate from farms or handling operations certified by a State or private entity that has been accredited by USDA. In addition to rules addressing domestic organic production and handling, the NOP determines how imported and exported organically produced agricultural products will be defined, regulated and labeled.

2. International Issues.
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=TemplateE
&navID=InternationalIssuesNOPNationalOrganicProgramHome&rightNav1=
InternationalIssues NOPNationalOrganicProgramHome&topNav=&leftNav=
NationalOrganicProgram&page= NOPInternationalIssues&resultType=
&acct=nopgeninfo
(accessed 6/24/08)
Description: Site includes information about "Export Arrangements and Recognition Agreements," "Export Certificate Procedures and Accompanying Documentation," "and Import Authorizations."

3. Foreign Accredited Certifying Agents.
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=
TemplateJ&navID=NationalOrganicProgram&leftNav=NationalOrganicProgram
&page=NOPACAs&description=USDA%20Accredited%20Certifying%20Agents
&acct=nopgeninfo
(accessed 6/24/08)

4. How Will Imported Organic Agricultural Product be Handled under the National Organic Standards?
Full text: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3018253
&acct=nopgeninfo
(accessed 6/24/08)
Description: "The National Organic Standards require all agricultural products sold, labeled or represented as organic in the United States be certified by a U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) accredited certifying agent. However, in lieu of organic certification by a USDA accredited certifying agent, imported organic agricultural product may be sold in the United States if they have been certified and recognized through (1) a USDA recognition of conformity assessment or (2) an equivalency determination."

5. Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS), U.S Department of Agriculture.
Homepage: http://www.fas.usda.gov/ (accessed 11/28/07)

6. Organic Products.
URL: http://www.fas.usda.gov/agx/organics/organics.asp (accessed 6/24/08)
Contact: Contact: Kelly Strzelecki, Kelly.Strzelecki@fas.usda.gov, 202-690-0522 (Organic Trade Issues); Heather Velthuis, Heather.Velthuis@fas.usda.gov, 202-720-9792 (International Organic Production and Trade Analysis); Nancy Hubbell, Nancy.Hubbell@fas.usda.gov, 202-720-9487 (International Organic Marketing)
Description: Site includes links to FAS Attaché Reports specific to organic markets by country and link to FAS Exporter Assistance.

7. International Resources - Organizations, Standards, Regulations, and Information.
Description: This data is currently unavailable online (6/24/08); watch for updates on the Organic Products page, cited above.

8. Attaché Reports.
URL: http://www.fas.usda.gov/scriptsw/attacherep/default.asp (accessed 6/24/08)
Description: Access all FAS staff reports/analysis including Attaché Reports. To find organic reports, use the Search by Subject menu: “Organic.”

9. U.S. Mission to the European Union: Organic Foods.
URL: http://www.intracen.org/dbms/organics/index.asp(accessed 6/24/08)
Description: Links to food and feed import rules and reports for EU countries.

10. Export Inspection and Weighing Waiver for High Quality Specialty Grains Transported in Containers.
USDA, Grain Inspection Packers and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA), December 13, 2005.
Text from Federal Register: http://archive.gipsa.usda.gov/rulemaking/fr05/12-13-05.pdf (accessed 11/15/07)
Description: "§ 800.0 Meaning of Terms. (44) High Quality Specialty Grain. Grain sold under contract terms that specify all factors exceed the grade limits for U.S. No. 1 grain, except for the factor test weight, or specify ‘organic’ as defined by 7 CFR part 205. This definition expires July 31, 2010." [Federal Register, Vol. 70, No. 238, Tuesday, December 13, 2005, Rules and Regulations]

11. Organic Trade Association (OTA).
Homepage: http://www.ota.com (accessed 11/15/07)
Description: "Organic Trade Association (OTA) is a membership-based business association that focuses on the organic business community in North America. OTA’s mission is to promote and protect the growth of organic trade to benefit the environment, farmers, the public and the economy." [Web site] Site includes the Organic Export Directory Online, Organic Pages Online directory and many other resources.

12. OTA’s Organic Export Program.
URL: http://www.ota.com/export.html (accessed 11/15/07)
Description: "OTA’s Organic Export Program is a program sponsored by OTA to promote U.S. organic exports to the worldwide market. A sample of programs include organic pavilions at international trade shows; buyers missions where international buyers are invited to the U.S. to meet with U.S. organic suppliers; export educational programs; U.S. organic market educational pieces for foreign buyers; and the OTA Export Directory On-line." [Web site]

13. State Regional Trade Groups (SRTGs).
Description: Working in cooperation with USDA’s Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS), State Regional Trade Groups (SRTGs) are non-profit organizations that assist U.S. food and agricultural businesses with export promotion. There are four groups: Food Export USA (Northeast region), Southern United States Trade Association (SUSTA), Food Export Association of the Midwest USA (formerly MIATCO), and Western United States Agricultural Trade Association (WUSATA). Each regional organization offers reports, directories, links and calendars related to export practices, markets and issues; staff members can assist with organic product issues.

14. Food Export USA (Northeast).
Contact: Food Export USA, One Penn Center, 1617 JFK Boulevard, Suite 420, Philadelphia PA 19103; 215-829-9111; fax 215-829-9777; e-mail info@foodexportusa.org
Homepage: http://www.foodexportusa.org/ (accessed 11/15/07)

15. Southern U.S. Trade Association (SUSTA).
Contact: SUSTA, 2 Canal Street, Suite 2515, New Orleans LA 70130; 504-568-5986; fax 504-568-6010; e-mail susta@susta.org
Homepage: http://www.susta.org/ (accessed 11/15/07)

16. Food Export Association of the Midwest USA.
Contact: Food Export Association of the Midwest USA, 309 West Washington Street, Suite 600, Chicago IL 60606; 312-334-9200; fax 312-334-9230; e-mail info@foodexport.org
Homepage: http://www.foodexport.org/ (accessed 11/15/07)

17. Western U.S. Agricultural Trade Association (WUSATA).
Contact: WUSATA, 4601 NE 77th Avenue, Suite 120, Vancouver WA 98662; 360-693-3373; fax 360-693-3464.
Homepage: http://www.wusata.org/ (accessed 11/15/07)

Back to Top 

Selected International Organic-specific Law and Policy Resources

The challenges and opportunities presented by trade in organics have been addressed by various international and regional entities. This section points to significant issues, policies and organizations that analyze and facilitate cooperation between nations. Officially recognized "harmonization," mutual recognition, equivalency and national import/export arrangements related to organic standards and trade policies are still very much works in progress.

18. Policy Dialogue on Promoting Production and Trading Opportunities for Organic Agricultural Products.
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Capacity Building Task Force on Trade Environment and Development, 2002. Note: Meeting, Brussels, Belgium, February 21-22, 2002; Policy Dialogue, organized by the UNEP-UNCTAD Capacity Building Task Force on Trade, Environment and Development (CBTF), was funded by the European Commission and hosted by the secretariat of the African Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries.
URL: http://www.unep-unctad.org/cbtf/cbtf2/meetings/brussels.htm (accessed 11/16/07)
Description: The objectives of this meeting were to explore practical steps to support organic production in developing countries and to improve trading opportunities. Site contains final meeting report and individual meeting presentations from "representatives of certification bodies, intergovernmental organizations, aid agencies, civil society, academics and other stakeholders from developing and developed countries." [Introduction]

19. Organic Link.
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)/World Trade Organization (WTO).
URL: http://www.intracen.org/mds/sectors/organic/welcome.htm (accessed 6/24/08)
Description: "Organic Link is a web portal serving the organic business communities. This website helps exporters and importers of organic products to find each other through its easy-to-access database of business contacts. It also contains useful information about organic products and markets." [Web site] Resources include an events calendar; Country Focus factsheets (Asian and African countries); recent publications and current studies related to the market for specific organic products; and Organic Market News Service, a bi-monthly market report for producers, exporters and importers, and trade support institutions in developing countries.

