About the Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
The Alternative Farming
Systems Information Center (AFSIC) specializes in locating and accessing
information related to many aspects of sustainable and alternative agriculture,
crops and livestock sustainable and organic crop and livestock farming
systems; renewable farm energy options; alternative marketing practices; crop
and livestock diversification including aquaculture, exotic and heritage farm
animals, alternative and specialty crops, new uses for traditional crops, and
crops grown for industrial production; and small farm issues.
AFSIC was founded in 1985 and
is an integral part of the National Agricultural Library (NAL) in Beltsville,
Maryland. The Center is supported, in part, by USDA’s Sustainable
Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) program, and a cooperative agreement
with the University of Maryland, College Park, MD. NAL is part of the U.S.
Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the USDA Agricultural Research Service
A current list of AFSIC
information products and full-text publications are available electronically on
the AFSIC Web site. Recent publications are also available, on request, in hard
About the Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future
Founded in 1996, the Johns
Hopkins Center for a Livable Future promotes research and communicates
information about the complex interrelationships among diet, food production,
the natural environment and human health. As an interdisciplinary center it
serves as a resource to solve problems that threaten the health of the public
and hinder our ability to sustain life for future generations.
we have tried to provide the most current and correct information available,
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liability or responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of the information
resources presented. Internet links to people, Web sites and documents change
constantly; the links in this document were checked and accessed successfully
in June 2011.
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The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all of its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, disability, and where applicable, sex (including gender identity and expression), marital status, familial status, parental status, religion, sexual orientation, political beliefs, genetic information, reprisal, or because all or part of an individual's income is derived from any public assistance program. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact USDA's TARGET Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD).
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the passage of the National School Lunch Act in 1946, key legislation has
played an essential role in providing our Nation's children with access to
healthier meals. Programs like the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and
the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP) have provided, and continue to
provide, nutritionally balanced and low-cost or free meals and snacks to
children each school day. As early as 1997, the United States Department of
Agriculture (USDA) began an effort to connect farms to the school meal
programs. For purposes of this document, Farm to School is defined as efforts
to serve regionally and locally produced food in school cafeterias, with a
focus on those that participate in the Child Nutrition Programs. Farm to institution efforts are also included, which bring the Farm to School model in organizations or establishments such as hospitals or correctional facilities.
Successful Farm to School activities have the potential to benefit multiple stakeholders including schools, farmers, and children. Activities surrounding Farm to School can also
help children learn essential lessons about how farm products are grown and their
role in a nutritious, healthful diet. Introducing local farm products in both
the classroom and the cafeteria allows children to experience the value and
appeal of a diet rich in fresh fruits and vegetables. While USDA does not
currently have definitive data measuring the national demand for Farm to
School, there are strong indicators that interest in Farm to School activities
has increased over recent years.
The Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004 authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to provide assistance in support of Farm to School projects through grants and assistance to schools and nonprofit entities. These activities were eventually funded in December of 2010, when the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act was signed into law. This Act authorized USDA to provide technical assistance and competitive matching Farm to School grants. The grants may be used for training, supporting operations, planning, purchasing equipment, developing school gardens, developing partnerships and implementing farm to school activities.
In addition to the Farm to School grant program, the USDA is also supporting Farm to School efforts through a number of initiatives,
and continues to look for ways to help facilitate this important connection. In late 2009, the USDA established "Know Your Farmer, Know Your Food," an initiative which focuses on the importance
of understanding where our food comes from and how it gets to our plate. As a
part of the USDA’s Know Your Farmer, Know Your Food initiative, we
developed this working bibliography with two goals in mind. First, we aim to
document existing research and resources on Farm to School and Farm to Institution
efforts around the Nation. Second, we hope to help identify research gaps for
this topic. Understanding what we do know and what we need to know about Farm
to School may foster future research that will eventually facilitate the growth
of sustainable food production and local food consumption.
This bibliography attempts to represent selected documentation from a wide range of
resources: peer reviewed literature databases, organizational Web sites, report
citations, conference proceedings, Cooperative Extension Service publications,
resources for Farm to School activities are underrepresented in the formally
published academic literature. Most materials exist as informal papers and
research reports on individual organizational Web sites or as articles in
regional/local news, trade and popular publications. This bibliography pulls
together many substantial materials on Farm to School efforts across the United
States. Some citations include links to full-text documents; most do not; or
only provide links to publisher Web sites.
publications cited are in English, and most were produced in the past two
decades, but we have included a few older publications to provide historical
context of Farm to School efforts in the United States. Cited items owned by
the National Agricultural Library (NAL) are noted with NAL call numbers.
Citations in this category range from case studies of individual schools to district, regional and state-wide reports of Farm to School efforts. The primary sources are peer-reviewed scientific journals and non-academic, foundation or community-based organization reports. A small selection of books, theses and videos are also included.
Popular media articles and organizational reports typically highlight the presence of local Farm to School efforts or celebrate the successes of local activities. Schools and districts that have had longer history of Farm to School related activities (such as Davis Unified School District (CA), Santa Monica-Malibu Unified School District (CA), and Burlington Public School District (VT)) are repeatedly used as examples. A few of the organizational reports evaluate the behavioral changes that occurred as a result of Farm to School activities.
Articles from peer-reviewed journals examine a wide range of issues, such as the barriers to successful Farm to School activities, changes in student food behavior after implementing Farm to School, and the political nature of Farm to School. One article (Allan and Guthman 2006) treats Farm to School activities as social justice efforts and considers the long-term socio-political trajectories of Farm to School.
While the momentum of Farm to School is growing, research efforts remain uneven. At the moment, the effect of Farm to School on diet-related behavior appears modest at best. Part of the issue may be the newness of the field of Farm to School (operational only since 1996-97). It is possible that Farm to School and local food education may have a delayed effect on student behavior, e.g. until students become older and have greater autonomy in selecting and purchasing the food they eat.
Another possible research direction is the effect of Farm to School on local development. There is limited evidence that Farm to School is helping small farms become more viable (see, for example, Kish 2008) but the data is still limited and not systematic. In the article "Pennsylvania Farm-to-School Programs and the Articulation of Local Context," Kai Schaft and colleagues conducted an original mail-in survey study as well as reviewed data from existing case studies to learn more about Farm to School efforts in Pennsylvania (Schaft 2008). The authors find that rather than representing a more or less uniform set of practices, in both scale and content, Farm to School programming varies widely across school districts depending on district needs, resources, and the salient local issues that act as catalysts for Farm to School (e.g., nutrition, obesity prevention, strong community identification with local agriculture, and/or local economic development). They suggest that Farm to School might therefore best be understood and promoted as a flexible range of locally embedded strategies that schools might use to address specific community and school needs. Their conclusions suggest the need for more community-based studies of Farm to School efforts in order to understand the role of agricultural producers in their local communities, and direct resources that meet the needs of the local community.
Another article worth highlighting is "Do Farm to School Programs Make a Difference? Findings and Future Research Needs," from the Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition (Joshi, Azuma and Feenstra 2008). The authors reviewed 15 Farm to School studies and suggest some future research needs, including:
The need to have third-party researchers to conduct evaluation studies.
The need to understand the roles of food services staff and teachers in Farm to School efforts.
The need to understand actual levels of student demand (meal participation rate).
The need to understand the actual level of farmers’ ability to supply (as well as define) local food.
How do school policies actually change individual behavior?
What’s the role of community involvement in Farm to School efforts? Do Farm to School efforts change community behavior as well? How do different communities vary?
What are the tradeoffs between behavior change and cost? Can Farm to School efforts be sustainable?
These selected articles and those listed below create a baseline of knowledge for the Farm to School community and will help shape future Farm to School research.
book describes in detail seven farm-to-school projects from around the country,
examining the barriers and opportunities surrounding farm-to-school programs,
including childhood obesity, the struggles of family farmers, and the changing
school food environment with the rise of fast food and soft drinks in the
school lunchroom. The report also includes an analysis of federal policies
related to nutrition and local food systems, and makes a series of policy
Abstract: This comprehensive web-based guide to enhancing school
nutrition in school districts is the culmination of five years of research by
the Center for Ecoliteracy and their project partners aimed at identifying the
elements necessary to create integrated farm-to-school programs that incorporate
nutritional, educational, community development, and environmental goals.
Essays, interviews, tools and resources, divided into ten thematic chapters,
are offered together to help a diverse array of stakeholders begin the process
of envisioning and planning innovative school feeding programs that are
designed to enhance the social and mental well-being of students, help improve
student performance, and enable students and teachers to reconnect with their
local communities in meaningful ways.
Abstract: This publication seeks to profile work underway in
Native America to restore traditional food systems for children in tribal
schools. The eight community profiles in this report capture the work of a
multitude of tribal communities, mainly in the Southwest and Great Lakes
regions, working to restore their tribal food systems up until July 2008, which
is when the interviews were conducted. The scope of this report, originally
planned to profile tribal farm to school programs, was expanded to explore the
role of farm to cafeteria programs within the broader tribal food system
restoration work underway in Indigenous communities. We hope this report will
serve as a resource guide for individuals working within Native American
communities on strengthening food sovereignty and farm to cafeteria
Gottlieb, R., A. Joshi, and M. Vallianatos. "Farms
to Schools: Promoting Urban Health, Combating Sprawl, and Advancing Community
Food Systems (Southern California)." Pavel, M. P. 2009. Breakthrough
Communities: Sustainability and Justice in the Next American Metropolis. Urban and Industrial Environments Series and Sustainable Metropolitan Communities
Books. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 285-302.
