USDA.gov National Agricultural Library
Alternative Farming Systems Information Center Masthead
SpacerHomeAbout AFSICPubsDatabasesHelpContact Us
   
Search the Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
 
Search all USDA
advanced search
search tips
browse by subject
Sustainability in Agriculture
Alternative Crops and Plants
Education and Research
Farm Energy Options
Farms and Community
Grazing Systems and Alternative Livestock Breeds
Alternative Marketing and Business Practices
Organic Production
Ecological Pest Management
Soil and Water Management
 
You are here: Home / Publications / Celebrating America's Unique Apple Diversity: Selected Literature  Printer Friendly Page
Publications
   
Organically Produced Foods: Nutritive Content

Dinner plate variety of apples.


Special Reference Briefs Series
no. SRB 2010-02

Compiled by:
Rebecca Mazur and Katie Winkleblack
National Agricultural Library
Agricultural Research Service
U.S. Department of Agriculture
10301 Baltimore Avenue
Beltsville, MD 20705
(301) 504-5755
agref@nal.usda.gov
http://www.nal.usda.gov

September 2010
Updated September 2011

Table of Contents

divider line


Introduction

“Why do we need so many kinds of apples? Because there are so many folks. A person has a right to gratify his legitimate tastes. If he wants twenty or forty kinds of apples for his personal use, running from Early Harvest to Roxbury Russet, he should be accorded the privilege. Some place should be provided where he may obtain trees or [s]cions. There is merit in variety itself. It provides more points of contact with life, and leads away from uniformity and monotony.
                                         --Liberty Hyde Bailey, The Apple Tree, p. 68
                                         (New York: Macmillan, 1922)

This bibliography is a selected compilation from the rich pool of information resources at the National Agricultural Library about heirloom apples. It consists of a list of books and reports at the Library dating prior to 1928, with the addition of later books which focus on the subject of varieties of apples grown in the American past. It is organized into sections first by date and then in order of the author’s last name.

The bibliography was prepared in conjunction with the presentation “Celebrating America’s Unique Apple Diversity: A Roundtable Discussion Featuring Some of America’s Leading Apple Experts,” held on September 17, 2010, to mark 2010 as the Year of the Heirloom Apple. Participants represented the range of America’s apple growers, and included Dr. Gary Nabhan, Ben Watson, Nick Botner, Tom Burford, John Bunker, Dan Bussey, and Lee Calhoun.

Books listed in the bibliography were identified by a search of AGRICOLA, the Library’s online catalog, and a search of the Dictionary Catalog of the National Agricultural Library, 1862-1965, the Library’s printed reproduction of the card catalog as it was maintained prior to 1965. The Experiment Station Record, a printed index to the reports of State agricultural experiment stations, was also searched for the years 1889-1930.

For the convenience of the reader, the bibliography is organized into several date ranges. The first group contains books prior to 1900 that demonstrate apple varieties being grown primarily in America with the addition of some listings of varieties that were likely to have been imported. The next group contains items dating from 1900-1927. Following this period, when subsistence farming became less common and grocery stores became an affordable source of produce, apple growing became more consolidated and apple varieties dwindled.1, 2 The next grouping, 1928-1959 reflects this as research begins to center on a smaller number of varieties. Based on a review of the literature, it wasn't until the 1960s and 1970s that, realizing the loss of many of the choicest apple varieties, writers begin to focus on cataloging the old varieties.

All of the items in the bibliography are available to the public for examination. Most of the items can be brought down from the Library stacks for use in the Reading Room. Some of the rare materials can be viewed in the Special Collections department. An appointment is necessary to visit Special Collections; contact our staff at 301-504-5876 or by email at speccoll@ars.usda.gov to set up an appointment. People who would like to use the Library’s collection but are not near the National Agricultural Library may wish to go to their own local libraries and inquire about Interlibrary Loan services. The National Agricultural Library’s policies and procedures on Interlibrary Loan are available at http://nal.usda.gov/services/request.shtml.

We hope that this document will be useful to heirloom apple enthusiasts, breeders, and researchers.