20. FAO/WHO Food Standards Codex Alimentarius.
United Nations, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/ World Health Organization (WHO), Codex Alimentarius Commission.
Homepage: http://www.codexalimentarius.net/ (accessed 11/16/07)
Description: Codex Standards and related texts adopted by the Commission including "Special Publications:" food hygiene - basic texts; food labeling - complete texts; food import and export inspection and certification systems - combined texts; and Organically Produced Foods - Guidelines for Production, Processing, Labelling and Marketing (CAC/GL #32).

21. Codex Alimentarius - Organically Produced Foods. Rome: Secretariat of the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, 2001. (Reference CAC/GL, 32) Note: PDF version at http://www.fao.org/organicag/doc/glorganicfinal.pdf (accessed 11/16/07).
Full text: http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y2772e/y2772e00.htm (accessed 11/16/07)
Description: "The Codex Committee on Food Labelling developed the Guidelines for the Production, Processing, Labelling and Marketing of Organically Produced Foods in view of the growing production and international trade in organically produced foods with a view to facilitating trade and preventing misleading claims. The Guidelines are intended to facilitate the harmonization of requirements for organic products at the international level, and may also provide assistance to governments wishing to establish national regulations in this area... The Codex Alimentarius Commission at its 23rd Session in 1999 adopted the Guidelines for the Production, Processing, Labelling and Marketing of Organically Produced Foods, with the exception of the provisions for livestock and livestock products. The Codex Alimentarius Commission at its 24th Session in 2001 adopted the sections concerning livestock and livestock products and bee-keeping and bee products for inclusion in the Guidelines for the Production, Processing, Labelling and Marketing of Organically Produced Foods." [Preface]

22. International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM).
Homepage: http://www.ifoam.org/ (accessed 11/16/07)
Description: "Assisting its membership, IFOAM implements specific projects that facilitate the adoption of organic agriculture, particularly in developing countries. IFOAM also represents the organic agriculture movements at United Nations and other intergovernmental agencies." [Web site] IFOAM provides advocacy, publications, conferences, information, bookstore and an IFOAM Organic Guarantee System.

23. International Harmonization.
URL: http://www.ifoam.org/organic_facts/harmonization/index.html (accessed 11/16/07)

24. International Organic Accreditation Service (IOAS).
Homepage: http://www.ioas.org/ (accessed 11/16/07)
Description: "The IOAS implements the IFOAM Accreditation Programme which is an industry based global guarantee of organic integrity, unburdened by national barriers and implemented by one body which has no other interests." [Web site]

25. Organic Directory Online.
URL: http://www.ifoam.org/organic_world/directory/index.html (accessed 11/16/07)
Description: Members (names and site links only) are listed by country, as of March 2006. Purchase the complete IFOAM directory in the IFOAM bookstore.

26. Organic Guarantee System.
URL: http://www.ifoam.org/about_ifoam/standards/ogs.html (accessed 11/16/07)
Description: Includes IFOAM Basic Standards for Organic Production and Processing and IFOAM Accreditation Criteria for Bodies Certifying Organic Production and Processing.

27. UNCTAD/ FAO/ IFOAM International Task Force on Harmonisation and Equivalence in Organic Agriculture.
URL: http://r0.unctad.org/trade_env/ITF-organic/welcome1.asp (accessed 11/16/07)
Description: "The International Task Force on Harmonisation and Equivalence in Organic Agriculture, convened by FAO, IFOAM and UNCTAD, will serve as an open-ended platform for dialogue between public and private institutions (intergovernmental, governmental and civil society) involved in trade and regulatory activities in the organic agriculture sector." [Web site] Publications of the group include - Harmonization and Equivalence in Organic Agriculture, Vol.1: (2004) 238p. http://r0.unctad.org/trade_env/ITF-organic/publications/
Complete%20Harmonization%20Book%20Vol%201.pdf
(accessed 11/16/07)
- Strategy on Solutions for Harmonizing International Regulation of Organic Agriculture, Vol. 2 (2006) 95p. http://r0.unctad.org/trade_env/ITF-organic/publications/
ditcted200515_en%5B1%5D.pdf
(accessed 11/16/07)
- Strategy on Solutions for Harmonizing International Regulation of Organic Agriculture, Vol. 3 (2007) 223p. http://r0.unctad.org/trade_env/ITF-organic/publications/
UNCTAD_DITC_TED_2007_1.pdf
(accessed 11/16/07)

28. OECD Workshop on Organic Agriculture, 23-26 September 2002, Washington D.C., United States.Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Directorate for Food Agriculture and Fisheries, 2002.
Homepage: http://www.oecd.org/document/15/0,3343,en_2649_33791_17208655_1_1_1_1,00.html (accessed 11/16/07)
Description: "The overall purpose of the workshop is to analyse the economic, environmental and social impacts of organic agriculture in relation to "integrated" or "conventional" farming systems, and the conditions under which organic agricultural systems are sustainable. It will also analyse the market approaches and policies used to encourage, certify and regulate organic agriculture, and examine the trade effects of different policies." [Web site]

29. "Organic Livestock Production Standards."
In Diversity of Livestock Systems and Definition of Animal Welfare, Proceedings of the Second NAHWOA Workshop, Cordoba, 8-11 January 2000. Network for Animal Health and Welfare in Organic Agriculture (NAHWOA), 2000.
Full text: http://www.veeru.reading.ac.uk/organic/proc/proceedings.htm (accessed 11/16/07)

30. Export Arrangements and Recognition Agreements.
USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), National Organic Program (NOP).
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=
TemplateE&navID=NationalOrganicProgram&leftNav=NationalOrganicProgram&page=
NOPExportArrangementsandRecognitionAgreements&description=Export%20Arrangements
%20and%20Recognition%20Agreements&acct=nopgeninfo
(accessed 6/24/08)
Description: Find details on U.S. export arrangements with Israel, India, New Zealand, United Kingdom, Denmark, Quebec, British Columbia and Standards Council of Canada, and Export Arrangements with Japan.

31. OneCert International Organic Standards.
OneCert, Inc., undated.
Full text (request via e-mail): http://www.onecert.net/oc_standards.htm (accessed 2/16/08)
Description: Compilation of standards texts and materials lists from Japan Agricultural Standards, European Regulation 2092/91, Quebec Organic Reference Standards, Bio Suisse Standards, IFOAM Basic Standards and USDA-National Organic Program. "Designed for organic operations whose primary organic market is the US but who also have international sales." [Web site]

Back to Top 

Selected Resources Pertaining to U.S. Trade Issues: Specific Countries

The challenges and opportunities presented by trade in organics have been addressed by various international and regional entities. This section points to significant issues, policies and organizations that analyze and facilitate cooperation between nations. Officially recognized "harmonization," mutual recognition, equivalency and national import/export arrangements related to organic standards and trade policies are still very much works in progress.

32. Export Potential for Organics: Opportunities and Barriers [Australia], by David McKinna and et al.
Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation; Australian Government, 2006. 95p. (RIRDC Publication, 06/06) Note: "A report for the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation."
Full text: http://www.rirdc.gov.au/reports/ORG/06-061.pdf (accessed 11/23/07)

33. Organic Production [Canada].
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Agri-Food Trade Service.
URL: http://www4.agr.gc.ca/AAFC-AAC/display-afficher.do?id=1183748510661&lang=e (accessed 11/16/07)
Description: Information about Canada’s organic industry, market reports including The Organic Sector: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats and Associated Key Issues (2006), the Canadian Organic Value Chain Roundtable and product regulations.

