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Organically Produced Foods: Food Safety Issues

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Special Reference Briefs Series
no. SRB 2008-03

[Publications January 2000-July 2008]

Compiled by: Mary V. Gold
Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
Information Research Services Branch
National Agricultural Library
Agricultural Research Service
U.S. Department of Agriculture

August 2008

Table of Contents

National Agricultural Library Cataloging Record

Gold, Mary V.
  Organically produced foods: food safety issues : citations January 2000-July 2008.
  (Special reference briefs ; NAL SRB. 2008-03)
  1. Natural foods--Bibliography. 2. Food contamination--Bibliography.
  I. Alternative Farming Systems Information Center (U.S.) II. Title.
aS21.D27S64 no. 2008-03

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Introduction

What is in this bibliography. This bibliography contains 174 citations for articles, conference papers, reports and book chapters published January 2000 through July 2008. Cited resources focus specifically on food safety issues related to organically produced foods. These issues include pesticide and related chemical residues in foods; heavy metal and microbial contamination of foods linked to farming and handling practices; natural toxicants including phytochemicals in foods that may affect food safety; antibiotic residues in animal products and their impact on antibiotic resistance in humans and animals; and fungal and bacterial contamination of organic animal feeds.

Each cited item relates directly to food produced from organic agricultural and/or handling practices. Some coverage is given to impacts of organic fertilizer applications and free range husbandry practices if they appear to apply to certifiable organic farming systems.

All items cited in this bibliography were published in English; however, the literature and research reflect the fact that important work pertaining to food safety of organically/biologically grown crops is being conducted internationally. This bibliography is a companion publication to AFSIC’s Special Reference Briefs on organic foods and nutrient content, Organically Produced Foods: Nutritive Content (216 citations, 1945-2000) http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/pubs/srb0003.shtml and Organically Produced Foods: Nutritive Content (283 citations, January 2000-July 2008), http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/pubs/srb0803.shtml

The majority of cited articles describe research results. Many (30) are overviews of literature and/or research (see “literature reviews” in the Subject Index to identify all such citations). 131 of the 174 cited articles discuss comparisons of organic foods with non-organic foods at some level. These sources are noted in the citation and the Subject Index with the phrase, “comparative studies.” Most of the studies referenced here document hazards on or in foods – their presence and potential risk. A few focus on human subjects – connecting dietary intake to specific health biomarkers. See “dietary surveys” in the Subject Index to find these.

The Subject Index is accompanied by an Author Index. Numbers listed after names and terms in the indexes refer to citation numbers in the text.

Research on the food safety issues pertinent to organic food varies widely in focus, methodology, results and scientific validity. Although this bibliography, for the most part, is restricted to references from peer-reviewed sources, no attempt has been made by the bibliography author to judge the credibility of cited research. Evaluation in this regard is left to the reader.

What is not in this bibliography. There is a great deal of literature related to other aspects of organically produced foods. Except where they relate to food safety, the following topics are NOT covered in this bibliography:

  • Nutrients in food including vitamins and minerals (except heavy metals)
  • Food sensory and cosmetic qualities – how food tastes and looks
  • Economic and consumer studies
  • Environmental impacts of food production
  • Geographic distribution issues, including “local food” topics

Research trends revealed in the literature. Interest in nutritional qualities of organic food has increased dramatically since 2000. It is evidenced in the sheer numbers of publications cited here.
Numbers by publication year (total=174):

  • 2000-2001: 14
  • 2002-2003: 36
  • 2004-2005: 50
  • 2006-2007: 64
  • 2008 through July: 10

Numbers by general commodity (total=174; some citations may refer to more than one commodity):

  • Vegetables: 48/ 27%
  • Meat: 33/ 19%
  • Fruit: 27/ 15%
  • Dairy: 17/ 10%
  • Infant foods: 9/ 5%

Numbers by top 5 research countries (total=174; affiliation of first author; foreign language publications are not included in this bibliography):

  • United States: 38/ 22% (including 6 with USDA affiliation)
  • Italy: 20/ 11%
  • United Kingdom: 13/ 7%
  • Belgium: 11 /6%
  • Netherlands: 10/ 6%
  • European Union total: 108/ 62%

Accessing full text for cited works. Obtaining full-text for cited materials may be accomplished in one of several ways.

  • Where full text is available at no cost on the Internet, a direct link is provided.
  • Digital Object Identifier (DOI) codes are provided for most journal articles. The DOI system enables users to have consistent access to electronic, copyright protected texts. To locate the information about an individual article including full citation, abstract and availability information, simply attach the article DOI code to the end of this URL: http://dx.doi.org/  For more information on theDOI system, see the Web site: http://www.doi.org/
  • For access to other texts, contact your public or institutional library.

Other AFSIC Research Guides on organic food, farming and marketing topics may be found at http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/pubs/ofp/ofp.shtml

 

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References

  1. “Aflatoxins in Organic Milk and Dairy Products,” by L. Vallone, D. Boscariol and I. Dragoni. Veterinary Research Communications 30, suppl. 1 (2006): pp. 369-370. Note: Conference paper: 59th Annual Meeting of the Italian Society for Veterinary Sciences (SISVET), Viareggio, Italy, 2005. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11259-006-0083-z
    Keywords: dairy products, milk, raw milk, cheeses, aflatoxins, mycotoxins, feeds, corn, animal feeding; Research affiliation: Italy

  2. “Aflatoxins in the Milk from Organic Farms in Tuscany,” by A. Martini, G. Lorenzini, F. Riccio, J. Labrada-Ching, C. Zucchi and D. Rondina. Italian Journal of Animal Science 4, suppl. 2 (2005): pp. 284. Note: Conference paper: Proceedings of the Scientific Association of Animal Production (ASPA) 16th Congress, Torino, Italy, June 28-30, 2005.
    Keywords: dairy products, milk, aflatoxins, mycotoxins, microbial contamination, feeds, corn, grains, comparative studies, on-farm food safety; Research affiliation: Italy

  3. “Analysis of Patulin in Dutch Food, an Evaluation of a SPE Based Method,” by G. Boonzaaijer, I. Bobeldijk and W.A. van Osenbruggen. Food Control 16, no. 7 (2005): pp. 587-591. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2004.06.020
    Keywords: patulin, apples, apple juice, juices, fruits (food), molds (fungi), mycotoxins, high performance liquid chromatography, solid phase extraction, laboratory techniques, processed foods, comparative studies; Research affiliation: Netherlands

  4. “Animal Health and Pre-Harvest Food Safety in Organic Dairy Farming,” by C. Micheal and M.V.B. O’Mahony. Food Safety Assurance and Veterinary Public Health, Volume 1: Food Safety Assurance in the Pre-Harvest Phase, by F.J.M. Smulders and J.D. Collins, editors.pp. 306-308. Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2002.
    Keywords: dairy products, dairy cattle, animal health, bacterial contamination, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7; Research affiliation: Irish Republic/ European Union

  5. “Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils on the Native Microflora of Organic Swiss Chard,” by A.G. Ponce, R. Fritz, C. del Valle and S.I. Roura. Lebensmittel Wissenschaft Technologie/ Food Science Technology 36, no. 7 (2003): pp. 679-684. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0023-6438(03)00088-4
    Keywords: vegetables, Swiss chard, green leafy vegetables, bacterial contamination, antibacterial properties, food preservatives; Research affiliation: Argentina

  1. “Assessing Hygiene Proficiency on Organic and Conventional Pig Farms Regarding Pork Safety: A Pilot Study in Finland,” by K.M. Siekkinen, L. Nuotio, J. Ranta, R. Laukkanen, S. Hellstrom, H. Korkeala and R. Maijala. Livestock Science 104, no. 1/2 (2006): pp. 193-202. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2006.04.017
    Keywords: swine, pigs, pork, meats, comparative studies, bacterial contamination, animal health, feeds, animal feeding, laws and regulations, farm surveys, on-farm food safety; Research affiliation: Finland/ European Union

  2. “Association of Farm Management Practices with Risk of Escherichia coli Contamination in Pre-Harvest Produce Grown in Minnesota and Wisconsin,” by A. Mukherjee, D. Speh and F. Diez-Gonzalez. International Journal of Food Microbiology 120, no. 3 (2007): pp. 296-302. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2007.09.007
    Keywords: vegetables, fruits (food), comparative studies, on-farm food safety, harvest date, Escherichia coli, manures, microbial contamination, fertilizer applications; Research affiliation: United States/ Minnesota/ Wisconsin

  3. “Bacteriological Quality of Organically Grown Leaf Lettuce in Norway,” by S. Loncarevic, G.S. Johannessen and L.M. Rorvik. Letters in Applied Microbiology 41, no. 2 (2005): pp. 186-189. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2005.01730.x
    Keywords: vegetables, lettuces, bacterial contamination, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, fertilizer applications, farm surveys, on-farm food safety; Research affiliation: Norway

  4. “Broiler Chicken Health, Welfare and Fluctuating Asymmetry in Organic versus Conventional Production Systems,” by F. Tuyttens, M. Heyndrickx, M. de Boeck, A. Moreels, A. van Nuffel, E. van Poucke, E. van Coillie, S. van Dongen and L. Lens. Livestock Science 113, no. 2/3 (2008): pp. 123-132. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2007.02.019
    Keywords: poultry, chickens, chicken meat, meats, animal health, animal welfare, microbial contamination, Salmonella, Campylobacter, lactic acid bacteria, blood chemistry, comparative studies, on-farm food safety, carcass evaluation; Research affiliation: Belgium

  5. “Cadmium and Lead in Organically Produced Foodstuffs from the Greek Market,” by S. Karavoltsos, A. Sakellari, M. Dassenakis and M. Scoullos. Food Chemistry 106, no. 2 (2008): pp. 843-851. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.06.044
    Keywords: alcoholic beverages, cadmium, grains, grain products, lead, green leafy vegetables, vegetables, comparative studies, heavy metals; Research affiliation: Greece

  6. “Cadmium Content in Foodstuffs from the Greek Market,” by S. Karavoltsos, A. Sakellari, M. Dimopoulos, M. Dasenakis and M. Scoullos. Food Additives and Contaminants 19, no. 10 (2002): pp. 954-962. Note: In the special issue: “1st IUPAC International Symposium on Trace Elements in Food.” Proceedings of a symposium held October 9-11, 2000, Warsaw, Poland. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030210136973
    Keywords: heavy metals, cadmium, comparative studies, seafood, green leafy vegetables, vegetables, meats, beverages; Research affiliation: Greece

  7. “Cadmium Contents of Oats (Avena Sativa L.) in Official Variety, Organic Cultivation, and Nitrogen Fertilization Trials During 1997-1999,” by M. Eurola, V. Hietaniemi, M. Kontturi, H. Tuuri, J.M. Pihlava, M. Saastamoinen, O. Rantanen, A. Kangas and M. Niskanen. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51, no. 9 (2003): pp. 2608-2614. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf020893+
    Keywords: grains, oats, comparative studies, cadmium, heavy metals, fertilizer applications, varietal differences, cultivars; Research affiliation: Finland

  8. “Cadmium in Organic and Conventional Pig Production,” by A. Linden, K. Andersson and A. Oskarsson. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 40, no. 3 (2001): pp. 425-431.
    Keywords: swine, pigs, pork, meats, cadmium, heavy metals, comparative studies, feeds, animal feeding, animal health, manures, kidneys, livers, on-farm food safety, polluted soils; Research affiliation: Sweden

  9. Campylobacter and Salmonella Infections on Organic Broiler Farms,” by T.B. Rodenburg, M.C. Van Der Hulst-Van Arkel and R.P. Kwakkel. NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 52, no. 2 (2004): pp. 101-108. Wageningen University Library: http://library.wur.nl/ojs/index.php/njas/article/viewFile/346/65 (accessed Aug. 22, 2008)
    Keywords: chickens, poultry, chicken meat, meats, microbial contamination, Campylobacter, Salmonella, comparative studies, seasonal variation, on-farm food safety, manures, epidemiological surveys; Research affiliation: Netherlands

  1. “Capturing the Sustainability Agenda: Organic Foods and Media Discourses on Food Scares, Environment, Genetic Engineering, and Health,” by S. Lockie. Agriculture and Human Values 23, no. 3 (2006): pp. 313-323. Note: Review article. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10460-006-9007-3
    Keywords: pesticide residues, food safety, literature reviews, comparative studies; Research affiliation: Australia/ United Kingdom/ United States

  2. “The Change of Copper Concentration in Leaves, Grapes, Must and Wine of Biological Viticulture,” by S.G. Vleioras, S.N. Pozani, A.C. Traikou and V.K. Papastamou. Bulletin OILB/SROP 26, no. 8 (2003): pp. 325-330. Note: Conference paper: Proceedings of the IOBC/WPRS Working Group ‘Integrated Protection and Production in Viticulture’, Volos, Greece, March 18-22, 2003.
    Keywords: copper, heavy metals, fungicide residues, pesticide residues, mineral content, wines, plant composition, grapes, laboratory techniques, fruits (food), viticulture, alcoholic beverages; Research affiliation: Greece

  3. “Changes in Sensory Profile and Microbiological Quality During Chill Storage of Cured and Uncured Cooked Sliced Emulsion-Type Sausages,” by F.K. Lucke, C. Raabe and J. Hampshire. Improving Sustainability in Organic and Low Input Food Production Systems. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress of the European Integrated Project Quality Low Input Food (QLIF), University of Hohenheim, Germany, March 20-23, 2007, by U. Niggli, C. Leifert, T. Alfoldi, L. Luck and H. Willer, editors.pp. 398-401. European Integrated Project Quality Low Input Food (QLIF), 2007. Note: Conference paper.
    Keywords: meats, processed foods, comparative studies, sensory properties, bacterial contamination, nitrites, sausages, storage conditions, food spoilage; Research affiliation: Germany

  4. “Characterization of Native Microbial Populations on Swiss Chard (Beta Vulgaris, Type Cicla) Cultivated by Organic Methods,” by A.G. Ponce, S.I. Roura, C.E. del Valle and R. Fritz. Lebensmittel Wissenschaft Technologie/ Food Science Technology 36, no. 2 (2003): pp. 183-188. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0023-6438(02)00184-6
    Keywords: vegetables, Swiss chard, green leafy vegetables, microbial contamination, comparative studies, lactic acid, coliform bacteria; Research affiliation: Argentina

