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You are here: Home / Publications / Organic Agricultural Products: Marketing and Trade Resources / Organic Marketing and Trade How-to Publications  Printer Friendly Page
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Organic Marketing and Trade How-to Publications.  Organic Agricultural Products: Marketing and Trade Resources. Guide 3.

 

Lady with basket selecting pineapples.

Compiled by:

Mary V. Gold
Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
USDA, ARS, National Agricultural Library
Beltsville MD
20705-2351
January 2008


Organic Agricultural Products: Marketing and Trade Resources Series, Guide 3

About this Series:

This research guide is one of seven in the Organic Agricultural Products: Marketing and Trade Resources series. Each guide is a subject-oriented compilation that focuses on a separate type of information or research source.   [More...]

Go to other Guides in this series:

  1. Guide to U.S. Organic Marketing: Laws and Regulations
  2. Guide to International Trade in Organics: Laws and Regulations
  3. Guide to Organic Marketing and Trade How-to Publications
  4. Guide to Organic Marketing and Trade Research Tools Online
  5. Guide to Organic Marketing and Trade Periodicals, Calendars and Trade Shows
  6. Guide to Organic Market, Industry and Consumer Studies (2004-2008)
  7. Guide to Organic Marketing Support Organizations
  8. Series Combined Title and Author Indexes: Guides 1-7

For more information, or to request print copies, contact the Alternative Farming Systems Information Center.

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Guide to Organic Marketing and Trade How-to Publications

Table of Contents

  1. About this Series
  2. Marketing Guides for Organic Producers
  3. Marketing Guides for Organic Retailers
  4. Selected Direct Marketing Guides
  5. Selected Guides to International Trade
  6. Selected Guides to Small Business and Market Development
  7. Selected Crop/Enterprise Budgets
  8. Index to Titles
  9. Index to Authors
  10. About the Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
  11. Disclaimers
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Marketing Guides for Organic Producers

The publications listed in this section were produced primarily for small-scale growers and livestock producers, and refer specifically to the marketing of organic products. They provide background and guidance to beginning as well as experienced agricultural entrepreneurs. Please check other AFSIC Guides in this series for additional resources that can help in developing and implementing marketing strategies.

1. Certification and Labeling Considerations for Agricultural Producers, by Russell Tronstad, Ramiro Lobo, Wendy Umberger, Stuart T. Nakamoto, Kynda R. Curtis, Larry Lev, DeeVon Bailey, Ruby Ward and Chris Bastian.
Western Extension Marketing Committee/University of Arizona, CALSmart, 2005. 56p.
Full text: http://cals.arizona.edu/arec/wemc/certification.html (accessed 12/18/07)

2. Certification Archives: Questions about Handling.
New Farm. Note: Answers developed by The New Farm® Answer Team.
Full text: http://www.newfarm.org/certification/certification_archives.shtml#Handling (accessed 12/20/07)

3. Certification Archives: Questions about Labeling.
New Farm. Note: Answers developed by The New Farm® Answer Team.
Full text: http://www.newfarm.org/certification/certification_archives.shtml#Labeling (accessed 12/20/07)

4. Cyber-Help for Organic Farmers: Learning Marketing.
Cyber-Help for Organic Farmers; Certified Organic Associations of BC [Canada].
Full text (multiple documents): http://www.certifiedorganic.bc.ca/rcbtoa/training/marketing.html (accessed 12/18/07)

5. Emerging Agricultural Markets Team.
University of Wisconsin Extension Agriculture Program.
Full text (multiple documents): http://www.uwex.edu/ces/agmarkets/publications/ (accessed 12/18/07)
Description: Dozens of online fact sheets focus on direct marketing, working with customers, value-added enterprises, farm financial management and organic production.

6. "Evaluate your Organic Grain Marketing Opportunities," by Darcy Maulsby.
New Farm (2003).
Full text: http://www.newfarm.org/depts/talking_shop/0403/marketing_ops.shtml (accessed 12/12/07)
Description: From "Talking Shop" column, Upper Midwest Organic Conference, Wisconsin, Feb. 27-Mar. 1, 2003.

7. Flower Farmer: An Organic Grower’s Guide to Raising and Selling Cut Flowers, by Lynn Byczynski. Revised edition.
Chelsea Green Publishing, 2008. 234p.
Information/abstract only: http://www.chelseagreen.com/2007/items/flowerfarmer2 (accessed 12/18/07)

8. Good Food, Good Business.
Arnold Creek Productions, 2006. Note: DVD-Video, 26 mins.
Information/abstract only (including Quicktime trailer): http://www.arnoldcreekproductions.com/Sustainability.htm (accessed 1/09/08)
Description: Information about organic and local food business. Models for growers, CSAs, restaurants and grocers.

9. Herbal Harvest: Commercial Organic Production of Quality Dried Herbs, by Greg Whitten. 3rd edition.
Bloomings Books (Australia); distributed by Chelsea Green Publishing, 2004. 556p.
Information/abstract only: http://www.chelseagreen.com/2004/items/herbalharvest (accessed 12/12/07)

10. If your Farm is Organic, Must it be GMO-Free? Organic Farmers, Genetically Modified Organisms, and the Law, by Jill E. Krueger.
Farmers’ Legal Action Group, Inc., September 2007.
Full text: http://flaginc.org/topics/pubs/arts/OrganicsAndGMOs2007.pdf (accessed 12/12/07)
Description: "This article examines requirements to avoid the use of genetic engineering that affect crop and livestock farmers who are certified organic, or who wish to become certified organic. The article also briefly addresses handling requirements as they apply to organic farmers. The article is concerned primarily with issues related to organic certification, but it concludes with a brief discussion of the ways in which sales contracts may impose responsibilities upon farmers that differ from the requirements for organic certification." [Publisher’s summary]

11. International Organic Inspection Manual, by James A. Riddle and Joyce E. Ford.
Independent Organic Inspectors Association (IOIA); International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), 2000. 264p. Note: Available in English and Spanish.
Information/abstract only: http://www.ioia.net/store.html#manual (accessed 12/12/07)

12. "The Key to Successful Direct Marketing: Use your Head!" by Laura Sayre.
New Farm (2003).
Full text: http://www.newfarm.org/depts/talking_shop/0104/food_farm.shtml (accessed 12/12/07)
Description: Report from the 5th Annual Future of Our Food and Farms Summit, advanced course in direct marketing.

13. New Mexico Organic Producer Marketing Guide.
New Mexico Organic Commodity Commission, 2004. 56p.
Full text: http://nmocc.state.nm.us/pdf/MarketManual.pdf (accessed 12/18/07)

14. Organic Certification, Farm Production Planning, and Marketing, by Mark Gaskell, Richard Smith, Calvin Fouche, Steven T. Koike and Jeff Mitchell.
University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Vegetable Research and Information Center, 2006. 4p. (Organic Vegetable Production in California, 7247).
Full text: http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/pdf/7247.pdf (accessed 12/12/07)

15. The Organic Farmer’s Guide to Marketing and Community Relations, by Rebecca Bosch; illustrated by Jocelyn Langer.
Northeast Organic Farming Association (NOFA), Interstate Council, 2004. 96 p. (Organic Principles and Practices Handbook Series) Note: Includes a comprehensive resource section.
Information/abstract only: http://nofany.org/publications.html (accessed 2/25/08)

16. Organic Farming Practices: 2007 Insurance Fact Sheet.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Risk Management Agency (RMA), 2006. (A Risk Management Agency Fact Sheet) 2p.
Full text: http://www.rma.usda.gov/pubs/2006/organics.pdf (accessed 2/25/08)
Description: Explains coverage availability, definitions and application procedures.

17. "Organic Marketing and Economics." In Organic Farming Compliance Handbook: A Resource Guide for Western Region Agricultural Professionals, by Brian Baker, Sean L. Swezey, David Granatstein, Steve Guldan and David Chaney.
University of California, Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program (SAREP), 2005?
Full text: http://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/organic/complianceguide/ (accessed 12/12/07)

18. Organic Marketing and Labeling: Online Publications.
ATTRA - National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service, 2003-2007.
Full text (12 publications): http://attra.ncat.org/marketing.html#organic (accessed 12/12/07)
Description: Titles include: Organic Farm Certification and the National Organic Program; Organic Certification Process; NCAT’s Organic Crops Workbook - A Guide to Sustainable and Allowed Practices; NCAT’s Organic Livestock Workbook – A Guide to Sustainable and Allowed Practices; National Organic Program Compliance Checklist for Producers; National Organic Program Compliance Checklist for Handlers; Organic Orchard, Vineyard, and Berry Crop Documentation Forms; Organic Field Crops Documentation Forms; Organic Livestock Documentation Forms; Preparing for an Organic Inspection: Steps and Checklists; Marketing Organic Grains.

19. Organic Marketing Resources, by Holly Born.
ATTRA - National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service, 2004. 13p.
Full text: http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/markres.html (accessed 12/12/07)
Description: Chapters in this guide include: "Federal Crop Insurance for Organic Farmers;" "Sources of Organic Market Price Information;" "Sources of Information on the Organic and Natural Foods Markets;" "Processors;" "Retailers;" "Consumers;" "Finding Buyers;" "Directories;" "Internet Trading Sites;" and "Not Strictly Organic, But Useful."