34. Organic Products [Canada].
Canadian Food Inspection Agency.
URL: http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/fssa/orgbio/otfgtspbe.shtml (accessed 11/16/07)
Description: When the Organic Products Regulations come into full force on December 14, 2008, voluntary use of the "Biologique Canada Organic" designation and logo will be permitted on the labeling of those food products certified as meeting the National Organic Standards (Canadian Organic Production Systems General Principles and Management Standards CAN/CGSB 32.310 and Permitted Substances Lists CAN/CGSB 32.311). The designation and logo are not available for use until full implementation of the Regulations. Site provides access to the new regulations as well as information bulletins, FAQ and links to additional government and industry information.

35. Canada Organic Regime: A Certified Choice. March 2008.
Full text: http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/fssa/orgbio/stainte.shtml (accessed 6/24/08)
Description: Information for stakeholders.

36. Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Effects of Federal Regulation for Organic Products.
Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 2004? Note: Final report.
URL: http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/fssa/orgbio/coana/coanae.shtml (accessed 11/16/07)
Description: "This benefit/cost analysis investigates issues and problems related to: consumer protection; export market access; environmental issues; agricultural sustainability; equity in domestic and international trading environments; potential for consumer confusion and fraud, and others." [Web site]

37. The Organic Sector: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats and Associated Key Issues, by Rod MacRae, Russ Christianson and Ralph Martin.
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada; Organic Sector Value Chain Roundtable, 2006.
Full text: http://www4.agr.gc.ca/AAFC-AAC/display-afficher.do?id=1184002826629&lang=e (accessed 11/16/07)

38. Recent Canadian Wholesale Prices for Organic Fruit and Vegetables.
Cyber-Help for Organic Farmers; Rural Capacity Building Through Organic Agriculture (RCBTOA) Project, British Columbia Certified Organic Program.
URL: http://www.certifiedorganic.bc.ca/rcbtoa/services/prices.html (accessed 11/16/07)
Description: Wholesale prices for vegetables, fruits and nuts, in Canadian dollars.

39. Administrative Measures for Certification of Organic Products 2005 [China, Peoples Republic of: FAIRS Product Specific], by Wu Bugang.
USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS), 2005. 10p. (GAIN Report, CH5012).
Full text: http://www.fas.usda.gov/gainfiles/200502/146118661.pdf (accessed 11/16/07)
Description: "This is UNOFFICIAL translation of AQSIQ Decree No. 67 (2004) Administrative Measures for Certificate of Organic Products. Exporters should carefully study the regulation and consult with importers to make sure that their interpretation of these Measures is accurate." [Web site]

40. Organic Products Market in China 2006 [China, Peoples Republic of, Organic Products], by Yang Mei, Michael Jewison and Christina Greene.
USDA, Foreign Agriculture Service (FAS), 2006. (GAIN Report, CH6405).
Full text: http://www.fas.usda.gov/gainfiles/200606/146198045.pdf (accessed 11/16/07)
Description: Highlights regulations and policy, consumption trends, and trade challenges and recommendations.

41. Organic Food Development Center, SEPA of China (OFDC).
Homepage: http://www.ofdc.cn/english/about/about.asp (accessed 12/05/07)
Description: OFDC, "founded in 1994, is the oldest and largest specialized organic research, inspection and certification organization and the only organic certifier in China that has been IFOAM (the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements) and ISO65 accredited." [Web site]

42. Country Profile: China.
International Trade Centre, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)/ World Trade Organization (WTO), 2006?
URL: http://www.intracen.org/organics/Country-Profile-China.htm (accessed 11/16/07)
Description: Background, references and country contact information including: Organic Food Development Center of China OFDC-SEPA and China Green Food Development Centre (CGFDC).

43. Organic Farming.
European Commission.
Full text: http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/qual/organic/index_en.htm (accessed 11/20/07)
Description: "Council Regulation (EC) No 834/2007 of 28 June 2007 on organic production and labelling of organic products and repealing Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91. European Union agriculture ministers today reached political agreement on a new regulation on organic production and labelling, which will be simpler for both farmers and consumers. The new rules set out a complete set of objectives, principles and basic rules for organic production, and include a new permanent import regime and a more consistent control regime..." [Web site] Information covers regulation, rules, the organic logo and more.

44. Organic Farming - Facts and Figures.
Brussells: European Commission/Commission Européenne, 2005. 30p.
Full text: http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/qual/organic/facts_en.pdf (accessed 11/20/07)
Description: Marketing chapter includes information on organic product processors, retail sales and prices.

45. Council Regulation (EC) No 834/2007 of 28 June 2007 on Organic Production and Labelling of Organic Products and Repealing Regulation (EEC) No. 2092/91.
Full text as published in the Official Journal of the European Union: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2007/l_189/l_18920070720en00010023.pdf (accessed 11/20/07)
Description: This new regulation was published on July 20, 2007 and will come into force on January 1, 2009. Information about current rule status may be found at http://www.organic-europe.net/europe_eu/eu-regulation-2092-91.asp (accessed 11/20/07).

46. Organic Farming in Europe - Country Reports.
Forschungsinstitut fuer biologischen Landbau (FiBL) .
URL: http://www.organic-europe.net/country_reports/default.asp (accessed 11/20/07)
Description: Thirty-one country reports include information about each country’s laws, standards and certification agencies. Links to other EU country information resources is included.

47. CBI AccessGuide.
Homepage: http://www.cbi.nl/ (accessed 11/20/07)
Description: AccessGuide is a searchable database of legislative and market requirements and industry news related to exporting to the European Union. Provided by a Dutch Government Agency - the Centre for the Promotion of Imports from Developing Countries (CBI), registration is required to access certain data including export tools and a market information section.

48. Policies Supporting Organic Food Markets in the EU: Analyses by Stakeholders in 11 European Countries, by Daniela Vairo, Anna Maria Haring, Stephan Dabbert and Raffaele Zanoli.
European Association of Agricultural Economists, 2007. Note: Paper presented at 103rd EAAE Seminar "Adding Value to the Agro-Food Supply Chain in the Future Euromediterranean Space."
Full text: http://purl.umn.edu/9386 (accessed 6/24/08)

49. Export Arrangements with Japan.
USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), National Organic Program (NOP).
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=TemplateN
&topNav=NationalOrganicProgram&leftNav=NationalOrganicProgram&page=NOPExport
ArrangementswithJapan&description=Export%20Arrangements%20with%20Japan
&acct=nopgeninfo
(accessed 6/24/08)
Description: Access background information and the text of Japanese Agricultural Standard of Organic Agricultural Products (JAS).

50. Japan: Organic Products: U.S. Organic Export to Japan: Export Procedures 2004, by Kenzo Ito.
USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS), 2004. (GAIN Report, JA4015).
Full text: http://www.fas.usda.gov/gainfiles/200403/146105736.pdf (accessed 11/20/07)
Description: See also Japan Exporter Guide 2007 (GAIN Report Number: JA7522, 10/1/2007), http://www.fas.usda.gov/gainfiles/200710/146292611.pdf (accessed 11/20/07)

51. Proposed Japanese Agricultural Standards for Organic Livestock.
Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries (MAFF), 2007.
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/
AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=TemplateN&navID=NationalOrganic
Program&leftNav=NationalOrganicProgram&page=NOPProposedJapaneseAgStandards
forOrganicLivestock&description=Proposed%20Japanese%20Standards%20for%
20Organic%20Livestock&acct=nopgeninfo
(accessed 6/24/08)
Description: "The Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries (MAFF) has proposed standards for the production and handling of organic livestock products and livestock feed. Under World Trade Organization (WTO) standards, all new standards must be posted for comment by interested parties..." Find draft standards and information about commenting.