  

  

1 Creighton Lee Calhoun, Jr., Old Southern Apples (Blacksburg, Virginia: The McDonald & Woodward Publishing Company, 1995), 16 & 37
2 Gary Paul Nabhan, et al., Forgotten fruits manual and manifesto: apples (Renewing America's Food Traditions (RAFT) Alliance, 2010), 10 URL: http://www.slowfoodusa.org/images/ark_products/applebklet_web-3-11.pdf

 Back to Top 
divider line

1754 - 1899

  1. Bailey, L. H. 1887. Varieties of apples for market. Bulletin (State Agricultural College (Mich.). Experiment Station); no. 23. [Lansing]: Agricultural College of Michigan.

  2. Barron, Archibald Farquharson. 1884. British apples. Report of the Committee of the National apple congress, held in the Royal horticultural gardens, Chiswick, October 5th to 25th, 1883. London: Macmillan and Co.

  3. Beach, S. A. 1895. Testing fruits: apples and crab-apples. 251-66. Annual Report (New York State Agricultural Experiment Station); Fourteenth annual report. Geneva, NY: Published by the Station under authority of Cornell University.

  4. Beach, S. A., W. Paddock, and C. P. Close. 1896. Testing fruits. 267-300. Annual Report (New York State Agricultural Experiment Station); Fifteenth annual report. Geneva, NY: Published by the Station under authority of Cornell University.

  5. Budd, J. L. 1892. Experiments with new orchard fruits, trees, and shrubs. 535-65. Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural College. Experiment Station); no. 19. Des Moines, IA: Register Printing House.

  6. Buell, Jonathan S. 1874. The cider makers' manual : a practical hand-book, which embodies treatises on the apple ; construction of cider mills, cider-presses, seed-washers, and cider mill machinery in general ; cider making ; fermentation ; improved processes in refining cider, and its conversion into wine and champagne ; vinegar manipulation by the slow and quick processes ; imitation ciders ; various kinds of surrogate wines ; summer beverages ; fancy vinegars, etc. Buffalo: Haas, Nauert & Co.

  7. Bull, Henry Graves, Robert Hogg, Edith G. Bull, Alice B. Ellis, and Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. 1876-1885. The Herefordshire pomona, containing coloured figures and descriptions of the most esteemed kinds of apples and pears. With illustrations drawn and coloured from nature by Miss Ellis and Miss Bull. Hereford, London: Jakeman and Carver; Journal of horticulture office.

  8. Burrill, T. J. and G. W. McCluer. 1892. Horticultural notes. 73-81. Bulletin (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 21. [Urbana, IL]: The Station.

  9. Burrill, Thomas Jonathan and G. W. McCluer. 1896. Varieties of apples. 297-348. Bulletin (University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign Campus). Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 45. Urbana, [IL]: University of Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station.

  10. Butz, G. C. 1893. Orchard fruits. 107-15. Report of the Pennsylvania State College for the Year... Part II, 1892. Agricultural Experiment Station. Harrisburg, [PA]: Edwin K. Meyers, State Printer.

  11. [California Agricultural Experiment Station]. 1894. Catalogue of the fruit trees at the California Experiment Stations. 474-90. Bulletin (California Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 102. [California]: California Agricultural Experiment Station.

  12. Churchill, G. W. 1889. Lists of varieties of fruits. 347-57. Annual Report (New York State Agricultural Experiment Station); Eighth annual report. Geneva, NY: Published by the Station under authority of Cornell University.

  13. Clark, John W. 1889. Experiments on seed germination, pea weevil and apples. Bulletin (Missouri Agricultural College. Experiment Station); no. 6. Columbia, MO: Missouri Agricultural College Experiment Station.

  14. Donahoo, Absalom. 1870-1880. Absalom Donahoo apple nursery records from 1870-1880. Unpublished manuscript.
    Abstract: This handwritten notebook contains Absalom Donahoo's records of the apple cultivars he was testing for potential commercial production in Nebraska City, Otoe County, Nebraska. His lands was south of Nebraska City on Highway 75.

  15. Downing, A. J. 1845-1900. Fruits and fruit trees of America, or, the culture, propagation, and management, in the garden and orchard, of fruit-trees generally : with descriptions of all the finest varieties of fruit, native and foreign, cultivated in this country. multiple editions. In the 1900 edition, 1098. New York: J. Wiley.

  16. Dunn, Malcolm and Royal Caledonian Horticultural Society. 1887. Apples and pears, 1885 : report of the Apple and Pear Congress held by the Royal Caledonian Horticultural Society, Edinburgh from 25th to 28th November 1885. Edinburgh: Maclachlan and Stewart.