Abstract: This booklet provides an overview of potential
opportunities and issues to be addressed in implementing farm-to-school
programs including guidelines for individual farmers and community
organizations seeking access to schools as markets.
Haase, M. [2005?]. "Farm
to School: Cultivating Food Values and Healthy Children." Hunger
and Environmental Nutrition Newsletter. 1-4.
Hackes, B. L. and C. W. Shanklin.
1999. "Factors Other Than Environmental Issues Influence Resource
Allocation Decisions of School Foodservice Directors." Journal
of the American Dietetic Association. 9 (8): 944-949. NAL Call Number: 389.8 Am34 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-8223(99)00225-4 [Accessed 6/9/2011]
Harmon, A. 2003. Farm to School:
An Introduction for Food Service Professionals, Food Educators, Parents and
Community Leaders. [Los Angeles, CA]: Occidental College, Urban
and Environmental Policy Institute, Center for Food and Justice, National Farm
to School Program.
Abstract: This publication contains case studies for Farm to
School projects in New Jersey, California, New Mexico, Iowa, Vermont and other
locations based on school district and non-profit organization programs. An
extensive list of organizations, handbooks, curricula, Web sites and
region-specific resources are included.
Joshi, A. and A. Azuma. "Bearing
Fruit: Farm to School Program Evaluation Resources and Recommendations."
2009. Los Angeles, CA: Occidental College, Urban and Environmental Policy
Institute, Center for Food and Justice. Report. URL: http://departments.oxy.edu/uepi/cfj/bearingfruit.htm [Accessed 6/10/2011]
Abstract: Farm to school programs, which link local farmers with
schools, have increased in number, from fewer than ten in 1997 to more than an
estimated 2,000 programs in 2008. With this phenomenal increase, many in the
farm to school movement are faced with the question: what are the specific
impacts of the program? Funding agencies, advocates and policy makers grapple
with this question as they consider farm to school programs as a model to
improve school nutrition and farm profitability. While it may seem intuitive
that linking students with local foods would lead to positive outcomes in
student dietary intake and farm income, well-designed evaluations and research
projects are needed to examine impacts on student health, dietary behaviors,
school district policies, local farm profitability, and other aspects of the
community at large.
Joshi, A. 2010. "From Neighborhoods
to the Nation, Farm to School Programs are Taking Root." The
Digest (Public Health/Community Nutrition Dietetic Practice Group of the
American Dietetic Association). Spring: 1-3.
Joshi, Anupama, Marion Kalb, and
Moira Beery. 2006. Going Local: Paths to Success for Farm to School
Programs. Los Angeles, CA: Occidental College, Urban and
Environmental Policy Institute, Center for Food and Justice; National Farm to
School Program; Community Food Security Coalition. 28 p. URL: http://departments.oxy.edu/uepi/cfj/publications/goinglocal.pdf [Accessed 6/10/2011]
Abstract: This report showcases innovative farm to school
programs from around the country. It draws upon the existing information as
well as new research to present a compilation of eight case studies of farm to
school programs operating in different regions of the country. Each case study
profiles a program’s operations and accomplishments as well as the
barriers that have been faced and the tactics used to overcome these
Kalb, Marion, Kristen Markley, and
Loren Gustafson. 2005. Feeding Young Minds: Hands-on Farm to School
Education Programs. [Portland, OR]: Community Food Security
Coalition. 31 p.
Abstract: Focusing on educational activities that complement
local purchasing for school meals, this booklet highlights farm to school
experiential education programs from around the country. These range from
cooking classes in New Mexico, to school fundraisers in Ohio, to kindergartners
tasting watermelon radishes in Pennsylvania. Each program is unique, yet offers
insights and possibilities of what can be achieved when farm-fresh products in
the cafeteria are linked with experiential education activities. A resource
section is included.
Kalb, Marion, Kristen Markley, and
Sara Tedeschi. 2004. Linking Farms with Schools: A Guide to
Understanding Farm-to-School Programs for Schools, Farmers and Organizers.
[Portland, OR]: Community Food Security Coalition.
Abstract: Details the benefits, challenges, and strategies for
success for building successful farm to school projects and includes case
studies of innovative projects and an extensive resource list.
Abstract: Provides in-depth information about the history and
use of the U.S. Department of Defense Farm to School Program including how the
program is funded, types of school partnerships possible with the Department of
Defense, how the program works, and how the farm products are delivered to
Abstract: Farm to school efforts have expanded rapidly in the
United States since the 1990s. From only a handful of projects in 1996, there
are now over 2,000 programs in 42 states that bring farm fresh products into
school meals. That record of success reflects a convergence of many factors,
including concerns about rising childhood obesity and diabetes rates and
growing interest in local foods. To continue to grow, farm to school programs
must find ways to further develop their delivery systems. Specifically: How can
farm to school programs continue to expand to reach more students and more
schools? What are the best long-term strategies for distribution in, for
example, remote rural and large urban settings?
McLaren, P. 2004. "A
Growing Movement: Farm-to-School Programs Take Root." School
Foodservice and Nutrition (now School Nutrition
Magazine). 58 (5): 28-36. NAL Call Number: LB3475.A1S3 URL: http://www.schoolnutrition.org/Content.aspx?id=2326 [Accessed 6/10/2011]
Abstract: Profiles six farm-to-school programs with varying
characteristics including geographic region, number of schools served, number
of students served, and types of local food served. Each profile includes
program background, plus/minus comparison and advice for others planning a
Morgan, K. and R. Sonino. 2008. The
School Food Revolution: Public Food and the Challenge of Sustainable
Development. Sterling, VA: Earthscan Publications Ltd. 231 p.
White, P. 2004. "Fertile
Field: The Farm-to-School Concept Flourishes as Schools and Communities Address
Cultural Concerns and Promote Healthy Living." School
Foodservice and Nutrition (now School Nutrition Magazine). 58 (5): 18-26. NAL Call Number: LB3475.A1S3 URL: http://www.schoolnutrition.org/Content.aspx?id=2326 [Accessed 6/10/2011]
Abstract: A review of the farm-to-school concept, the nascent
movement to bring local foods into schools, successful pilot programs, policy
barriers and Federal and state program supports.
(Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North
Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.)
Berkenkamp, JoAnne. 2006. Making
the Farm/School Connection: Opportunities and Barriers to Greater of
Locally-grown Produce in Public Schools. University of Minnesota,
Department of Applied Economics. 31 p. URL: http://www.farmtoschool.org/files/publications_120.pdf [Accessed 6/10/2011]
Abstract: This report explores the feasibility of expanding use
of fresh, locally grown fruits and vegetables in Minnesota's public K-12
schools. The core questions addressed in this study are: What would it take to
make locally grown, fresh fruits and vegetables a mainstream element of a
school district's food supply within the prevailing budgetary environment? What
are the opportunities and barriers to using fresh, local food in significant
volumes, on a sustained basis, and without additional outside subsidies? This
is part of a broader effort by University of Minnesota researchers, focused on
the Hopkins, MN school district, to explore links between childhood obesity and
the federal school lunch program.
Institute for Agriculture and Trade
Policy and Minnesota School Nutrition Association. 2010. Farm to
School in Minnesota: A Survey of School Food service Leaders. Minneapolis,
MN: Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy. 7 p. URL: http://www.agobservatory.org/library.cfm?refID=107270 [Accessed 6/10/2011]
Abstract: The Minnesota School Nutrition Association (MSNA) and
the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (IATP) work together to support
the adoption and expansion of farm to school initiatives across the state of
Minnesota. In January 2010, a survey was conducted to gauge interest and
activity in farm to school among Minnesota school foodservice professionals.
This report provides a summary of the survey results. Respondents from 69
Minnesota school districts reported that they purchased Minnesota-grown foods
in 2009. This is up from approximately 30 districts when the initial survey was
conducted in November 2008. Among districts currently engaged in farm to
school, 76 percent expect to expand their farm to school programs in the
2010/11. None indicated that they plan to reduce their farm to school
activities in the upcoming school year.
Izumi, B. T., K. Alaimo, and M. W.
Hamm. 2008. "Farm to School Programs and Their Potential for Meeting
School Food Service Goals." Journal of Nutrition Education
and Behavior. 40 (4, Supplement 1): S37. NAL Call Number: TX341.J6 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2008.03.047 [Accessed 6/10/2011]
Kish, S. 2008. "Fresh Food
Program Promotes Healthy Eating Habits Among Children." NRI
NAL Call Number: aS441.N75 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10113/15377 [Accessed 6/6/2011]
Abstract: Communities across the nation are fighting the
increased incidence of childhood obesity and Type II diabetes. With funding
from USDA’s Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension
Service (CSREES), a group in Illinois is promoting environmental sustainability
and healthy eating habits in the youngest Americans.