52. Korea, Republic of: Organic Products: Organic Certificate Requirements 2004, by Seung Ah Chung.
USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS), 2004. 6p. (GAIN Report, KS4035).
Full text: http://www.fas.usda.gov/gainfiles/200408/146107229.pdf (accessed 11/20/07)

53. Mexico’s Organic Products Law 2006, by Luis Chavez.
USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS), 2006. (GAIN Report, MX6501).
Full text: http://www.fas.usda.gov/gainfiles/200605/146187681.pdf (accessed 11/23/07)
Description: "On February 8, 2006, the Mexican government announced passage of the Organic Products Law after years of legislative revisions. The new law will regulate organic food product production and commercialization and require that all products "claiming" to be organic be certified by an internationally recognized organization." [Report Highlights] See also Export Arrangements and Recognition Agreements (USDA, National Organic Program), listed above.

54. Organic and Natural Foods Sector Profile: Mexico.
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2004. (Schiller, 529).
URL: (as posted by Proexport Colobmia) http://www.proexport.com.co/VBeContent/library/documents/
DocNewsNo5206DocumentNo4276.PDF
(accessed 6/24/08)
Description: Produced by the Canadian Embassy in Mexico, this report describes general market and trade data and contacts in Mexico, as well as Canada-specific resources.

55. New Zealand Organic Products Market Brief 2001, by Vinita Sharma.
USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS), 2001. (GAIN Report, NZ1033).
Full text: http://www.fas.usda.gov/gainfiles/200108/125681472.pdf (accessed 11/23/07)
Description: "The New Zealand market for organic foods, although small, is growing rapidly. According to a major organic food importer, the New Zealand organic food market is about US$80-100 million, of which at least 30 percent of consumption is imported." [Report Highlights] See also Export Arrangements and Recognition Agreements (USDA, National Organic Program), listed above.

56. Taiwan’s Market for Organic Products: 2000, by Chiou Mey Perng.
USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS), 2000. (GAIN Report, TW0008).
Full text: http://www.fas.usda.gov/gainfiles/200002/25607021.pdf (accessed 11/23/07)
Description: "About 1,000 specialty stores on Taiwan sell organic foods. Taiwan’s annual imports of organic foods are worth approximately $9.7 million. In the next three years annual sales of organic foods on Taiwan is expected to reach $19.4 million, double current levels." [Report Highlights] See also Export Arrangements and Recognition Agreements (USDA, National Organic Program), listed above.

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General U.S. Export and Import Regulations, Certifications and Information

The trader in organics must also cope with regulations and rules, as well as support programs, that pertain to general commodity import and export activities.

57. International Agricultural Trade.
National Agricultural Law Center, University of Arkansas School of Law. (Reading Room)
URL: http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/readingrooms/internationaltrade/ (accessed 11/27/07)
Description: "International agricultural trade has been described as inexplicable, exasperating, and the most distorted segment of the global economy. Nevertheless, it is important to agricultural producers, and that importance grows as production surpasses domestic demand. The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) reports that the United States is the world’s largest agricultural exporter with nearly one quarter of farm cash receipts coming from export markets. International agricultural trade is a complex subject that involves many different facets of international and domestic law, including international treaties and agreements, domestic trade laws, and general policy decisions. This overview focuses on these broad concepts in the large, intricate subject area of international agricultural trade." [Web site]

58. USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS).
Homepage: http://www.ams.usda.gov/ (accessed 11/15/07)
Description: In addition to domestic programs, AMS "offers an array of valuable services that give buyers and sellers of agricultural products a competitive advantage in the global marketplace." [Web site]

59. International Marketing Services.
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=
TemplateA&navID=InternationalMarketing&leftNav=InternationalMarketing
&page=InternationalMarketing&acct=AMSPW
(accessed 6/24/08)
Description: AMS International Marketing Services include: commodity and trading standards; product, production process, and equipment certifications; scientific and intellectual property services; market and shipping information; fair trade practices. Products include various commodity international market news reports; Ocean Freight rate Bulletin; special country transportation reports; grading and process verification programs and links to USDA and international organizations and cooperators. AMS certification programs include the Non-Hormone Treated Cattle (NHTC) Program; Pork For the European Union (PFEU) Program; Animal Protein Free Certification Program; all dairy products or dairy ingredients in other products for export to the European Union; and inspection and certification of dairy and meat processing equipment and utensils.

60. The Non-Hormone Treated Cattle (NHTC) Program.
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=
TemplateD&navID=NHTCProgram&rightNav1=NHTCProgram&topNav=&leftNav
=GradingCertificationandVerfication&page=LSNHTCProgram&resultType=&acct=
audrevcom
(accessed 6/24/08)
Description: Audit/verification program in effect since 1989, when the European Union (EU) and the U.S. agreed to control measures to facilitate the trade of non-hormone treated bovine meat.

61. Transportation Services Branch (TSB): Exporter Assistance.
URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=
TemplateN&navID=ExportMyAgriculturalProductHome&rightNav1=ExportMy
AgriculturalProductHome&topNav=Home&leftNav=&page=ATExportMyProduct
&resultType=&acct=exptr
(accessed 6/24/08)
Description: "Getting the product to your overseas customer in the best condition, on time, and at the most reasonable cost is also an integral part of the export process and can turn new customers into repeat customers." [Web site]

62. USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS).
Homepage: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/ (accessed 11/15/07)
Description: "APHIS serves to facilitate safe international trade, monitor the health of animals presented at the border, and regulate the import and export of animals, animal products, and biologicals... APHIS serves to facilitate safe trade, monitor the movement of risk material, protect against the introduction of pests, regulate the import and export of plants, and help exporters meet the entry requirements of other countries" [Web site]

63. Import and Export.
URL: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/import_export/index.shtml (accessed 11/15/07)
Description: Access page for: Animal and Animal Product Import Information, including information about USDA-recognized animal health status of particular countries and regions and Import Facilitation programs; Animal and Animal Product Export Information including information about Import requirements and a directory of USDA’s Area Veterinarian-in-Charge; Plant Import Information including links to Plant Import Permits and a directory of Plant Inspection Stations; Plant Export Information (including a link to Export Certificates and Application Forms

There is also information about the discontinued use of the Import Authorization System (IAS): "Effective April 30,2007, Veterinary Service’s (VS) NCIE will discontinue the IAS and encourage customers to become eAuthenticated and use ePermits to apply for and obtain permits for animal products and by-products and organisms and vectors." There are also links to sanitary/phytosanitary learning modules and training, and APHIS Services Global Directory (staff).

64. Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Import Manual.
USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine, 2007. 618p.
Full text: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/import_export/plants/manuals/ports/downloads/fv.pdf (accessed 11/27/07)
Description: Manual provides the background, procedures, and reference tables for regulating imported articles of fresh, usable parts of plants such as fruits, stems, leaves, roots, and flowers (herbs and vegetables). These imported articles are not intended for planting or growing, but they might serve to introduce exotic pests.