  17. Ellis, William. 1754. The compleat cyderman, or, the present practice of raising plantations of the best cyder apple and perry pear-trees : with the improvement of their excellent juices ... with many other improvement relating to these excellent liquors. London: R. Baldwin.

  18. Fitz, James. 1872. The Southern apple and peach culturist adapted to the soil and climate of Maryland, Virginia, the Carolinas, Georgia and farther south ... : containing full and practical instructions in successful culture, grafting, budding ... together with descriptive catalogues of the most esteemed orchard fruits ... with illustrations also a treatise on insects and their extermination. Richmond, VA: J.W. Randolph & English.

  19. Gibb, Charles. 1884. On the Russian apples imported by U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1870. Report (Montreal Horticultural Society and Fruit Growers’ Association of the Province of Quebec); v. 9. Montreal: Printed by Gazette Print. Co.

  20. Goff, E. S. 1895. Apple culture in Wisconsin. Bulletin (University of Wisconsin. Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 45. Madison, WI: [University of Wisconsin--Madison. Agricultural Experiment Station].

  21. Hogg, Robert. 1859. The apple and its varieties : being a history and description of the varieties of apples cultivated in the gardens and orchards of Great Britain. London: Groombridge & Sons.

  22. Kansas State Horticultural Society. 1898. The Kansas apple. [The apple. The Kansas apple. The big red apple.]. 229. Topeka, KS: Kansas State Horticultural Society.

  23. Knight, T. A. 1801. A treatise on the culture of the apple and pear, and on the manufacture of cider and perry. 2nd enlarged ed. Ludlow: Printed and sold by H. Procter, sold in London by Longman and Rees, Pater-Noster-Row, and J. White.

  24. ———. 1808. A treatise on the culture of the apple & pear, and on the manufacture of cider & perry. Ludlow: Printed and sold by H. Procter; sold also by B. Crosby and Co.

  25. ———. 1809. A treatise on the culture of the apple and pear, and on the manufacture of cider and perry. 3rd enlarged ed. Ludlow: Printed by H. Procter, and sold by B. Crosby and Co. and sold by Messrs. B. Crosby and Co. Stationers Court, London.

  26. ———. 1818. A treatise on the culture of the apple and pear, and on the manufacture of cider and perry. 5th ed. London: Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown, Pater-Noster Row by H. Procter, Ludlow.

  27. Knight, T. A., J. Bohn, and William Bulmer. 1811. Pomona herefordiensis; containing coloured engravings of the old cider and perry fruits of Herefordshire. With such new fruits as have been found to possess superior excellence. Accompanied with a descriptive account of each variety. London: Printed for the Agricultural Society of Herefordshire, by W. Bulmer.

  28. Lodeman, E. G. 1896. Dwarf apples. Bulletin (Cornell University. Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 116. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.

  29. Lyon, T. T. 1889. Fruit testing at the South Haven Substation. Bulletin (Experiment Station of Michigan Agricultural College); no. 55. Lansing, MI: Michigan Agricultural College. Michigan Experiment Station.

  30. Maynard, S. T. [1898?]. Report of the horticulturist. 11-19. Massachusetts Hatch Act Station Report 1898. Amherst, MA: Hatch Experiment Station of the Massachusetts Agricultural College.

  31. McNeil, J. [1890?]. Report of the horticulturist: apples. 33-38. Arkansas Station, 3rd Annual Report, 1890. Fayetteville, AR: The Station.

  32. Morris, O. M. 1899. Fruits of Oklahoma. 12 and following. Bulletin (Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 43. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station.

  33. Munson, W. M. 1896. Orchard notes. 64-83. Maine Station Report, 1896. Orono: Maine Agricultural Experiment Station.

  34. Newman, J. S. 1891. Apples, pears, peaches and plums. Bulletin (Agricultural Experiment Station of the Agricultural and Mechanical College); no. 30. Auburn, AL: Agricultural Experiment Station of the Agricultural and Mechanical College.

  35. Putnam, Henry. 1824. Touches on agriculture : including a treatise on the preservation of the apple-tree, together with family recipes, experiments on insects, &c. Portland, ME: A.W. Thayer, printer.