Abstract: How do you get kids to eat their vegetables? Americans
are bombarded with news about childhood obesity and the importance of replacing
junk food with healthier fare. But this is no easy task when children are
enticed with empty calories by advertisers, restaurants and even schools. When
you look at the big picture, getting children to eat their vegetables isn’t
simply a matter of coaxing picky eaters. For many kids, vegetables aren’t
on the table. Farm-to-school projects emerged in the late 1990s in response to
the nutritional inadequacy of children’s diets, the struggles faced
by independent family farmers, and a desire to connect children with farms. By
2006, there were about 400 of these projects in 22 states. In most of these
projects, schools purchase food - usually fresh fruit and vegetables - from
local farms and serve it in school cafeterias. How are farm-to-school projects
working? Jack Kloppenburg of the UW-Madison Department of Rural Sociology
reviewed the literature and found both opportunities and obstacles for such
programs. He then drew from his participatory action research in a farm-to-school
project in Madison -Wisconsin Homegrown Lunch- to understand some of the
Abstract: We use the experience of the Wisconsin Homegrown Lunch
Project, a farm-to-school project in Madison, Wisconsin, as a lens through
which to identify structural challenges faced by all farm-to-school initiatives
and examine a variety of key tactical issues that are likely to be confronted
during their implementation. We confirm that these initiatives can facilitate
the acceptance and consumption of fresh vegetables by elementary school
children. However, we find that the possibilities for connecting the land and
the lunchroom are seriously constrained by the structure of most existing
school lunch programs. These constraints include the overarching food culture,
the quasi-privatized character of most school food services, the degree of
industrialization of many school food services, issues of price, procurement
and supply, and the need for processing.
(Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C.)
Bagdonis, J. M. 2007. Perceptions and
Organization of Emerging Farm-to-School Programming in Rural and Urban
Pennsylvania Settings. Unpublished M.S. Thesis. Pennsylvania State
University, University Park, PA.
Food Works, Northeast Organic
Farming Association of Vermont, and Shelburne Farms. 2004. Analysis
of School Food and Local Purchasing in Vermont Schools, 2003-2004.
Richmond, VT: Vermont FEED: Food Education Every Day. URL: http://www.farmtoschool.org/files/publications_234.pdf [Accessed 6/10/2011]
Abstract: This report is a first attempt to quantify current,
and potential, local food purchasing by schools in Vermont during the 2003-2004
school year. A literature review and situational analysis of other economic
analyses of school food purchasing nationwide was undertaken in the beginning
of this report. This will provide a context for this Vermont local purchasing
analysis. The micro-analysis of the study group (ten schools and the largest
Vermont school district with nine schools), offered an opportunity to, in
detail, analyze the purchasing of fresh produce during the 2003-2004 school
year. A macro-analysis was accomplished through interviewing distributors which
currently deliver to Vermont schools.
Abstract: This presentation summarizes the results of the 2009
Food Service Director’s Survey to determine extent of New York’s
farm to school activity, assess interest in farm to school, and identify
opportunities, barriers and year-to-year changes.
Abstract: Farm to school (FTS) programs aim to increase the
supply of fresh, locally grown farm products served for meals and snacks in
K-12 school environments, and tend to incorporate educational and experiential
components designed to increase students' understanding of and engagement with
agriculture, nutrition, and health. The rising interest in and exploration of
farm to school programs in the U.S., and Pennsylvania, is directly related to
the convergence of recent trends facing agricultural producers and food
consumers. Through quantitative and qualitative research and outreach efforts,
this research documents the current forms, organization and policy needs of
farm to school efforts in Pennsylvania. A primary goal of the research was to generate
specific Pennsylvania-relevant information that can be incorporated into a "show-to
guide" to support school administrators, agricultural producers and
other stakeholders seeking either to initiate or enhance farm to school
programs. This report summarizes research conducted in 2007, including a survey
of food service directors at the 501 public school districts in Pennsylvania,
and a follow-up set of mini case studies conducted in seven school districts in
rural and urban regions of the state. Findings indicate that many food service
directors engage in local food purchasing and support educational efforts
focused on health and nutrition, agriculture and the food system. However, many
were not aware that these activities are considered components of a farm to
school program. Furthermore, there is evidence that food service directors are
interested in expanding local food procurement and educational efforts. Case
study data further show how school districts' FTS efforts reflect local needs,
resources and constraints. This suggests that FTS may be better thought of, not
as a relatively coherent and prescriptive set of activities, but as a broad and
flexible portfolio of possible efforts from which school district and community
stakeholders may draw to best meet local needs. This report concludes with
specific policy considerations that may both directly and indirectly enhance
institutional conditions favorable to local level procurement and educational
FTS activity. Within these considerations, other states are identified,
including Oklahoma, Connecticut and Maryland that have recently created
statewide infrastructure support for FTS. This support, which could involve the
establishment of a statewide coordinator, would assist individual schools and
districts in learning about, initiating and sustaining successful FTS efforts.
Hughes, L. J. 2007. "Creating a Farm and Food Learning Box Curriculum for Preschool-aged Children and Their
Families." Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. 39 (3): 171-172. NAL Call Number: TX341 J6 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2006.12.012 [Accessed 6/10/2011]
Abstract: The Kindergarten Initiative has proven to be an
effective program for educating children and families about healthy eating and
the source of our food. The success of the Initiative is captured in the 2006
Kindergarten Initiative Evaluation Report.
Wheeler, E. 1996. Farm to
School Food Education Project. SARE Research and Education
Project: Northeast Region, Project LNE96-065. [College Park, MD]: U.S.
Department of Agriculture, National Institute of Food and Agriculture,
Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program. NAL Call Number: S441.S855 LNE96-065 URL: http://mysare.sare.org/mySARE/ProjectReport.aspx?do=viewProj&pn=LNE96-065 [Accessed 6/3/2011]
Abstract: The Hartford Food System coordinated a team-led
program from September 1996 through December 1997 to expand the increased use
of Connecticut-grown and low-input produced fruits and vegetables served in the
lunch program in four City of Hartford Public Schools. The project was carried
out in cooperation with the Hartford Board of Education Food Service Program to
maximize the use of local produce and to increase the staff’s
capacity to prepare the produce for school lunches. A food education curriculum
linked to the CT-grown produce used in the cafeteria was developed with
participating teachers. The project worked with area farmers, produce brokers
and a produce fresh-cut processor to address supply and distribution issues.
Team members include professionals from the Connecticut State Department of
Agriculture and the Cooperative Extension Service, local farmers, culinary
professionals, nutritionists, educators, and the Connecticut Chapter of the
Northeast Organic Farmers’ Association (NOFA/CT).
Wilkins, Jennifer, Heidi Mouillesseaux-Kunzman, Meredith Graham, Betsey
Bacelli, and Martha Goodsell. 2007. Farm
to School in the Northeast: Making the Connection for Healthy Kids and Healthy
Farms: A Toolkit for Extension Educators and other Community Leaders. Cornell Farm to School Program, NY Farms!, and the New York School Nutrition
Association. 195 p. URL: http://farmtoschool.cce.cornell.edu/files/all/fts_toolkit_oct07_full.pdf [Accessed 6/10/2011]
Abstract: Farm-to-school initiatives are in development not only
in New York State but also regionally and nationally as educators design
long-term action plans for enhanced food systems literacy, agricultural
vitality, and societal health. This guide supports these efforts and has been
developed to assure success in beginning and continuing farm to cafeteria
programs. One of the strengths of Farm to School in the Northeast
is that the intended audience is Cooperative Extension Educators. These
professionals are based in counties throughout the Northeast, with expertise in
food and agriculture, nutrition, health, and education. With access to
research-based information from the region’s Land Grant institutions
and well-established regional and community-based partnerships, Cooperative
Extension Educators are well-positioned to connect school districts and
colleges with local and regional farmers, food processors, and distributors.
This toolkit will increase the capacity of these educators to facilitate
additional development of farm to cafeteria programs.
K-12 - Southern
(Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands)
Abstract: North Carolina has 2,513 elementary and secondary
schools with 1.44 million students. That's a lot of hungry mouths to feed.
These schools are increasingly turning to North Carolina produce growers for a
wide variety of nutritious, freshest-possible foods, such as watermelon, broccoli
and cabbage. The farm-to-school program in North Carolina originated in 1997
through a partnership between the U.S. Department of Defense and the Markets
and Food Distribution Division of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services (NCDAandCS). The first effort involved supplying apples
to schools in western North Carolina. The initial success resulted in the
program expanding throughout the state, with participation growing every year.
Abstract: This handbook is designed to be a reference and
informational guide to assist in developing and implementing a farm-to-school
program. It contains information, resources, and advice that will help start or
expand an already existing program.
Abstract: This handbook is designed to be a reference and
informational guide to assist in developing and implementing a farm-to-school
program. It contains information, resources, and advice that will help start or
expand an already existing program.
Georgia Organics. "Farm to
School Program Film." Produced and directed by Anthony Masterson.
Anthony Masterson Films. 2009. 14:30 mins. Video. URL: http://www.vimeo.com/3770665 [Accessed 6/10/2011]
Abstract: The video captures images of the Georgia Organics
Farm-to-School Program in action and includes interviews with program managers,
school administrators, educators, food service professionals, parents, and
students. It focuses on the impact of the program in the classroom, the
cafeteria, cooking and the community.
Abstract: Addressing a demand for local food in Oklahoma, this
directory lists farmers, where they are located, and what they produce.
Consumers and public institutions wanting to buy locally may wish to contact
farmers in their area. This publication also lists schools that have expressed
interest in buying local produce.
Schofer, Daniel, Glyen Holmes, Vonda
Richardson, Charles Connerly, and United States Department of Agriculture.