65. Quarantine 56.
USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), 2007.
URL: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/newsroom/hot_issues/quarantine_56/quarantine_56.shtml (accessed 11/27/07)
Description: "On July 17, 2007, USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) announced a final rule to revise and reorganize its regulations pertaining to the importation of fruits and vegetables, otherwise known as its Q-56 regulations. The purpose of the final rule is to simplify and expedite the APHIS process for approving new imports and pest-free areas, and to allow APHIS officials to focus its resources on more complex import issues." [Release] Includes link to final rule and related documents.

66. USDA, Economic Research Service (ERS).
Homepage: http://www.ers.usda.gov/ (accessed 11/27/07)

67. Phytosanitary Regulation of the Entry of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables into the United States.
URL: http://www.ers.usda.gov/Data/FruitVegPhyto/ (accessed 11/27/07)
Description: This data product/set identifies which countries, under USDA’s Animal and Plant Health and Inspection Service (APHIS) phytosanitary rules, are eligible to export to the United States the fresh fruits and vegetables that are most important in the American diet. Data on the absolute and relative importance of these countries in international production and trade, individually and in aggregate, are also included." [Web site]

68. USDA, Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS).
Homepage: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/ (accessed 11/15/07)
Description: In addition to domestic programs, "FSIS insures that meat, poultry, and egg products imported to the United States are produced under standards equivalent to U.S. inspection standards, and facilitates the certification of exported goods." [Web site]

69. International Affairs.
URL: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Regulations_&_Policies/International_Affairs/index.asp (accessed 11/15/07)
Description: Find FSIS-related Export Information (export certification checklist, requirements for meat, poultry and processed egg products; export related policies; and eligible U.S. establishments); Import Information (requirements countries must meet to import product into the United States; the equivalence process; port of entry procedures; re-inspection; labeling requirements; and products for personal consumption); import and export data; and U.S. and International Codex Alimentarius information. Recent FSIS actions and reports are also featured.

70. USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS).
Homepage: http://www.fas.usda.gov/ (accessed 11/15/07)
Description: "The Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) works to improve foreign market access for U.S. products, build new markets, improve the competitive position of U.S. agriculture in the global marketplace, and provide food aid and technical assistance to foreign countries. FAS has the primary responsibility for USDA’s international activities - market development, trade agreements and negotiations, and the collection and analysis of statistics and market information. It also administers USDA’s export credit guarantee and food aid programs, and helps increase income and food availability in developing nations by mobilizing expertise for agriculturally led economic growth. FAS also enhances U.S. agriculture’s competitiveness by providing linkages to global resources and international organizations." [Web site]

The FAS Web site organizes information into eight categories: Programs and Opportunities; Market and Trade Data; Issues and Policies; Commodities and Products; U.S. Exporter Assistance; Buying U.S. Products; News and Events; and Publications. All contain information important to U.S. importers and exporters. Selected resources are highlighted below.

71. Attaché Reports.
URL: http://www.fas.usda.gov/scriptsw/AttacheRep/default.asp (accessed 11/15/07)
Description: "GAIN [Global Agriculture Information Network] is a web-based system that allows users to search FAS’ database of overseas reports from 1995 to the present. Users can search reports by date range, country, commodity, or key word in the title. FAS overseas offices submit more than 3,000 reports per year, approximately half of which are scheduled periodic reports." [Web site]

Specific publications include: Food and Agricultural Import Regulations and Standards (FAIRS) Reports; GAIN Reports; and Attaché Reports.

72. Commodities and Products.
URL: http://www.fas.usda.gov/commodities.asp (accessed 11/15/07)
Description: Access to crop- and product-specific information (including organic foods, fruits and vegetables and biofuels) as well as the Production, Supply and Distribution (PS&D) online database; International Agricultural Trade Commodity Experts contact directory; and the innovative Crop Explorer - USDA’s graphic display of agro-meteorological indicators offering near-real-time global crop condition information based on satellite imagery and weather data.

73. Directory of State Food Export Certificate Authorities.
URL: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/ofsts/exportcertif/exportcertifdirectory/search_form.asp (accessed 11/15/07)
Description: "Most food export certificates are issued at the state level, and this directory provides contact information for state certificate authorities. Select from the list of States and then click on the Search button to retrieve certificate authority contact information, and also the types of certificates that each authority issues." [Web site]

74. FAIRS [Food and Agricultural Import Regulations and Standards] Export Certificate GAIN Reports.
URL: http://www.fas.usda.gov/scriptsw/AttacheRep/default.asp (accessed 11/23/07) (Under "Option 1: Search by Date and Commodities/Countries," select "Use date received;" under "Custom" select date span; and in the "Commodities" menu, FAIRS Export Certificate Report and country of interest.)
Description: Global Agriculture Information Network (GAIN) annual reports provide guidance on export certificate requirements for a representative sample of products that have been identified as having excellent prospects in each country.

75. FAS Overseas Offices (Directory).
URL: http://www.fas.usda.gov/scriptsw/fasfield/ovs_directory_search.asp (accessed 11/15/07)
Description: "FAS staffs 101 offices in 81 countries around the world. FAS Foreign Service Officers (FSO) and Locally-Employed Staff (LES) - while not maintaining a physical presence - also monitor and report on the agricultural trade matters of an additional 71 countries." [Web site]

76. Import Programs.
URL: http://www.fas.usda.gov/importprograms.asp (accessed 11/15/07)
Description: Includes access to FAS U.S. Enquiry Point as required under the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) measures for all WTO member inquiries related to SPS regulations; U.S. Sugar Programs; U.S. Dairy Import Program; and U.S. Tariff Schedule. It also provides a quick links directory to other USDA/U.S. Government Agencies with import information.

77. Statistical Market Information.
URL: http://www.fas.usda.gov/data.asp (accessed 11/15/07)
Description: FAS offers several different databases for data on international agricultural trade. These databases are maintained by FAS and other U.S. government agencies.

78. Trade Agreements.
URL: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/agreements.asp (accessed 11/15/07)
Description: Lists and links to final regional agreements, free trade agreements, and FAS’ bilateral agreements agreements between the United States and individual countries.

79. U.S. Exporter Assistance.
URL: http://www.fas.usda.gov/agx/exporter_assistance.asp (accessed 11/15/07)
Description: Site provides many instructional materials, directories, data and contacts regarding: export basics, partners and trade leads, market research, counseling and advocacy, trade events, export programs, export finance, export certificates, shipping requirements and documentation, and pricing, quotes and negotiations.

80. USDA, Grain Inspection Packers and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA).
Homepage: http://www.gipsa.usda.gov (accessed 11/15/07)
Description: "GIPSA offers various services that keep America’s grain flowing to our international customers. We provide information for grain exporters, educational programs, outreach programs, marketing documents that address the requirements of importing countries, and programs to address grain quality or quantity discrepancies between buyer and seller." [Web site] GIPSA also offers data and statistical products that provide information about America’s grain and livestock markets.

81. International Services.
URL: http://www.gipsa.usda.gov/GIPSA/webapp?area=home&subject=grpi&topic=is (accessed 11/15/07)
Description: GIPSA provides international assistance programs including information for exporters of grain, oilseeds, or related commodities about registration, quality and weight certification, phytosanitary certification, shipper’s export declaration (SED), embargoes, and ag exporter assistance. It also offers various marketing documents to address importing countries’ requirements.