20. Organic Marketing Resources.
Midwest Organic and Sustainable Education Service (MOSES), 2006.
Full text (multiple documents): http://www.mosesorganic.org/factsheets/index.htm#mr (accessed 12/12/07)
Description: Full text fact sheets from Midwest Organic and Sustainable Education Service (MOSES) and from University of Wisconsin Extension Emerging Ag Markets Team.

21. Pathway to Organic for Producers: Marketing.
How to Go Organic; Organic Trade Association (OTA).
Full text (multiple documents): http://www.howtogoorganic.com/
index.php?page=marketing
(accessed 12/18/07)
Description: Directory of Web resources: "Organic Buyers," "Deciding What To Raise," "Direct and Retail Sales," "Institutional Sales," "International Markets," "Cooperatives," "Marketing Information and Data," "Negotiating Contracts," "Value-Added Enterprises," and "Wholesale Sales."

22. "Phil Foster Ranches: A Case Study of an Organic Vegetable Farm," by William J. Brown.
Journal of Agribusiness 20, no. 2 (2002): pp. 175-196.
Full text: http://www.agecon.uga.edu/~jab/Library/f02-06.pdf (accessed 12/12/07)
Description: Includes enterprise budgets.

23. Selling Certified Organic Produce to Retail Produce Markets in the Upper Midwest, by Laurie S. Z. Greenberg.
University of Wisconsin, Center for Integrated Agricultural Systems (CIAS), 2000. 18p.
Full text: http://www.cias.wisc.edu/pdf/greenbrg.pdf (accessed 12/12/07)

24. Small Organic Farms and Local Markets: How to Assess Organic Compliance: A Tool for Market Growers, Market Managers, Produce Buyers, Extension Agents, and Others, by George Kuepper.
Kerr Center for Sustainable Agriculture, 2007. 38p.
Full text: http://www.kerrcenter.com/publications/Organic-certification-report/
Organic-report07.pdf
(accessed 1/09/08)

25. "Strategic Marketing Decisions for Organic Agricultural Producers," by Jon C. Phillips and H. Christopher Peterson.
International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 10, no. 1 (2007): pp. 100-114.
Full text: http://www.ifama.org/members/articles/v10i1/20061004_Formatted.pdf (accessed 1/09/08)
Description: "A group of organic agricultural producers facing a strategic decision is featured. If they decide to form an organization to market their produce jointly, they will have to select a distribution channel. This case presents the demand conditions, requirements, advantages, and disadvantages of different distribution channels for organic vegetables, both on a general level and as they relate to this particular group. The following channels are addressed: roadside stands, farmers’ markets, distributors, retailers, restaurants, institutions, and processors. Study questions for use in an academic course or workshop are included." [Journal abstract]

26. "Veggie Farmers’ Marketing 101," by Melanie DeVault and George DeVault.
New Farm (August 21, 2003). Note: Tenth article in the series: Nuts and Bolts and Dreams: A Beginner’s Guide to Farming.
Full text: http://www.newfarm.org/depts/beginning_farmers/0803/vegfrmmrkt.shtml (accessed 12/12/07)

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Marketing Guides for Organic Retailers

The guides in this section were produced primarily for organic and natural food retailers. They include publications that provide general as well as market-specific guidance. How-to information for retailers is still limited; however, it is increasingly found within general marketing and trade publications. Please see listings for conventional and natural food trade publications in Guide 5 of this series, Guide to Organic Industry and Government Sources: Reports, Data and Analysis.

27. Adding Value through Environmental Marketing: Opportunities for Food Producers, Processors and Retailers.
Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (IATP), 2000. 258p.
Full text: http://www.iatp.org/labels/envcommodities/ (accessed 12/12/07)
Description: 14 presentations from Conference Proceedings, December 6-7, 1999, Madison, WI.

28. "Behind the Label: A Guide for Retailers."
Natural Foods Merchandiser (August, 2003). Note: 16-article Supplement.
Full text: http://www.naturalfoodsmerchandiser.com/ASP/
currentIssue.asp?strIssueId=6&where=ARTICLEARCH%20IVE
(accessed 12/12/07)

29. Good Organic Retailing Practices Training Manual.
Organic Trade Association (OTA), 2002? 290p.
Information/abstract only: http://www.ota.com/bookstore/4.html (accessed 12/12/07)
Description: "Manual was developed in association with the Independent Organic Inspectors Association and OTA staff to meet the needs of your store’s organic retail operations. In addition to general handling practices, the manual specifically addresses Fresh Produce, Bulk Foods, Meats and Prepared Foods (Deli, Bakeries and Juice Bars) and Pre-packaged Groceries departments. You will receive a comprehensive training manual and CD (including a copy of GORP) containing all the necessary forms and checklists." [Web site]

30. Handbook of Organic Food Processing and Production, by Simon Wright and Diane McCrea. 2nd edition.
Blackwell Science (UK), 2000. 238p. Note: Currently out of print but may be available at libraries and through used book sellers. (verified 12/12/07)
Description: Chapters include: "International Legislation and Importation, Fruit and Vegetables;" "Organic Meat and Fish: Production, Processing and Marketing;" and "Organic Dairy in the United States."

31. "Merchandising Organic Products," by Clark F. Driftmier.
Gourmet Retailer (May 01, 2005).
Full text: http://www.gourmetretailer.com/gourmetretailer/search/article_display.jsp?
vnu_content_id=1000900727
(accessed 12/18/07)

32. The National Organic Standards and Retailers.
Organic Trade Association (OTA), 2003.
Full text: http://www.ota.com/standards/nop/standards.html (accessed 12/20/07)
Description: Questions and answers covering: overall retailer responsibility, stream of commerce, contamination, commingling, cleaners and pest control, general cutting and packaging, record-keeping, and labeling and the USDA Organic seal.

33. Natural Products Field Manual, by Bob Burke and Rick McKelvey. 3rd edition.
Natural Products Consulting Institute, 2006.
Information/abstract only: http://www.npcinstitute.com/fieldman.htm (accessed 12/12/07)
Description: "38 chapter, 3 volume guide on ‘how to go to market;’ CD-ROM with over 7,200 natural products stores... directory of natural buyers in mainstream grocery stores, directories of brokers and distributors, budget models, new item forms, PR Media List and customer logos; comprehensive ‘do it yourself’ chapter on public relations includes complete media list with contacts." [Web site]

34. Pathway to Organic for Processors: Marketing and Sales.
How to Go Organic; Organic Trade Association (OTA).
Full text (multiple documents): http://www.howtogoorganic.com/
index.php?page=marketing-and-sales
(accessed 12/18/07)
Description: Directory of Web resources: general information and data, domestic and international.

35. "Retailing Organics: Your Gatekeeping Guide," Natural Foods Merchandiser (September, 2006).
Full text: http://www.naturalfoodsmerchandiser.com/ASP/
articleDisplay.asp?strArticleId=2041&strSite=NFMSite
(accessed 1/09/08)

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Selected Direct Marketing Guides

Most organic growers use farm direct marketing channels for at least a portion of their sales. Farmers’ markets, Community Supported Agriculture (CSA), and sales to schools, hospitals, restaurants and other institutions are growing in popularity with both producers and consumers.

36. "The ABCs of Marketing to Restaurants," by Michelle Frain.
New Farm (2002).
Full text: http://www.newfarm.org/features/0802/restaurant.shtml (accessed 12/12/07)

37. Approaching Foodservice Establishments with Locally Grown Products.
University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Food Processing Center, 2003. 39p. Note: Prepared for the North Central Initiative for Small Farm Profitability.
Full text: http://www.foodmap.unl.edu/report_files/ChefCollaborative.pdf (accessed 12/18/07)
Description: Report "summarizes the initial findings of a survey of members of the Chefs Collaborative organization... The purpose of this research and the following report is to 1) use the expertise gained by members of the Chefs Collaborative organization in order to help producers market their products to the foodservice industry and 2) to examine the opportunities and obstacles producers may encounter when approaching a restaurant or institution with locally grown products." [From Executive Summary]

38. Bringing Local Food to Local Institutions: A Resource Guide for Farm-to-School and Farm-to-Institution Programs, by Barbara C. Bellows, Rex Dufour and Janet Bachmann.
ATTRA - National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service, 2003.
Full text: http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/farmtoschool.html (accessed 1/09/08)
Description: This publication provides farmers, school administrators, and institutional food-service planners with contact information and descriptions of existing programs that have made connections between local farmers and local school lunchrooms, college dining halls, or cafeterias in other institutions. To help communities initiate similar programs, this publication includes: resource lists of publications on how to initiate and manage local food programs, funding and technical assistance sources, and provisions of the 2002 Farm Bill that support farm-to-school and other community food programs.

39. Community Foods.
Kerr Center for Sustainable Agriculture, 2005.
Full text: http://www.kerrcenter.com/community_food/articles.htm (accessed 12/18/07)
Description: Information and articles about local and direct marketing enterprises.