  36. Ronalds, Hugh and Elizabeth Ronalds. 1831. Pyrus malus brentfordiensis : or, a concise description of selected apples. London: Printed by Richard Taylor for Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green.

  37. Stinson, John T. 1894. Horticulture. Bulletin (Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 26. Fayetteville, AR: Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station.

  38. Taft, L. R. 1895. The apple orchard. 25-48. Bulletin (State Agricultural College (Mich.). Experiment Station); no. 124. Lansing, MI: Agricultural College of Michigan.

  39. ———. 1890. Fruit list and apple scab. Bulletin (State Agricultural College (Mich.). Experiment Station); no. 59. Lansing: Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station, State Agricultural College.

  40. Thacher, James and Joseph Wentworth Ingraham. 1822. The American orchardist : or a practical treatise on the culture and management of apple and other fruit trees : with observations on the diseases to which they are liable, and their remedies. : to which is added the most approved method of manufacturing and preserving cider. Boston: Printed & published by Joseph W. Ingraham.

  41. Thoreau, Henry David. 1883. Wild apples. Excursions. 266-306. Boston: Houghton Mifflin and Co.

  42. Troop, James. 1894. Horticulture and entomology. Bulletin (Purdue University. Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 53. Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station.

  43. United States. Department of Agriculture. 1870. Apples for the Southern states. Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture for the year 1869. 184-98. Washington: GPO.
    http://naldr.nal.usda.gov/NALWeb/Agricola_Link.asp?Accession=ros1869pt1

  44. United States. Department of Agriculture. 1863. Descriptions of leading popular varieties of the apple and pear. Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture for the year 1862. 163-77. Washington, DC: GPO.
    URL: http://naldr.nal.usda.gov/NALWeb/Agricola_Link.asp?Accession=ros1862pt1

  45. Warder, J. A. 1867. American pomology : apples. New York: Orange Judd and Co.

  46. Watts, R. L. 1890. Fruit-trees at the Experiment Station. 75-92. Bulletin (University of Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station); v. 3 no. 5. Knoxville: University of Tennessee, Agricultural Experiment Station.

  47. Watts, Ralph L. 1896. Apples of Tennessee origin. Bulletin (Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Tennessee); no. 35. Knoxville: University of Tennessee, Agricultural Experiment Station.

  48. ———. 1897. Apples of Tennessee origin : second report. Bulletin (Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Tennessee); no. 39. Knoxville: University of Tennessee, Agricultural Experiment Station.

  49. Waugh, Frank Albert. 1897. Hardy apples for cold climates. Bulletin (Vermont Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 61. Burlington: Vermont Agricultural Experiment Station.

 Back to Top 
divider line

1900-1927

  1. Alwood, William B. 1901. Orchard studies. Bulletin (Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 130. Blacksburg, VA: Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station.

  2. Andrews, F. 1914. Relative production of apple varieties. The agricultural outlook (United States Bureau of Crop Estimates). Farmers’ Bulletin (United States. Dept. of Agriculture); no. 641. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.

  3. Auchter, E. C. 1915. An apple orchard survey of Berkeley County. Bulletin (West Virginia University Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 151. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Agricultural Experiment Station.

  4. Bailey, L. H. 1922. The varieties of apple. The apple-tree. 66-78. New York: Macmillan.

  5. Ballard, W. R. 1913. Apple orchard experiments. Bulletin (Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 178. College Park, [MD]: Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station.

  6. Batchelor, L. D. 1913. Varieties of fruit recommended for planting in Utah. Circular (Utah Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 8. Logan: Utah Agricultural Experiment Station.

  7. Beach, S. A. 1914. "Iowa 403"--a new seedling apple. Circular (Iowa State College. Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 18. Ames, IA: Agricultural Experiment Station, Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts.

  8. Beach, Spencer Ambrose, Nathaniel O. Booth, Orrin M. Taylor, and New York (State). Dept. of Agriculture. 1905. The apples of New York. Report, 1902/03. Albany: J.B. Lyon Co., printer.

  9. Blake, M. A. [1914?]. Varieties of tree fruits for New Jersey. 3-5. New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station Circular; no. 41. New Brunswick, [NJ]: [New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station].

  10. Brackett, G. B. 1909. The apple and how to grow it. 32. Farmers’ Bulletin (United States Department of Agriculture); no. 113. Washington, DC: GPO.