82. Exporter Registration.
URL: http://www.gipsa.usda.gov/GIPSA/webapp?area=home&subject=grpi&topic=er (accessed 11/15/07)
Description: "The United States Grain Standards Act (USGSA), 7 U.S.C. 87f-1, requires the registration of all persons engaged in the business of buying grain for sale in foreign commerce. In addition, those individuals who handle, weigh, or transport grain for sale in foreign commerce must register." [Web site]

83. Finding a Service Provider (Directory).
URL: http://www.gipsa.usda.gov/GIPSA/webapp?area=home&subject=fc&topic=fsp (accessed 11/15/07)
Description: See also: Directory of Export Elevators at Export Port Locations including Facility Data, GIPSA, 2003: http://archive.gipsa.usda.gov/pubs/exp_elevator_directory.pdf (accessed 11/15/07).

84. U.S. Census Bureau, Foreign Trade Statistics (FTD).
Homepage: http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/www/index.html (accessed 11/15/07)
Description: Information about Automated Export System (AES), classification systems, Schedule B forms and changes, export regulations seminars, as well as import and export data.

85. U.S. Department of Commerce.
Homepage: http://www.commerce.gov/ (accessed 11/16/07)

86. Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS).
Homepage: http://www.bis.doc.gov/ (accessed 11/15/07)
Description: "BIS’s activities include regulating the export of sensitive goods and technologies in an effective and efficient manner; enforcing export control, antiboycott, and public safety laws; cooperating with and assisting other countries on export control and strategic trade issues; assisting U.S. industry to comply with international arms control agreements; and monitoring the viability of the U.S. defense industrial base and seeking to ensure that it is capable of satisfying U.S. national and homeland security needs." [Web site] Includes access to Export Administration Regulations (EAR) - official regulations and policies governing the export licensing of commodities and technical data - information and database.

87. International Trade Administration (ITA).
Homepage: http://www.ita.doc.gov/ (accessed 11/15/07)
Description: "ITA’s mission is to create prosperity by strengthening the competitiveness of U.S. industry, promoting trade and investment, and ensuring fair trade and compliance with trade laws and agreements. Trade.gov provides you access to ITA’s valuable information and services regarding U.S. international trade policy. For those businesses wanting to expand their export markets, visit the U.S. Government Export Portal, export.gov." [Web site]

88. Export.Gov.
Note: Formerly known as the Trade Information Center (TIC)
Contact: 1-800-USA Trade (toll free); e-mail tic@ita.doc.gov
Homepage: http://www.export.gov/ (accessed 11/15/07)
Description: "Export.gov brings together resources from across the U.S. Government to assist American businesses in planning their international sales strategies and succeed in today’s global marketplace. From market research and trade leads from the U.S. Department of Commerce’s Commercial Service to export finance information from Export-Import Bank and the Small Business Administration to agricultural export assistance from USDA, Export.gov helps American exporters navigate the international sales process and avoid pitfalls such as non-payment and intellectual property misappropriation." [Web site] Contact directories accessed from this site:
- Manufacturing and Services Analysts, http://web.ita.doc.gov/td/shared/tdindus.nsf/Industries (accessed 11/15/07)
- U.S. Export Assistance Offices, http://www.buyusa.gov/home/us.html (accessed 11/15/07)
- Offices Worldwide, http://www.buyusa.gov/home/worldwide_us.html (accessed 11/15/07)

89. Commerce Offices and Services Near You (Directory).
URL: http://www.commerce.gov/statemap2.html (accessed 11/15/07)

90. U.S. Customs and Border Protection.
Homepage: http://www.customs.gov/ (accessed 11/15/07)

91. Trade.
URL: http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/trade/ (accessed 6/24/08)
Description: Access all Customs and Border Protection program areas related to importing and exporting as well as specific publications, forms and other related documentation.

92. CBP Contacts.
URL: http://www.customs.gov/xp/cgov/toolbox/contacts/ (accessed 11/15/07)
Description: Find directories for CBP Attaches, Field Operations Offices, Ports of Entry and CBP Service Ports.

93. Import.
URL: http://www.customs.gov/xp/cgov/trade/priority_trade/import_safety/ (accessed 6/24/08)
Description: Information about: Antidumping and Countervailing Duties (ADCVD); Broker Management; Cargo Control; Cargo Summary; Carriers; Commercial Enforcement; Communications to Trade; Duty Rates/HTS; Informed Compliance; Infrequent Importer/Traveler; International Agreements; Operations Support; Regulatory Audit; Textiles and Quotas; and Trade Initiatives.

94. National Agriculture Release Program (NARP).
URL: http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/trade/priority_trade/agriculture/narp/ (accessed 6/24/08)
Description: "On January 8, 2007 U.S. Customs and Border Protection implemented the National Agriculture Release Program. NARP provides a methodology for evaluating high-volume agriculture imports that are low-risk for the introduction of plant pests and plant diseases into the United States." [Web site]

95. Bioterrorism.
URL: http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/trade/priority_trade/import_safety/bioterrorism/ (accessed 6/24/08)
Description: "The Bioterrorism Act (BTA) is intended to protect the health and safety of the people of the United States from an intended or actual terrorist attack on the nation’s food supply." [Web site] Documentation at this site includes Trade Guidance for Bioterrorism Act (BTA) Importations; Frequently Asked Questions and Answers Regarding CBP Procedures under the Bioterrorism Act (BTA); FDA-Required Prior Notice for Imported Food and Beverages; and Enforced Compliance and Penalties Implementation Procedures for the Bioterrorism Act.

96. Bringing Agricultural Products into the United States.
September, 2004.
URL: http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/travel/clearing/agri_prod_inus.xml (accessed 6/24/08)
Description: Information for international travelers.

97. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Contact: 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville MD 20857; 888-INFO-FDA (1-888-463-6332) (toll free).
Homepage: http://www.fda.gov/ (accessed 11/15/07)

98. Office of International Programs.
Contact (procedural questions and updates on import policy and programs): FDA, Division of Import Operations and Policy (DIOP); 301-443-6553; fax 301-594-0413.
URL: http://www.fda.gov/oia/homepage.htm (accessed 11/16/07)
Description: This page provides information about international FDA programs related to food and cosmetics (including certificates for export of foods and cosmetics); animal drugs and feeds; imports and inspections; international harmonization and arrangements; and information disclosure to foreign governments. It also includes directories: international offices ("Who we are"); International Organizations and Foreign Government Agencies; and International Trade Resources.

99. Office of Regulatory Affairs (ORA) Import Start Page.
URL: http://www.fda.gov/ora/import/default.htm (accessed 11/16/07)
Description: Find "information related to products subject to FDA’s control of foods (except for certain meats and poultry products), drugs (human, animal and biological)… offered for entry into the United States through U.S. Customs, in support of FDA’s regulatory activities." [Web site] Access FDA’s Automated Import System (OASIS), Product Code Builder and more.

100. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Cosmetics: International Activities.
URL: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Ecomm/intl-toc.html (accessed 11/16/07)
Description: Information about international harmonization; trade agreements and related activities; outreach and technical assistance; regulatory enforcement, compliance and inspections; food safety and terrorism; importing into the United States and exporting from the United States.

101. Exporting Food and Cosmetics from the United States.
URL: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/exports.html (accessed 11/16/07)
Description: Topics include Import for Export; Food Ingredients and Packaging; Food Labeling and Nutrition; Pesticides, Metals, Chemical Contaminants and Natural Toxins; and Seafood Imports and Exports. See also: Questions and Answers about certificates for export of foods and cosmetics.