40. Considering Selling Value-Added Products at Shopping Malls: Not a Straightforward Issue, by Anne Dalton and Rob Holland.
University of Tennessee, Center for Profitable Agriculture, 2003. 2p. (CPA Info, 77).
Full text: http://cpa.utk.edu/pdffiles/cpa77.pdf (accessed 12/18/07)

41. The Crunch Lunch Manual: A Case Study of the Davis Joint Unified School District Farmers Market Salad Bar Pilot Program and a Fiscal Analysis Model by Renata Brillinger, Jeri Ohmart and Gail Feenstra.
UC Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program, 2003. 61p. Note Part of "From Farm to School: Improving Small Farm Viability and School Meals" in conjunction with researchers at Occidental College, Center for Food and Justice. Funded by the Initiative for Future Agriculture and Food Systems, USDA.
Full text:(accessed 2/21/08)

42. CSA Resources for Farmers: Selected Books, Reports, Articles, Periodicals and Videos Focusing on the Business of CSA Farming, by Mary V. Gold.
Alternative Farming Systems Information Center (AFSIC), National Agricultural Library, 2006.
Full text: http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/pubs/csa/csafarmer.shtml (accessed 12/18/07)
Description: Links to full text resources.

43. Direct Farm Marketing and Tourism Handbook.
University of Arizona, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 2000.
Full text: http://ag.arizona.edu/arec/pubs/dmkt/dmkt.html (accessed 12/18/07)

44. Direct Marketing Options: Online Publications.
ATTRA - National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service, 2003-2007.
Full text (8 publications): http://attra.ncat.org/marketing.html#direct (accessed 12/12/07)
Description: Titles: Bringing Local Food to Local Institutions: A Resource Guide for Farm-to-School and Farm-to-Institution Programs; Community Supported Agriculture; Direct Marketing; Entertainment Farming and Agri-Tourism; Farmers’ Markets; Selling to Restaurants; Local Food Directories; Nuevos Mercados para Su Cosecha

45. "E-Commerce for Farmers: Yes, You Can!" by Michelle Frain.
New Farm (2003).
Full text: http://www.newfarm.org/depts/midatlantic/FactSheets/e-commerce.shtml (accessed 12/12/07)

46. Face to Face Farming and Eating: Personal Relationships in Alternative Food Systems, by Mary Hendrickson.
University of Missouri Outreach and Extension, Food Circles Networking Project, undated. 4p.
Full text: http://www.foodcircles.missouri.edu/facetoface.pdf (accessed 12/18/07)

47. Farm Direct Marketing: Guide to Educational Resources, by David Chaney, Gail Feenstra and Jeri Ohmart.
University of California, Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program (SAREP); Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE), 2004.
Full text: http://www.sare.org/publications/dmrg.htm (accessed 12/18/07)
Description: "This annotated listing includes practical, high quality resources such as print publications, videos, and Web resources..." [Web site]

48. Farm Fresh: Direct Marketing Meats and Milk, by Allan Nation.
Green Park Press, 2003. 251p.
Information/abstract only: http://www.stockmangrassfarmer.net/cgi-bin/
page.cgi?id=361.html
(accessed 12/18/07)

49. Farm to Hospital: Supporting Local Agriculture and Improving Health Care, by Moira Beery and Kristen Markley.
Center for Food and Justice; Community Food Security Coalition (CFSC), 2007. 6p.
Full text: http://www.foodsecurity.org/F2H_Brochure.pdf (accessed 1/09/08)
Description: "This brochure introduces interested farmers and hospital food service departments to the ins and outs of developing partnerships between hospitals and local farms. Included are examples of ways hospitals can improve the food they offer, issues for farmers to consider if they are interested in selling products to area hospitals, and specific case studies of successful programs." [Web site]

50. Farmer Resource Guide: Managing Risk Through Sales to Educational Institutions, by Community Food Security Coalition and Center for Food and Justice Occidental College.
Community Food Security Coalition (CFSC), 2004.
Information/abstract only: http://www.foodsecurity.org/pubs.html#farmerguide (accessed 1/09/08)
Description: "An extensive compilation of resources that address the many different issues within farm to institutional purchasing projects, including how to approach food service directors, how to organize supply and distribution of the products, characteristics of different institutions, pricing issues, and several case studies of different types of farm to institution projects." [Web site]

51. Farmers and their Diversified Horticultural Marketing Strategies, by Vern Grubinger.
University of Vermont Extension, 1999. Note: VHS Video, 49 mins.
Information/abstract only: http://www.uvm.edu/vtvegandberry/Videos/marketvideo.htm (accessed 1/17/08)
Description: An educational video featuring 8 farms in 4 northeastern states. Emphasis is on direct marketing enterprises.

52. Farmers’ Market Handbooks.
Wallace Center at Winrock International, 2007.
Full text: http://www.wallacecenter.org/our-work/Resource-Library/wallace-publications/handbooks (accessed 6/24/08) Description: Download two handbooks: Getting Started with Farmers’ Markets (26p.) and Recruiting Vendors for a Farmers’ Market (22p.).

53. Farmers Market Resource Guide.
USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS); Farmers Market Consortium, 2006.
Full text: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3100937&acct=frmrdirmkt(accessed 6/24/08)
Description: The Farmers Market Consortium is a public/private sector partnership consisting of several USDA agencies, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Ford Foundation, the Kellogg Foundation, the Project for Public Spaces, and several farmers market non-profit groups. "The Resource Guide promotes a free flow of information between the programs that support farmers markets. It is divided into four types of projects: market development, producer training and support, consumer education and access, and market promotion." [Web site]

54. Farmers Markets and Small Farm Marketing Strategies Project: Case Studies.
University of California, Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Project (SAREP), 2003.
Full text: http://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/cdpp/farmersmkt.htm (accessed 12/18/07)
Description: "The case studies above highlight the specific ways in which two particular markets have helped vendors prosper and enrich their communities." [Web site]

55. Farmers’ Markets Rules, Regulations and Opportunities, by Neil D. Hamilton.
National Agricultural Law Center, 2002. 47p.
Full text: http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/articles/hamilton_farmersmarkets.pdf (accessed 12/18/07)
Description: "The purpose of this study is to examine the structure and operation of farmers’ markets in the United States, giving special attention to the legal and regulatory issues that may shape their operation. By looking at the rules and regulations markets use and by considering issues markets experience, it is possible to identify the most important challenges vendors and managers of markets may face. It is also possible to make some common sense suggestions on how markets can best address and resolve issues while maintaining their friendly and relatively informal nature. The goal of this article is to provide a resource that will be valuable for farmers considering a farmers’ market, to vendors now selling at them, to the organizers and managers who run markets, and to those thinking about creating new markets." [Web site]

56. How to Direct-Market Farm Products on the Internet, by Jennifer Claire V. Klotz.
USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), Transportation and Marketing Programs, Marketing Services Branch, 2002. 50p.
Full text: (as posted by Penn State University Extension) http://agmarketing.extension.psu.edu/Retail/PDFs/HowDirectMktOnIntrnet.pdf (accessed 6/24/08)
Description: This publication provides basic information and suggestions for direct farm marketers on selecting and tailoring a Web site to meet their marketing needs and goals, including: reasons for considering using the Web for direct farm marketing; how to develop a marketing plan; how to research the market; how to set up and market the

Web site. References are cited to enable producers to undertake additional research on Internet marketing. Feedback from producers who use the Internet is included to demonstrate the challenges and the benefits of using this marketing tool.

57. How to Direct Market your Beef, by Jan Holder.
Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN), 2005. 96p. (Handbook Series, 8).
Full text: http://www.sare.org/publications/beef.htm (accessed 12/18/07)
Description: Practical tips for selling grass-raised beef to direct markets.

58. "The Internet is a Farming Tool."
ATTRA News 13, no. 5 (September-October 2005).
Full text: http://attra.ncat.org/newsletter/attranews_0905.html (accessed 1/09/08)
Description: "The World Wide Web, listservs, and electronic newsgroups let community-based producers see what others are doing and share ideas. Web sites allow them to tell the stories of their farms and products to people all over the world. E-mail is an efficient and widely accepted way to contact colleagues and customers. This issue of ATTRAnews shows how farmers are using these new tools to build community-based sustainable agriculture." [Introduction]

59. Legal Guide for Farm Marketers, by Neil D. Hamilton.
Drake University Agricultural Law Center, 1999. 235p.
Information/abstract only: http://www.drake.edu/newsevents/releases/jan00/011300farmers.html (accessed 12/18/07)

60. Linking Farms with Schools: A Guide to Understanding Farm-to-School Programs for Schools, Farmers and Organizers, by Marion Kalb, Kristen Markley and Sara Tedeschi.
Community Food Security Coalition (CFSC), 2004.
Information/abstract only: http://www.foodsecurity.org/pubs.html#linking (accessed 1/09/08)
Description: Details the benefits, challenges, and strategies for success for building successful farm to school projects and includes case studies of innovative projects and an extensive resource list.

61. Managing the Liability and Risks of Farm Direct Marketing and Agritourism.
Community Agricultural Development Center, undated.
Full text (multiple documents): http://www.communityagcenter.org/Risk_Liability/Risk_Introduction.htm (accessed 12/18/07)
Description: "These documents cover the three main things that might get farmers/ranchers into trouble: premise liability, product liability, and employment and labor. These documents present the issues inherent with each area of liability and give ways the farmer/rancher can reduce the possibility of liability for harm to the consumer." [Web site] This project was funded through a partnership with the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Risk Management Agency.