  11. ———. 1902. Commercial apple orcharding. 593-608. Yearbook of the United States Department of Agriculture, 1901. Washington, [DC]: GPO.

  12. Bruner, T. K. 1903. Apples in North Carolina. 14-30. Bulletin (North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 182. Raleigh, [NC]: [North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station].

  13. Close, C. P. 1910. Apple culture. 217-65. Bulletin (Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 144. Agricultural College, Prince George’s County: The Station.

  14. Corbett, L. C. 1910. Apple districts of West Virginia. 83-178. Bulletin (West Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 75. Morgantown, WV: Agricultural Experiment Station.

  15. Craig, John, George F. Warren, Walter Edward McCourt, and New York State College of Agriculture. 1905. An Apple orchard survey of Wayne County, New York. Bulletin (Cornell University. Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 226. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.

  16. Cummings, M. B. 1910. Apple orchard survey of Niagara County. Revised ed. Bulletin (Cornell University. Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 262. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.

  17. ———. 1921. First 15 years of a 40-variety apple orchard ; Apple [s]cion selection from high and low yielding parent trees. Bulletin (Vermont Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 221. Burlington: Vermont Agricultural Experiment Station.

  18. Cummings, M. B. and E. W. Jenkins. 1926. First 20 years of a variety apple orchard ; Apple [s]cion selection. Bulletin (Vermont Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 255. Burlington: Vermont Agricultural Experiment Station.

  19. Dickens, Albert and G. O. Greene. 1902. The experimental apple orchard. Bulletin (Experiment Station, Kansas State Agricultural College); no. 106. Manhattan, KS: Experiment Station, Kansas State Agricultural College.

  20. Ellenwood, C. W. 1927. Varieties of apples in Ohio, II. Bulletin (Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 411. Wooster, OH: Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station.

  21. Fraser, Samuel. 1927. The problem of apple varieties. American fruits. 42-55. New York: Orange Judd Co.

  22. García, Fabián. 1910. Apple culture under irrigation. Bulletin (New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 75. Las Cruces, NM: New Mexico College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts.

  23. Garman, H. 1904. On an injury to fruits by insects and birds ; The apple tree measuring worm ; The fall beauty, a new apple. Bulletin (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 116. Lexington: Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station of the State College of Kentucky.

  24. Georgeson, C. C. 1914. Horticultural investigations in Alaska. 11-26. Alaska Stations Report, 1914.

  25. Gould, H. P. and Frank Andrews. 1917. Apples : production estimates and important commercial districts and varieties. Bulletin (United States. Dept. of Agriculture); no. 485. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.

  26. Gourley, J. H. and C. W. Ellenwood. 1926. Fruit varieties in Ohio. 427-38. Bulletin (Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 396. Wooster, OH: The Station.

  27. ———. 1925. Fruit varieties in Ohio, I. Bulletin (Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 391. Wooster, OH: Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station.

  28. Green, S. B. 1903. Apples and apple growing in Minnesota. Bulletin (University of Minnesota. Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 83. [St. Paul]: Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Minnesota.

  29. Green, W. J., Paul Thayer, and J. B. Keil. 1915. Varieties of apples in Ohio. Bulletin (Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 290. Wooster, OH: Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station.

  30. Greene, Laurenz. 1914. An apple orchard survey of Mills County. Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 153. Ames, IA: Agricultural Experiment Station, Iowa State College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts.

  31. Hansen, N. E. 1902. A study of northwestern apples. Bulletin (South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 76. Brookings, SD: South Dakota Agricultural College, Experiment Station.

  32. Hedrick, U. P. 1915. Dwarf apples. Bulletin (New York State Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 406. Geneva, NY: New York Agricultural Experiment Station.

  33. ———. 1922. Varieties of apples. Cyclopedia of hardy fruits. 15-71. New York: Macmillan.

  34. Hedrick, U. P., N. O. Booth, and O. M. Taylor. 1906. Apple districts of New York with varieties for each. Bulletin (New York State Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 275. Geneva, NY: New York Agricultural Experiment Station.

  35. Hedrick, U. P. and G. H. Howe. 1913. Apples: old and new. 135. Bulletin (New York Experiment Station); no. 361. Geneva, NY: New York Agricultural Experiment Station.

  36. Hildreth, A. C. 1926. Determination of hardiness in apple varieties and the relation of some factors to cold resistance. Technical Bulletin (University of Minnesota, Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 42. St. Paul: University Farm.