  5. “Chemical Residues in Poultry and Eggs Produced in Free-Range or Organic Systems,” by K. Kan. Proceedings of the XVII European Symposium on the Quality of Poultry Meat and XI European Symposium on the Quality of Eggs and Egg Products, Golden Tulip Parkhotel Doorwerth, Doorwerth, Netherlands, May 23-26, 2005. pp. 28-36. World Poultry Science Association, 2005. Note: Review article. Conference paper. Animal Science Database (CABI): http://www.animalscience.com/uploads/additionalFiles/QualityOfPoultryMeat/18.pdf (accessed Aug. 22, 2008)
    Keywords: poultry, chickens, eggs, laying hens, free range husbandry, dioxins, comparative studies, chemical residues, pentachlorophenol, literature reviews, on-farm food safety, polluted soils; Research affiliation: Netherlands

  6. “Chemical Safety of Conventionally and Organically Produced Foodstuffs: A Tentative Comparison under Belgian Conditions,” by L. Pussemier, Y. Larondelle, C. van Peteghem and A. Huyghebaert. Food Control 17, no. 1 (2005): pp. 14-21. Note: Review article. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2004.08.003
    Keywords: literature reviews, risk assessment, comparative studies, pesticide residues, nitrates, mycotoxins, patulin, trichothecenes, glycoalkaloids, glucosinolates, furanocoumarins, heavy metals, dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), acrylamides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), food packaging, chemical residues; Research affiliation: Belgium

  1. “Comparison of Contaminant and Residue Levels in Organic and Conventional Milk and Meat Products from Northern Italy,” by S. Ghidini, E. Zanardi, A. Battaglia, G. Varisco, E. Ferretti, G. Campanini and R. Chizzolini. Food Additives and Contaminants 22, no. 1 (2005): pp. 9-14. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030400027995
    Keywords: aflatoxins, cadmium, comparative studies, dairy products, heavy metals, lead, milk, meats, pesticide residues, mycotoxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chemical residues, maximum residue levels (MRLs); Research affiliation: Italy

  2. “Comparison of Ochratoxin A and Deoxynivalenol in Organically and Conventionally Produced Beers Sold on the Belgian Market,” by M. Anselme, E.K. Tangni, L. Pussemier, J.C. Motte, F. van Hove, Y.J. Schneider, C. van Peteghem and Y. Larondelle. Food Additives and Contaminants 23, no. 9 (2006): pp. 910-918. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030600743839
    Keywords: comparative studies, beers, beverages, mycotoxins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, microbial contamination, high performance liquid chromatography, on-farm food safety; Research affiliation: Belgium

  3. “Comparison of the Microflora on Organically and Conventionally Grown Spring Mix from a California Processor,” by C.A. Phillips and M.A. Harrison. Journal of Food Protection 68, no. 6 (2005): pp. 1143-1146.
    Keywords: vegetables, green leafy vegetables, lettuces, microbial contamination, coliform bacteria, molds (fungi), on-farm food safety, fresh cut foods, lactic acid bacteria, comparative studies, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella; Research affiliation: United States/ California

  4. “A Comparison of the Nutritional Value, Sensory Qualities, and Food Safety of Organically and Conventionally Produced Foods,” by D. Bourn and J. Prescott. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 42, no. 1 (2002): pp. 1-34. Note: Review article.
    Keywords: literature reviews, comparative studies, food safety, nutrient content; Research affiliation: New Zealand

  5. “Comparison of Trichothecene Contaminations in Wheat Cultivated by Three Different Farming Systems in Switzerland: Biodynamic, Bioorganic and Conventional,” by D. Griesshaber, F. Kuhn, U. Berger and M. Oehme. Mitteilungen aus Lebensmitteluntersuchung und Hygiene 95, no. 3 (2004): pp. 251-260.
    Keywords: grains, wheat, mycotoxins, comparative studies, trichothecenes, deoxynivalenol, laboratory techniques, high performance liquid chromatography, biodynamic farming, on-farm food safety; Research affiliation: Switzerland

  6. “A Comparison Survey of Organic and Conventional Broiler Chickens for Infectious Agents Affecting Health and Food Safety,” by I. van Overbeke, L. Duchateau, L. de Zutter, G. Albers and R. Ducatelle. Avian Diseases 50, no. 2 (2006): pp. 196-200. Note: Summary in Spanish. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/7448-093005R.1
    Keywords: poultry, chickens, chicken meat, meats, comparative studies, bacterial contamination, Campylobacter, Salmonella, helminthiasis, carcass evaluation, animal health; Research affiliation: Belgium

  7. “Contaminants in Organic and Conventional Foodstuffs in France,” by L. Malmauret, D. Parent-Massin, J.L. Hardy and P. Verger. Food Additives and Contaminants 19, no. 6 (2002): pp. 524-532. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030210123878
    Keywords: comparative studies, cadmium, heavy metals, lead, arsenic, mercury, mycotoxins, nitrates, nitrites, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, patulin, fumonisin B1, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, vegetables, fruits (food), grains, meats, eggs, milk, dairy products, beef, pork, lettuces, tomatoes, carrots, apples, spinach, beans, buckwheat, barley, wheat; Research affiliation: France

  8. “Contaminants in Organically and Conventionally Produced Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum) in Belgium,” by P. Harcz, L. de Temmerman, S. de Voghel, N. Waegeneers, O. Wilmart, V. Vromman, J.F. Schmit, E. Moons, C. van Peteghem and S. de Saeger. Food Additives and Contaminants 24, no. 7 (2007): pp. 713-720. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030601185071
    Keywords: grains, wheat, grain products, comparative studies, mycotoxins, heavy metals, pesticide residues, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, cadmium, lead, risk assessment, maximum permissible intake, maximum residue levels (MRLs); Research affiliation: Belgium

  9. “The Content of Nitrates V and III and Vitamin C in Juices Obtained from Organic and Conventional Raw Materials,” by M. Smiechowska. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences 12/53, no. 2 (2003): pp. 57-61.
    Keywords: juices, fruit juices, fruits (food), nitrates, nutrient content, ascorbic acid, comparative studies, processed foods; Research affiliation: Poland

  10. “Contents of Trichothecenes in Oats During Official Variety, Organic Cultivation and Nitrogen Fertilization Trials in Finland,” by V. Hietaniemi, M. Kontturi, S. Ramo, M. Eurola, A. Kangas, M. Niskanen and M. Saastamoinen. Agricultural and Food Science 13, no. 1/2 (2004): pp. 54-67.
    Keywords: comparative studies, grains, oats, mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol, trichothecenes, fertilizer applications, feeds, Fusarium; Research affiliation: Finland

  11. “Copper Content in Agricultural Soils Related to Cropping Systems in Different Regions of Greece,” by E. Vavoulidou, E.J. Avramides, P. Papadopoulos, A. Dimirkou, A. Charoulis and S. Konstantinidou-Doltsinis. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 36, no. 4/6 (2005): pp. 759-773. Note: In the special issue: The 8th International Symposium on Soil and Plant Analysis: Part II. Symposium held January 12-16, 2003, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Keywords: fruits (food), nuts, vegetables, heavy metals, copper, fungicides, mineral content, fungicide residues, polluted soils, comparative studies; Research affiliation: Greece

  12. “Cured Meat Products without Direct Addition of Nitrate or Nitrite: What Are the Issues?” by J.G. Sebranek and J.N. Bacus. Meat Science 77, no. 1 (2007): pp. 136-147. Note: Review article. Conference paper: 53rd International Congress of Meat Science and Technology (53rd ICoMST), Beijing, China, August 5-10, 2007. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.03.025
    Keywords: meats, cured meats, food preservatives, nitrates, nitrites, literature reviews; Research affiliation: United States/ Iowa

  13. “Deoxynivalenol and Ochratoxin A in German Wheat and Changes of Level in Relation to Storage Parameters,” by B. Birzele, A. Prange and J. Kramer. Food Additives and Contaminants 17, no. 12 (2000): pp. 1027-1035. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030050207828
    Keywords: wheat, grains, mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, processed foods, storage conditions, trichothecenes, Fusarium; Research affiliation: Germany

  14. “Detection of Genetically Modified Soya in a Range of Organic and Health Food Products: Implications for the Accurate Labelling of Foodstuffs Derived from Potential GM Crops,” by M. Partridge and D.J. Murphy. British Food Journal 106, no. 2/3 (2004): pp. 166-180. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00070700410528763
    Keywords: soybeans, processed foods, product authenticity, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), genetically modified foods, food labeling; Research affiliation: United Kingdom

  15. “Detection of Phosphine Residues in Organic Cereals,” by R. Amstutz, A. Knecht and D. Andrey. Mitteilungen aus Lebensmitteluntersuchung und Hygiene 94, no. 6 (2003): pp. 603-608.
    Keywords: grains, grain products, corn, wheat, rice, laboratory techniques, pesticide residues, phospine, fumigants; Research affiliation: Switzerland

  16. “Determination of Nitrates by a Novel Ion Chromatographic Method: Occurrence in Leafy Vegetables (Organic and Conventional) and Exposure Assessment for Italian Consumers,” by S. de Martin and P. Restani. Food Additives and Contaminants 20, no. 9 (2003): pp. 787-792. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0265203031000152415
    Keywords: vegetables, green leafy vegetables, nitrates, lettuces, laboratory techniques, comparative studies, dietary intake; Research affiliation: Italy

  17. “Determination of Ochratoxin A in Grapes of Greek Origin by Immunoaffinity and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography,” by K. Meletis, S. Meniades-Meimaroglou and P. Markaki. Food Additives and Contaminants 24, no. 11 (2007): pp. 1275-1282. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030701413852
    Keywords: grapes, wines, alcoholic beverages, viticulture, ochratoxin A, mycotoxins, high performance liquid chromatography, dietary intake, comparative studies, geographical variation; Research affiliation: Greece

  18. “Determination of Ochratoxin A in Organic and Non-Organic Cereals and Cereal Products from Spain and Portugal,” by C. Juan, J.C. Molto, C.M. Lino and J. Manes. Food Chemistry 107, no. 1 (2008): pp. 525-530. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.08.019
    Keywords: mycotoxins, ochratoxin A, grains, grain products, wheat, barley, rye, oats, corn, comparative studies, laboratory techniques; Research affiliation: Spain/ Portugal

  19. “Development and Application of Analytical Methods for the Determination of Mycotoxins in Organic and Conventional Wheat,” by L. Pussemier, J.Y. Pierard, M. Anselme, E.K. Tangni, J.C. Motte and Y. Larondelle. Food Additives and Contaminants 23, no. 11 (2006): pp. 1208-1218. Note: Conference paper: Second International Symposium on Recent Advances in Food Analysis, held November 2-4, 2005, Prague, Czech Republic. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030600699312
    Keywords: grains, wheat, microbial contamination, wheat flour, Aspergillus, Fusarium, mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, laboratory techniques, comparative studies; Research affiliation: Belgium

  20. “Development of a Framework for the Design of Minimum Processing Strategies Which Guarantee Food Quality and Safety – Principles, Concepts and Recommendations for the Future,” by U. Kretzschmar, A. Ploeger and O. Schmid. Improving Sustainability in Organic and Low Input Food Production Systems. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress of the European Integrated Project Quality Low Input Food (QLIF), University of Hohenheim, Germany, March 20-23, 2007, by U. Niggli, C. Leifert, T. Alfoldi, L. Luck and H. Willer, editors.pp. 377-383. European Integrated Project Quality Low Input Food (QLIF), 2007. Note: Review article. Conference paper.
    Keywords: literature reviews, food safety, laws and regulations, food processing, food preservatives; Research affiliation: Switzerland

  21. “Dietary Intake and Its Contribution to Longitudinal Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure in Urban/Suburban Children,” by C. Lu, D.B. Barr, M.A. Pearson and L.A. Waller. Environmental Health Perspectives 116, no. 4 (2008): pp. 537-542. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.10912 Journal site: http://www.ehponline.org/members/2008/10912/10912.pdf (accessed Aug. 22, 2008)
    Keywords: pesticide residues, organophosphorus pesticides, dietary surveys, children, urine, dietary exposure, organophosphates, malathion, chlorpyrifos, seasonal variation, comparative studies; Research affiliation: United States/ Georgia

  22. “Dietary Intake of Ochratoxin A from Conventional and Organic Bread,” by L. Gonzalez-Osnaya, J.M. Soriano, J.C. Molto and J. Manes. International Journal of Food Microbiology 118, no. 1 (2007): pp. 87-91. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2007.05.011
    Keywords: comparative studies, grains, grain products, processed foods, breads, maximum permissible intake, mycotoxins, ochratoxin A, laboratory techniques; Research affiliation: Spain

  23. “Dioxins in Organic Eggs: A Review,” by M. de Vries, R.P. Kwakkel and A. Kijlstra. NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 54, no. 2 (2006): pp. 207-221. Note: Review article. Conference paper: Effects of Outdoor Runs in Poultry Production Systems on Animal Welfare and Health, Product Quality and Environment. Selected papers from a meeting at Nijmegen, Netherlands, April 18-20, 2005. Organic Eprints: http://orgprints.org/10175/ (accessed Aug. 22, 2008)
    Keywords: poultry, laying hens, chickens, eggs, feeds, chemical residues, dioxins, literature reviews, comparative studies, on-farm food safety, polluted soils; Research affiliation: Netherlands

  24. “Do Organic Animal Husbandry Practices Make Beef and Dairy Products Safer?” by G.C. Smith, J.D. Tatum, J.N. Sofos, K.E. Belk and J.A. Scanga. Abstracts of Papers American Chemical Society 228, no. Part 1 (2004): pp. U86-U87. Note: Review article. Conference paper abstract. American Chemical Society, Division of Agrochemicals, 228th ACS National Meeting, August 22 – 26, 2004, Philadelphia, PA. Abstract: http://membership.acs.org/A/AGRO/Picogram/PicogramV67Fall2004.pdf (accessed Aug. 22, 2008)
    Keywords: literature reviews, meats, beef, dairy products, eggs, nutrient content, food safety, comparative studies; Research affiliation: United States/ USDA/ Colorado

  25. “Does Organic Farming Reduce the Content of Cd and Certain Other Trace Metals in Plant Foods? A Pilot Study,” by L. Jorhem and P. Slanina. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 80, no. 1 (2000): pp. 43-48. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(20000101)80:1<43::AID-JSFA482>
    3.3.CO;2-P

    Keywords: comparative studies, vegetables, potatoes, carrots, rye, grains, nutrient content, mineral content, plant composition, heavy metals, cadmium, chromium, lead, zinc, on-farm food safety, polluted soils; Research affiliation: Sweden

  26. Ecology and Risk Assessment of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in the Primary Production Chain of Lettuce, by E. Franz. Wageningen University, 2007. Note: Doctoral thesis, Biological Farming Systems group, Wageningen University. Wageningen University Library: http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/catalog/lang/1856924 (accessed Aug. 22, 2008)
    Keywords: vegetables, green leafy vegetables, lettuces, microbial contamination, coliform bacteria, manures, dairy cattle, risk assessment, on-farm food safety, genes, HACCP, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, polluted soils, comparative studies; Research affiliation: Netherlands