62. Marketing Fact Sheets.
Alberta Agriculture and Food, 1999-2003.
Full text (multiple documents): http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex4091#market (accessed 12/18/07)
Description: Emphasis on direct marketing practices. Series includes "Organic Agriculture: Getting Started," and "Direct Marketing Meats."

63. Marketing on the Edge: A Marketing Guide for Progressive Farmers.
Canadian Farm Business Management Council, 2002. 162p.
Information/abstract only: http://www.farmcentre.com/Resources/ (accessed 2/21/08)

64. Marketing to Independent Retailers, by Debbie Roos.
North Carolina Cooperative Extension, 2007.
Full text: http://chatham.ces.ncsu.edu/growingsmallfarms/marketingretailers.html (accessed 1/09/08)

65. Marketing to Restaurants, by Debbie Roos.
North Carolina Cooperative Extension, 2007.
Full text: http://chatham.ces.ncsu.edu/growingsmallfarms/marketingrestaurants.html (accessed 1/09/08)

66. The New Farmers’ Market: Farm-Fresh Ideas to Make Market Sales Sizzle, by Eric Gibson, Vance Corum and Marcie Rosenzweig.
New World Publishing; Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN), 2001. 272p. Note: Published in collaboration with the Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education program (USDA).
Information/abstract and excerpts: http://www.sare.org/publications/newfarmer.htm (accessed 12/18/07)

67. Safe Sell Dairy: Creative Ways to Sell Dairy Products Safely at Farmers’ Markets, by Courtney Haase.
Nunsuch, 2004. 76p.
Information/abstract only: http://www.nunsuch.org/safesell.htm (accessed 12/18/07)
Description: "Contains information on various aspects of direct selling. Legal, presentation and food safety issues are discussed and many innovative suggestions are recommended." [Web site]

68. Selling Directly to Restaurants and Retailers, by Gail Feenstra, Jeri Ohmart and David Chaney.
University of California, Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program (SAREP), 2003. 5p.
Full text: http://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/cdpp/selldirect.pdf (accessed 12/18/07)

69. Selling Local Food to Restaurants and Food Services: Why and How.
University of Missouri Outreach and Extension, Food Circles Networking Project, undated. 1p.(Report Brief Note: Adapted from Midwest Food Alliance.
Full text: http://www.foodcircles.missouri.edu/selltorestaurants.pdf (accessed 12/18/07)

70. Selling Produce to Restaurants: A Marketing Guide for Small Acreage Growers, by Diane Green.
Greentree Naturals, 2006? 96p.
Information/abstract only: http://www.greentreenaturals.com/selling_book.htm (accessed 1/17/08)

71. Selling Strategies for Local Food Producers, by Bill McKelvey, Mary Hendrickson and Joe Parcell.
University of Missouri Extension, 2007.
Full text: http://extension.missouri.edu/explore/agguides/hort/g06222.htm (accessed 2/21/08)

72. Selling to Institutions: An Iowa Farmer’s Guide, by Robert Luedeman and Neil D. Hamilton.
Drake University Agricultural Law Center, 2003. 24p.
Full text: http://www.iowafoodpolicy.org/docs/selling.pdf (accessed 1/09/08)

73. Selling your Products through Mail Order.
Massachusetts Department of Agricultural Resources, Bureau of Markets, 2003.
Full text: http://www.mass.gov/agr/markets/publications/
selling_your_products_through_mailorder.htm
(accessed 12/18/07)

74. Sharing the Harvest: A Citizen’s Guide to Community Supported Agriculture, by Elizabeth Henderson, with Robyn Van En and Joan Dye Gussow. Revised and expanded edition.
Chelsea Green Publishing, 2007. 320p.
Information/abstract only: http://www.chelseagreen.com/2007/items/sharingtheharvest2 (accessed 2/22/08)
Description: Chapters cover many topics including: Creating a CSA, Nurturing a solid core group, Labor, Sharers on the farm, Money matters for CSAs, Legalities, To certify or not to certify?, Community and communications, Combining CSA with other markets, Regional networking for farm-based regional development, Multifarm CSAs, and CSAs that quit.

75. Some Thoughts on Selling at Markets by Nina Planck.
Author, revised 2006. 10p. Note: Other title: Tips on Selling Local and Traditional Food at Markets.
Full text: http://www.ninaplanck.com/index.php?article=selling_tips (accessed 2/25/08)

76. Successfully Direct Marketing Grass-Based Meat: Lessons from Three Iowa Farm.
Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture, 2005. Note: Includes feasibility study, consumer surveys and case studies.
Full text: http://www.leopold.iastate.edu/research/marketing_files/grassfed.htm (accessed 1/09/08)
Description: "This competitive grant [M17-2004] from the Leopold Center Marketing and Food Systems Initiative allowed Practical Farmers of Iowa to work with Food Alliance Midwest in 2004 and 2005 to help farmers from grass-fed operations better market their products. The project included a feasibility study of marketing sustainable meat products through cooperative buying clubs and CSAs, workshops on direct marketing for farmers and processors in northeast and southwest Iowa, and case studies of three Iowa farms." [Web site]

77. Teaching Direct Marketing and Small Farm Viability: Resources for Instructors, by Albie Miles and Martha Brown.
Center for Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems (CASFS), 2005.
Full text: http://casfs.ucsc.edu/education/instruction/tdm/index.html (accessed 12/18/07)
Description: "This instructor’s resource features class and field demonstration outlines, trainee exercises, and resource materials, with a focus on CSA. The manual can be used in a classroom setting or adapted for other training formats, such as short courses, conferences, and field days." [Web site] Also available in print format from CASFS.

78. Understanding Farmers’ Market Rules, by Jess Anna Speier and Jill E. Krueger.
Farmers’ Legal Action Group, Inc., August 2006.
Full text: http://flaginc.org/topics/pubs/arts/FarmersMarket.pdf (accessed 12/12/07)
Description: "Even though the details of farmers’ market rules may differ from market to market, there are a few commonly used rules that most often give rise to misunderstandings. The focus of the booklet is on preventing problems by improving understanding of market rules. The booklet offers practical suggestions farmers can follow to try to resolve problems that may arise. It also gives ideas on how to learn about other requirements that may apply to sales at a farmers’ market including federal, state, and local laws." [Publisher’s summary]

79. Western Profiles of Innovative Agricultural Marketing: Examples from Direct Farm Marketing and Agri-Tourism Enterprises, by Russell Tronstad.
Western Extension Marketing Committee/University of Arizona, CALSmart, 2004. 128p. (Publication AZ1325).
Full text: http://cals.arizona.edu/AREC/wemc/westernprofiles.html (accessed 12/18/07)

80. What is Farm to School?
National Farm to School Program, 2006.
Full text: http://www.farmtoschool.org/aboutus.php (accessed 12/12/07)
Description: Other full text publications available at this site include case studies and feasibility analyses, evaluation tools and reports, instructional guides on buying and selling local foods and on how to get started, curricular resources and more.

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Selected Guides to International Trade

Export of organic products from the U.S. involves not only marketing expertise, but knowledge of evolving regulatory issues at the international level – see Guide 2 in this series, Guide to International Trade in Organics: Laws and Regulations. Opportunities continue to grow for certain organic commodities and in some countries.

81. Breaking into the Trade Game: A Small Business Guide to Exporting. 3rd edition.
Small Business Administration (SBA), Office of International Trade, 2005. (U.S. SBA International Publication)
Full text: http://www.sba.gov/aboutsba/sbaprograms/internationaltrade/exportlibrary/
sbge/OIT_SB_GUIDE_EXPORT_INDEX.html
(accessed 11/17/07)
Description: Chapters: "Making the Export Decision;" "Making the E-Commerce Connection;" "Identifying International Markets;" "Foreign Market Entry;" "The Export Transaction;" "Export Financing;" "Transporting Goods Internationally;" "Strategic Alliances and Foreign Investment Opportunities;" "Glossary." Also available as a 133 page PDF document, http://www.sba.gov/idc/groups/public/documents/sba_program_office/oit_bitg3rd_full.pdf (accessed 11/17/07)

82. Certification of Organic Foodstuffs in Developing Countries, by Jochen Neuendorff and Ulrich Sabel-Koschella.
Deutsche Gesellschaft fur TechnischeZusammenarbeit (GTZ), 2001? 47p.
Full text: http://www2.gtz.de/dokumente/bib/02-5121.pdf (accessed 12/12/07)
Description: The booklet describes the framework for the import of organic products from third countries to the international marketplaces of the European Union, Japan and the US. The conditions for the recognition of local certification bodies on the international markets are presented (i.e. ISO-Guide 65/EN 45011). Indications for the practical implementation of inspections in developing countries are given.