Agricultural Marketing Service. 2000. Innovative Marketing
Opportunities for Small Farmers: Local Schools as Customers. [Washington,
D.C.]: United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service.
ix, 51 p. NAL Call Number: aHD9005.T76 2000 URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3102251andacct= wdmgeninfo [Accessed 6/6/2011]
Abstract: Describes the formation and marketing strategies of
the New North Florida Cooperative and its development of a farm-to-school
Vo, A. N. 2003. Oklahoma
Farm-To-School Economic Viability and Efficiency. Unpublished
Masters Thesis. Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO.
Abstract: Farm-to-School (FTS), the nascent food program has
several difficulties with its implementation. Two particular issues addressed
in this thesis are program adoption and distribution of FTS commodities. Data
from a survey sent to Oklahoma school districts are analyzed using a logistic
model, predicting probability of program participation according to school
district characteristics including district size, food budgets, food
distributors, campus policy, and percentage of free and reduced meals
available. As district size and food budget allocated to fresh fruits and
vegetables increases, so does probability of program participation.
Distributors used for produce is also linked to program adoption. A
transportation cost template was created to calculate operation cost per mile,
operation cost per trip, distribution cost per unit, and the farm gate margin.
Template costs and the results of the logit model provide data to assist food
service personnel and policy makers in finding school systems likely to adopt
the program and determining an efficient distribution method.
Abernethy Elementary, Portland
Public Schools Nutrition Services, Injury Free Coalition for Kids, and
Ecotrust. 2006. New on the Menu: Districtwide Changes to School Food
Start in the Kitchen at Portland's Abernethy Elementary. Portland,
OR: Ecotrust. 16 p. URL: http://www.ecotrust.org/farmtoschool/Abernethy_report.pdf [Accessed 6/10/2011]
Abstract: This report summarizes one year of growing and cooking
meals on-site at Abernethy Elementary in Southeast Portland during the
2005-2006 school year. It also describes what happened beyond the cafeteria,
for the cooking at Abernethy was supported by a broader, integrated approach to
Adair, Tonya, April Burris, Lacey
Kleespie, Dan Moore, Mike Moran, Vena Rainwater, Anna Rossinoff, and Ethan
Young. 2005. The Spork Report: Increasing the Supply and Consumption
of Local Foods in Portland Schools. Portland, OR: Portland
Multnomah Food Policy Council. 73 p. URL: http://www.farmtoschool.org/files/publications_99.pdf [Accessed 6/10/2011]
Abstract: This report is the result of a research project
conducted in support of the Portland Multnomah Food Policy Council (FPC) by a
team of Portland State University students. The initial research goal was to
look at the feasibility and strategies for Portland Public Schools to increase
the level of local food purchasing by the nutrition services program, and
making recommendations to the Food Policy Council. The research conducted
examined both the logistics involved in increasing purchasing of locally
produced foods, and an examination of existing program literature directed at
increasing demand among students of locally produced and nutritionally dense
Brillinger, Renata, Jeri Ohmart, and
Gail Feenstra. 2003. The Crunch Lunch Manual: A Case Study of the
Davis Joint Unified School District Farmers Market Salad Bar Pilot Program and
A Fiscal Analysis Model. Davis, CA: University of California
Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program. 61 p. URL: http://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/cdpp/farmtoschool/crunchlunch32003.pdf [Accessed 6/10/2011]
Abstract: This manual provides an overview of the lessons
learned during the operation of a "Farmers Market" salad bar
program, featuring locally-sourced, seasonal fruits and vegetables, option, at
selected schools in the Davis, CA Joint Unified School District over a two-year
period. Designed to help school foodservice personnel and other key community
stakeholders develop their own school-based "Farmers Market"
salad bar programs, the manual focuses on the incremental steps involved in
incorporating locally grown fresh fruits and vegetables into school foodservice
menus. The first three chapters of the manual examine the 33 specific
requirements of salad bar programs at each stage of development, including the
start-up phase of program planning, fundraising and organization, the
intermediate phase of program implementation, and the final phase of program
expansion/institutionalization. Readers are also offered tools for assessing
the "readiness" of school district participation in a
farm-to-school program, and detailed guidance on how to assess the financial
viability of a planned or ongoing salad bar program by generating profit/loss
statements and calculating "breakeven" points for program
operations. The manual concludes with a listing of resources for farm-to-school
programs and food policy.
California Department of Education.
2006. Taking Action for Healthy School Environments: Linking
Education, Activity, and Food in California Secondary Schools. Sacramento,
CA: California Department of Education, Nutrition Services Division. 78 p. URL: http://www.californiahealthykids.org/articles/linking_secondary.pdf [Accessed 6/10/2011]
Abstract: Through case studies featuring 18 California school
districts, particularly secondary schools, Taking Action for Healthy School
Environments illustrates promising practices and provides recommendations for
action in four areas that can improve student health, and thus academic
potential, through policy and environmental change.
Cooper, A. and L. M. Holmes. 2008. "Lunch Lessons." Mothering. (149): 68-74.
Abstract: Elementary students peddling lentils and winter squash
door to door? Third-graders advocating for the benefits of eating
locally-produced food? Such scenes became reality as six area elementary
schools participated in the 2009 From Farms to Schools Fundraising Program.
Gallatin Valley Farm to School administered the second annual offering of this "alternative
school fundraising program" and, while doing so, addressed the
Gallatin Valley's desire to support Montana farmers, help local schools, and
purchase beautiful holiday gifts for friends and family. The fundraising
program was a great success with total sales of $37,700 - forty percent of
which goes to support school programs. This report provides the resources,
tools, and information used in the fundraiser. Gallatin Valley Farm to School
along with Montana Team Nutrition, encourages others to use this model as a
healthier alternative to school fundraising.
Farm to Table, Inc. and New Mexico
State University. "Farm to School: Our Children's Health, Our
Community's Future." New Mexico State University: [Las Cruces, N.M.?]
2007. 24 min. 1 videodisc. NAL Call Number: DVD no. 289 URL: http://www.archive.org/details/edu.nmsu.farm [Accessed
Abstract: Farm to School programs are popping up all over the
country- there are now over 1,000 programs in 35 states. Perhaps there is one
in your community. In this DVD we explore how school districts, parents,
communities, and non-profit organizations are working for change in the health
of our children by connecting them with the sources of their food. It is easy
to feel alarmed by the increased incidence of overweight and nutrition-related
diseases such as diabetes in children at younger and younger ages. As we follow
the journey that an apple takes from a Northern New Mexico orchard into the
mouth of a child in a city school, we can see that there is hope for a better
diet, healthier food choices, and longer lives for children all around our
Flock, Paul, Cheryl Petra, Vanessa Ruddy, and Joseph Peterangelo. 2003. A
Salad Bar Featuring Organic Choices: Revitalizing the School Nutrition Program.
Olympia, WA: Olympis School District. 11 p. URL: http://www.farmtoschool.org/files/publications_102.pdf [Accessed 6/10/2011]
Abstract: This case study of Olympia School District's Organic
Choices Program reviews a pilot program with five elementary schools to add
organic salad bars and locally grown produce to their menus.
Abstract: During the 2002-2003 school year, thousands of
students in more than 990 classrooms at 41 different Los Angeles Unified School
District school sites had the opportunity to taste and learn about farm fresh
produce grown in Southern California and brought directly into the classroom.
These activities were part of an educational program seeking to integrate
health and nutrition, agriculture and the environment. Utilizing a model called
Community Supported Agriculture that ties consumers directly to a local or
regional farm, this LAUSD program, entitled the "Fresh From the Farm
Pilot Project," has been able to establish a direct connection between
the classroom and a Southern California organic farm. The result is a unique,
hands-on learning experience for the students, as well as increased income for
local, organic agriculture.
Abstract: The goal of the Idaho Farm to School Program is to
support healthy children, healthy schools, healthy farms, and healthy
communities. Key components of the Idaho Farm to School Program include: fresh,
locally grown and produced products served in school meals and snacks;
educating students about nutrition and agriculture; teaching nutrition and
other curriculum through school gardens; Idaho Healthy Foods Fundraiser; farmer
visits/farm tours; Ag in the Classroom teacher trainings; and Healthy Harvest
Abstract: This report tells the story of work undertaken by farm
to school proponents in California to understand and address barriers to farm
to school and of work within the system to promote and expand this exciting
program statewide. The report also highlights tools and techniques employed to
better understand and evaluate the model, as well as the most up-to-date
information on farm to school programs in the state, including distribution
strategies, impact evaluation data, innovative educational programs, and policy
opportunities. Additionally, the report provides lessons and ideas for
expanding the program to many more schools in California and will serve as a
benchmark for the status of the California Farm to School Program in 2007.
Abstract: On April 13, 2008 Ecotrust and the Portland Culinary
Alliance hosted a community conversation about school food and garden-based
learning opportunities in Oregon. On April 17, 2008 the Grantmakers of Oregon
and Southwest Washington hosted a conversation on sustainable agriculture in
general, which included the topic of school food. This document summarizes the
presentation made by Deborah Kane at both events.
Abstract: The Occidental College for Food and Justice initiated
the Farmers' Market Salad Bar, three year pilot program at the Santa
Monica-Malibu Unified School District designed to increase student consumption
of fresh fruits and vegetables and to link the school lunch program to
community food security, and nutrition education objectives. Over the three
pilot years, the program was implemented in nine elementary schools and two
middle schools in California. The program was successful in changing the school
nutrition behavior of students, who, on average, were three times more likely
to choose the salad bar option than in the previous year. This booklet has some
preliminary data on cost of this program and describes the potential for such a
program as well as problems encountered.