  27. “The Effect of a Protective Culture and Exclusion of Nitrate on the Survival of Enterohemorrhagic E. coli and Listeria in Edam Cheese Made from Finnish Organic Milk,” by J. Luukkonen, A. Kemppinen, M. Karki, H. Laitinen, M. Maki, S. Sivela, A.M. Taimisto and E.L. Ryhanen. International Dairy Journal 15, no. 5 (2005): pp. 449-457.
    Keywords: comparative studies, dairy products, milk, cheeses, bacterial contamination, nutrient content, somatic cell count, urea, Escherichia coli, Listeria, processed foods, storage conditions, on-farm food safety; Research affiliation: Finland

  1. “Effect of Flock Size on Dioxin Levels in Eggs from Chickens Kept Outside,” by A. Kijlstra, W.A. Traag and L.A.P. Hoogenboom. Poultry Science 86, no. 9 (2007): pp. 2042-2048.
    Keywords: poultry, chickens, eggs, dioxins, feeds, animal feeding, grass-fed livestock, laying hens, on-farm food safety, chemical residues, polluted soils, comparative studies; Research affiliation: Netherlands

  2. “Effect of Organic Fertilizers on Nitrate Accumulation by Vegetables,” by G. Peyvast, J. Olfati, P.R. Kharazi, S. Tahernia and H. Shabani. Horticulture Environment and Biotechnology 49, no. 1 (2008): pp. 58-62.
    Keywords: vegetables, green leafy vegetables, cabbages, parsley, spinach, broccoli, garlic, fertilizer applications, nitrates, nutrient content; Research affiliation: Iran

  3. “Effect of Organic Pest Management Practices on Apple Productivity and Apple Food Safety,” by H. Friedrich, K. Delate, P. Domoto, G. Nonnecke and L. Wilson. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 21, no. 1 (2003): pp. 1-14.
    Keywords: fruits (food), apples, microbial contamination, molds (fungi), coliform bacteria, disease and pest management, biological control agents; Research affiliation: United States/ Iowa

  4. “Effect of Pig Production System and Transport on the Potential Pathogen Transfer Risk into the Food Chain from Salmonella Shed in Pig Faeces,” by M. Bonde and J.T. Sorensen. Improving Sustainability in Organic and Low Input Food Production Systems. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress of the European Integrated Project Quality Low Input Food (QLIF), University of Hohenheim, Germany, March 20-23, 2007, by U. Niggli, C. Leifert, T. Alfoldi, L. Luck and H. Willer, editors.pp. 104-107. European Integrated Project Quality Low Input Food (QLIF), 2007. Note: Conference paper.
    Keywords: swine, pigs, comparative studies, microbial contamination, on-farm food safety, Salmonella, epidemiological surveys, meats, pork, animal health; Research affiliation: Denmark

  5. “Effects of Cattle Feeding Regimen and Soil Management Type on the Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Manure, Manure-Amended Soil, and Lettuce,” by E. Franz, A.D. van Diepeningen, O.J. de Vos and A.H.C. van Bruggen. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71, no. 10 (2005): pp. 6165-6174. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.71.10.6165-6174.2005
     Keywords: Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, dairy cattle, manures, animal feeding, feeds, bacterial contamination, coliform bacteria, vegetables, lettuces, on-farm food safety, comparative studies; Research affiliation: Netherlands

  6. “Effects of Varieties and Cultivation Conditions on the Composition of Strawberries,” by M. Hakala, A. Lapvetelainen, R. Huopalahti, H. Kallio and R. Tahvonen. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 16, no. 1 (2003): pp. 67-80. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0889-1575(02)00165-5
    Keywords: comparative studies, fruit composition, fruits (food), strawberries, mineral content, crop quality, ascorbic acid, varietal differences, processed foods, pesticide residues, laboratory techniques, cultivars, heavy metals, cadmium, lead, zinc, copper, maximum residue levels (MRLs); Research affiliation: Finland

  7. “Enumeration and Diversity of Campylobacters and Bacteriophages Isolated During the Rearing Cycles of Free-Range and Organic Chickens,” by A. El Shibiny, P.L. Connerton and I.F. Connerton. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71, no. 3 (2005): pp. 1259-1266. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.71.3.1259-1266.2005
    Keywords: poultry, chickens, chicken meat, free-range husbandry, comparative studies, microbial contamination, animal health, Campylobacter, bacteriophages, meats; Research affiliation: United Kingdom

  8. “Estimation of Dietary Intakes of Fumonisins B1 and B2 from Conventional and Organic Corn,” by A. Arino, G. Estopanan, T. Juan and A. Herrera. Food Control 18, no. 9 (2007): pp. 1058-1062. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2006.07.002
    Keywords: grains, corn, mycotoxins, maximum permissible intake, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, molds (fungi), Gibberella fujikuroi, comparative studies; Research affiliation: Spain

  9. “Evaluation of Conventional and ‘Organic’ Baby Food Brands for Eight Organochlorine and Five Botanical Pesticides,” by V.K. Moore, M.E. Zabik and M.J. Zabik. Food Chemistry 71, no. 4 (2000): pp. 443-447. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00167-9
    Keywords: infant foods, processed foods, fruits (food), vegetables, pesticide residues, organochlorine pesticides, botanical insecticides, applesauce, apples, pears, squashes, carrots, comparative studies; Research affiliation: United States/ Michigan

  10. “Evaluation of Conventional and Organic Italian Foodstuffs for Deoxynivalenol and Fumonisins B(1) and B(2),” by T. Cirillo, A. Ritieni, M. Visone and R.A. Cocchieri. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51, no. 27 (2003): pp. 8128-8131. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf030203h
    Keywords: comparative studies, mycotoxins, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, deoxynivalenol, grain products, rice, corn, wheat, Fusarium; Research affiliation: Italy

  11. “Evaluation of Conventionally and Organically Produced Vegetables for High Lipophilic Organochlorine Pesticide (OCP) Residues,” by M. Gonzalez, K.S.B. Miglioranza, J.E. Aizpun de Moreno and V.J. Moreno. Food and Chemical Toxicology 43, no. 2 (2005): pp. 261-269. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2004.10.002
    Keywords: vegetables, lettuces, Swiss chard, green leafy vegetables, organochlorine pesticides, pesticide residues, comparative studies, on-farm food safety, polluted soils; Research affiliation: Argentina

  12. “Evaluation of Fumonisin Contamination in Cornflakes on the Belgian Market by ‘Flow-Through’ Assay Screening and LC-MS,” by C. Paepens, S. de Saeger, L. Sibanda, I. Barna-Vetro, M. Anselme, Y. Larondelle and C. van Peteghem. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53, no. 18 (2005): pp. 7337-7343. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf050858d
    Keywords: grains, grain products, breakfast cereals, comparative studies, mycotoxins, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, laboratory techniques, microbial contamination; Research affiliation: Belgium

  13. “Evaluation of the Nitrate Content in Leaf Vegetables Produced through Different Agricultural Systems,” by S.G. Guadagnin, S. Rath and F.G.R. Reyes. Food Additives and Contaminants 22, no. 12 (2005): pp. 1203-1208. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030500239649
    Keywords: vegetables, green leafy vegetables, lettuces, watercress, arugula, nitrates, comparative studies, dietary intake, hydroponic production, plant composition; Research affiliation: Brazil

  14. “Fast and Versatile Multiresidue Method for the Analysis of Botanical Insecticides on Fruits and Vegetables by HPLC/DAD/MS,” by P. Caboni, G. Sarais, A. Angioni, V.L. Garau and P. Cabras. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53, no. 22 (2005): pp. 8644-8649. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf051345+
    Keywords: fruits (food), vegetables, pesticide residues, botanical insecticides, laboratory techniques, high performance liquid chromatography, research methods; Research affiliation: Italy

  15. “Food for Thought about Mycotoxins, Organic and Genetically Modified Foods,” by W.F.O. Marasas and H.F. Vismer. Advances in Stored Product Protection: Proceedings of the 8th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, July 22-26, 2002, York, UK, by P.F. Credland, D.M. Armitage, C.H. Bell, P.M. Cogan and E. Highley, editors.pp. 423-427. CAB International, 2003. Note: Review article. Conference paper.
    Keywords: literature reviews, food safety, microbial contamination, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), risk assessment, comparative studies; Research affiliation: South Africa

  16. “Food Quality,” by K. Brandt and J.P. Molgaard. Organic Agriculture: A Global Perspective, by P. Kristiansen, A. Taji and J. Reganold, editors.pp. 305-327. Cornell University Press, 2006. Note: Review article. Book chapter.
    Keywords: literature reviews, food safety, research methods, comparative studies, microbial contamination, mycotoxins, laws and regulations; Research affiliation: United Kingdom

  17. “Food Safety.” Organic Farming, Food Quality and Human Health: A Review of the Evidence. pp. 13-27. Soil Association (UK), 2002. Note: Review article. Book chapter. Soil Association: http://www.soilassociation.org/Web/SA/saweb.nsf/
    9f788a2d1160a9e580256a71002a3d2b/de88ae6e5aa94aed80256abd00378489/
    $FILE/foodqualityreport.pdf
    (accessed Aug. 22, 2008)
    Keywords: literature reviews, food safety, pesticide residues, microbial contamination, antibiotics, food additives, nitrates, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), bovine spongiform encephalopathy; Research affiliation: United Kingdom

  18. “Food Safety and Nutritional Quality of Organic Vegetables,” by L. Gennaro and G.B. Quaglia. Acta Horticulturae, no. 614 (vol. 2) (2003): pp. 675-680. Note: Review article. Conference paper: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Protected Cultivation in Mild Winter Climate: Product and Process Innovation, Ragusa-Sicilia, Italy, March 5-8, 2002.
    Keywords: comparative studies, food safety, crop quality, nutrient content, sensory properties, vegetables, literature reviews, pesticide residues, nitrates, microbial contamination, mycotoxins; Research affiliation: Italy

  19. “Furanocoumarins in Vegetables: Influence of Farming System and Other Factors on Levels of Toxicants,” by V. Schulzova, J. Hajslova, P. Botek and R. Peroutka. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 87, no. 15 (2007): pp. 2763-2767. Note: Review article. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3062
    Keywords: literature reviews, comparative studies, vegetables, celery, parsnips, carrots, plant composition, food contamination, furanocoumarins; Research affiliation: Czech Republic

  20. “Fusarium Mycotoxins in Conventionally and Organically Grown Grain from Thuringia/Germany,” by S. Doll, H. Valenta, S. Danicke and G. Flachowsky. Landbauforschung Volkenrode 52, no. 2 (2002): pp. 91-96.
    Keywords: grains, wheat, zearalenone, rye, mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol, Fusarium, feeds, comparative studies, tolerable daily intake (TDI), laws and regulations; Research affiliation: Germany

  21. Fusarium Toxins in Wheat Flour Collected in an Area in Southwest Germany,” by M. Schollenberger, H.T. Jara, S. Suchy, W. Drochner and H.M. Muller. International Journal of Food Microbiology 72, no. 1/2 (2002): pp. 85-89. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(01)00627-4
    Keywords: grains, wheat, wheat flour, mycotoxins, Fusarium, microbial contamination, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, acetyldeoxynivalenols, trichothecenes, zearalenol, comparative studies, high performance liquid chromatography; Research affiliation: Germany

  1. “Guidelines and Acceptable Postharvest Practices for Organically Grown Produce,” by A. Plotto and J.A. Narciso. Hortscience 41, no. 2 (2006): pp. 287-291. Note: Review article. Conference paper: “Organic agriculture: Postharvest challenges and opportunities,” July 20, 2005, Las Vegas, Nevada. USDA, Agricultural Research Service: http://www.ars.usda.gov/sp2UserFiles/Place/66210000/Reprint959.pdf (accessed Aug. 22, 2008)
    Keywords: literature reviews, microbial contamination, fresh cut foods, postharvest treatment, storage conditions, laws and regulations, research methods, food safety; Research affiliation: United States/ USDA/ Florida

  2. HACCP in Agriculture and Horticulture Supplement 6: Organic Case Study, by R. Stanley and C. Knight. Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association Group, 2003.
    Keywords: food safety, HACCP, laws and regulations, processed foods, postharvest treatment; Research affiliation: United Kingdom

  3. Handbook of Organic Food Safety and Quality, by J. Cooper, C. Leifert and U. Niggli. CRC Press, 2007. Note: Review.
    Keywords: food safety, microbial contamination, processed foods, HACCP, laws and regulations, literature reviews, on-farm food safety

  4. “Health-Promoting Substances and Heavy Metal Content in Tomatoes Grown with Different Farming Techniques,” by F. Rossi, F. Godani, T. Bertuzzi, M. Trevisan, F. Ferrari and S. Gatti. European Journal of Nutrition 47, no. 5 (2008): pp. 266. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-008-0721-z
    Keywords: organic farming, lycopene, tomatoes, salycilic acid, heavy metals, cadmium, lead, copper, pesticide residues, ergosterol, laboratory techniques, comparative studies; Research affiliation: Italy

  5. “Herd-Level Factors Associated with Isolation of Salmonella in a Multi-State Study of Conventional and Organic Dairy Farms: I. Salmonella Shedding in Cows,” by C.P. Fossler, S.J. Wells, J.B. Kaneene, P.L. Ruegg, L.D. Warnick, J.B. Bender, L.E. Eberly, S.M. Godden and L.W. Halbert. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 70, no. 3/4 (2005): pp. 257-277.
    Keywords: dairy products, dairy cattle, Salmonella, bacterial contamination, seasonal variation, animal feeding, feeds, risk factors, manures, on-farm food safety, comparative studies; Research affiliation: United States/ Minnesota/ Wisconsin/ Michigan/ New York/ Colorado/ USDA

  6. “Identification and Assay of Organophosphates in Organic Oranges by Gas Chromatography with Pulsed Flame Photometric Detection and Ion-Trap Mass Spectrometry,” by A. de Nino, F. Santelli, N. Servidio, G. Sindona and A. Tagarelli. Journal of AOAC International (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) 86, no. 5 (2003): pp. 1003-1007.
    Keywords: fruits (food), citrus fruit, oranges, pesticide residues, laboratory techniques, organophosphates; Research affiliation: Italy

  7. “The Impact of Organic Agriculture on Food Quality,” by E. Rembiakowska. Agricultura Slovenia 3, no. 1 (2004): pp. 19-26. Note: Review article.
    Keywords: literature reviews, comparative studies, food safety, nutrient content, on-farm food safety; Research affiliation: Poland