  37. Jefferson, L. P. and H. W. Yount. 1926. The apple situation. 10-12. Bulletin (Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 226. Amherst, MA: Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station.

  38. Kraus, E. J. 1916. Variation of internal structure of apple varieties. Station Bulletin (Oregon Agricultural College Experiment Station); no. 135. Corvallis, OR: Oregon Agricultural College Experiment Station.

  39. Lantz, H. L. 1924. Varieties of tree fruits for Iowa planting. Circular (Iowa State College. Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 92. Ames, IA: Agricultural Experiment Station, Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts.

  40. Leeds Manor Orchards Commercial Dept. 1914. Leeds Manor Orchards, Markham, Virginia, U.S.A. Washington, DC: Commercial Dept. of the Leeds Manor Orchards.

  41. Martin, H. M. 1911. An apple orchard survey of Ontario County. Bulletin (Cornell University. Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 307. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.

  42. Maynard, Samuel Taylor. 1916. Varieties. Successful fruit culture. 51-58. New York: Orange Judd Co.

  43. Milam, Ava B. and Harriet B. Gardner. 1915. Comparative cooking qualities of some of the common varieties of apples grown in Oregon. Station Bulletin (Oregon Agricultural College Experiment Station); no. 124. Corvallis, OR: Oregon Agricultural College Experiment Station.

  44. Munson, W. M. 1902. Orchard notes. Bulletin (Maine Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 82. Orono: Maine Agricultural Experiment Station.

  45. ———. 1907. Preliminary notes on the seedling apples of Maine. Bulletin (Maine Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 143. Orono: Maine Agricultural Experiment Station.

  46. Newman, Charles Carter. 1905. Notes on varieties of apples. Bulletin (South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 109. Clemson College, SC: South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station.

  47. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station. 1903. The Apple. Bulletin (North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 182. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station of the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts.

  48. [North Carolina Dept. of Agriculture]. 1900. Apples in North Carolina. 40. Bulletin (North Carolina State Board of Agriculture), no. 21. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina Dept. of Agriculture.

  49. Powell, George Harold. 1900. Top-working apple trees. Bulletin (Delaware College Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 48. Newark, DE: Delaware College Agricultural Experiment Station.

  50. Price, J. C. C. and C. T. Ames. 1921. Apples in north Mississippi : Holly Springs Branch Station. Circular (Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 41. Agricultural College, MS: Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station.

  51. Ragan, William Henry. 1905. Nomenclature of the apple; a catalogue of the known varieties referred to in American publications from 1804 to 1904. 2nd ed. Bulletin (United States. Dept. of Agriculture. Bureau of Plant Industry); no. 56. Washington [DC]: GPO.

  52. Rane, Frank William. 1904. Fruit growing with a selected list of varieties for New Hampshire. Bulletin (New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 105. Durham: New Hampshire College Agricultural Experiment Station, New Hampshire College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts.

  53. Roberts, John W. 1926. Apple scab. Farmers' Bulletin (United States. Dept. of Agriculture); no. 1478. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.
    URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10113/33558

  54. Roberts, John W. and Leslie. Pierce. 1926. Apple blotch. Farmers' Bulletin (United States. Dept. of Agriculture); no. 1479. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.
    URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10113/32866

  55. Sandsten, E. P. 1924. Hardy varieties of apples for northeastern Colorado. Bulletin (Colorado Experiment Station); no. 292. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado Experiment Station.

  56. Shaw, J. K. 1922. Leaf characters of apple varieties. Bulletin (Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 208. Amherst, MA: Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station.

  57. ———. 1914. A study of variation in apples. Bulletin (Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 149. Amherst, MA: Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station.

  58. ———. 1914. The technical description of apples. Bulletin (Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 159. Amherst, MA: Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station.

  59. Stahl, J. L. 1913. Standard varieties of tree fruits. Monthly Bulletin (Washington State. Western Washington Station); v. 1 no. 4. Puyallup, WA: Western Washington Experiment Station.

  60. Stewart, John P. 1910. The apple in Pennsylvania : varieties, planting and general care. Bulletin (Pennsylvania State College. Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 106. State College: Pennsylvania State College Agricultural Experiment Station.