Parker, Hester, Luis Miguel
Sierra, and Keith Vandevere. 2003. Smart Food: An Assessment of
Farm-to-School Opportunities for Schools and the Schoolchildren of Monterey
County. Report No. WI-2003-10. Seaside, CA: Watershed Institute,
California State University Monterey Bay. 40 pp. URL: http://science.csumb.edu/~watershed/pubs/WI_SmartFoodReport_030604.pdf [Accessed 6/10/2011]
Abstract: Recognizing the need to improve food and nutrition
quality at local schools and the potential for directly linking local farmers
and their produce to local school children, the Watershed Institute at
California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB), has researched existing
Farm-to-School programs in other parts of the state and nation and has
conducted an assessment of the feasibility of implementing Farm-to-School
programs in the school districts of Monterey County. This report presents the findings
of that investigation and identifies strategies for implementing strong pilot
programs in selected school districts.
Purvis, Jimmy and Farm to Table
(Program). 2007. New Mexico Farm to School Directory 2007: A
Directory of Farmers, Crops and Food Service Directors. Santa Fe,
NM: Farm to Table, New Mexico Dept. of Agriculture. 66 p.: ill., map; 28 cm. NAL Call Number: TX945.2.P87 2007 URL: http://www.farmtotablenm.org/nm_fts_directory_oct07.pdf [Accessed 6/10/2011]
Abstract: This New Mexico Farm to School Directory seeks to expand the ways in which New Mexico schools and farmers can partner
together in order to mutually benefit each other, with local food supplying
the needs of local citizens. Markets created by school feeding and nutrition
programs, which will always exist, represent the most stable markets for New
Mexico’s small and mid-sized farmers. Opening these markets to local
farmers will lead to a healthier farm economy, while at the same time leading
to healthier eating habits and healthier children. This directory also includes
information about Farm to Table's 2007 Survey of New Mexico Food
Purvis, Jimmy and New Mexico.
Dept. of Agriculture. Farm to Table (Program). 2007. Healthy Kids,
Healthy Economy: Farm to School Programs in New Mexico. Santa Fe,
NM: Farm to Table: New Mexico Dept. of Agriculture. 34 p. NAL Call Number: TX945.2.P873 2007 URL: http://www.farmtotablenm.org/fts_report.pdf [Accessed
Abstract: This compilation is the result of a collaborative
effort between the New Mexico Department of Agriculture, Farm to Table, the
Congressional Hunger Center, and New Mexico farmers. This group has been
involved in developing markets for New Mexico farmers with the public schools
since 1997, first as a pilot program in the Santa Fe Public Schools, then
expanding into the Taos and Albuquerque school districts. Since that time, sales
of local produce to schools in the state have grown from $12,000 in 1997 to
over $400,000 in 2006. Products have ranged from apples, peaches, and pears to
mixed salad greens and other vegetables. It is expected that sales to the
public schools will continue to increase, and provide an increasingly important
market and sales opportunity for our local farms.
San Francisco Food Systems. 2004. Farm-to-School:
Resource Guide: A Guide for Teachers and Administrators in San Francisco
Unified School District. [San Francisco, CA]: San Francisco Food
Systems. 4 p.
Abstract: This guide provides an introduction to Farm-to-School
and the food system, and lists of food system curricula, regional field trip
sites, local farmers’ markets, and Community Supported Agriculture
Abstract: For the past two years, San Francisco Food Systems has
examined pathways to improving regional self-sufficiency in agriculture by
investigating and identifying opportunities that allow the City and County of
San Francisco to buy and promote regional agriculture. In addition to this, San
Francisco Food Systems has explored ways that the City and County can increase
local residents’ utilization of government food assistance programs
such as food stamps, WIC, and the National School Lunch Program. Our
farm-to-school project combines these goals and works to understand how we can
open urban markets for small and medium sized local farmers and bolster the
school meals programs through institutional purchasing of local agricultural
products by San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD). These efforts
reflect our commitment to promoting and reinforcing local food systems and
regional agriculture by actively increasing the public’s
understanding of food systems issues and making explicit the ways in which
health, economics and a sustainable environment come together to support and
maintain ecologically sound agricultural practices and improve the health and
well being of communities. This report reflects San Francisco Food Systems’
work for the past year in understanding the feasibility of implementing a
farm-to-school program within SFUSD.
Abstract: Describes programs that promote and service locally
produced foods in cafeterias of K-12 schools, colleges, universities,
hospitals, nursing homes, business, and other institutions. Includes models,
case studies and regulatory information.
Abstract: About 29 million children eat school lunches every
day. The five foods those kids are most likely to see on their plates are
pizza, chocolate chip cookies, corn, French fries or chicken nuggets, according
to the American School Food Service Association. School food is a major part
of many children's diets, and right now it's not doing their health many
favors. A panel discussion (with Rodney Taylor, director of nutrition services
at the Riverside Unified School District; Matt Sharp, director of the Los
Angeles office of California Food Policy Advocates; Elizabeth Medrano, parent
and community organizer for the Healthy School Food Coalition; and moderator
Moira Berry, program manager of the Farm to Institution project at the Center for
Food and Justice) examined innovative ways to transform the school food system.
Wang, May, Suzanne Rauzon, Natalie
Studer, and Pat Crawford. 2010. Changing Students’
Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior in Relation to Food: An Evaluation of the
School Lunch Initiative. Berkeley, CA: University of California at
Berkeley, Dr. Robert C. and Veronica Atkins Center for Weight and Health and
the Chez Panisse Foundation. URL: http://www.schoollunchinitiative.org/downloads/sli_eval_full_report_2010.pdf [Accessed 6/10/2011]
Abstract: The dramatic rise of childhood obesity and
food-related environmental concerns has led to a focus on school food both in
terms of the quality of meals served and the state of teaching and learning
about food systems, food choices, and their impact on health, the environment,
and other issues. A growing number of schools around the country have installed
school gardens and attempted to change the quality of school lunches, but many
of these efforts have been poorly integrated with teaching and learning. This
report examined the results of one of the first comprehensive programs in the
nation, located in Berkeley, California. A collaboration among the Chez Panisse
Foundation, Center for Ecoliteracy, and Berkeley Unified School District, the
School Lunch Initiative was based on the hypothesis that if young people are
involved in growing, cooking, and sharing fresh, healthy food while learning
about it in the curriculum, they will be more likely to develop lifelong
healthy eating habits and values consistent with sustainable living.
Abstract: In 2005, California enacted Senate Bill 281, which
established the California Fresh Start Program (CFSP), in order to encourage
and support schools to provide additional portions of fruit and vegetables in
the School Breakfast Program (SBP). In 2006-07, an extensive evaluation of the
implementation of the CFSP in 69 diverse schools was conducted, the findings of
which are detailed in this report. Evaluation data collected from schools
included demographics, school breakfast participation rates, breakfast menu
production records and invoices, site observation data, and survey and
interview data from students and school Child Nutrition Directors.
in this section focus on Farm to institution efforts (colleges/universities and
hospitals) through the institutional cafeteria’s direct purchase from
farmers, or bringing farmers markets or community-supported agriculture (CSA)
programs to hospitals. Most of the publications in the section comprise
popular media articles or informally published reports with a few articles from
scientific peer-reviewed journals.
to college reports typically focus on the opportunities and challenges to
bringing local food on college campuses, and discuss the possible opportunities
for educating college students, as the next generation of consumers, about the
importance of purchasing and eating local food. Farm to hospital reports are
more likely to highlight the direct link between food and health. A few of the
pieces examine institutions as new markets for small farmers, hence
highlighting the potential of using sales to local institutions as a rural development
strategy (the most direct example is Hardesty, 2008).
systematic and peer-reviewed publications are needed in Farm to institution
research, focusing on the nutritional aspects of farm to college/hospitals, as
well as whether selling to local institutions may be a viable rural development
Abstract: This brochure introduces interested farmers and
hospital food service departments to the ins and outs of developing partnerships
between hospitals and local farms. Included are examples of ways hospitals can
improve the food they offer, issues for farmers to consider if they are
interested in selling products to area hospitals, and specific case studies of
Abstract: This working paper discusses the opportunities and
challenges involved in creating and enhancing farm-hospital connections.
Drawing lessons from existing farm to hospital programs and a burgeoning farm
to school movement, it provides a snapshot of current hospital food conditions
and a vision of a healthier hospital food environment based, in part, on local,
Bellows, Barbara C., Rex Dufour,
and Janet Bachmann. 2003. Bringing Local Food to Local Institutions:
A Resource Guide for Farm-to-School and Farm-to-Institution Programs.
ATTRA Publication, #IP242. Fayetteville, AR: ATTRA - National Sustainable
Agriculture Information Service. URL: http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/farmtoschool.html [Accessed 6/13/2011]
Abstract: This publication provides farmers, school
administrators, and institutional food-service planners with contact information
and descriptions of existing programs that have made connections between local
farmers and local school lunchrooms, college dining halls, or cafeterias in
other institutions. To help communities initiate similar programs, this
publication includes resource lists of: 1) Publications on how to initiate and
manage farm-to-school and farm-to-institution programs; 2) Sources of funding
and technical assistance from government and non-government programs; and 3)
Provisions within the 2002 Farm Bill supporting implementation of
farm-to-school and other community food programs.