  8. “Improving the Safety of Organic Vegetables,” by G.S. Johannessen and M. Torp. Improving the Safety of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables, by W. Jongen, editor.pp. 331-348. Woodhead Publishing, 2005. Note: Review article. Book chapter.
    Keywords: vegetables, microbial contamination, laws and regulations, literature reviews; Research affiliation: Norway

  9. “Incidence and Level of Patulin Contamination in Pure and Mixed Apple Juices Marketed in Italy,” by D. Spadaro, A. Ciavorella, S. Frati, A. Garibaldi and M.L. Gullino. Food Control 18, no. 9 (2007): pp. 1098-1102. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2006.07.007
    Keywords: fruits (food), apples, apple juice, juices, processed foods, comparative studies, microbial contamination, mycotoxins, patulin, beverages; Research affiliation: Italy

  10. “Influence of Bovine Manure As Fertilizer on the Bacteriological Quality of Organic Iceberg Lettuce,” by G.S. Johannessen, R.B. Froseth, L. Solemdal, J. Jarp, Y. Wasteson and L.M. Rorvik. Journal of Applied Microbiology 96, no. 4 (2004): pp. 787-794. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2004.02208.x
    Keywords: vegetables, lettuces, fertilizer applications, manures, bacterial contamination, coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella; Research affiliation: Norway

  11. “Influence of Organically or Conventionally Produced Wheat on Health, Performance and Mycotoxin Residues in Tissues and Bile of Growing Pigs,” by I. Schneweis, K. Meyer, M. Ritzmann, P. Hoffmann, L. Dempfle and J. Bauer. Archives of Animal Nutrition 59, no. 3 (2005): pp. 155-63.
    Keywords: animal experimentation, animal health, animal feeding, feeds, pigs, swine, pork, meats, grains, wheat, dietary surveys, mycotoxins, blood chemistry, bile, carcass evaluation, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, molds (fungi), Fusarium, comparative studies; Research affiliation: Germany

  12. “Intake of Ochratoxin A and Deoxynivalenol through Beer Consumption in Belgium,” by P. Harcz, E.K. Tangni, O. Wilmart, E. Moons, C. van Peteghem, S. de Saeger, Y.J. Schneider, Y. Larondelle and L. Pussemier. Food Additives and Contaminants 24, no. 8 (2007): pp. 910-916. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030701210688
    Keywords: comparative studies, beers, beverages, mycotoxins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, microbial contamination, dietary surveys, tolerable daily intake (TDI), risk assessment; Research affiliation: Belgium

  13. “Intraspecific Genotypic Diversity of Bacillus Species from Raw Milk,” by V. de Jonghe, A. Coorevits, J. Vandroemme, J. Heyrman, L. Herman, P. de Vos and M. Heyndrickx. International Dairy Journal 18, no. 5 (2008): pp. 496-505.
    Keywords: dairy products, milk, raw milk, comparative studies, coliform bacteria, Bacillus (bacteria), on-farm food safety; Research affiliation: Belgium

  14. “Is It Safer to Eat Organic Spinach – or Peaches or Apples? EN Weighs In,” by D. Welland. Environmental Nutrition 30, no. 6 (2007): pp. 1-3. Note: Review article. FindArticles (BNET): http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0854/is_6_30/ai_n27363785 (accessed Aug. 22, 2008)
    Keywords: literature reviews, food safety, comparative studies

  15. “Levels of Mycotoxins and Sample Cytotoxicity of Selected Organic and Conventional Grain-Based Products Purchased from Finnish and Italian Markets,” by M. Jestoi, M.C. Somma, M. Kouva, P. Veijalainen, A. Rizzo, A. Ritieni and K. Peltonen. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research 48, no. 4 (2004): pp. 299-307. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200400026 Salmone: http://www.salmone.org/
    wp-content/uploads/2008/05/74-finlandiaitalia.pdf
    (accessed Aug. 22, 2008)
    Keywords: grains, grain products, wheat, rye, barley, oats, infant foods, mycotoxins, Fusarium, Aspergillus, beverages, enniatin B, enniatin B1, deoxynivalenol, cytotoxicity, comparative studies; Research affiliation: Finland/ Italy

  16. “Levels of Nitrate in Swedish Lettuce and Spinach over the Past 10 Years,” by L. Merino, P.O. Darnerud, U. Edberg, P. Aman and M.D.P. Castillo. Food Additives and Contaminants 23, no. 12 (2006): pp. 1283-1289. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030600930543
    Keywords: comparative studies, vegetables, lettuces, nitrates, spinach; Research affiliation: Sweden

  17. “Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Alternaria Toxins in Carrots,” by M. Solfrizzo, A. De Giroloamo, C. Vitti, A. Visconti and R. van den Bulk. Journal of AOAC International (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) 87, no. 1 (2004): pp. 101-106.
    Keywords: vegetables, carrots, mycotoxins, Alternaria, laboratory techniques; Research affiliation: Italy/ France/ Netherlands/ Denmark

  18. “A Longitudinal Approach to Assessing Urban and Suburban Children’s Exposure to Pyrethroid Pesticides,” by C. Lu, D.B. Barr, M. Pearson, S. Bartell and R. Bravo. Environmental Health Perspectives 114, no. 9 (2006): pp. 1419-1423. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.9043 Journal site: http://www.ehponline.org/members/2006/9043/9043.pdf (accessed Aug. 22, 2008)
    Keywords: pesticide residues, pyrethroid insecticides, pyrethrins, children, urine, environmental exposure, dietary exposure, pesticide safety and handling, public health, comparative studies; Research affiliation: United States/ Georgia

  19. “Longitudinal Microbiological Survey of Fresh Produce Grown by Farmers in the Upper Midwest,” by A. Mukherjee, D. Speh, A.T. Jones, K.M. Buesing and F. Diez-Gonzalez. Journal of Food Protection 69, no. 8 (2006): pp. 1928-1936.
     Keywords: comparative studies, vegetables, fruits (food), broccoli, cabbages, cucumbers, green leafy vegetables, lettuces, squashes, peppers, tomatoes, bacterial contamination, coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, on-farm food safety; Research affiliation: United States/ Minnesota/ Wisconsin

  20. “Methods to Ensure Microbiological Safety of Organically Produced Medicinal Plants: A Review,” by J.W. Rushing. Hortscience 41, no. 2 (2006): pp. 292-295. Note: Review article. Conference paper: “Organic Agriculture: Postharvest Challenges and Opportunities,” (workshop) July 20, 2005, Las Vegas, Nevada.
    Keywords: medicinal herbs, herbs, dietary supplements, microbial contamination, literature reviews, postharvest treatment; Research affiliation: United States/ South Carolina

  21. “Microbial Food Safety Considerations for Organic Produce Production: an Analysis of Canadian Organic Production Standards Compared with US FDA Guidelines for Microbial Food Safety,” by K.A. Blaine and D.A. Powell. Food Protection Trends 24, no. 4 (2004): pp. 246-252. Note: Review article.
    Keywords: literature reviews, laws and regulations, microbial contamination, food safety, vegetables, fruits (food), on-farm food safety, comparative studies; Research affiliation: Canada

  22. “Microbial Food Safety Standards in Organic Farming - a Review,” by A. Cencic and A. Borec. Agricultura Slovenia 5, no. 1 (2007): pp. 5-14. Note: Review article.
    Keywords: literature reviews, laws and regulations, microbial contamination, food safety, vegetables, fruits (food); Research affiliation: Slovenia

  1. “Microbial Survey of Selected Ontario-Grown Fresh Fruits and Vegetables,” by L. Arthur, S. Jones, M. Fabri and J. Odumeru. Journal of Food Protection 70, no. 12 (2007): pp. 2864-2867.
    Keywords: comparative studies, vegetables, fruits (food), melons, onions, lettuces, parsley, herbs, tomatoes, bacterial contamination, Shigella, Escherichia coli, Salmonella; Research affiliation: Canada

  2. “Microbiological Evaluation of Fresh-Cut Organic Vegetables Produced in Zambia,” by K. Nguz, J. Shindano, S. Samapundo and A. Huyghebaert. Food Control 16, no. 7 (2005): pp. 623-628. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2004.07.001
    Keywords: vegetables, fresh cut foods, microbial contamination, coliform bacteria, molds (fungi), food spoilage; Research affiliation: Zambia

  3. “Microbiological Evaluation of Lettuce Grown in Organically Amended Soil,” by S.L. Garrison, C.B. Brooks and M.A. Morant. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology 101 (2001): pp. 560-561. Note: Conference paper abstract.
    Keywords: vegetables, green leafy vegetables, lettuces, microbial contamination, manures, poultry litter, fertilizer applications, on-farm food safety, comparative studies, Campylobacter

  4. “The Microbiological Examination of Ready-to-Eat Organic Vegetables from Retail Establishments in the United Kingdom,” by S.K. Sagoo, C.L. Little and R.T. Mitchell. Letters in Applied Microbiology 33, no. 6 (2001): pp. 434-439. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2001.01026.x
    Keywords: vegetables, microbial contamination, Escherichia coli, Listeria, Campylobacter, Salmonella, fresh cut foods; Research affiliation: United Kingdom

  1. “Microbiological Quality of Organic Vegetables Produced in Soil Treated with Different Types of Manure and Mineral Fertilizer,” by D.C. Machado, C.M. Maia, I.D. Carvalho, N.F. da Silva, M.C.D.P.B. Andre and A.B. Serafini. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 37, no. 4 (2006): pp. 538-544. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590
    /S1517-83822006000400025
    Journal site: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/bjm/v37n4/
    v37n4a25.pdf
    (accessed Aug. 22, 2008)
    Keywords: vegetables, lettuces, spinach, green leafy vegetables, manures, coliform bacteria, fertilizer applications, radishes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella; Research affiliation: Brazil

  2. “Microbial Profiles of On-Line-Procured Sprouting Seeds and Potential Hazards Associated with Enterotoxigenic Bacillus spp in Homegrown Sprouts,” by S. Pao, M.F. Khalid and A. Kalantari. Journal of Food Protection 68, no. 8 (2005): pp. 1648-1653.
    Keywords: comparative studies, sprouting, bean sprouts, mung beans, lentils, alfalfa, radishes, seeds, microbial contamination, coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus; Research affiliation: United States/ Virginia

  1. “N-Methyl Carbamate Pesticide Residues in Conventional and Organic Infant Foods Available on the Canadian Retail Market, 2001-03,” by D.F.K. Rawn, V. Roscoe, R. Trelka, C. Hanson, T. Krakalovich and R.W. Dabeka. Food Additives and Contaminants 23, no. 7 (2006): pp. 651-659. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030600675759
    Keywords: infant foods, pesticide residues, grain products, carbamate pesticides, vegetables, meats, fruit juices, juices, risk assessment, fruits (food), dietary intake, maximum residue levels (MRLs), comparative studies; Research affiliation: Canada

  2. “Natural Occurrence of Fusarium Species, Fumonisin Production by Toxigenic Strains, and Concentrations of Fumonisins B1 and B2 in Conventional and Organic Maize Grown in Spain,” by A. Arino, T. Juan, G. Estopanan and J.F. Gonzalez-Cabo. Journal of Food Protection 70, no. 1 (2007): pp. 151-156.
    Keywords: vegetables, feeds, grains, corn, microbial contamination, fumonisins, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, Fusarium, mycotoxins, molds (fungi), laboratory techniques, comparative studies, on-farm food safety; Research affiliation: Spain

  3. “Naturally Safe?” by D. Bender. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 85, no. 15 (2005): pp. 2511-2513. Note: Review article. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2376
    Keywords: food safety, literature reviews, natural toxicants, comparative studies; Research affiliation: United Kingdom

  4. “Novel Approach for Food Safety Evaluation Results of a Pilot Experiment to Evaluate Organic and Conventional Foods,” by A. Finamore, M.S. Britti, M. Roselli, D. Bellovino, S. Gaetani and E. Mengheri. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52, no. 24 (2004): pp. 7425-7431. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf049097p
    Keywords: grains, wheat, mycotoxins, comparative studies, blood chemistry, lymphocyte proliferation, animal experimentation, mycotoxins, animal health; Research affiliation: Italy

  5. “Nutritional and Toxicological Quality Comparisons between Organic and Conventionally Grown Foodstuffs,” by J. Kumpulainen. Proceedings International Fertiliser Society. pp. 1-20. The International Fertiliser Society, 2001. Note: Review article. Conference paper.
    Keywords: comparative studies, grains, wheat, wheat flour, rye, breads, processed foods, nitrates, mineral content, nutrient content, pesticide residues, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, sensory properties, animal experimentation, rats, chemical residues; Research affiliation: Finland

  6. “Occurrence and Daily Intake of Ochratoxin A of Organic and Non-Organic Rice and Rice Products,” by L. Gonzalez, C. Juan, J.M. Soriano, J.C. Molto and J. Manes. International Journal of Food Microbiology 107, no. 2 (2006): pp. 223-227. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2005.10.001
    Keywords: grains, rice, grain products, comparative studies, mycotoxins, ochratoxin A, microbial contamination, HACCP, dietary intake; Research affiliation: Spain

  7. “Occurrence and Distribution of Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Crops from Organic Production,” by M. Gonzalez, K.S.B. Miglioranza, J.E. Aizpun de Moreno and V.J. Moreno. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51, no. 5 (2003): pp. 1353-1359. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf025892w
    Keywords: vegetables, tomatoes, pesticide residues, organochlorine pesticides, plant composition, harvest date, spray drift, on-farm food safety, polluted soils; Research affiliation: Argentina

  8. “Occurrence of Alternaria Toxins in Fibre Flax, Linseed, and Peas Grown in Organic and Conventional Farms: Monitoring Pilot Study,” by J. Kralova, J. Hajslova, J. Poustka, M. Hochman, M. Bjelkova and L. Odstrcilova. Czech Journal of Food Sciences 24, no. 6 (2006): pp. 288-296. CAZV: http://www.cazv.cz/UserFiles/File/CJFS%2024_288.pdf (accessed Aug. 22, 2008)
    Keywords: oil crops, oilseeds, legumes, peas, flax, mycotoxins, microbial contamination, Alternaria, food spoilage, high performance liquid chromatography, comparative studies, on-farm food safety; Research affiliation: Czech Republic

  9. “Occurrence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Broiler Chickens Raised in Different Production Systems and Fed Organic and Traditional Feed,” by M. Lund, T.K. Welch, K. Griswold, J.B. Endres and B. Shepherd. Food Protection Trends 23, no. 3 (2003): pp. 252-256.
    Keywords: poultry, chickens, chicken meat, meats, feeds, animal feeding, free range husbandry, pastures, comparative studies, Campylobacter, Salmonella, on-farm food safety, bacterial contamination; Research affiliation: United States/ Illinois