83. Fair Trade: A Beginner’s Guide, by Jacqueline DeCarlo.
Oneworld Publications, 2007. 176p.
Information/abstract and first chapter full text: http://www.oneworld-publications.com/
cgi-bin/cart2/commerce.cgi?pid=98&log_pid=yes
(accessed 11/27/07)

84. Guidelines for Exporters of Cut Flowers to the European Market.
Commonwealth Secretariat, 2003. 72p.
Information/abstract only: http://publications.thecommonwealth.org/
guidelines-for-exporters-of-cut-flowers-to-the-european-market-250-p.aspx
(accessed 12/18/07)
Description: A consolidated and updated handbook. Provides guidelines for producers and exporters of cut flowers to the European Market.

85. Guidelines for Exporters of Fruit and Vegetables to the European Market.
Commonwealth Secretariat, 2003. 72p.
Information/abstract only: http://publications.thecommonwealth.org/
guidelines-for-exporters-of-fruit---vegetables-to-the-european-markets-249-p.aspx
(accessed 12/18/07)
Description: A consolidated and updated handbook. Provides guidelines for producers and exporters of fresh fruit and vegetables to the European Market.

86. Guidelines for Exporters of Medicinal Herbs to the European Market.
Commonwealth Secretariat, 2001. 130p.
Information/abstract only: http://publications.thecommonwealth.org/
a-guide-to-the-european-market-for-medicinal-plants-and-extracts-254-p.aspx
(accessed 12/18/07)
Description: This publication contains information on markets and market trends, competition, regulatory issues including quality issues, production within the EU, processing methods, product profiles and useful contacts including web sites.

87. The Handbook of Organic and Fair Trade Food Marketing, by Simon Wright and Diane McCrea.
Blackwell, 2007. 312p.
Information/abstract only: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/book.asp?ref=9781405150583&site=1 (accessed 12/12/07)

88. Marketing Manual and Web Directory for Organic Spices, Herbs and Essential Oils.
International Trade Centre UNCTAD/WTO, 2004. 46p.
Full text: http://www.intracen.org/mds/sectors/spices/manual_2.pdf (accessed 12/18/07)
Description: "This manual builds on information compiled through consultancy and mission seminars in Africa and South America, as well as other activities carried out under this project. It is designed to address the needs of producers and exporters in developing countries for specific technical and market information in order to develop their organic enterprises and to export the products covered to target markets." [Web site]

89. Trading Opportunities for Organic Food Products from Developing Countries, by Renè Vossenaar and Els Wynen.
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNCTAD/United Nations, 2004.
Full text: http://www.unctad.org/trade_env/test1/publications/
organic.pdf?docid=4502%2B%22ItemID=2068
(accessed 12/12/07)

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Selected Guides to Small Business and Market Development

This section includes information about alternative marketing practices and business planning resources that may be useful to small-scale and organic producers.

90. Adding Value through Sustainable Agriculture Entrepreneurship: Overview and Resources, by Holly Born.
ATTRA - National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service, 2003. 94p.
Full text: http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/value-addedResource.html (accessed 12/18/07)
Description: Resources to assist farmers in developing and managing value-added agricultural enterprises and approaches were compiled under a project funded, in part, by the USDA’s Southern Region Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) Program and the Heifer Project International. National and regional resources are listed as well as a special section for farmers in the Southern states.

91. Agricultural Business Planning Templates and Resources, by Holly Born.
ATTRA - National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service, 2004. 4p. (ATTRA Publication, RL042)
Full text: http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/agriculture_planning.html (accessed 1/17/08)
Description: "This resource list contains sources of business planning templates and further resources for agricultural enterprises. These resources include Internet and print resources as well as training courses and workshops." [Web site]

92. Agricultural Marketing.
Pennsylvania State University.
Full text (multiple documents): http://agmarketing.extension.psu.edu/ (accessed 12/18/07)
Description: Topics: "Commodity Marketing;" "Wholesale Marketing;" "Retail Marketing;" "Community Farmers’ Markets;" "Beginning Farmers;" "Green Industry;" "Processing;" "Business Management;" and "Financial Tools."

93. Auditing in the Food Industry - from Safety and Quality to Environmental and Other Audits, by Mike Dillon and Chris Griffith.
Woodhead Publishing Limited (UK), 2001. 232p.
Information/abstract only: http://www.woodheadpublishing.com/en/
book.aspx?bookID=419
(accessed 12/18/07)
Description: "The food industry faces an unprecedented level of scrutiny. Consumers are not only concerned with the safety and quality of food products but also the way in which they are produced. At the same time the food industry has developed new ways of assuring appropriate standards for its products and their methods of production, developing systems such as TQM and HACCP to identify and manage key steps in production. These new methods require new skills in auditing. Auditing in the food industry provides an authoritative guide to the range of standards and the auditing skills they demand." [Publisher’s Web site]

94. Being the Shopper: Understanding the Buyer’s Choice, by Phil Lempert.
John Wiley and Sons, 2002. 245p. Note: Also available in E-Book format.
Information/abstract only: http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0471151351.html (accessed 12/18/07)

95. Building a Sustainable Business: A Guide to Developing a Business Plan for Farms and Rural Businesses.
Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN); Minnesota Institute for Sustainable Agriculture (MISA), 2003. 277p. (Handbook Series, 6)
Full text: http://www.sare.org/publications/business.htm (accessed 12/18/07)
Description: "This guide brings the business planning process alive to help today’s alternative and sustainable agriculture entrepreneurs transform farm-grown inspiration into profitable enterprises. Sample worksheets lend a practical perspective and illustrate how real farm families set goals, researched processing alternatives, determined potential markets, and evaluated financing options. Blank worksheets help the reader develop a detailed, lender-ready business plan or map out strategies to take advantage of new opportunities." [Web site]

96. Business Basics for Alberta Food Processors.
Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, 2001; revised and updated 2007.
Full text (multiple documents): http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/apa2314?OpenDocument (accessed 12/18/07)
Description: Publication series to "assist prospective and emerging agri-food processors with helpful business and marketing information essentials to plan and operate a successful business." [Web site]

97. Business Development.
Ag Marketing Resource Center.
Full text (multiple documents): http://www.agmrc.org/agmrc/business/ (accessed 1/09/08)
Description: Directory of online resources pertinent to starting and operating a value-added agriculture business including fact sheets, analysis tools, videos and other educational materials on marketing, exporting, legal and regulatory issues, budgeting and finance, and risk management.

98. Business Planning and Management: Online Publications.
ATTRA - National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service, 2003-2007.
Full text (5 publications): http://attra.ncat.org/marketing.html#business (accessed 12/12/07)
Description: Titles: Evaluating a Rural Enterprise; Market Gardening: A Start-up Guide; Moving Beyond Conventional Cash Cropping; Agricultural Business Planning Templates and Resources; Enterprise Budgets and Production Costs for Organic Production.

99. Collaborative Marketing: A Roadmap and Resource Guide for Farmers, by Robert King and Gigi DiGiacoma.
Minnesota Institute for Sustainable Agriculture, 2000. (BU-07539)
Full text: http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/businessmanagement/DF7539.html (accessed 12/18/07)

100. Disaster Readiness and Recovery: Legal Considerations for Organic Farmers, by Jill E. Krueger.
Farmers’ Legal Action Group, Inc., 2007. Note: This article is a supplement to Farmers’ Guide to Disaster Assistance.
Full text: http://flaginc.org/topics/pubs/arts/OrganicDisaster2007.pdf (accessed 12/12/07)

101. Energy-Efficient Grass-Based Meat and Veal Production and Marketing Manual.
Center for Agricultural Development and Entrepreneurship (CADE), 2003? 54p. Note: A NYSERDA-funded study.
Full text: http://www.cadefarms.org/pdf/Production%20Manual.pdf (accessed 12/18/07)

102. FARMDOC - Farm Decision Outreach Central.
University of Illinois.
Homepage: http://www.farmdoc.uiuc.edu/ (accessed 12/18/07)
Description: "The goal of the farmdoc Project is to improve farm decision-making under risk through education and research... Publications, decision tools and databases related to a variety of risk management issues are found throughout the site. Subject matter sections cover finance, marketing and outlook, management, law and taxation, and policy. Specialty sections are devoted to the AgMAS (Agricultural Market Advisory Services) Project, crop insurance, farmland owners, prices and weather, and ag web resources." [Web site]

103. The Farmer’s Legal Guide to Producer Marketing Associations, by Doug O’Brien, Neil D. Hamilton and Robert Luedeman.
Drake University Agricultural Law Center, 2005.
Full text as posted by National Agricultural Law Center: http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/articles/obrien_producermarketing_book.pdf (accessed 12/12/07)
Description: "In an effort to pool resources and access markets, many producers are reexamining a tried and true business strategy — joining together to market their products. Producers from all realms of agriculture can utilize this strategy, whether it is a small group of market vegetable growers determining how to supply a farmers’ market or a larger group of producers considering building a processing facility for their hogs. This publication looks at some of the issues raised when farmers decide to work together. The book is focused on legal issues, yet it also looks at some of the business fundamentals and marketing issues farmers need to think about as they approach a producer marketing association." [Summary]

104. Free-Range Poultry Production and Marketing: A Guide to Raising, Processing, and Marketing Premium Quality Chicken, Turkey and Eggs, by Herman Beck Chenoweth. Revised edition.
Back Forty Books, undated.
Information/abstract only: http://www.back40books.com/
get_item_978-0-918779-04-5_free-range-poultry-production.htm
(accessed 12/12/07)