Abstract: The guide is intended to help universities, colleges,
hospitals, and other institutions - as well as those advocating for food
system change - create, promote and implement practical sustainable food
Abstract: The goal of Cultivating Common Ground is to delineate
opportunities for creating a synergistic movement between health and
sustainable agriculture, in order to strengthen the momentum for a just,
sustainable health-promoting food system. In particular, the project focused on
how to engage health professionals as advocates for sustainable agriculture. A
fundamental assumption of this project was that engaging the health sector as
an advocacy force will make it possible to achieve far greater gains in
transforming the food system. Cultivating Common Ground suggests a roadmap for
collaboration by recommending strategies to build understanding and joint
action between the fields. The authors hope that this analysis and these
recommendations will help advance initiatives already underway and foster new
Abstract: This guide provides tangible guidance on how to
conceptualize, structure, and implement food programs that support local family
farmers. It is designed for college administrators, food service directors,
farmers, and student advocates. Insight on the broader array of sustainable
food criteria such as organic and humanely raised are referenced in this
guide, but content builds mostly on local sourcing.
Abstract: The Healthy Food in Health Care Pledge is a framework
that outlines steps to be taken by the health care industry to improve the
health of patients, communities and the global environment. The pledge calls
for an awareness that food production and distribution methods can have adverse
impacts on public environmental health and a commitment to the goal of
providing local, nutritious and sustainable food.
Abstract: Unhealthy diets and limited access to fresh fruits and
vegetables adversely affect the health of many Americans. Precisely because
they are important community and health institutions, hospitals and hospital
systems are in a unique position to treat both diet-related illness and address
their root causes. Increasingly, hospitals are demonstrating leadership in
health promotion by hosting farmers’ markets, farm stands, and CSAs
(community supported agriculture) on site as a way to make farm fresh, locally
grown produce and other foods more readily available.
Johnson, D. B. and G. W. Stevenson.
98. Something to Cheer About: National Trends and Prospects for
Sustainable Agriculture Products in Food Service Operations of Colleges and
Universities. Issue Brief. Madison, WI: University of
Wisconsin-Madison, Center for Integrated Agricultural Systems. 38. URL: http://www.cias.wisc.edu/farm-to-fork/something-to-cheer-about/ [Accessed 6/13/2011]
Abstract: Anecdotal reports from producers, processors and
marketers of sustainable agriculture products suggest that trade opportunities
with college and university food services are difficult to establish and
sustain. This study seeks to address the feasibility for sustained marketing
relationships among sustainable farmers and institutions by investigating
reports of successful trade relationships. The study provides market research
information for producers, processors and marketers.
Abstract: This report, based on interviews with personnel from
six U.S. colleges with significant local, sustainable food buying components,
identifies opportunities and barriers facing producers who would like to market
to colleges. While these institutions are trying to increase efficiency and
meet budgetary and safety requirements, marketing opportunities do exist for
producers of local, sustainably produced food, even within the largest and most
structured food service departments. Institutional food buyers were more
interested in buying locally produced foods that benefited their communities
than they were in buying certified organic foods.
Kulick, Marie. 2005. Healthy
Food, Healthy Hospitals, Healthy Communities: Stories of Healthcare Leaders
Bringing Fresher, Healthier Food Choices to their Patients, Staff and
Communities. Minneapolis, MN: Institute for Agriculture and Trade
Policy. URL: http://www.noharm.org/lib/downloads/food/Healthy_Food_Hosp_Comm.pdf [Accessed 6/13/2011]
Abstract: This report summarizes several farm-to-hospital case
studies, highlighting hurdles to overcome and lessons learned. Many health care
professionals, working at hospitals, nursing homes and cancer centers across
the country, even the National Institutes of Health, were consulted. What we
found were health care leaders passionate about bringing fresh, nutritious food
to their patients, staff and surrounding communities, in large part by
reconnecting with local foods systems and supporting healthier agricultural practices.
Through leadership and the significant purchasing power of their facilities,
they are bringing about change by hosting farmers markets and farm stands; by
purchasing and serving food produced in ways that are healthier for humans and
the environment; and by improving the quality of food in vending machines.
Abstract: This report compiles research in 2002 conducted by the
Community Food Security Coalition (CFSC) on Farm-to-College programs. CFSC
interviewed organizers (usually faculty members or students),
college/university food service directors, and farmers and farmer owned
cooperatives, involved with eighteen different farm to college projects around
the country to determine the challenges, opportunities, and strategies for
success of these projects. The report contains information on how these
programs are started and operated, and recommendations for those interested in beginning
their own programs.
survey of 638 public institutions (including colleges and universities,
technology centers, prisons, state hospitals, and state resorts) indicated that
food managers have a significant interest in using more locally-produced food
in their food service programs. These managers also believe many perceived
obstacles could be solved through education. The Oklahoma Food Policy Council
outlines steps that may be used to increase the use of local foods by
institutions while working to improve the access of people, especially school children,
to healthy diets.
Murray, S. C. 2005. A
Survey of Farm-to-College Programs: History, Characteristics and Student
Involvement. Unpublished M.S. Thesis. University of Washington,
Seattle, WA. URL: http://www.farmtocollege.org/resources [Accessed 6/13/2011]
Abstract: Master’s thesis examining farm-to-college
programs, with an emphasis on those at large public universities and on student
involvement with programs, along with a discussion of how programs could become
institutionalized. It includes case studies for five large public universities
with farm-to-college programs, references, and survey and interview questions.
Abstract: This paper provides a brief overview of several types
of institutional food buying projects in Iowa, not all of which are farm to
college. The author describes the most critical factors to make these systems
work - both from the producer and food service director perspectives.
Ross, N. J. 2005. "Bringing
You Fresh Food from Local Farms and Our Garden: A College Class Designs a Program
to Meet Peer and Institutional Needs." Journal of Nutrition
Education and Behavior. 37 (2): 102-103. NAL Call Number: TX341.J6 URL: http://www.jneb.org/article/S1499-4046%2806%2960026-2 [Accessed 6/13/2011]
Ross, N. J., M. D. Anderson, J. P.
Goldberg, R. Houser, and B. L. Rogers. 1999. "Trying and Buying
Locally Grown Produce at the Workplace: Results of a Marketing Intervention."
American Journal of Alternative Agriculture. 14:
171-179. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0889189300008353 [Accessed 6/13/2011]
Wilkins, J. L., E. Bowdish, and J.
Sobal. 2000. "University Student Perceptions of Seasonal and Local
Foods." Journal of Nutrition Education. 32
(5): 261-268. NAL Call Number: TX341.J6 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3182(00)70574-7 [Accessed 6/13/2011]
Abstract: In 2007, the Sustainable Food Project at Yale
University received a SARE grant to write an expanded set of definitions for
dining halls to use across the Northeast. They were published in the summer of
2008, and are a great tool for institutions considering making the transition
to sustainable purchasing.
selected for this section are specifically written as guides for Farm to School
stakeholders, including parents, farmers, school administrators and food
services directors. The guides provide strategies for building the networks
that can link local farms with schools, colleges and other institutions. Some
documents (for example, Luedeman and Hamilton 2003) also highlight the
potential legal issues farmers and institutions need to be aware of when
developing local Farm to School contracts.
guides are typically written by experienced Farm to School stakeholders or
developed by local non-profit organizations. Much of the content is region- or
state- specific, but might be used as a model for other areas.
Abstract: Food is an important part of any quality afterschool
or summer program. It helps attract children to the program and ensures that
they have the energy to fully participate in all of the educational and
enrichment activities. The nutrition quality and appeal of the meals and snacks
is crucial. One creative strategy to improve quality and appeal is to make
local produce part of the meals and snacks, and Farm to School programs are one
key strategy to do that. This guide outlines strategies and approaches for
accessing local products such as working with an organization that is already
using local produce, collaborating with the area food service director or
operating the Farm to School program independently.
Abstract: This "how-to" guide to Farm to School
programs for food service professionals provides information, resources, and a
step by step guide on initiating a Farm to School program or plugging into
Abstract: This "how-to" guide to Farm to School
programs for parents and community members provides information, resources, and
a step by step guide on advocating for Farm to School programs.
Community Food Security Coalition
and Center for Food and Justice. Occidental College. 2004. Farmer
Resource Guide: Managing Risk Through Sales to Educational Institutions. [Portland, OR]: Community Food Security Coalition.
Abstract: An extensive compilation of resources that addresses
the many different issues within farm to institutional purchasing projects,
including how to approach food service directors, how to organize supply and
distribution of the products, characteristics of different institutions,
pricing issues, and several case studies of different types of farm to
Abstract: This guide for school service professionals includes
new recipes and helpful tips for serving locally grown foods to students.
Topics covered include farm-direct food purchasing, using farm-fresh
ingredients, preparation tips, when to buy local produce, food safety, and
Abstract: This guide is designed to help schools, and
particularly food service providers, find cost-effective ways to serve healthy,
local foods in school meals. It introduces the Farm to School concept, provides
models of success, and delivers tips for how to start and maintain Farm to School
Abstract: This Spanish-language publication details strategies
for farmers interested in marketing their products to local institutions such
as schools, colleges, hospitals, retirement homes and day care centers. Included is a resource list of organizations around the country that work with
Latino farmers looking for ways to market their products.