  10. “The Occurrence of Enteric Pathogens and Aeromonas Species in Organic Vegetables,” by M.A.S. McMahon and I.G. Wilson. International Journal of Food Microbiology 70, no. 1/2 (2001): pp. 155-62. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016
    /S0168-1605(01)00535-9

    Keywords: vegetables, microbial contamination, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, Listeria, Salmonella, Aeromonas, comparative studies; Research affiliation: Northern Ireland

  11. “Occurrence of Ochratoxin A in Danish Wheat and Rye, 1992-99,” by K. Jorgensen and J.S. Jacobsen. Food Additives and Contaminants 19, no. 12 (2002): pp. 1184-1189. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0265203021000012376
    Keywords: grains, wheat, rye, mycotoxins, comparative studies, ochratoxin A; Research affiliation: Denmark

  12. “Occurrence of Patulin in Conventional and Organic Fruit Products in Italy and Subsequent Exposure Assessment,” by L. Piemontese, M. Solfrizzo and A. Visconti. Food Additives and Contaminants 22, no. 5 (2005): pp. 437-442. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030500073550
    Keywords: apples, apple juice, pears, fruit juices, microbial contamination, mycotoxins, patulin, maximum permissible intake, fruits (food), comparative studies, infant foods, dietary intake, high performance liquid chromatography, laboratory techniques; Research affiliation: Italy

  13. “Occurrence of Patulin in Organic, Conventional, and Handcrafted Apple Juices Marketed in Belgium,” by K. Baert, B. de Meulenaer, A. Kamala, C. Kasase and F. Devlieghere. Journal of Food Protection 69, no. 6 (2006): pp. 1371-1378.
    Keywords: fruits (food), apples, apple juice, juices, mycotoxins, microbial contamination, patulin, comparative studies, high performance liquid chromatography, laboratory techniques; Research affiliation: Belgium

  14. “Occurrence of Salmonellae in Laying Hens in Different Housing Systems and Conclusion for the Control,” by U. Methner, R. Diller, R. Reiche and K. Boehland. Berliner und Muenchener Tieraerztliche Wochenschrift 119, no. 11/12 (2006): pp. 467-473.
    Keywords: poultry, chickens, laying hens, eggs, comparative studies, free range husbandry, Salmonella, microbial contamination; Research affiliation: Germany

  15. “Occurrence of Type A Trichothecenes in Conventionally and Organically Produced Oats and Oat Products,” by C. Gottschalk, J. Barthel, G. Engelhardt, J. Bauer and K. Meyer. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research 51, no. 12 (2007): pp. 1547-1553. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200700146
    Keywords: grains, grain products, oats, infant foods, microbial contamination, mycotoxins, trichothecenes, comparative studies; Research affiliation: Germany

  16. “Ochratoxin A Contents in Wine: Comparison of Organically and Conventionally Produced Products,” by A.M. Chiodini, P. Scherpenisse and A.A. Bergwerff. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54, no. 19 (2006): pp. 7399-7404. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf0613482
    Keywords: wines, grapes, alcoholic beverages, mycotoxins, ochratoxin A, comparative studies, microbial contamination, laboratory techniques; Research affiliation: Netherlands

  17. “Ochratoxin A in Cereal-Based Baby Foods: Occurrence and Safety Evaluation,” by B. Beretta, R. de Domenico, A. Gaiaschi, C. Ballabio, C.L. Galli, C. Gigliotti and P. Restani. Food Additives and Contaminants 19, no. 1 (2002): pp. 70-75. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030110070021
    Keywords: grains, grain products, rice, corn, wheat, infant foods, comparative studies, microbial contamination, mycotoxins, ochratoxin A, dietary intake, tolerable daily intake (TDI); Research affiliation: Italy

  18. “Ochratoxin A in Conventional and Organic Cereal Derivatives: A Survey of the Italian Market, 2001-02,” by R. Biffi, M. Munari, L. Dioguardi, C. Ballabio, A. Cattaneo, C.L. Galli and P. Restani. Food Additives and Contaminants 21, no. 6 (2004): pp. 586-591. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030410001687708
    Keywords: grains, grain products, infant foods, comparative studies, laboratory techniques, high performance liquid chromatography, microbial contamination, ochratoxin A, Aspergillus alutaceus, Penicillium verrucosum, dietary intake; Research affiliation: Italy

  19. “On Ochratoxin A and Fungal Flora in Polish Cereals from Conventional and Ecological Farms. 1. Occurrence of Ochratoxin A and Fungi in Cereals in 1997,” by L. Czerwiecki, D. Czajkowska and A. Witkowska-Gwiazdowska. Food Additives and Contaminants 19, no. 5 (2002): pp. 470-477. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030110113726
    Keywords: grains, rye, wheat, barley, microbial contamination, mycotoxins, ochratoxin A, Penicillium, Aspergillus, comparative studies, on-farm food safety; Research affiliation: Poland

  20. “On Ochratoxin A and Fungal Flora in Polish Cereals from Conventional and Ecological Farms. 2. Occurrence of Ochratoxin A and Fungi in Cereals in 1998,” by L. Czerwiecki, D. Czajkowska and A. Witkowska-Gwiazdowska. Food Additives and Contaminants 19, no. 11 (2002): pp. 1051-1057. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030210156313
    Keywords: grains, rye, wheat, barley, microbial contamination, mycotoxins, ochratoxin A, Penicillium, Aspergillus, comparative studies, on-farm food safety; Research affiliation: Poland

  21. “Organic Diets Significantly Lower Children’s Dietary Exposure to Organophosphorus Pesticides,” by C. Lu, K. Toepel, R. Irish, R.A. Fenske, D.B. Barr and R. Bravo. Environmental Health Perspectives 114, no. 2 (2006): pp. 260-263. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.8418 Journal site: http://www.ehponline.org/members/2005/8418/8418.pdf (accessed Aug. 22, 2008)
    Keywords: pesticide residues, dietary surveys, children, urine, dietary exposure, organophosphates, comparative studies; Research affiliation: United States/ Washington/ Georgia

  22. “Organic FAQs,” by L. Nelson, J. Giles, C. Macilwain and V. Gewin. Nature 428, no. 6985 (2004): pp. 796-798. Note: Review article. Journal site: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v428/n6985/full/428796a.html (accessed Aug. 22, 2008)
    Keywords: literature reviews, nutrient content, food safety, microbial contamination, pesticide residues

  23. Organic Farming, Food Quality and Human Health: A Review of the Evidence. Soil Association (UK), 2002. Note: Review. Soil Association: http://www.soilassociation.org/Web/SA/saweb.nsf/
    9f788a2d1160a9e580256a71002a3d2b/de88ae6e5aa94aed80256abd00378489/
    $FILE/foodqualityreport.pdf
    (accessed Aug. 22, 2008)
    Keywords: literature reviews, comparative studies, food safety, nutrient content; Research affiliation: United Kingdom

  24. “Organic Food Worth the Price?” by D. Schardt. Nutrition Action Health Letter 34, no. 6 (2007). Note: Review article. FindArticles (BNET): http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0813/is_6_34/ai_n27333483 (accessed Aug. 22, 2008)
    Keywords: literature reviews, food safety, pesticide residues

  25. “Organic Foods,” by C.K. Winter and S.F. Davis. Journal of Food Science 71, no. 9 (2006): pp. R117-R124. Note: Review article. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/
    j.1750-3841.2006.00196.x

    Keywords: literature reviews, food safety, comparative studies, nutritive value

  26. “Organic Foods,” by C.K. Winter, S.F. Davis and T.G. Tarver. Food Technology (Chicago) 60, no. 10 (2006): pp. 44-48. Note: Review article. Synopsis of the Institute of Food Technologists’ Scientific Status Summary that comprehensively compares organic and conventional foods with respect to pesticide residues, nutritional components, naturally occurring toxins and microbiological safety. IFT: http://members.ift.org/NR/rdonlyres/A5367812-A6CF-46C0-80B9-B1EF39A0BCC4/
    0/OrganicFood.pdf
    (accessed Aug. 22, 2008)
    Keywords: literature reviews, food safety, comparative studies, nutritive value; Research affiliation: United States/ California

  27. “Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure of Urban and Suburban Preschool Children with Organic and Conventional Diets,” by C.L. Curl, R.A. Fenske and K. Elgethun. Environmental Health Perspectives 111, no. 3 (2003): pp. 377-382. Journal site: http://www.ehponline.org/members/2003/5754/5754.pdf (accessed Aug. 22, 2008)
    Keywords: pesticide residues, dietary surveys, children, urine, dietary exposure, organophosphates, comparative studies, dietary intake; Research affiliation: United States/ Washington

  28. “Patulin in Italian Commercial Apple Products,” by A. Ritieni. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51, no. 20 (2003): pp. 6086-6090. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf034523c
    Keywords: fruits (food), apples, apple juice, processed foods, infant foods, microbial contamination, mycotoxins, patulin, comparative studies, vinegars; Research affiliation: Italy

  29. Penicillium verrucosum Occurrence and Ochratoxin A Contents in Organically Cultivated Grain with Special Reference to Ancient Wheat Types and Drying Practice,” by S. Elmholt and P.H. Rasmussen. Mycopathologia 159, no. 3 (2005): pp. 421-432. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11046-005-1152-5 Organic Eprints: http://orgprints.org/3330/ (accessed Aug. 22, 2008)
    Keywords: grains, wheat, spelt, rye, barley, oats, triticale, microbial contamination, molds (fungi), mycotoxins, ochratoxin A, Penicillium verrucosum, postharvest treatment; Research affiliation: Denmark

  30. “Perchlorate and Nitrate in Leafy Vegetables of North America,” by C.A. Sanchez, K.S. Crump, R.I. Krieger, N.R. Khandaker and J.P. Gibbs. Environmental Science and Technology 39, no. 24 (2005): pp. 9391-9397.
    Keywords: vegetables, green leafy vegetables, lettuces, perchlorates, nitrates, chemical residues, laboratory techniques, comparative studies, water pollution, plant composition; Research affiliation: United States/ Arizona

  31. “Pesticide Residues in Conventional, Integrated Pest Management (IPM)-Grown and Organic Foods: Insights from Three US Data Sets,” by B.P. Baker, C.M. Benbrook, E. Groth III and K.L. Benbrook. Food Additives and Contaminants 19, no. 5 (2002): pp. 427-446. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030110113799
    Keywords: vegetables, fruits (food), pesticide residues, comparative studies, fresh cut foods, USDA Pesticide Data Program; Research affiliation: United States

  32. “Pesticide Residues in Fruit and Vegetable Samples: Analytical Results of 2 Year’s Pesticide Investigations,” by C. Lesueur, M. Gartner, P. Knittl, P. List, S. Wimmer, V. Sieler and M. Furhacker. Ernahrung 31, no. 6 (2007): pp. 247-259.
    Keywords: fruits (food), vegetables, pesticide residues, comparative studies, maximum residue levels (MRLs), laboratory techniques; Research affiliation: Austria

  33. “Polyphenols, Resveratrol, Antioxidant Activity and Ochratoxin A Contamination in Red Table Wines, Controlled Denomination of Origin (DOC) Wines and Wines Obtained from Organic Farming,” by A. Miceli, C. Negro, L. Tommasi and P. de Leo. Journal of Wine Research 14, no. 2/3 (2003): pp. 115-120.
    Keywords: phytochemicals, antioxidants, phenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, comparative studies, wine quality, wines, processed foods, polyphenols, microbial contamination, ochratoxin A, mycotoxins, alcoholic beverages; Research affiliation: Italy

  34. “Potato Glycoalkaloids and Metabolites: Roles in the Plant and in the Diet,” by M. Friedman. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54, no. 23 (2006): pp. 8655-8681. Note: Review article. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf061471t
    Keywords: phytochemicals, vegetables, phenols, plant composition, anticarcinogenic activity, potatoes, alkaloids, glycoalkaloids, literature reviews; Research affiliation: United States/ USDA/ California

  35. “Preharvest Evaluation of Coliforms, Escherichia Coli, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Organic and Conventional Produce Grown by Minnesota Farmers,” by A. Mukherjee, D. Speh, E. Dyck and F. Diez-Gonzalez. Journal of Food Protection 67, no. 5 (2004): pp. 894-900.
    Keywords: manures, fertilizer applications, risk factors, fruits (food), vegetables, on-farm food safety, microbial contamination, coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, bacterial contamination, comparative studies, apples, broccoli, cabbages, cucumbers, peppers, green leafy vegetables, strawberries; Research affiliation: United States/ Minnesota

  36. “Preliminary Characterization of Bacteriocin-Like Substances from Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Organic Leafy Vegetables,” by A.G. Ponce, M.R. Moreira, C.E. del Valle and S.I. Roura. LWT Food Science and Technology 41, no. 3 (2008): pp. 432-441. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2007.03.021
    Keywords: vegetables, green leafy vegetables, microbial contamination, lactic acid, antibacterial properties, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, storage conditions, bacteriocins; Research affiliation: Argentina

  37. “Preliminary Survey on Composition and Quality of Conventional and Organic Wheat,” by F. Rossi, T. Bertuzzi, S. Comizzoli, G. Turconi, C. Roggi, M. Pagani, P. Cravedi and A. Pietri. Italian Journal of Food Science 18, no. 4 (2006): pp. 355-366.
    Keywords: comparative studies, wheat, grains, microbial contamination, mycotoxins, heavy metals, cadmium, lead, protein, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, food contamination, storage insects, on-farm food safety; Research affiliation: Italy

  1. “Prevalence and Risk-Factor Analysis of Shiga Toxigenic Escherichia coli in Faecal Samples of Organically and Conventionally Farmed Dairy Cattle,” by P. Kuhnert, C.R. Dubosson, M. Roesch, E. Homfeld, M.G. Doherr and J.W. Blum. Veterinary Microbiology 109, no. 1/2 (2005): pp. 37-45.
    Keywords: dairy cattle, animal health, manures, microbial contamination, Escherichia coli, bacterial contamination, coliform bacteria, dairy products, milk, Shiga-like toxins, risk factors, comparative studies; Research affiliation: Switzerland