105. FoodMAP - Food Marketing and Processing.
North Central Initiative for Farm Profitability.
Full text (multiple documents): http://www.foodmap.unl.edu/ (accessed 12/18/07)
Description: "A comprehensive clearinghouse of marketing and processing information on identifying new markets, learning about alternative agriculture opportunities, locating processing equipment, understanding processing requirements and ingredients and finding information on a large variety of other topics." [Web site]

106. Fruit and Vegetable Marketing for Small-Scale and Part-Time Growers.
Pennsylvania State University, Cooperative Extension, 2000. 4p. (Agricultural Alternatives)
Full text: http://agalternatives.aers.psu.edu/farmmanagement/fruit_veggie/
MarketingFruitAndVeggie.pdf
(accessed 12/18/07)

107. Grazing Contracts for Livestock, by Tim Johnson.
ATTRA - National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service, 2005. 20p.(Livestock Business Guide.
Full text: http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/grazingcontracts.html (accessed 12/12/07)
Description: "This publication discusses some of the issues involved with contract grazing, including various classes of livestock, equipment, sample contracts, some of the economics to consider, and other resources available on the subject." [Summary]

108. Growing your Range Poultry Business: An Entrepreneur’s Toolbox, by Anne Fanatico and David Redhage.
ATTRA - National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service, 2002. 63p.
Full text: http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/PDF/poultrytoolbox.pdf (accessed 12/12/07)
Description: Includes enterprise budget and marketing information.

109. The Guide for Security Practices in Transporting Agricultural and Food Commodities.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, in partnership with Agricultural and Food Transporters Conference and Conference of American Trucking Associations, 2004. 24p.
Full text: http://www.usda.gov/documents/aftcsecurguidfinal19.pdf (accessed 11/27/07)
Description: Includes general guidelines for drivers and for companies.

110. Market Farm Forms: Spreadsheet Templates for Planning and Organizing Information on Diversified Market Farms, by Marcie Rosenzweig.
Author, 2001? Note: Software program; CD and book.
Information/abstract only: http://www.back40books.com/
get_item_mr-1_invaluable-for-diversified-market-farms.htm
(accessed 1/17/08)
Description: "Computer spreadsheet templates for planning and organizing information on diversified market farms."

111. Market Farming Success: An Insider’s Guide to Market Gardening and Farming, by Lynn Byczynski.
Fairplain Publications, 2006. 138p.
Information/abstract only: http://www.growingformarket.com/store (accessed 6/24/08)

112. Market Research Workbook, by John M. Arnos, Ellen Peirce and Henry H. Sineath.
University of Missouri Extension, Missouri Small Business Development Centers, 2002. 30p.
Full text: http://www.mobdn.net/docs/market_research_workbook.asp (accessed 12/18/07)

113. Marketing Alternatives for Specialty Produce, by Larry Burt, Jim Kropf and Curt Moulton.
Oregon State University, 2000. Note: A Pacific Northwest Extension Publication.
Full text: http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/html/pnw/pnw241/ (accessed 12/18/07)

114. Marketing Options for Commercial Vegetable Growers, by Brent Rowell, Tim Woods and Jim Mansfield.
University of Kentucky Extension, undated. (ID-134)
Full text: http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/id/id134/id134.htm (accessed 12/18/07)

115. Marketing Strategies for Farmers and Ranchers. Revised edition.
Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN), 2006. 20p. (Bulletin)
Full text: http://www.sare.org/publications/marketing.htm (accessed 12/18/07)

116. New Generation Cooperatives: Case Studies: Expanded 2001, by Mary Holmes, Norman Walzer and Christopher D. Merrett.
Illinois Institute for Rural Affairs, 2001. 216p.
Full text: http://www.iira.org/pubsnew/publications/IVARDC_CS_198.pdf (accessed 12/18/07)

117. New Product Development - Mapping the Process.
Manitoba Agriculture and Food and Rural Initiatives, 2001.
Full text: http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/financial/agribus/ccg01s00.html (accessed 12/18/07)
Description: Includes segments on market research, market segmentation, regulations, labeling, packaging and financial management.

118. Recognize and Investigate Value-Added Opportunities and Constraints, by Sheila Knop and Russell Tronstad.
University of Arizona, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 2000.
Full text: http://ag.arizona.edu/arec/va/valaddopp&const.html (accessed 12/18/07)

119. Rural Development — Library of Publications.
USDA, Rural Development, Business and Cooperative Programs.
Full text (multiple documents): http://www.rurdev.usda.gov/rbs/pub/NEWPUB.htm (accessed 2/21/08)
Description: Information focusing on cooperatives; access full text fact sheets, brochures, statistics, research reports and more.

120. Sales Service, and Promotion for Successful Agricultural Ventures.
Center for Agriculture Development and Entrepreneurship (CADE) (Oneonta NY), 2003. 16p.
Full text: http://www.cadefarms.org/pdf/agrisalesseminar.pdf (accessed 2/21/08)

121. Starting an Ag-Business? A Pre-Planning Guide, by Steve Richards.
Department of Applied Economics and Management, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, 2004. 63p.(EB 2004-08.
Full text: http://agviability.cornell.edu/pdf/Pre-businessPlanWorkbook.pdf (accessed 12/18/07)

122. Steps to Ag Business Development.
Iowa State University Extension, Value Added Agriculture Program, 2005.
Full text: http://www.extension.iastate.edu/valueaddedag/info/stepstoagbusinessdevelopment.htm (accessed 12/18/07)
Description: "Many resources are available for persons wishing to turn an idea into a business. However, those resources are widely sown across a large field of public and private entities. This guide is intended to help the entrepreneurial explorer find their way to the types of assistance best suited to their needs." [Web site]

123. Supply Chain Basics: Niche Agricultural Marketing — The Logistics, by Tamara VanWechel, Kimberly Vachal and Mark Berwick.
USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), 2007. 24p.
Full text:http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/getfile?dDocName=STELPRDC5064987 (accessed 6/24/08)
Description: Focus four case studies: "Moving Food-Grade Soybeans;" "Marketing Organic Potatoes;" "Marketing Dehydrated Potatoes;" and "Marketing GMO-Tested Potato Products for Export." A directory of resources for niche product marketing, value-added, transportation and logistics, and transportation is included.

124. Supply Chain Basics: Technology — How Much — How Soon, by Gregory Grajewski and Gerald Berney.
USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), 2007. 36p. (Agricultural Handbook, 728-1)
Full text: http://amsdev.usda.gov/tmd/MSB/PDFpubList/SupplyChainTechnology07-07.pdf (accessed 6/24/08)
Description: Definitions and guidance for getting started with barcodes, RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification), UPC (Universal Product Code), the Global Data Synchronization Network and related technology/software.

125. Understanding Farmers’ Rights to Be Paid for Fruit and Vegetable Crops.
Farmers’ Legal Action Group, Inc., September 2007. 40p. Note: "Presented at a Workshop Hosted by The Farmworker Association of Florida, Inc.".
Full text: http://flaginc.org/topics/pubs/arts/PACAart12007.pdf (accessed 12/12/07)
Description: "Farmers’ rights to be paid for their fruit and vegetable crops have three primary sources: (a) the farmers’ contracts with buyers, (b) state contract laws, and (c) the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act." [Publisher’s summary]

126. Value-Added and Processing: Online Publications.
ATTRA - National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service, 2003-2007.
Full text (10 publications): http://attra.ncat.org/marketing.html#valueadded (accessed 12/12/07)
Description: Titles: Adding Value to Farm Products: An Overview; Grain Processing: Adding Value to Farm Products; Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers; Keys to Success in Value-Added Agriculture; Food Dehydration Options; Soyfoods: Adding Value to Soybeans; Edamame: Vegetable Soybean; Sorghum Syrup; Value-added Dairy Options; Adding Value through Sustainable Agriculture; Entrepreneurship: Overview and Resources.

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Selected Crop/Enterprise Budgets

This section includes information about alternative marketing practices and business planning resources that may be useful to small-scale and organic producers.

127. Crop Rotational Budgets for Three Cropping Systems in the Northeastern United States.
Rutgers Cooperative Extension, 1999.
Full text: http://aesop.rutgers.edu/~farmmgmt/ne-budgets/NEbudgets.html (accessed 12/18/07)
Description: Budget categories: "Conventional Production Practices," "Integrated Crop Management Production Practices," and "Organic Production Practices." Budgets under "Organic Production Practices" include cabbage, cauliflower, corn, cucumbers, dairy goat milk, apples, hay alfalfa, lettuce, pumpkin, soybeans, spring lamb, tomatoes and onions. Site also incorporates an Interactive SmartForm for creating your own custom crop budget.

128. Enterprise Budgets and Production Costs for Organic Production, by Holly Born.
ATTRA - National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service, 2004. (Business and Marketing Resource List)
Full text: http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/enterprisebudgets.html (accessed 12/18/07)
Description: Guide to online budgets from a variety of U.S. sources in the following categories: "Transition to Certfied Organic Budgets;" "Horticultural Crops: Vegetables;" "Horticultural Crops: Fruits and Nuts;" "Herbs;" "Agronomic Crops;" and "Livestock."