Abstract: This case study focuses on 'Agriculture of the Middle'
from the perspective of potential institutional buyers (schools/colleges) on a
national basis instead of a particular farm or agricultural operation. Although
these institutions currently represent a small portion of most mid-scale
producers' sales volume, they offer a number of other strategic advantages: (1)
they are another market growers can use to diversify; (2) they directly address
the Nation's concern about childhood obesity by acting as a conduit for
offering fresh, locally grown produce in school meals; (3) national coalitions
of food security, health and sustainable agriculture advocates are crafting
national legislation which would make this marketing strategy easier for
Abstract: Designed to help farmers, teachers, and others
interested in how to use farms for education, and connect them to the
community. Includes strategies to market local food to schools, and 45 hands-on,
farm-based, educational activities.
Abstract: Every day, schools in Vermont serve breakfast and/or
lunch to more than 50,000 Vermont students, an annual business of $30 million.
According to the Center for Disease Control, more than a quarter of Vermont
high school students are overweight or at risk of being overweight. The
national average is 20%. At the same time, Vermont agriculture is in decline.
By working within Vermont’s current school food programs, we can
provide children with more fresh and healthy foods straight from Vermont farms.
This can improve children’s health and performance, and at the same
time expand opportunities for local farmers. The purpose of this primer is to
outline how Vermont schools currently provide meals to their children. and show
how the Farm to School initiative is working with schools to encourage greater
use of fresh local foods and helping Vermont children make wiser, healthier
choices about the food they eat.
Abstract: This resource is a starter "how to"
for organizing a school committee to develop a Farm to School program. It’s
perfect for any school food service staff, parent, teacher, principal, student,
or community member seeking to make changes in their school food environment.
It’s filled with templates and examples for planning, running meetings,
checklists, and other resources.
Abstract: Designed to help schools, and particularly food
service, reconnect with local food systems through their school food programs.
Known as the "Farm to Cafeteria" or "Farm to School"
movement, this nationwide trend in school food purchasing is directly changing
the way children eat at school while supporting and strengthening local
Abstract: This guide will give you the tools and resources to
help implement a taste testing program in your school in order to broaden
student experiences with a variety of foods, introduce foods that are locally
grown and available, integrate into school meals new, local foods that students
will accept, and involve students and staff in school food change. In this
guide is a small sampling of school taste test case studies that represent what
is happening all over Vermont to introduce new flavors in the cafeteria and
classroom. These schools have created healthier food environments by
encouraging children to try new and different foods, many of which are grown
and produced locally.
Abstract: Since Farm to School is not a "one size fits
all" program, this manual was developed from surveys, research and
experience to include tips and tools for successful Farm to School distribution
and simple food safety protocol for farms, schools and school gardens. Two new
downloadable calculators have been developed. The Distribution Cost Calculator
will help producers understand the true costs of produce delivery and assist in
determining a "farm gate" value for their crops and the
Produce Calculator will help farmers and schools determine the amount of
produce needed for the schools based on number of servings and the per serving
Abstract: From its initial success helping members sell collard
greens and other crops to a local school district, this Florida cooperative has
now expanded its scope of operations to 15 school districts in three states,
added product lines and increased the level of value-added preparation and
packaging. It has also created a network of similar cooperatives in its region
which are working together to expand value-added processing and marketing
opportunities for small-scale farmers.
Abstract: Developed with input from an advisory committee and school food service directors, this publication includes useful information and
practical tools on incorporating Michigan foods into school meals program.
Abstract: The intent of this activity guide is to introduce
children through direct experience to the pleasures of fresh, seasonal, locally
grown produce. By exploring local produce and by cooking seasonal foods in
class, students learn about the ecological, economical, and social benefits of
sustainable agriculture and the diverse farm-fresh produce available in
California. The guide contains ideas for activities, recipes, profiles of
farmers practicing sustainable agriculture, and correlations to academic
standards. Growing food and eating are central human experiences through which
many aspects of life may be revealed and examined. The guide helps
schoolchildren understand the connections between their own health, healthful
food, and a thriving regional, sustainable agriculture.
Abstract: This guide lists helpful information on insurance and
legal issues for producers who want to enter institutional food markets.
Malloy, C., J. Johanson, and M.
Wootan. 2003. School Foods Tool Kit: A Guide to Improving School
Foods and Beverages. Washington, DC: Center for Science in the
Public Interest. URL: http://www.cspinet.org/schoolfoodkit/ [Accessed 6/13/2011]
Abstract: Parents, teachers, school administrators, elected
officials and others in small and large communities across the country have
been successful at improving the nutritional quality of foods and beverages in
their local schools. Whatever your situation, we all share the common goals of
improving the nutritional quality of the foods and beverages that our kids eat
and drink at school and of protecting our children's health. The School Foods
Tool Kit is designed to help you realize those goals. While the themes
addressed in the toolkit encompass a far broader range of nutritional issues
than farm-to-school activities, it contains an abundant quantity of reference
material of interest to individuals looking to establish farm-to-school
programs in their communities.
Abstract: This booklet contains basic information about many
programs and organizations that are defining and expanding the farm to school
concept. Whether you are interested in learning about funding sources for
school gardens, after-school cooking classes showcasing local produce, or ways
to teach students about what's growing on the farm in May, you'll find useful
Abstract: This guide outlines steps to market Michigan
agricultural products to school food service for school meals programs, special
events, and/or fundraisers. Several assessment tools and sample document are
included and of broad use beyond Michigan.
Ohio Department of Agriculture.
2009. Farm-to-School in Ohio: An Introductory Guide for School
Staff, Teachers, and Farmers to Start Farm-to-School Programs in your District. [Reynoldsburg, OH]: Ohio Department of Agriculture. 28 p. URL: http://www.agri.ohio.gov/FarmToSchool/docs/F2S_Final_Primer.pdf [Accessed 6/13/2011]
Abstract: Farm to school initiatives connect schools with local
farms by bringing fresh, nutritious foods from local farms into school
cafeterias and by offering students experiential learning opportunities through
farm visits, and food and nutrition education activities. Such initiatives
support local farmers, keep food dollars in local economies, and nurture a
generation of informed food consumers. Farm-to-school efforts are taking place
in over 2035 school districts in at least 39 states, including Ohio. You can do
it too! By taking it one step at a time and forging partnerships with those in
your community, your school can integrate farm-to-school into your school food
program and farmers can market directly to local schools.
Abstract: This report presents case studies of six farmers who
have participated in the farm-to-school farmers’ market salad bar
projects of selected school districts in California. Five have participated
only on the supply end of the program, while one farmer from Ventura County has
played the roles of producer, supplier, salad bar facilitator and liaison among
parents, teachers, school district personnel and administration.
Patel, A. I., L. M. Bogart, K. E.
Uyeda, H. Martinez, R. Knizewski, G. W. Ryan, and M. A. Schuster. 2009. "School
Site Visits for Community-Based Participatory Research on Healthy Eating:
Bridging Clinical Scholarship and Community Scholarship - New Directions for
the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Clinical Scholars Program." American
Journal of Preventive Medicine. 37 (6, Supplement 1): S300-S306. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2009.08.009 [Accessed 6/13/2011]
Abstract: This guide presents a general overview on how to
implement a salad bar program in an elementary school cafeteria. It can help
schools, cafeteria personnel, parents or any other community member implement a
salad bar as part of the lunch menu option in school. Food purchasing through
both at farmers’ markets and centralized suppliers is discussed.
Tropp, Debra, Surajudeen
Olowolayemo, and Agricultural Marketing Service. United States Department of
Agriculture. 2000. How Local Farmers and School Food Service Buyers
are Building Alliances. [Washington, D.C.]: United States Departme
nt of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service. iv, 30 p. NAL Call Number: aHD9005.T76 2000 URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3102250 &acct=wdmgeninfo [Accessed 6/13/2011]
Abstract: Provides an overview of lessons learned from the USDA
Small Farm/School Meals Workshop. Topics covered include food service
preferences, potential barriers for small farmers to enter into food service
contracts, strategies for small farmers approaching school meal services,
government programs, a marketing checklist for small farmers, and a marketing
checklist for school food service directors.
Abstract: This handbook is written for school food service
personnel. Rather than cover all areas of farm-to-school issues, we have chosen
to focus on those areas we believe are of most interest to schools:
procurement, types and examples of farm-to-school distribution models, how to
find locally-grown food and farmers, menu planning considerations, and
strategies for success. The handbook also contains a comprehensive, annotated
bibliography of additional farm to school resources that may be accessed online
or by contacting the organization.