  2. “Prevalence of Shiga Toxin-Encoding Bacteria and Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates from Dairy Farms and County Fairs,” by S. Cho, F. Diez-Gonzalez, C.P. Fossler, S.J. Wells, C.W. Hedberg, J.B. Kaneene, P.L. Ruegg, L.D. Warnick and J.B. Bender. Veterinary Microbiology 118, no. 3/4 (2006): pp. 289-298. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.07.021
    Keywords: dairy cattle, manures, coliform bacteria, microbial contamination, comparative studies, Shiga-like toxins, Escherichia coli O157:H7, bacterial contamination, public health, on-farm food safety, epidemiological surveys; Research affiliation: United States/ Minnesota

  3. “Putting the Safety of Organic Food into Perspective,” by F. Magkos, F. Arvaniti and A. Zampelas. Nutrition Research Reviews 16, no. 2 (2003): pp. 211-222. Note: Review article. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/NRR200361
    Keywords: literature reviews, food safety, microbial contamination, pesticide residues, comparative studies; Research affiliation: Greece

  4. “Quality of Organic Animal Products,” by M. Kouba. Livestock Production Science 80, no. 1/2 (2003): pp. 33-40. Note: Review article. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(02)00318-4
    Keywords: animal products, meats, nutrient content, animal feeding, feeds, mycotoxins, drug residues, pesticide residues, microbial contamination, comparative studies; Research affiliation: France

  5. “Quality of Organically and Conventionally Grown Potatoes: Four-Year Study of Micronutrients, Metals, Secondary Metabolites, Enzymic Browning and Organoleptic Properties,” by J. Hajslova, V. Schulzova, P. Slanina, K. Janne, K.E. Hellenas and Ch. Andersson. Food Additives and Contaminants 22, no. 6 (2005): pp. 514-534. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030500137827
    Keywords: vegetables, potatoes, comparative studies, nitrates, mineral content, heavy metals, ascorbic acid, glycoalkaloids, polyphenols, phytochemicals, nutrient content, varietal differences, geographical variation; Research affiliation: Czech Republic

  6. “Recoveries of Four Representative Organophosphorus Pesticides from 18 Plant Products Belonging to Different Botanical Categories: Implications for Matrix Effects,” by P. Georgakopoulos, E. Foteinopoulou, P. Athanasopoulos, E. Drosinos and P. Skandamis. Food Additives and Contaminants 24, no. 4 (2007): pp. 360-368. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030601101144
    Keywords: plant composition, pesticide residues, botanical insecticides, environmental fate, fruits (food), laboratory techniques, comparative studies, organophosphates; Research affiliation: Greece

  7. “Residues of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Organochlorine Pesticides in Organically-Farmed Vegetables,” by A. Zohair, A.B. Salim, A.A. Soyibo and A.J. Beck. Chemosphere 63, no. 4 (2006): pp. 541-553. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.09.012
    Keywords: vegetables, potatoes, carrots, chemical residues, pesticide residues, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine-pesticides, organophosphates, varietal differences, polluted soils, on-farm food safety; Research affiliation: Egypt/ United Kingdom

  8. “Results from the Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Fruit and Vegetables on the Danish Market, 1998-99,” by J.H. Andersen and M.E. Poulsen. Food Additives and Contaminants 18, no. 10 (2001): pp. 906-931. Note: Conference paper: Third European Pesticide Residues Workshop (EPRW 2000), York, UK, July 3-5, 2000. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030110054759
    Keywords: fruits (food), vegetables, processed foods, pesticide residues, comparative studies, maximum residue levels (MRLs); Research affiliation: Denmark

  9. “Results of the Monitoring Program of Pesticide Residues in Organic Food of Plant Origin in Lombardy (Italy),” by S. Tasiopoulou, A.M. Chiodini, F. Vellere and S. Visentin. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes 42, no. 7 (2007): pp. 835-841. Note: Conference paper: Pesticides Research in Mediterranean Countries: Annual meeting of the Mediterranean Group of Pesticide Research, Sardegna, Italy, September 21-22, 2006. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601230701555054
    Keywords: pesticide residues, risk assessment, grains, vegetables, fruits (food), dietary exposure; Research affiliation: Italy

  10. “Risks from Pesticides on Food: Synthetic vs Organic – Can We Really Know?” by C.F. Chaisson. Abstracts of Papers American Chemical Society 228, no. Part 1 (2004): pp. U86. Note: Conference paper abstract. American Chemical Society, Division of Agrochemicals, 228th ACS National Meeting, August 22 – 26, 2004, Philadelphia, PA. Abstract: http://membership.acs.org/A/AGRO/Picogram/PicogramV67Fall2004.pdf (accessed Aug. 22, 2008)
    Keywords: pesticides, laws and regulations, risk factors, comparative studies; Research affiliation: United States/ Maine

  11. Safe Organic Vegetables. European Commission, 2000. Note: European Research Project No: QLK1-1999-00986: Safe organic vegetables and vegetable products by reducing risk factors and sources of fungal contaminants throughout the production chain: The carrot - Alternaria model. Project Web site, Wageningen Seed Centre: http://www.seedcentre.nl/Projects/EU_SafeOrganicVegetables/
    safe_organic_vegetables.htm (accessed Aug. 22, 2008)
    Keywords: vegetables, carrots, mycotoxins, Alternaria, laboratory techniques, research methods, genetic techniques and protocols; Research affiliation: Netherlands

  12. Salmonella Prevalence in Free-Range and Certified Organic Chickens,” by J.S. Bailey and D.E. Cosby. Journal of Food Protection 68, no. 11 (2005): pp. 2451-2453.
    Keywords: poultry, chickens, chicken meat, bacterial contamination, Salmonella, free range husbandry, comparative studies, meats, carcass evaluation; Research affiliation: United States/ USDA/ Georgia

  13. Science Behind Reported Benefits of Organic Milk, by R. Bishop. University of Wisconsin, 2007. Note: Review article. University of WI: http://www.cdr.wisc.edu/pdf/07julrustyorganic.pdf (accessed Aug. 22, 2008)
    Keywords: literature reviews, dairy products, milk, food safety, mycotoxins, comparative studies; Research affiliation: United States/ Wisconsin

  14. “Semicarbazide in Baby Food: A European Survey,” by S. Szilagyi and M.B. de la Calle. European Food Research and Technology/ Zeitschrift fur Lebensmittel Untersuchung und Forschung 224, no. 1 (2006): pp. 141-146. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-006-0296-y
    Keywords: infant foods, processed foods, food contamination, comparative studies, packaging, semicarbazide (SEM), glass, jars; Research affiliation: Belgium

  15. “Sensory Quality and Microbial Load of Milk Products from Organic Farming in Austria,” by P. Zangerl, W. Ginzinger, E. Tschager and I. Lobitzer. IFOAM 2000: the World Grows Organic: Proceedings 13th International IFOAM Scientific Conference, Basel, Switzerland, August 28-31, 2000. pp. 298. International Federation of Organic Agricultural Movements (IFOAM), 2000. Note: Conference paper.
    Keywords: molds (fungi), dairy products, milk, cheeses, butter, raw milk, sensory properties, microbial contamination, comparative studies, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, on-farm food safety; Research affiliation: Austria

  16. “Simulation of the Exposure to Deoxynivalenol of French Consumers of Organic and Conventional Foodstuffs,” by J.C. Leblanc, L. Malmauret, D. Delobel and P. Verger. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 36, no. 2 (2002): pp. 149-154. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/rtph.2002.1584
    Keywords: grains, wheat, grain products, comparative studies, microbial contamination, mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol, dietary intake, maximum permissible intake; Research affiliation: France

  17. “Study on Pesticide Residues in Organic Food Products in France,” by C. Bitaud. IFOAM 2000: the World Grows Organic: Proceedings 13th International IFOAM Scientific Conference, Basel, Switzerland, August 28-31, 2000. pp. 311. International Federation of Organic Agricultural Movements (IFOAM), 2000. Note: Conference paper.
    Keywords: grains, fruits (food), vegetables, milk, soybeans, meats, cooking fats and oils, alcoholic beverages, processed foods, medicinal herbs, herbs, pesticide residues, herbicide residues, fungicide residues, laws and regulations; Research affiliation: France

  18. Survey of Milk for Mycotoxins. Food Standards Agency (UK), 2001.
    Keywords: dairy products, milk, comparative studies, mycotoxins, aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, on-farm food safety; Research affiliation: United Kingdom

  19. “Survey of Pesticide Residues in Swiss and Foreign Wines,” by P. Edder and D. Ortelli. Mitteilungen aus Lebensmitteluntersuchung und Hygiene 96, no. 5 (2005): pp. 311-320.
    Keywords: wines, wine quality, comparative studies, pesticide residues, geographical variation, laws and regulations, alcoholic beverages; Research affiliation: Switzerland

  20. “Survival and Transmission of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in an Outdoor Organic Pig Farming Environment,” by A.N. Jensen, A. Dalsgaard, A. Stockmarr, E.M. Nielsen and D.L. Baggesen. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72, no. 3 (2006): pp. 1833-1842. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.72.3.1833-1842.2006
    Keywords: swine, pigs, meats, pork, microbial contamination, bacterial contamination, coliform bacteria, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, risk factors, on-farm food safety, manures, pastures, polluted soils; Research affiliation: Denmark

  21. “Three-Year Study of Fenthion and Dimethoate Pesticides in Olive Oil from Organic and Conventional Cultivation,” by A.M. Tsatsakis, I.N. Tsakiris, M.N. Tzatzarakis, Z.B. Agourakis, M. Tutudaki and A.K. Alegakis. Food Additives and Contaminants 20, no. 6 (2003): pp. 553-559. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0265203031000070786
    Keywords: cooking fats and oils, olive oil, pesticide residues, organophosphorus pesticides, organophosphates, maximum residue levels (MRLs), comparative studies; Research affiliation: Greece

  22. “Threshold Troubles in Europe,” by L. Joppen. Food Engineering and Ingredients 29, no. 4 (2004): pp. 20, 22-23. Note: Other title: “GMOs Found in Organic Food: Threshold Troubles in Europe.”
    Keywords: genetically modified organisms (GMOs), plant composition, soybeans, corn; Research affiliation: United Kingdom

  23. “Trichothecene Toxins in Different Groups of Conventional and Organic Bread of the German Market,” by M. Schollenberger, W. Drochner, M. Rufle, S. Suchy, Terry J.H. and H.M. Muller. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 18, no. 1 (2005): pp. 69-78.
    Keywords: Fusarium, microbial contamination, grains, wheat, rye, breads, trichothecenes, deoxynivalenol, comparative studies, Tolerable Upper Intake Level; Research affiliation: Germany

  24. “Verification of Compliance with Organic Meat Production Standards by Detection of Permitted and Nonpermitted Uses of Veterinary Medicines (Tetracycline Antibiotics),” by M. Kelly, J.A. Tarbin, H. Ashwin and M. Sharman. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54, no. 4 (2006): pp. 1523-1529. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf050714z
    Keywords: animal products, meats, drug residues, antibiotic residues, antibiotics, tetracycline, product authenticity, laboratory techniques, animal health, drug therapy; Research affiliation: United Kingdom

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Author Index

| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | V | W | Z |

-A-

Agourakis, Z.B.   171
Aizpun de Moreno, J.E.   67, 116
Albers, G.   34
Alegakis, A.K.   171
Alfoldi, T.   22, 48, 60
Aman, P.   94
Amstutz, R.   43
Andersen, J.H.   158
Andersson, Ch.   155
Andersson, K.   17
Andre, M.C.D.P.B.   107
Andrey, D.   43
Angioni, A.   70
Anselme, M.   30, 47, 68
Arino, A.   64, 111
Armitage, D.M.   71
Arthur, L.   102
Arvaniti, F.   153
Ashwin, H.   174
Athanasopoulos, P.   156
Avramides, E.J.   39

-B-

Bacus, J.N.   40
Baert, K.   122
Baggesen, D.L.   170
Bahnson, P.B.   109
Bailey, J.S.   162
Baker, B.P.   140
Ballabio, C.   126, 127
Barna-Vetro, I.   68
Barr, D.B.   49, 96, 130
Bartell, S.   96
Barthel, J.   124
Battaglia, A.   29
Bauer, J.   89, 124
Beck, A.J.   157
Belk, K.E.   52
Bell, C.H.   71
Bellovino, D.   113
Benbrook, C.M.   140
Benbrook, K.L.   140
Bender, D.   112
Bender, J.B.   83, 152
Bennedsgaard, T.W.   28
Beretta, B.   126
Berger, U.   33
Bergwerff, A.A   125
Bertuzzi, T.   82, 146
Biffi, R.   127
Birzele, B.   41
Bishop, R.   163
Bitaud, C.   167
Bjelkova, M.   117
Blaine, K.A.   99
Blum, J.W.   151
Bobeldijk, I   3
Boehland, K.   123
Bonde, M.   60
Boonzaaijer, G.   3
Borec, A.   100
Boscariol, D.   1
Botek, P.   75
Bourn, D.   32
Brandt, K.   72
Bravo, R.   96, 130
Britti, M.S.   113
Brooks, C.B.   104
Buesing, K.M.   97

-C-

Caboni, P.   70
Cabras, P.   70
Campanini, G.   29
Carvalho, I.D.   107
Castillo, M.D.P.   94
Cattaneo, A.   127
Cencic, A.   100
Chaisson, C.F.   160
Charoulis, A.   39
Chiodini, A.M.   125, 159
Chizzolini, R.   29
Cho, S.   152
Ciavorella, A.   87
Cirillo, T.   66
Cocchieri, R.A.   66
Cogan, P.M.   71
Collins, J.D.   4
Comizzoli, S.   146
Connerton, I.F.   63
Connerton, P.L.   63
Cooper, J.   81
Coorevits, A.   91
Cosby, D.E.   162
Cravedi, P.   146
Credland, P.F.   71
Crump, K.S.   139
Curl, C.L.   136
Czajkowska, D.   128, 129
Czerwiecki, L.   128, 129

-D-

da Silva, N.F.   107
Dabeka, R.W.   110
Dalsgaard, A.   170
Danicke, S.   76
Darnerud, P.O.   94
Dasenakis, M.   15
Dassenakis, M.   14
Davis, S.F.   134, 135
de Boeck, M.   13
de Domenico, R.   126
De Giroloamo, A.   95
de Jonghe, V.   91
de la Calle, M.B.   164
de Leo, P.   142
de Martin, S.   44
de Meulenaer, B.   122
de Nino, A.   84
de Saeger, S.   36, 68, 90
de Temmerman, L.   36
de Voghel, S.   36
de Vos, O.J.   61
de Vos, P.   91
de Vries, M.   51
de Zutter, L.   34
del Valle, C.E.   5, 23, 145
Delate, K.    59
Delobel, D.   166
Dempfle, L.   89
Devlieghere, F.   122
Diez-Gonzalez, F.   11, 97, 144, 152
Diller, R.   123
Dimirkou, A.   39
Dimopoulos, M.   15
Dioguardi, L.   127
Doherr, M.G.   151
Doll, S.   76
Domoto, P.   59
Dragoni, I.   1
Drochner, W.   77, 173
Drosinos, E.   156
Dubosson, C.R.   151
Ducatelle, R.   34
Duchateau, L.   34
Dyck, E.   144