129. Farm Management Planning Guides.
North Dakota State University Extension, 2006.
Full text: http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/ecguides.html (accessed 12/18/07)
Description: The projected crop budgets for 2007 provide an estimate of revenues and costs for various production: systems and crops: "No-Till Crop Budgets, Southwest North Dakota;" "Organic Crop Budgets, South Central ND;" "Irrigated Crop Budgets, Eastern North Dakota;" "Irrigated Crop Budgets, Central North Dakota;" "Irrigated Crop Budgets, Western North Dakota."

130. Organic Apples - Okanagan Valley, Slender Spindle - 1210 Trees/Acre.
British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries, 2001. (Planning for Profit.
Full text: http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/busmgmt/budgets/budget_pdf/tree_fruits/
organic_apples_2001.pdf
(accessed 12/18/07)

131. Organic Crop Production Enterprise Budgets.
Iowa State University Extension, 2006.
Full text: http://www.extension.iastate.edu/AGDM/crops/html/a1-18.html (accessed 12/18/07)

132. Organic Enterprise Budgets.
British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, 1996-2002.
Full text (multiple documents): http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/busmgmt/budgets/specialty_organic.htm (accessed 12/18/07)
Description: Historical budgets (1996-2002) in 3 categories: "Certified Organic Versus Non-Organic Budgets" (14, primarily cut flowers and herbs); "Transition to Certified Organic Budgets" (6, including dairy, fruit and vegetables); and "Other Organic Budgets" (8, including layers and field crops).

133. Organic Farming Cost Studies, by Karen Klonsky and Laura Tourte.
University of California, Davis, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 1992-2007.
Full text (multiple documents): http://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/pubs/Costs.htm (accessed 12/18/07)
Description: Series of 24 studies of California organic production systems. Most recent titles: Organic Alfalfa Hay; Organic Almonds - Sprinkler Irrigated, San Joaquin Valley North; Organic Walnuts - Sprinkler Irrigated, North Coast and Organic Strawberries, Central Coast.

134. Organic Goldenseal Production Enterprise Budget, by Roger Sego.
Washington State University, 2001.
Full text: http://smallfarms.wsu.edu/crops/organicGoldenseal.html (accessed 12/18/07)
Description: 1 Acre estimated Costs and Returns, as of 1/31/2001. "This budget represents the work of one experienced grower only. It is not a budget that has been prepared by Washington State University." [Web site]

135. Organic Pork Production: A Two-Litter Pasture Farrow-to-Finish Budget, by Jude M. Becker, Mark S. Honeyman and James B. Kliebenstein.
Iowa State University, 1999? (ASL, R1679).
Full text: http://www.ipic.iastate.edu/reports/99swinereports/asl-1679.pdf (accessed 12/18/07)

136. Pathway to Organic for Producers: Organic Crop Budgets.
How to Go Organic; Organic Trade Association (OTA).
Full text (multiple documents): http://www.howtogoorganic.com/
index.php?page=crop-budgets
(accessed 12/18/07)
Description: Links to online budget pages from a variety of sources.

137. Small Farms/Alternative Enterprises: Enterprise Budgets.
University of Florida; Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, 2007.
Full text: http://smallfarms.ifas.ufl.edu/planning_and_management/budgets.html (accessed 12/12/07)
Description: Includes 100 foot row budgets developed by University of Florida Extension staff for 18 vegetable crops.

138. Small-Scale Egg Production (Organic and Nonorganic).
Pennsylvania State University, 1999. 6p. (Agricultural Alternatives)
Full text: http://agalternatives.aers.psu.edu/livestock/small_scale_egg/
small_scale_egg.pdf
(accessed 12/18/07)

139. Transaction Cost Case Studies for Six Iowa Food Producers, by Clyde K. Walter and Randy Boeckenstedt.
Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture, 2007. 22p.(Center Project Code: M2006-02.
Full text: http://www.leopold.iastate.edu/research/grants/files/2006-M02.pdf (accessed 1/09/08)
Description: "The focus of the project was to illustrate, through six case studies, the transaction costs incurred by Iowa-based food producers who distribute to in-state and regional markets. Two producers or producer groups were selected from each of three product categories of meat, dairy, and fresh fruit or vegetables. Transaction costs, also referred to as logistics costs, include cash payments and amortized costs associated with post-production handling, packaging, storage, inventory carrying, and transportation functions." [Introduction]

140. Using Organic Crop Budgets, by Craig Chase, Margaret Smith and Kathleen Delate.
Ag Marketing Resource Center, 2006.
Full text: http://www.agmrc.org/agmrc/business/operatingbusiness/
usingorganiccropbudgets.htm
(accessed 1/09/08)

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Index to Titles

Numbers refer to reference numbers in the text

The ABCs of Marketing to Restaurants   36
Adding Value through Environmental Marketing: Opportunities for Food Producers, Processors and Retailers   27
Adding Value through Sustainable Agriculture Entrepreneurship: Overview and Resources   90
Agricultural Business Planning Templates and Resources   91
Agricultural Marketing   92
Approaching Foodservice Establishments with Locally Grown Products   37
Auditing in the Food Industry - From Safety and Quality to Environmental and Other Audits   93

Behind the Label: A Guide for Retailers   28
Being the Shopper: Understanding the Buyer's Choice   94
Breaking into the Trade Game: A Small Business Guide to Exporting   81
Bringing Local Food to Local Institutions: A Resource Guide for Farm-to-School and Farm-to-Institution Programs   38
Building a Sustainable Business: A Guide to Developing a Business Plan for Farms and Rural Businesses   95
Business Basics for Alberta Food Processors   96
Business Development   97
Business Planning and Management: Online Publications   98

Certification and Labeling Considerations for Agricultural Producers   1
Certification Archives: Questions about Handling   2
Certification Archives: Questions about Labeling   3
Certification of Organic Foodstuffs in Developing Countries   82
Collaborative Marketing: A Roadmap and Resource Guide for Farmers   99
Community Foods   39
Considering Selling Value-Added Products at Shopping Malls: Not a Straightforward Issue   40
Crop Rotational Budgets for Three Cropping Systems in the Northeastern United States   127
The Crunch Lunch Manual: A Case Study of the Davis Joint Unified School District Farmers Market Salad Bar Pilot Program and a Fiscal Analysis Model   41
CSA Resources for Farmers: Selected Books, Reports, Articles, Periodicals and Videos Focusing on the Business of CSA Farming   42
Cyber-Help for Organic Farmers: Learning Marketing   4

Direct Farm Marketing and Tourism Handbook   43
Direct Marketing Options: Online Publications   44
Disaster Readiness and Recovery: Legal Considerations for Organic Farmers   100

E-Commerce for Farmers: Yes, You Can!   45
Emerging Agricultural Markets Team   5
Energy-Efficient Grass-Based Meat and Veal Production and Marketing Manual   101
Enterprise Budgets and Production Costs for Organic Production   128
Evaluate your Organic Grain Marketing Opportunities   6

Face to Face Farming and Eating: Personal Relationships in Alternative Food Systems   46
Fair Trade: A Beginner’s Guide   83
Farm Direct Marketing: Guide to Educational Resources   47
Farm Fresh: Direct Marketing Meats and Milk   48
Farm Management Planning Guides   129
Farm to Hospital: Supporting Local Agriculture and Improving Health Care   49
FARMDOC - Farm Decision Outreach Central   102
Farmer Resource Guide: Managing Risk Through Sales to Educational Institutions   50
The Farmer's Legal Guide to Producer Marketing Associations   103
Farmers and their Diversified Horticultural Marketing Strategies   51
Farmers’ Market Handbooks   52
Farmers Market Resource Guide   53
Farmers Markets and Small Farm Marketing Strategies Project: Case Studies   54
Farmers' Markets Rules, Regulations and Opportunities   55
Flower Farmer: An Organic Grower's Guide to Raising and Selling Cut Flowers   7
FoodMAP - Food Marketing and Processing   104
Free-range Poultry Production and Marketing: A Guide to Raising, Processing, and Marketing Premium Quality Chicken, Turkey and Eggs   105
Fruit and Vegetable Marketing for Small-scale and Part-time Growers   106

Good Food, Good Business   8
Good Organic Retailing Practices Training Manual   29
Grazing Contracts for Livestock   107
Growing your Range Poultry Business: An Entrepreneur's Toolbox   108
The Guide for Security Practices in Transporting Agricultural and Food Commodities   109
Guidelines for Exporters of Cut Flowers to the European Market   84
Guidelines for Exporters of Fruit and Vegetables to the European Market   85
Guidelines for Exporters of Medicinal Herbs to the European Market   86

The Handbook of Organic and Fair Trade Food Marketing   87
Handbook of Organic Food Processing and Production   30
Herbal Harvest: Commercial Organic Production of Quality Dried Herbs   9
How to Direct-Market Farm Products on the Internet   56
How to Direct Market your Beef   57