102. Importing Food and Cosmetics into the United States.
URL: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/imports.html (accessed 11/16/07)
Description: Information about FDA actions on bioterrorism legislation including registration of food facilities and "prior notice" of imported foods; FDA import procedures (also available in other languages); U.S. Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) Market Access Pathways for Food, Feeds, and Agricultural Products (chart); an FDA/USDA jurisdictional chart; and import alerts and import detention reports

103. Prior Notice of Imported Foods, Prior Notice System Interface (PNSI).
URL: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~pn/pnoview.html (accessed 11/16/07)
Description: "The Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (Bioterrorism Act), section 307, added section 801(m) to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act to require that FDA receive prior notice for food imported or offered for import into the United States." [Prior Notice Summary Information 2005]

104. U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA), Office of International Trade.
Homepage: http://www.sba.gov/aboutsba/sbaprograms/internationaltrade/index.html (accessed 11/16/07)
Description: Resources on this site include information about export loan programs and a directory of local SBA U.S. Export Assistance Centers.

105. Export Library.
Full text: http://www.sba.gov/aboutsba/sbaprograms/internationaltrade/exportlibrary/index.html Description: Titles include: Export Working Capital Program: Frequently Asked Questions; SBA & Ex-Im Bank Co-Guarantee Program: Description; and How the SBA Helps Small Exporters.

106. TradePort - California’s Gateway to Global Trade.
Homepage: http://www.tradeport.org/ (accessed 11/16/07)
Description: "TradePort is a repository of free information and resources for businesses that seek to conduct international trade to and from California. Created in 1996, TradePort is backed by an alliance of regional trade associations that assist California export and import businesses. " [Web site]

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Selected International General Food Law and Policy Sites

To find out more about international agricultural product and food-related legislation and policies that may impact a trade enterprise, start with the organizations and sources presented in this section.

107. Food Law Web Site.
University of Reading (UK), The School of Food Biosciences.
URL: http://www.foodlaw.rdg.ac.uk/(accessed 6/24/08)
Description: Developed by Dr. D. J. Jukes. Extensive coverage of international news, government agencies, and regulations with emphasis on the UK and Europe. Use the Search Page functions to find items about organic food regulation.

108. IFT Food Laws and Regulations Division.
Institute of Food Technologists (IFT).
URL: http://www.ift.org/divisions/food_law/ (accessed 11/23/07)
Description: Access the "Links" section to find related associations: U.S. government and judicial agencies; U.S. state and local agencies; libraries; private and academic sources.

109. Food Regulation and Trade: Toward a Safe and Open Global System, by Tim Josling, Donna Roberts and David Orden.
Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics, 2004. xiv, 232p.
Information/abstract only: http://www.ifpri.org/pubs/otherpubs/foodregtrade.htm (accessed 11/16/07)
Description: Book "Examines a variety of current and potential food regulatory issues to determine the nature of the trade problems they invoke, how they are related to national regulatory policies, and the potential for improvement in the multilateral framework within which the national regulations operate. Considers the control of animal and plant pests and diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans; food safety and control of other types of food-related health hazards; the regulation of food quality, in particular through the provision of information to guide consumer choice; and the regulation of quality-related process issues, including issues of genetically modified foods, the certification of organic foods, and the welfare of animals in intensive livestock production." [Publisher’s Web site]

110. Foodsafety.Gov: International (Web Site Directory).
URL: http://www.foodsafety.gov/~fsg/fsgintl.html (accessed 11/23/07)
Description: Links to Food Safety agencies and organizations: Federal Government, International Organizations, Other Countries.

111. FAOLEX.
United Nations, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).
Homepage: http://faolex.fao.org/faolex/index.htm (accessed 12/05/07)
Description: "Comprehensive and up-to-date computerized legislative database, the world’s largest electronic collection of national laws and regulations, as well as treaties, on food, agriculture and renewable natural resources. Users of FAOLEX have direct access to the abstracts and indexing information about each text, as well as to the full text of most legislation contained in the database." [Web site] Various search options including topic, geographic area, country and type of text.

112. International Food Legislation Online Guide.
Leatherhead Food International, 2004?
Information/abstract only: http://www.leatherheadfood.com/lfi/submenu.asp?item=3218&subsection=51 (accessed 11/23/07)
Description: UK database that covers, "permitted additives and general labelling requirements for 23 major export markets, including the EU Member States, Japan, Australia/New Zealand and USA/Canada. Key information on regulatory provisions for chocolate and sugar confectionery, soft drinks, jams and similar products and meat products is also detailed." [Web site] Searchable, updated monthly. Access by paid subscription.

113. International Portal on Food Safety, Animal and Plant Health (IPFSAPH).
Homepage: http://www.ipfsaph.org/En/default.jsp (accessed 11/23/07 Sub Web links not working)
Description: IPFSAPH facilitates trade in food and agriculture products and supports the implementation of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Agreement by providing a single access point for authorized official international and national information across the sectors of food safety, animal and plant health. " [Web site] Featured topics include: Export; Good Agriculture Practices (GAP); HACCP; Import; and Legislation/Regulation. Developed by FAO in association with the organizations responsible for international standard setting in sanitary and phytosanitary matters. Several search options available.

114. Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) Directorate for Food, Agriculture and Fisheries.
Homepage: http://www.oecd.org/department/0,3355,en_2649_33727_1_1_1_1_1,00.html (accessed 11/23/07)
Description: "Many governments intervene actively in the agriculture, food and fisheries sectors, but not always in the most efficient and effective ways. Information, analysis and advice on practical and innovative options for the reform and development of policies and the liberalisation of trade are offered." [Web site] This inter-governmental organization with 30 member countries offers many full-text resources including policy and market reports, statistics, and data on indicators and trade programs. See also information organized by member country: http://www.oecd.org/countrieslist/0,3351,en_33873108_33844430_1_1_1_1_1,00.html (accessed 11/23/07).

115. United Nations World Health Organization (WHO): Food Safety.
Homepage: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/en/ (accessed 11/23/07)
Description: "Recent trends in global food production, processing, distribution and preparation are creating an increasing demand for food safety research in order to ensure a safer global food supply. FOS works with other WHO departments, Regional Offices and WHO collaborating centres as well as other international and national agencies." [Web site]

116. World Trade Organization (WTO).
Homepage: http://www.wto.org/ (accessed 11/23/07)
Description: "The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. At its heart are the WHO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world’s trading nations and ratified in their parliaments. The goal is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business." [Web site] Access information on agricultural agreements and issues, food safety and phytosanitary topics as well as international trade and tariff statistics.

117. Agriculture.
URL: http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/agric_e/agric_e.htm (accessed 8/8/05)
Description: "The WTO’s Agriculture Agreement was negotiated in the 1986 94 Uruguay Round and is a significant first step towards fairer competition and a less distorted sector. It includes specific commitments by WTO member governments to improve market access and reduce trade-distorting subsidies in agriculture. These commitments are being implemented over a six year period (10 years for developing countries) that began in 1995." [Web site] Information about New rules; Market access; Domestic support; Exports; Net food importers; Mandates; Agreements; Proceedings; Negotiations; and a Searchable database of agriculture-related documents.

118. The Agreements: Agriculture: Fairer Markets for Farmers.
URL: http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/agrm3_e.htm (accessed 11/23/07)
Description: Guide to provisions and intent of WTO agreements pertaining to trade in agricultural products.

119. Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures.
URL: http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/sps_e/sps_e.htm (accessed 11/23/07)
Description: "An agreement on how governments can apply food safety and animal and plant health measures (sanitary and phytosanitary or SPS measures) sets out the basic rules in the WTO." [Web site]

120. WTO Documents Online.
URL: http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/docs_e.htm(accessed 6/24/08)
Description: "This database provides access to the official documentation of the World Trade Organization, including the legal texts of the WTO agreements." [Web site]

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Index to Agencies, Organizations and Titles

Numbers refer to reference numbers in the text

Administrative Measures for Certification of Organic Products 2005 [China]   39
The Agreements: Agriculture: Fairer Markets for Farmers (WTO)   118
Attaché Reports   8, 71

Bioterrorism   95
Bringing Agricultural Products into the United States   96
Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS)   86

Canada Organic Regime: A Certified Choice   35
CBI AccessGuide   47
CBP Contacts   92
Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Cosmetics: International Activities   100
Codex Alimentarius - Organically Produced Foods   21
Commerce Offices and Services near You (Directory)   89
Commodities and Products   72
Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Effects of Federal Regulation for Organic Products   36
Council Regulation (EC) No 834/2007 of 28 June 2007 On Organic Production and Labelling of Organic Products and Repealing Regulation (EEC) No. 2092/91   45
Country Profile: China   42

Directory of State Food Export Certificate Authorities   73
Diversity of Livestock Systems and Definition of Animal Welfare, Proceedings of the Second NAHWOA Workshop, Cordoba, 8-11 January 2000   29

Export Arrangements and Recognition Agreements   30
Export Arrangements with Japan   49
Export.gov   88
Export Inspection and Weighing Waiver for High Quality Specialty Grains Transported in Containers   10
Export Library   105
Export Potential for Organics: Opportunities and Barriers [Australia]   32
Exporter Registration   82
Exporting Food and Cosmetics from the United States   101

FAIRS [Food and Agricultural Import Regulations and Standards] Export Certificate GAIN Reports   74
FAO/WHO Food Standards Codex Alimentarius   20
FAOLEX   111
FAS Overseas Offices (Directory)   75
Finding a Service Provider (GIPSA Directory)   83
Food Export Association of the Midwest USA   16
Food Export USA (Northeast)   14
Food Law Web Site   107
Food Regulation and Trade: Toward a Safe and Open Global System   109
Foodsafety.gov: International (Web Site Directory)   110
Foreign Accredited Certifying Agents   3
Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS), U.S Department of Agriculture   5
Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Import Manual   64

How Will Imported Organic Agricultural Product Be Handled under the National Organic Standards?   4

IFT Food Laws and Regulations Division   108
Import   93
Importing Food and Cosmetics into the United States   102
International Agricultural Trade   57
International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM)   22
International Food Legislation Online Guide   112
International Harmonization   23
International Issues (NOP)   2
International Marketing Services   59
International Organic Accreditation Service (IOAS)   24
International Portal on Food Safety, Animal and Plant Health (IPFSAPH)   113
International Resources - Organizations, Standards, Regulations, and Information (FAS)   7
International Trade Administration (ITA)   87

Japan: Organic Products: U.S. Organic Export to Japan: Export Procedures 2004   50

Korea, Republic of: Organic Products: Organic Certificate Requirements 2004   52

Mexico's Organic Products Law 2006   53

National Agriculture Release Program (NARP)   94
National Organic Program (NOP)   1
New Organic Products Market Brief 2001   55
The Non-Hormone Treated Cattle (NHTC) Program   60

OECD Workshop on Organic Agriculture, 23-26 September 2002, Washington D.C., United States   28
Office of International Programs (FDA)   98
Office of Regulatory Affairs (FDA, ORA) Import Start Page   99
OneCert International Organic Standards   31
Organic and Natural Foods Sector Profile: Mexico   54
Organic Directory Online   25
Organic Farming [EU]   43
Organic Farming - Facts and Figures [EU]   44
Organic Farming in Europe - Country Reports   46
Organic Food Development Center, SEPA of China (OFDC)   41
Organic Guarantee System   26
Organic Link   19
Organic Livestock Production Standards   29
Organic Production [Canada]   33
Organic Products (FAS)   6
Organic Products [Canada]   34
Organic Products Market in China 2006 [China, Peoples Republic of, Organic Products]   40
The Organic Sector: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats and Associated Key Issues   37
Organic Trade Association (OTA)   11
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Directorate for Food, Agriculture and Fisheries   114
OTA's Organic Export Program   12

Phytosanitary Regulation of the Entry of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables into the United States  67
Policies Supporting Organic Food Markets in the EU: Analyses by Stakeholders in 11 European Countries   48
Policy Dialogue on Promoting Production and Trading Opportunities for Organic Agricultural Products   18
Prior Notice of Imported Foods, Prior Notice System Interface (PNSI)   103
Proposed Japanese Agricultural Standards for Organic Livestock   51

Quarantine 56, 65

Recent Canadian Wholesale Prices for Organic Fruit and Vegetables   38

Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures   119
Southern U.S. Trade Association (SUSTA)   15
State Regional Trade Groups (SRTGs)   13
Statistical Market Information   77

Taiwan’s Market for Organic Products: 2000   56
Trade   91
Trade Agreements (FAS)   78
TradePort - California's Gateway to Global Trade   106
Transportation Services Branch (AMS TSB): Exporter Assistance   61

U.S. Census Bureau, Foreign Trade Statistics (FTD)   84
U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP)   90
U.S. Department of Commerce   85
U.S. Exporter Assistance (FAS)   79
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)   97
U.S. Mission to the European Union: Organic Foods   9
U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA), Office of International Trade   104
UNCTAD/ FAO/ IFOAM International Task Force on Harmonisation and Equivalence in Organic Agriculture   27
United Nations World Health Organization (WHO): Food Safety   115
USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS)   58
USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)   62
USDA, Economic Research Service (ERS)   66
USDA, Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)   68
USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS)   70
USDA, Grain Inspection Packers and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA)   80

Western U.S. Agricultural Trade Association (WUSATA)   17
World Trade Organization (WTO)   116
WTO Documents Online   120

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Index to Book and Article Authors

Numbers refer to reference numbers in the text

Bugang, Wu   39
Chavez, Luis   53
Christianson, Russ   37
Chung, Seung Ah   52
Dabbert, Stephan   48
Greene, Christina   40
Haring, Anna Maria   48
Ito, Kenzo   50
Jewison, Michael   40
Josling, Tim   109
MacRae, Rod   37
Martin, Ralph   37
McKinna, David   32
Mei, Yang   40
Orden, David   109
Perng, Chiou Mey   56
Roberts, Donna   109
Sharma, Vinita   55
Vairo, Daniela   48
Zanoli, Raffaele   48

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About the Alternative Farming Systems Information Center

The Alternative Farming Systems Information Center (AFSIC) specializes in locating and accessing information related to many aspects of sustainable and alternative agriculture, crops and livestock - sustainable and organic crop and livestock farming systems; renewable farm energy options; alternative marketing practices; crop and livestock diversification including aquaculture, exotic and heritage farm animals, alternative and specialty crops, new uses for traditional crops, and crops grown for industrial production; and small farm issues.

AFSIC was founded in 1985 and is an integral part of the National Agricultural Library (NAL) in Beltsville, Maryland. The Center is supported, in part, by USDA’s Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) program, and a cooperative agreement with the University of Maryland, College Park, MD. NAL is part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS).

A current list of AFSIC information products and full-text publications are available electronically on the AFSIC Web site. Recent publications are also available, on request, in hard copy.

For further information:

Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
National Agricultural Library, ARS, USDA
10301 Baltimore Ave., Room 132
Beltsville MD 20705-2351
phone: 301-504-6559; fax: 301-504-6927
E-mail form: http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/contact/ask.php
Web site: http://afsic.nal.usda.gov/

Disclaimers

For more information about National Agricultural Library policy and disclaimers: http://www.nal.usda.gov/disclaimers/disclaimers.shtml

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Last Modified: Dec 10, 2008
 
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