-E-

Eberly, L.E.   83
Edberg, U.   94
Edder, P.   169
El Shibiny, A.   63
Elgethun, K.   136
Elmholt, S.   138
Endres, J.B.   118
Engelhardt, G.   124
Estopanan, G.   64, 111
Eurola, M.   16, 38

-F-

Fabri, M.   102
Fenske, R.A.   130, 136
Ferrari, F.   82
Ferretti, E.   29
Finamore, A.   113
Flachowsky, G.   76
Fossler, C.P.   83, 152
Foteinopoulou, E.   156
Franz, E.   54, 61
Frati, S.   87
Friedman, M.   143
Friedrich, H.   59
Fritz, R.   5, 23
Froseth, R.B.   88
Funk, J.A.   109
Furhacker, M.   141

-G-

Gaetani, S.   113
Gaiaschi, A.   126
Galli, C.L.   126, 127
Garau, V.L.   70
Garibaldi, A.   87
Garrison, S.L.   104
Gartner, M.   141
Gatti, S.   82
Gennaro, L.   74
Georgakopoulos, P.   156
Gewin, V   131
Ghidini, S.   29
Gibbs, J.P.   139
Gigliotti, C.   126
Giles, J   131
Ginzinger, W.   165
Godani, F.   82
Godden, S.M.   83
Gonzalez-Cabo, J.F.   111
Gonzalez, L.   115
Gonzalez, M.   67, 116
Gonzalez-Osnaya, L.   50
Gottschalk, C.   124
Griesshaber, D.   33
Griswold, K.   118
Groth III, E.   140
Guadagnin, S.G.   69
Gullino, M.L.   87

-H-

Hajslova, J.   75, 117, 155
Hakala, M.   62
Halbert, L.W.   83
Hampshire, J.   22
Hanson, C.   110
Harcz, P.   36, 90
Hardy, J.L.   35
Harrison, M.A.   31
Hedberg, C.W.   152
Hellenas, K.E.   155
Hellstrom, S.   10
Herman, L.   91
Herrera, A.   64
Heyndrickx, M.   13, 91
Heyrman, J.   91
Hietaniemi, V.   16, 38
Highley, E.   71
Hochman, M.   117
Hoffmann, P.   89
Homfeld, E.   151
Hoogenboom, L.A.P.   57
Huopalahti, R.   62
Huyghebaert, A.   25, 103

-I-

Irish, R.   130

-J-

Jacobsen, J.S.   120
Janne, K.   155
Jara, H.T.   77
Jarp, J.   88
Jensen, A.N.   170
Jestoi, M.   93
Johannessen, G.S.    12, 86, 88
Jones, A.T.   97
Jones, S.   102
Jongen, W.   86
Joppen, L.   172
Jorgensen, K.   120
Jorhem, L.   53
Juan, C.   46, 115
Juan, T.   64, 111

-K-

Kalantari, A.   108
Kallio, H.   62
Kamala, A.   122
Kan, K.   24
Kaneene, J.B.   83, 152
Kangas, A.   16, 38
Karavoltsos, S.   14, 15
Karki, M.   55
Kasase, C.   122
Kelly, M.   174
Kemppinen, A.   55
Khalid, M.F.   108
Khandaker, N.R.   139
Kharazi, P.R.   58
Kijlstra, A.   51, 57
Knecht, A.   43
Knight, C.   80
Knittl, P.   141
Konstantinidou-Doltsinis, S.   39
Kontturi, M.   16, 38
Korkeala, H.   10
Kouba, M.   154
Kouva, M.   93
Krakalovich, T.   110
Kralova, J.   117
Kramer, J.   41
Kretzschmar, U.   48
Krieger, R.I.   139
Kristiansen, P.   72
Kuhn, F.   33
Kuhnert, P.   151
Kumpulainen, J.   114
Kwakkel, R.P.   18, 51

-L-

Labrada-Ching, J.   2
Laitinen, H.   55
Lapvetelainen, A.   62
Larondelle, Y.   25, 30, 47, 68, 90
Laukkanen, R.   10
Leblanc, J.C.   166
Leifert, C.   22, 48, 60, 81
Lens, L.   13
Lesueur, C.   141
Linden, A.   17
Lino, C.M.   46
List, P.   141
Little, C.L.   105
Lobitzer, I.   165
Lockie, S.   20
Loncarevic, S.   12
Lorenzini, G.   2
Lu, C.   49, 96, 130
Luck, L.   22, 48, 60
Lucke, F.K.   22
Lund, M.   118
Luukkonen, J.   55

-M-

Machado, D.C.   107
Macilwain, C   131
Magkos, F.   153
Maia, C.M.   107
Maijala, R.   10
Maki, M.   55
Malmauret, L.   35, 166
Manes, J.   46, 50, 115
Marasas, W.F.O.   71
Markaki, P.   45
Martini, A.   2
McMahon, M.A.S.   119
Meletis, K.   45
Mengheri, E.   113
Meniades-Meimaroglou, S.   45
Merino, L.   94
Methner, U.   123
Meyer, K.   89, 124
Miceli, A.   142
Micheal, C.   4
Miglioranza, K.S.B.   67, 116
Mitchell, R.T.   105
Molgaard, J.P.   72
Molto, J.C.   46, 50, 115
Moons, E.   36, 90
Moore, V.K.   65
Morant, M.A.   104
Moreels, A.   13
Moreira, M.R.   145
Moreno, V.J.   67, 116
Morrow, W.E.M.   109
Motte, J.C.   30, 47
Mukherjee, A.   11, 97, 144
Muller, H.M.   77, 173
Munari, M.   127
Murphy, D.J.   42

-N-

Narciso, J.A.   79
Negro, C.   142
Nelson, L   131
Nguz, K.   103
Nielsen, E.M.   170
Niggli, U.   22, 48, 60, 81
Niskanen, M.   16, 38
Nonnecke, G.   59
Nuotio, L.   10

-O-

O’Mahony, M.V.B.   4
Odstrcilova, L.   117
Odumeru, J.   102
Oehme, M.   33
Olfati, J.   58
Ortelli, D.   169
Oskarsson, A.   17

-P-

Paepens, C.   68
Pagani, M.   146
Pao, S.   108
Papadopoulos, P.   39
Papastamou, V.K.   21
Parent-Massin, D.   35
Partridge, M.   42
Pearson, M.   96
Pearson, M.A.   49
Peltonen, K.   93
Peroutka, R.   75
Peyvast, G.   58
Phillips, C.A.   31
Piemontese, L.   121
Pierard, J.Y.   47
Pietri, A.   146
Pihlava, J.M.   16
Ploeger, A.   48
Plotto, A.   79
Ponce, A.G.   5, 23, 145
Poulsen, M.E.   158
Poustka, J.   117
Powell, D.A.   99
Pozani, S.N.   21
Prange, A.   41
Prescott, J.   32
Pussemier, L.   25, 30, 47, 90

-Q-

Quaglia, G.B.   74

-R-

Raabe, C.   22
Ramo, S.   38
Ranta, J.   10
Rantanen, O.   16
Rasmussen, P.H   138
Rath, S.   69
Rawn, D.F.K.   110
Reganold, J.   72
Reiche, R.   123
Rembiakowska, E.   85
Restani, P.   44, 126, 127
Reyes, F.G.R.   69
Riccio, F.   2
Ritieni, A.   66, 93, 137
Ritzmann, M.   89
Rizzo, A.   93
Rodenburg, T.B.   18
Roesch, M.   151
Roggi, C.   146
Rondina, D.   2
Rorvik, L.M.   12, 88
Roscoe, V.   110
Roselli, M.   113
Rossi, F.   82, 146
Roura, S.I.   5, 23, 145
Ruegg, P.L.   83, 152
Rufle, M.   173
Rushing, J.W.   98
Ryhanen, E.L.   55

-S-

Saastamoinen, M.   16, 38
Sagoo, S.K.   105
Sakellari, A.   14, 15
Salim, A.B.   157
Samapundo, S.   103
Sanchez, C.A.   139
Santelli, F.   84
Sarais, G.   70
Scanga, J.A.   52
Schardt, D.   133
Scherpenisse, P.   125
Schmid, O.   48
Schmit, J.F.   36
Schneider, Y.J.   30, 90
Schneweis, I.   89
Schollenberger, M.   77, 173
Schulzova, V.   75, 155
Scoullos, M.   14, 15
Sebranek, J.G.   40
Serafini, A.B.   107
Servidio, N.   84
Shabani, H.   58
Sharman, M.   174
Shepherd, B.   118
Shindano, J.   103
Sibanda, L.   68
Siekkinen, K.M.   10
Sieler, V.   141
Sindona, G.   84
Sivela, S.   55
Skandamis, P.   156
Slanina, P.   53, 155
Smiechowska, M.   37
Smith, G.C.   52
Smulders, F.J.M.   4
Sofos, J.N.   52
Solemdal, L.   88
Solfrizzo, M.   95, 121
Somma, M.C.   93
Sorensen, J.T.   60
Soriano, J.M.   50, 115
Soyibo, A.A.   157
Spadaro, D.   87
Speh, D.   11, 97, 144
Stanley, R.   80
Stockmarr, A.   170
Suchy, S.   77, 173
Szilagyi, S.   164

-T-

Tagarelli, A.   84
Tahernia, S.   58
Tahvonen, R.   62
Taimisto, A.M.   55
Taji, A.   72
Tangni, E.K.   30, 47, 90
Tarbin, J.A.   174
Tarver, T.G.   135
Tasiopoulou, S.   159
Tatum, J.D.   52
Terry J.H.   173
Thakur, S.   109 Toepel, K.   130
Tommasi, L.   142
Torp, M.   86
Traag, W.A.   57
Traikou, A.C.   21
Trelka, R.   110
Trevisan, M.   82
Tsakiris, I.N.   171
Tsatsakis, A.M.   171
Tschager, E.   165
Turconi, G.   146
Tutudaki, M.   171
Tuuri, H.   16
Tuyttens, F.   13
Tzatzarakis, M.N.   171

-V-

Valenta, H.   76
Vallone, L.   1
van Bruggen, A.H.C.   61
van Coillie, E .   13
van den Bulk, R.   95
Van Der Hulst-Van Arkel, M.C.   18
van Diepeningen, A.D.   61
van Dongen, S.   13
van Hove, F.   30
van Nuffel, A.   13
van Osenbruggen, W.A.   3
van Overbeke, I.   34
van Peteghem, C.   25, 30, 36, 68, 90
van Poucke, E.   13
Vandroemme, J.   91
Varisco, G.   29
Vavoulidou, E.   39
Veijalainen, P.   93
Vellere, F.   159
Verger, P.   35, 166
Visconti, A.   95, 121
Visentin, S.   159
Vismer, H.F.   71
Visone, M.   66
Vitti, C.   95
Vleioras, S.G.   21
Vromman, V.   36

-W-

Waegeneers, N.   36
Waller, L.A.   49
Warnick, L.D.   83, 152
Wasteson, Y.   88
Welch, T.K.   118
Welland, D.   92
Wells, S.J.   83, 152
Willer, H.   22, 48, 60
Wilmart, O.   36, 90
Wilson, I.G.   119
Wilson, L.   59
Wimmer, S.   141
Winter, C.K.   134, 135
Witkowska-Gwiazdowska, A.   128, 129

-Z-

Zabik, M.E.   65
Zabik, M.J.   65
Zampelas, A.   153
Zanardi, E.   29
Zangerl, P.   165
Zohair, A.   157
Zucchi, C.   2

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Subject Index

| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | V | W | Z |

-A-

acetyldeoxynivalenols  77
acrylamides  25
Aeromonas  119
aflatoxins  1, 2, 29, 168
alcoholic beverages  14, 21, 45, 125, 142, 167, 169
alfalfa  108
alkaloids  143
alleles  109
Alternaria  95, 117, 161
animal experimentation  89, 113, 114
animal feeding  1, 10, 17, 57, 61, 83, 89, 101, 118, 154
animal health  4, 10, 13, 17, 34, 60, 63, 89, 113, 151, 174
animal products  154, 174
animal welfare  13
anthocyanins  142
antibacterial properties  5, 7, 145
antibiotic residues  174
antibiotics  9, 19, 27, 28, 56, 73, 78, 101, 174
anticarcinogenic activity  143
antioxidants  142
apple juice  3, 87, 121, 122, 137
apples  3, 35, 59, 65, 87, 121, 122, 137, 144
applesauce   65
Argentina  5, 23, 67, 116, 145
Arizona  139
arsenic  35
arugula  69
ascorbic acid  37, 62, 155
Aspergillus  47, 93, 128, 129
Aspergillus alutaceus  127
Australia  20, 27
Austria  141, 165

-B-

Bacillus (bacteria)  91
bacterial contamination  4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 22, 34, 55, 61, 83, 88, 97, 102, 118, 144, 151, 152, 162, 170
bacteriocins  145
bacteriophages  63
barley  35, 46, 93, 128, 129, 138
bean sprouts  108
beans  35
beef  27, 35, 52, 106
beers  30, 90
Belgium  13, 25, 30, 34, 36, 47, 68, 90, 91, 122, 164
beverages  15, 30, 87, 90, 93
bile  89
biodynamic farming  33
biological control agents  59
blood chemistry  13, 89, 113
botanical insecticides  65, 70, 156
bovine spongiform encephalopathy  73
Brazil  69, 107
breads  50, 114, 173
breakfast cereals  68
broccoli  58, 97, 144
buckwheat  35
butter   165