  61. ———. 1914. The apple in Pennsylvania : varieties, planting and general care. Bulletin (Pennsylvania State College. Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 128. State College: Pennsylvania State College Agricultural Experiment Station.

  62. Stinson, J. T. 1902. Varieties of apples and peaches. 21-54. Bulletin (Missouri. State Fruit Experiment Station, Mountain Grove); no. 3. Mountain Grove, MO: Missouri State Fruit Experiment Station.

  63. Thomas, H. H. [1902?]. The book of the apple: together with chapters on the history and cookery of the apple, and on the preparation of cider. 112. London and New York: John Lane: The Bodley Head.

  64. United States. Office of Experiment Stations. 1900. Experiment station work, XV : storing apples without ice . . . keeping qualities of apples . . . Farmers' Bulletin (United States. Dept. of Agriculture); no. 119. Washington: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.
    URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10113/35028

  65. Van Deman, H.V. 1910. Apples in western Maryland. Baltimore: Munder-Thomsen Press.

  66. Vincent, C. C. and G. J. Downing. 1915. Recommended varieties of fruit for Idaho. Bulletin (Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 83. Moscow, ID : University of Idaho, Agricultural Experiment Station.

  67. Warren, George F. 1905. An apple orchard survey of Orleans County. Bulletin (Cornell University. Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 229. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.

  68. Waugh, F. A. 1908. The American apple orchard. 215. New York: Orange Judd Co.

  69. ———. 1901. An inventory of the apples grown in Grand Isle County. 277-313. Vermont Station Report, 1901. Burlington, VT: Vermont Agricultural Experiment Station.

  70. Waugh, Frank Albert. 1900. Apples of the Fameuse type. Bulletin (Vermont Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 83. Burlington, VT: Vermont Agricultural Experiment Station.

  71. Wilkinson, Albert E. 1915. The apple: a practical treatise dealing with the latest modern practices of apple culture. 492. [New York]: Ginn and Co.

  72. Woolverton, Linus. 1910. The Canadian apple grower's guide. Toronto: W. Briggs.

  73. [Young Men's Christian Association]. 1911. Apple growing in the Pacific Northwest. 215. Portland, OR: Young Men's Christian Association.

 Back to Top 
divider line

1928-1959

  1. Bailey, L. H. 1930. Apple. Standard cyclopedia of horticulture. 312-33. New York: Macmillan.

  2. Child, Alice M. and Ruth. Brand. 1937. Culinary quality of apple varieties grown in Minnesota. Technical Bulletin (University of Minnesota, Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 128. St. Paul: University of Minnesota, Agricultural Experiment Station.

  3. Clague, J. A. and C. R. Fellers. 1936. Apple cider and cider products. Bulletin (Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 336. Amherst, MA: Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station.

  4. Clarke, W. S. and C. M. Ritter. 1955. Apple varieties in central Pennsylvania. Bulletin (Pennsylvania State University. Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 605. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University, College of Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station.

  5. Cummings, M. B. and E. W. Jenkins. 1930. Apple thinning experiments ; Cause relations of small apples ; Size increases of large and small apples ; Quarter century study of a variety orchard. Bulletin (Vermont Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 308. Burlington: Vermont Agricultural Experiment Station.

  6. Cummings, M. B., E. W. Jenkins, and R. G. Dunning. 1935. Apple orcharding : winter injuries ; grass endurance ; irrigation and nitrate ; twenty-sixth to thirtieth year of a 14-variety orchard. Bulletin (Vermont Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 395. Burlington: Vermont Agricultural Experiment Station.

  7. Ellenwood, C. W. 1929. Fruit varieties in Ohio, IV : crab apples. Bulletin (Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 434. Wooster, OH: Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station.

  8. Fagan, F. N. and R. H. Sudds. 1930 . Varieties of apples for Pennsylvania. Bulletin (Pennsylvania State College. Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 253. State College: Pennsylvania State College, School of Agriculture and Experiment Station.

  9. Lantz, H. L. 1928. Apple breeding : a study of Jonathan crosses. Research Bulletin (Iowa State College. Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 116. Ames, IA: Agricultural Experiment Station, Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts.

  10. ———. 1931. Varieties of tree fruits for Iowa planting. Circular (Iowa State College. Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 131. Ames, IA: Agricultural Experiment Station, Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts.