If your Farm is Organic, Must it Be GMO-Free? Organic Farmers, Genetically Modified Organisms, and the Law   10
International Organic Inspection Manual   11
The Internet is a Farming Tool   58

The Key to Successful Direct Marketing: Use your Head!   12

Legal Guide for Farm Marketers   59
Linking Farms with Schools: A Guide to Understanding Farm-to-School Programs for Schools, Farmers and Organizers   60

Managing the Liability and Risks of Farm Direct Marketing and Agritourism   61
Market Farm Forms: Spreadsheet Templates for Planning and Organizing Information on Diversified Market Farms   110
Market Farming Success: An Insider's Guide to Market Gardening and Farming   111
Market Research Workbook   112
Marketing Alternatives for Specialty Produce   113
Marketing Fact Sheets   62
Marketing Manual and Web Directory for Organic Spices, Herbs and Essential Oils   88
Marketing on the Edge: A Marketing Guide for Progressive Farmers   63
Marketing Options for Commercial Vegetable Growers   114
Marketing Strategies for Farmers and Ranchers   115
Marketing to Independent Retailers   64
Marketing to Restaurants   65
Merchandising Organic Products   31

The National Organic Standards and Retailers   32
Natural Products Field Manual   33
The New Farmers' Market: Farm-Fresh Ideas to Make Market Sales Sizzle   66
New Generation Cooperatives: Case Studies: Expanded 2001   116
New Mexico Organic Producer Marketing Guide   13
New Product Development - Mapping the Process   117

Organic Apples - Okanagan Valley, Slender Spindle - 1210 Trees/acre   130
Organic Certification, Farm Production Planning, and Marketing   14
Organic Crop Production Enterprise Budgets   131
Organic Enterprise Budgets   132
The Organic Farmer’s Guide to Marketing and Community Relations   15
Organic Farming Compliance Handbook: A Resource Guide for Western Region Agricultural Professionals   17
Organic Farming Cost Studies   133
Organic Farming Practices: 2007 Insurance Fact Sheet   16
Organic Goldenseal Production Enterprise Budget   134
Organic Marketing and Economics   17
Organic Marketing and Labeling: Online Publications   18
Organic Marketing Resources   19, 20
Organic Pork Production: A Two-litter Pasture Farrow-to-Finish Budget   135

Pathway to Organic for Processors: Marketing and Sales   34
Pathway to Organic for Producers: Marketing   21
Pathway to Organic for Producers: Organic Crop Budgets   136
Phil Foster Ranches: A Case Study of an Organic Vegetable Farm   22

Recognize and Investigate Value-Added Opportunities and Constraints   118
Retailing Organics: Your Gatekeeping Guide   35
Rural Development - Library of Publications   119

Safe Sell Dairy: Creative Ways to Sell Dairy Products Safely at Farmers' Markets   67
Sales Service, and Promotion for Successful Agricultural Ventures   120
Selling Certified Organic Produce to Retail Produce Markets in the Upper Midwest   23
Selling Directly to Restaurants and Retailers   68
Selling Local Food to Restaurants and Food Services: Why and How   69
Selling Produce to Restaurants: A Marketing Guide for Small Acreage Growers   70
Selling Strategies for Local Food Producers   71
Selling to Institutions: An Iowa Farmer’s Guide   72
Selling your Products Through Mail Order   73
Sharing the Harvest: A Citizen’s Guide to Community Supported Agriculture   74
Small Farms/Alternative Enterprises: Enterprise Budgets   137
Small Organic Farms and Local Markets: How to Assess Organic Compliance: A Tool for Market Growers, Market Managers, Produce Buyers, Extension Agents, and Others   24
Small-Scale Egg Production (Organic and Nonorganic)   138
Some Thoughts on Selling at Markets   75
Starting an Ag-Business? A Pre-Planning Guide   121
Steps to Ag Business Development   122
Strategic Marketing Decisions for Organic Agricultural Producers   25
Successfully Direct Marketing Grass-based Meat: Lessons from Three Iowa Farm   76
Supply Chain Basics: Niche Agricultural Marketing - The Logistics   123
Supply Chain Basics: Technology - How Much—How Soon   124

Teaching Direct Marketing and Small Farm Viability: Resources for Instructors   77
Trading Opportunities for Organic Food Products from Developing Countries   89
Transaction Cost Case Studies for Six Iowa Food Producers   139

Understanding Farmers' Market Rules   78
Understanding Farmers' Rights to be Paid for Fruit and Vegetable Crops   125
Using Organic Crop Budgets   140

Value-Added and Processing: Online Publications   126
Veggie Farmers’ Marketing 101   26

Western Profiles of Innovative Agricultural Marketing: Examples from Direct Farm Marketing and Agri-Tourism Enterprises   79
What is Farm to School?   80

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Index to Authors

Numbers refer to reference numbers in the text

Arnos, John M.   112

Bachmann, Janet   38
Bailey, DeeVon   1
Baker, Brian   17
Bastian, Chris   1
Beck Chenoweth, Herman   105
Becker, Jude M.   135
Beery, Moira   49
Bellows, Barbara C.   38
Berney, Gerald   124
Berwick, Mark   123
Boeckenstedt, Randy   139
Born, Holly   19, 90, 91, 128
Bosch, Rebecca   15
Brillinger, Renata   41
Brown, Martha   77
Brown, William J.   22
Burke, Bob   33
Burt, Larry   113
Byczynski, Lynn   7, 111

Center for Food and Justice Occidental College   50
Chaney, David   17, 47, 68
Chase, Craig   140
Community Food Security Coalition   50
Corum, Vance   66
Curtis, Kynda R.   1

Dalton, Anne   40
DeCarlo, Jacqueline   83
Delate, Kathleen   140
DeVault, George   26
DeVault, Melanie   26
DiGiacoma, Gigi   99
Dillon, Mike   93
Driftmier, Clark F.   31
Dufour, Rex   38

Fanatico, Anne   108
Feenstra, Gail   41, 47, 68
Ford, Joyce E.   11
Fouche, Calvin   14
Frain, Michelle   36, 45

Gaskell, Mark   14
Gibson, Eric   66
Gold, Mary V.   42
Grajewski, Gregory   124
Granatstein, David   17
Green, Diane   70
Greenberg, Laurie S. Z.   23
Griffith, Chris   93
Grubinger, Vern   51
Guldan, Steve   17

Haase, Courtney   67
Hamilton, Neil D.   55, 59, 72, 103
Henderson, Elizabeth   74
Hendrickson, Mary   46, 71
Holder, Jan   57
Holland, Rob   40
Holmes, Mary   116
Honeyman, Mark S.   135

Johnson, Tim   107

Kalb, Marion   60
King, Robert   99
Kliebenstein, James B.   135
Klonsky, Karen   133
Klotz, Jennifer Claire V.   56
Knop, Sheila   118
Koike, Steven T.   14
Kropf, Jim   113
Krueger, Jill E.   10, 78, 100
Kuepper, George   24

Lempert, Phil   94
Lev, Larry   1
Lobo, Ramiro   1
Luedeman, Robert   72, 103

Mansfield, Jim   114
Markley, Kristen   49, 60
Maulsby, Darcy   6
McCrea, Diane   30, 87
McKelvey, Bill   71
McKelvey, Rick   33
Merrett, Christopher D.   116
Miles, Albie   77
Mitchell, Jeff   14
Moulton, Curt   113

Nakamoto, Stuart T.   1
Nation, Allan   48
Neuendorff, Jochen   82

O'Brien, Doug   103
Ohmart, Jeri   41, 47, 68

Parcell, Joe   71
Peirce, Ellen   112
Peterson, H. Christopher   25
Phillips, Jon C.   25
Planck, Nina   75

Redhage, David   108
Richards, Steve   121
Riddle, James A.   11
Roos, Debbie   64, 65
Rosenzweig, Marcie   66, 110
Rowell, Brent   114

Sabel-Koschella, Ulrich   82
Sayre, Laura   12
Sego, Roger   134
Sineath, Henry H.   112
Smith, Margaret   140
Smith, Richard   14
Speier, Jess Anna   78
Swezey, Sean L.   17

Tedeschi, Sara   60
Tourte, Laura   133
Tronstad, Russell   1, 79, 118

Umberger, Wendy   1

Vachal, Kimberly   123
VanWechel, Tamara   123
Vossenaar, René   89

Walter, Clyde K.   139
Walzer, Norman   116
Ward, Ruby   1
Whitten, Greg   9
Woods, Tim   114
Wright, Simon   30, 87
Wynen, Els   89

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About the Alternative Farming Systems Information Center

The Alternative Farming Systems Information Center (AFSIC) specializes in locating and accessing information related to many aspects of sustainable and alternative agriculture, crops and livestock - sustainable and organic crop and livestock farming systems; renewable farm energy options; alternative marketing practices; crop and livestock diversification including aquaculture, exotic and heritage farm animals, alternative and specialty crops, new uses for traditional crops, and crops grown for industrial production; and small farm issues.

AFSIC was founded in 1985 and is an integral part of the National Agricultural Library (NAL) in Beltsville, Maryland. The Center is supported, in part, by USDA’s Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) program, and a cooperative agreement with the University of Maryland, College Park, MD. NAL is part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS).

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