-C-

cabbages   58, 97, 144
cadmium   14, 15, 16, 17, 29, 35, 36, 53, 62, 82, 146
California   31, 135, 143
Campylobacter   13, 18, 19, 34, 56, 63, 78, 101, 104, 105, 109, 118, 119, 147, 148, 149
Canada   99, 102, 110
carbamate pesticides   110
carcass evaluation   13, 27, 34, 56, 89, 101, 147, 162
carrots   35, 53, 65, 75, 95, 157, 161
cattle   27, 106
celery   75
cheeses   1, 55, 165
chemical residues   24, 25, 29, 51, 57, 114, 139, 157
chicken meat   6, 13, 18, 26, 34, 63, 101, 118, 148, 149, 150, 162
chickens   13, 18, 19, 24, 26, 34, 51, 56, 57, 63, 101, 118, 123, 149, 162
children   49, 96, 130, 136
chlorpyrifos   49
chromium   53
ciprofloxacin   147
citrus fruit   84
coliform bacteria   8, 9, 23, 31, 54, 59, 61, 88, 91, 97, 103, 106, 107, 108, 144, 151, 152, 170
Colorado   52, 83
comparative studies   2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 71, 72, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 82, 83, 85, 87, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 96, 97, 99, 102, 104, 106, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 132, 134, 135, 136, 137, 139, 140, 141, 142, 144, 146, 147, 148, 149, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 158, 160, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 168, 169, 171, 173
cooking fats and oils   167, 171
copper   21, 39, 62, 82
corn   1, 2, 43, 46, 64, 66, 111, 126, 172
crop quality   62, 74
cucumbers   97, 144
cultivars   16, 62
cured meats   40
cytotoxicity   93
Czech Republic   75, 117, 155

-D-

dairy cattle   4, 8, 9, 28, 54, 61, 78, 83, 151, 152
dairy products   1, 2, 4, 8, 9, 28, 29, 35, 52, 55, 78, 83, 91, 151, 163, 165, 168
Denmark   28, 60, 95, 120, 138, 149, 158, 170
deoxynivalenol   30, 33, 35, 36, 38, 41, 47, 66, 76, 77, 89, 90, 93, 146, 166, 173
dietary exposure   49, 96, 130, 136, 159
dietary intake   44, 45, 69, 110, 115, 121, 126, 127, 136, 166
dietary supplements   98
dietary surveys   49, 89, 90, 130, 136
dioxins   24, 25, 51, 57, 114
disease and pest management   59
drug residues   154, 174
drug resistance   6, 8, 9, 26, 27, 56, 78, 109, 147, 149
drug therapy   174

-E-

eggs   19, 24, 35, 51, 52, 57, 123
Egypt   157
enniatin B   93
enniatin B1   93
Enterococcus   6
environmental exposure   96
environmental fate   156
epidemiological surveys   18, 60, 152
ergosterol   82
Escherichia coli   4, 7, 11, 12, 31, 55, 97, 102, 105, 106, 107, 108, 119, 144, 145, 151, 165
Escherichia coli O157:H7   4, 9, 54, 61, 88, 97, 144, 152
European Union   4, 10

-F-

farm surveys   10, 12
feeds   1, 2, 10, 17, 38, 51, 57, 61, 76, 83, 89, 101, 111, 118, 154
fertilizer applications   11, 12, 16, 38, 58, 88, 104, 107, 144
Finland   10, 16, 19, 38, 55, 62, 93, 114
flavonoids   142
flax   117
Florida   79
food additives   73
food contamination   75, 146, 164
food labeling   42
food packaging  25
food preservatives  5, 40, 48
food processing  48
food safety  20, 32, 48, 52, 71, 72, 73, 74, 79, 80, 81, 85, 92, 99, 100, 112, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 153, 163
food spoilage  22, 103, 117
France  35, 95, 154, 166, 167
free range husbandry  24, 63, 118, 123, 162
fresh cut foods  31, 79, 103, 105, 140
fruit composition  62
fruit juices  37, 110, 121
fruits (food)  3, 11, 21, 35, 37, 39, 59, 62, 65, 70, 84, 87, 97, 99, 100, 102, 110, 121, 122,
137, 140, 141, 144, 156, 158, 159, 167
fumigants  43
fumonisin B1  35, 64, 66, 68, 111
fumonisin B2  64, 66, 68, 111
fumonisins  111
fungicide residues  21, 39, 167
fungicides  39
furanocoumarins  25, 75
Fusarium  38, 41, 47, 66, 76, 77, 89, 93, 111, 173

-G-

garlic  58
genes  27, 54, 78
genetic techniques and protocols  109, 161
genetically modified foods  42
genetically modified organisms (GMOs)  42, 71, 73, 172
genotype  109
geographical variation  45, 155, 169
Georgia  49, 96, 130, 162
Germany  22, 41, 76, 77, 89, 123, 124, 173
Gibberella fujikuroi  64
glass  164
glucosinolates  25
glycoalkaloids  25, 143, 155
grain products  14, 36, 43, 46, 50, 66, 68, 93, 110, 115, 124, 126, 127, 166
grains  2, 14, 16, 33, 35, 36, 38, 41, 43, 46, 47, 50, 53, 64, 68, 76, 77, 89, 93, 111, 113, 114, 115, 120, 124, 126, 127, 128, 129, 138, 146, 159, 166, 167, 173
grapes  21, 45, 125
grass-fed livestock  27, 57
Greece  14, 15, 21, 39, 45, 153, 156, 171
green leafy vegetables  5, 14, 15, 23, 31, 44, 54, 58, 67, 69, 97, 104, 107, 139, 144, 145

-H-

HACCP  54, 80, 81, 115
harvest date  11, 116
heavy metals  14, 15, 16, 17, 21, 25, 29, 35, 36, 39, 53, 62, 82, 146, 155
helminthiasis  34
herbicide residues  167
herbs  98, 102, 167
high performance liquid chromatography  3, 30, 33, 45, 70, 77, 117, 121, 122, 127
hydroponic production  69

-I-

Illinois  118
infant foods  65, 93, 110, 121, 124, 126, 127, 137, 164
Iowa  40, 59
Iran  58
Irish Republic  4
Italy  1, 2, 29, 44, 66, 70, 74, 82, 84, 87, 93, 95, 113, 121, 126, 127, 137, 142, 146, 159

-J-

jars  164
juices  3, 37, 87, 110, 122

-K-

kidneys  17

-L-

laboratory techniques  3, 21, 27, 33, 43, 44, 46, 47, 50, 62, 68, 70, 82, 84, 95, 111, 121, 122, 125, 127, 139, 141, 150, 156, 161, 174
lactic acid  23, 145
lactic acid bacteria  13, 31
laws and regulations  10, 48, 72, 76, 79, 80, 81, 86, 99, 100, 160, 167, 169
laying hens  19, 24, 51, 57, 123
lead  14, 29, 35, 36, 53, 62, 82, 146
legumes  117
lentils  108
lettuces  12, 31, 35, 44, 54, 61, 67, 69, 88, 94, 97, 102, 104, 107, 139
Listeria  55, 105, 119
Listeria monocytogenes  12, 31, 88, 145
literature reviews  20, 24, 25, 32, 40, 48, 51, 52, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 79, 81, 85, 86, 92, 98, 99, 100, 112, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 143, 153, 163
livers  17
lycopene  82
lymphocyte proliferation  113

-M-

Maine  160
malathion  49
manures  11, 17, 18, 54, 61, 83, 88, 104, 107, 144, 151, 152, 170
Maryland  148, 150
maximum permissible intake  36, 50, 64, 121, 166
maximum residue levels (MRLs)  29, 36, 62, 110, 141, 158, 171
meats  6, 7, 10, 13, 15, 17, 18, 22, 26, 27, 29, 34, 35, 40, 52, 56, 60, 63, 89, 101, 106, 109, 110, 118, 147, 148, 149, 150, 154, 162, 167, 170, 174
medicinal herbs  98, 167
melons  102
mercury  35
Michigan  8, 28, 65, 78, 83
microbial contamination  2, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, 18, 19, 23, 26, 28, 30, 31, 47, 54, 56, 59, 60, 63, 68, 71, 72, 73, 74, 77, 78, 79, 81, 86, 87, 90, 98, 99, 100, 101, 103, 104, 105, 106, 108,
111, 115, 117, 119, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 131, 137, 138, 142, 144,
145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 165, 166, 170, 173
milk  1, 2, 28, 29, 35, 55, 91, 151, 163, 165, 167, 168
mineral content  21, 39, 53, 62, 114, 155
Minnesota  8, 9, 11, 83, 97, 101, 144, 152
molds (fungi)  3, 31, 59, 64, 89, 103, 111, 138, 165
multilocus sequence typing  109
multiple drug resistance  6, 9, 26, 28, 78, 148
mung beans  108
mycotoxins  1, 2, 3, 25, 29, 30, 33, 35, 36, 38, 41, 45, 46, 47, 50, 64, 66, 68, 72, 74, 76, 77, 87, 89, 90, 93, 95, 111, 113, 115, 117, 120, 121, 122, 124, 125, 126, 128, 129, 137, 138, 142, 146, 154, 161, 163, 166, 168

-N-

natural toxicants  112
Netherlands  3, 18, 24, 51, 54, 57, 61, 95, 125, 161
New York  8, 83
New Zealand  32
nitrates  25, 35, 37, 40, 44, 58, 69, 73, 74, 94, 114, 139, 155
nitrites  22, 35, 40
nivalenol  35, 77
North Carolina  26, 109, 147
Northern Ireland  119
Norway  12, 86, 88
nutrient content  32, 37, 52, 53, 55, 58, 74, 85, 114, 131, 132, 154, 155
nutritive value  134, 135
nuts  39

-O-

oats  16, 38, 46, 93, 124, 138
ochratoxin A  30, 35, 41, 45, 46, 47, 50, 90, 115, 120, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 138, 142, 146, 168
Ohio  56, 106
oil crops  117
oilseeds  117
olive oil  171
on-farm food safety  2, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 17, 18, 19, 24, 26, 28, 30, 31, 33, 51, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 60, 61, 67, 78, 81, 83, 85, 91, 97, 99, 104, 111, 116, 117, 118, 128, 129, 144, 146, 147, 149, 152, 157, 165, 168, 170
onions  102
oranges  84
organic farming  82
organochlorine pesticides  65, 67, 114, 116, 157
organophosphates  49, 84, 130, 136, 156, 157, 171
organophosphorus pesticides  49, 171

-P-

packaging  164
parsley  58, 102
parsnips  75
pastures  , 26, 118, 170
patulin  3, 25, 35, 87, 121, 122, 137
pears  65, 121
peas  117
Penicillium  128, 129
Penicillium verrucosum  127, 138
Pennsylvania  78
pentachlorophenol  24
peppers  97, 144
perchlorates  139
pesticide residues  20, 21, 25, 29, 36, 43, 49, 62, 65, 67, 70, 73, 74, 82, 84, 96, 110, 114, 116, 130, 131, 133, 136, 140, 141, 153, 154, 156, 157, 158, 159, 167, 169, 171
pesticide safety and handling  96
pesticides  160
phenols  142, 143
phospine  43
phytochemicals  142, 143, 155
pigs  7, 10, 17, 60, 89, 109, 147, 170
plant composition  21, 53, 69, 75, 116, 139, 143, 156, 172
Poland  37, 85, 128, 129
polluted soils  17, 24, 39, 51, 53, 54, 57, 67, 116, 157, 170
polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)  25, 29, 114, 157
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)  25, 157
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)  27
polyphenols  142, 155
pork  7, 10, 17, 35, 60, 89, 109, 147, 170
Portugal  46
postharvest treatment  79, 80, 98, 138
potatoes  53, 143, 155, 157
poultry  6, 13, 18, 19, 24, 26, 34, 51, 56, 57, 63, 101, 118, 123, 149, 150, 162
poultry litter  104
processed foods  3, 22, 37, 41, 42, 50, 55, 62, 65, 80, 81, 87, 114, 137, 142, 158, 164, 167
product authenticity  42, 174
protein  146
public health  96, 152
pyrethrins  96
pyrethroid insecticides  96

-R-

radishes  107, 108
rats  114
raw milk  1, 91, 165
research methods  70, 72, 79, 161
rice  43, 66, 115, 126
risk assessment  25, 36, 54, 71, 90, 110, 159
risk factors  83, 144, 151, 160, 170
rye  46, 53, 76, 93, 114, 120, 128, 129, 138, 173

-S-

Salmonella  8, 13, 18, 26, 31, 34, 60, 83, 88, 97, 101, 102, 105, 106, 107, 108, 118, 119, 123, 144, 148, 150, 162
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium  54, 61, 148, 170
salycilic acid  82
sausages  22
seafood  15
seasonal variation  18, 19, 49, 83
seeds  108
semicarbazide (SEM)  164
sensory properties  22, 74, 114, 165
Shiga-like toxins  9, 106, 151, 152
Shigella  102
slaughterhouses  149
Slovenia  100
solid phase extraction  3
somatic cell count  55
South Africa  71
South Carolina  26, 98
soybeans  42, 167, 172
Spain  6, 7, 46, 50, 64, 111, 115
spelt  138
spinach  35, 58, 94, 107
spray drift  116
sprouting  108
squashes  65, 97
Staphylococcus aureus  28, 108, 165
storage conditions  22, 41, 55, 79, 145
storage insects  146
strawberries  62, 144
Sweden  17, 53, 94
swine  7, 10, 17, 60, 89, 109, 147, 170
Swiss chard  5, 23, 67
Switzerland  33, 43, 48, 151, 169

-T-

tetracycline  174
tolerable daily intake (TDI)  76, 90, 126
Tolerable Upper Intake Level  173
tomatoes  35, 82, 97, 102, 116
trichothecenes  25, 33, 38, 41, 77, 124, 173
triticale  138
turkey meat  6
turkeys  56

-U-

United Kingdom  20, 42, 63, 72, 73, 80, 105, 112, 132, 157, 168, 172, 174
United States  8, 9, 11, 20, 26, 28, 31, 40, 49, 52, 56, 59, 65, 78, 79, 83, 96, 97, 98, 101, 106, 108, 109, 118, 130, 135, 136, 139, 140, 143, 144, 147, 148, 150, 152, 160, 162, 163
urea  55
urine  49, 96, 130, 136
USDA  52, 79, 83, 143, 162
USDA Pesticide Data Program  140

-V-

varietal differences  16, 62, 78, 155, 157
vegetables  5, 11, 12, 14, 15, 23, 31, 35, 39, 44, 53, 54, 58, 61, 65, 67, 69, 70, 74, 75, 86, 88, 94, 95, 97, 99, 100, 102, 103, 104, 105, 107, 110, 111, 116, 119, 139, 140, 141, 143, 144, 145, 155, 157, 158, 159, 161, 167
vinegars  137
Virginia  26, 108
viticulture  21, 45

-W-

Washington  130, 136
water pollution  139
watercress  69
wheat  33, 35, 36, 41, 43, 46, 47, 66, 76, 77, 89, 93, 113, 114, 120, 126, 128, 129, 138, 146, 166, 173
wheat flour  47, 77, 114
wine quality  142, 169
wines  21, 45, 125, 142, 169
Wisconsin  8, 11, 26, 28, 83, 97, 163

-Z-

Zambia  103
zearalenol  77
zearalenone  35, 36, 47, 76, 89
zinc  53, 62

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Last Modified: Dec 09, 2011
 
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