  11. Magness, J. R. 1941. Apple varieties and important producing sections of the United States. Farmers' Bulletin (United States. Dept. of Agriculture); no. 1883. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.
    URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10113/33834

  12. Monroe County (N.Y.). Regional Planning Board. [1936?]. Apple orchard survey. [s.l.].

  13. Scoville, G. P. and T. E. LaMont. 1929. Apple varieties : prices, yields, and acreages. Bulletin (Cornell University. Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 495. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station.

  14. Shaw, J. K. 1943. Descriptions of apple varieties. Bulletin (Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 403. Amherst, MA: Massachusetts State College.

 Back to Top 
divider line

1960-CURRENT

  1. Bultitude, John. 1983. Apples : a guide to the identification of international varieties. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

  2. Burford, Tom. 2004. Apples : a catalog of international varieties. Monroe, VA: T. Burford.

  3. Calhoun, Creighton Lee. 1995. Old southern apples. Blacksburg, VA: McDonald & Woodward Pub. Co.

  4. ———. 2011. Old southern apples : a comprehensive history and description of varieties for collectors, growers, and fruit enthusiasts. 2nd ed. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Pub. Company.

  5. Crawford, Martin. 1996. Directory of apple cultivars. Subiaco, WA, Australia: Cornucopia Press.

  6. French, R. K. 1982. The history and virtues of cyder. New York: St. Martin's Press.

  7. Hanson, Beth. 2007. The best apples to buy and grow. Edition includes updated resources. Brooklyn Botanic Garden All-Region Guides; handbook no. 81. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Botanic Gardens.

  8. Jefferson, Roland M. and United States. Agricultural Research Service. 1970. History, progeny, and locations of crabapples of documented authentic origin. National Arboretum Contribution; no. 2. Washington, DC: Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.

  9. Morgan, Joan, Alison Richards, and Brogdale Horticultural Trust. 1993. The book of apples. London: Ebury Press.

  10. Morgan, Joan, Alison Richards, and Elisabeth Dowle. 2002. The new book of apples. Revised and updated ed. London: Ebury.

  11. Nabhan, Gary Paul et al. 2010. Forgotten fruits manual and manifesto: apples. Renewing America's Food Traditions (RAFT) Alliance.
    URL: http://www.slowfoodusa.org/images/ark_products/applebklet_web-3-11.pdf

  12. Shewell-Cooper, W. E. and Good Gardeners' Association. 1978. A detailed description of some 200 varieties of apples growing in the orchards of Arkley Manor, Arkley, S. Herts : a guide to organic gardeners. Arkley: Good Gardeners' Association.

  13. Smith, Muriel W. G. and Fisheries and Food. Great Britain. Ministry of Agriculture. 1971. National apple register of the United Kingdom. London: Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food.

  14. Terry, Dickson, Stark Bro's Nurseries & Orchards Co., and Missouri Historical Society. 1966. The Stark story : Stark Nurseries 150th anniversary. St. Louis, MO: Missouri Historical Society.

  15. Torgrimson, John and Joanne Thuente. 2009. Fruit, berry and nut inventory : an inventory of nursery catalogs and websites listing fruit, berry and nut varieties available by mail order in the United States. 386. Decorah, IA: Seed Savers Exchange.

  16. Twiss, Sally. 1999. Apples : a social history. London: National Trust.

  17. Watson, Ben. 2009. Cider, hard and sweet : history, traditions, and making your own. 2nd ed. Wodstock, VT: Countryman Press.
    URL: http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip0822/2008028918.html

  18. Way, Roger D. 1972. Early apple varieties. Special Report (New York State Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 7. Geneva, NY: New York State Agricultural Experiment Station.

  19. ———. 1965. Tree and fruit characteristics of some standard and new apple varieties. Research Circular Series (New York State Agricultural Experiment Station); no. 3. Geneva, NY: New York State Agricultural Experiment Station.

  20. Wynne, Peter. 1975. Apples: history, folklore, horticulture and gastronomy. New York, NY: Hawthorn Books.

  21. Yepsen, Roger B. 1994. Apples . New York, NY: W.W. Norton.

 Back to Top 
divider line
Last Modified: Oct 17, 2011
 
AFSIC Home | NAL Home | USDA | ARS | AgNIC | Web Policies and Important Links | Site Map
FOIA | Accessibility Statement | Privacy Policy | Non-Discrimination Statement | Information Quality | USA.gov | White House