United States Department of
Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. 2000. Small Farms/School
Meals Initiative Town Hall Meetings: A Step-by-Step Guide on How to Bring Small
Farms and Local Schools Together. FNS-316. [Washington, D.C.]:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service.
iv, 16 p. URL: http://www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/lunch/Downloadable/small.pdf [Accessed 6/13/2011]
Abstract: In partnership with FNS and USDA’s
Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) began
buying and delivering fresh fruits and vegetables to schools in eight States in
the 1994-95 school year; by the 1996-97 school year the project had expanded to
32 States. Schools ordered most of the produce for their salad bars. DoD
provided quality items at the most favorable market prices, delivered on time
to meet State agency and school requirements. In the North Carolina project
referred to later in this manual, DoD officials attended the town hall meeting
and were particularly helpful in working with small farmer cooperatives to
obtain fresh, local produce for the schools. The manual provides a step-by-step
guide of activities for groups to plan, conduct, and publicize a professional
town hall meeting that encourages small farmers and local school food officials
to begin a "farm to school" project. Each section of the
manual contains a narrative on an aspect of how to hold a meeting. Based on
USDA’s experiences with the North Carolina Town Hall Meeting in
January 1998 and the Virginia Town Hall Meeting in April 1998, this guide is
the first step towards successful, positive events across the Nation.
section consists of reports (some prepared for state legislature), hearings,
legislation, and articles for policy makers focused on using Farm to School
activities to support local economies and improve nutritional outcomes. Many of
the documents frame Farm to School activities in terms of larger food system
programs and policies.
Abstract: At the request of the General Assembly in Senate Joint
Resolution 347 (2007), the Secretary of Agriculture and Forestry and The
Secretary of Education jointly convened a task force to study farm-to-school
concepts and develop a plan for implementation in the Commonwealth of Virginia.
This report of the State Senate task force discusses the challenges, and
communication and educational needs of potential farm-to-school activities, and
concludes with four policy recommendations.
Center for Food and
Justice/Healthy School Food Coalition. 2009. The Transformation of
the School Food Environment in Los Angeles: The Link Between Grassroots
Organizing and Policy Development and Implementation. Research
Brief. Los Angeles, CA: Occidental College, Urban and Environmental Policy
Institute, Center for Food and Justice/Healthy School Food Coalition. URL: http://departments.oxy.edu/uepi/publications/transformation_of_school_food_ environment.pdf [Accessed 6/13/2011]
Abstract: This is a review of the changes that have been made to
the school food environment in Los Angeles Unified School District. General
farm to school and the Farmers' Market Salad Bar programs are both included.
Other policy changes, such as a soda ban, are also discussed in the report.
Community Alliance for Family
Farmers. 2010. What the Farm to School Movement Needs to Succeed -
Memo. Davis, CA: Community Alliance for Family Farmers. 4 p. URL: http://www.caff.org/CAFF_F2S_Policy_Memo.pdf [Accessed 6/6/2011]
Community Food Security Coalition,
National Farm to School Network, and School Food FOCUS. 2010. Nourishing
the Nation One Tray at a Time: Farm to School Initiatives in the Child
Nutrition Reauthorization. [Los Angeles, CA]: Community Food Security Coalition. 16 p. URL: http://www.foodsecurity.org/NourishingtheNation-OneTrayataTime.pdf [Accessed 6/13/2011]
Abstract: The 2009 Child Nutrition Reauthorization platform of
the Community Food Security Coalition, the National Farm to School Network and
School Food FOCUS.
Abstract: This document is a ten-point roadmap for national
coordination between all levels of government and partners promoting Farm to
School and sustainable procurement practices. It is intended to guide shared
learning and collaborative implementation of new policies and programs that
support more direct connections between agriculture and federal nutrition
programs at local and regional levels across the United States with positive
support of USDA, the Administration and Congress.
Curtis, J., N. Creamer, and T. E.
Thraves. 2010. From Farm to Fork: A Guide to Building North
Carolina's Sustainable Local Food Economy. Raleigh, NC: North
Carolina State University, Center for Environmental Farming Systems. 100 p. URL: http://www.cefs.ncsu.edu/resources/stateactionguide2010.pdf [Accessed 6/13/2011]
Abstract: This action guide is the product of a yearlong "Farm
to Fork" initiative, involving well over 1,000 North Carolinians
interested in becoming actively engaged in food and farming issues.
Participants in this process included people and organizations working in the
fields of agriculture, commercial fishing, community organizing, education,
faith, finance, local government, nutrition, philanthropy, planning, public health,
public policy, and youth outreach. The intent of this guide is to provide key
action ideas for building a sustainable food economy in North Carolina at the
state and local levels. We hope that implementation of these action steps will
lead to significant economic development, stewardship of natural and
agricultural resources, and better health and nutrition for all North Carolina
Abstract: What lessons can be taken from North America’s
three-decade experiment in formulating local food policy? Food
Policy Councils: Lessons Learned is an assessment based on an
extensive literature review and testimony from 48 individual interviews with
the people most involved in Food Policy Councils. Improvement of school food
and farm-to-school activities as a strategy to meet that goal are some of the
topics covered in relation to food policy council work.
Abstract: From locally purchased salad bar ingredients in
California, to field trips to dairy farms in Vermont, farm-to-school programs
are gaining credibility and earning well-deserved attention. Congressmen in
both the House of Representatives and Senate have sponsored bills to provide
funds of up to $100,000 per school district to create farm-to-school programs,
further propagating that educating the nation’s youth on where their
food comes from, and providing locally-sourced products as part of regular
school meals, are national responsibilities related to concerns of health,
justice, the economy and education. By examining multiple case studies from various
states, one can identify common variables amongst successful programs. The
variables examined in this report and correlated with Illinois’
efforts include policy/legislation, start-up funding, government support,
marketing and communications, such as "Buy Fresh, Buy Local"
campaigns, and partnerships with universities. In addition, the mechanisms for
purchasing locally (wholesale distributor, direct purchasing, cooperative, and
contract growing), are also considered. Lastly, a variable labeled "Curricular,"
classifying programs that offer educational-based initiatives such as
gardening, nutrition education in the classroom and/or farm field trips,
amongst other offerings, is considered. An extensive list of case studies and
variables for benchmarking state and local efforts to support farm to school
activities are featured.
Abstract: A review of state legislation categorized by type of
support policies: state/local-supported programs, task forces, pilot programs,
budget/funding appropriations, grant allocations, reimbursements, local
preference rules, promotional programs, directories wellness/food security
policies, working groups, resolutions or other types of support.
Abstract: A survey of 638 public institutions (including
colleges and universities, technology centers, prisons, state hospitals, and
state resorts) indicated that food managers have a significant interest in
using more locally-produced food in their food service programs. These managers
also believe many perceived obstacles could be solved through education. The
Oklahoma Food Policy Council outlines steps that may be used to increase the
use of local foods by institutions while working to improve the access of
people, especially school children, to healthy diets.
Abstract: This Community Farm Alliance (CFA) report, Bringing
Kentucky's Food and Farm Economy Home, is an attempt to establish where
Kentucky agriculture is now, what important changes have taken place over the
last 20 years, and a vision of potential economic revitalization for Kentucky's
rural and urban areas. Documenting the nature of Kentucky's present food
economy and suggesting areas for improvement is essential to the statewide food
system planning now underway.
Abstract: The analysis begins by asking a number of questions:
How much Vermont farm produce and dairy product does the Vermont school food
program currently purchase? What key challenges stand in the way of increasing
Vermont food purchases and local Farm2School Partnerships? What actions would
increase the likelihood of overcoming the challenges to reaching increased
levels of activity? What represents a realistic increase in the level of Vermont
farm purchases over the next five years? What represents a realistic increase
in the number of local Farm2School partnerships over the next several years?
What impacts would those actions have on key participants in the school food
system, including farmers, school food workers, food distributors, local and
state governments, parents and children?
State of Wisconsin Assembly. 2009
Wisconsin Act 293: An Act to create of the statutes; relating to: promoting the
use of locally grown food in school meals and snacks and granting rule-making
authority. 2010. 2009 Assembly Bill 746. (May 12, 2010) URL: http://legis.wisconsin.gov/2009/data/acts/09Act293.pdf [Accessed 6/13/2011]
Abstract: This legislation creates a farm-to-school council and
grants program to support the use of locally grown food in schools.
Abstract: Testimony covers activities that include
farm-to-school. Statements made by: David Satcher, Director, Center of
Excellence on Health Disparities, Morehouse School of Medicine; William Dietz,
Director, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, National
Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease
Control; Cindy Long, Director, Child Nutrition Programs Division, Food and
Nutrition Service, USDA; and Glyen Holmes, New North Florida Cooperative
Vallianatos, Mark and Urban and
Environmental Policy Institute. Center for Food and Justice. 2005. Healthy
School Food Policies: A Checklist: A Working Paper of the Center for Food and
Justice, Urban and Environmental Policy Institute. [Los Angeles,
CA]: Occidental College, Center for Food and Justice, Urban and Environmental
Policy Institute. 12 p. URL: http://departments.oxy.edu/uepi/cfj/publications/ healthy_school_food_policies_05.pdf
Abstract: This working paper collects many of the innovative
policies that have been adopted or proposed to improve school food. It provides
a checklist of approximately 65 such policies. Tips to "Better
Integrate Food Service with School Educational, Health, and Environmental
Missions" and "Purchase and Serve Food in Manner that
Supports Community Economic Development and Local Farm Livelihoods"
include making farm-to-school connections.
Vincent, Douglas L. 2009. Report
to the 2010 Legislature: Report on the Feasibility of Establishing a Farm to
School Program in Hawaii's Public Schools: A Report to the Twenty-Sixth
Legislature In Response to SCR 121, S.D.1, H.D.1, SLH 2009. [Honolulu,
HI]: University of Hawaii. 26 p. URL: http://www.farmtoschool.org/files/publications_264.pdf [Accessed 6/13/2011]
Abstract: This report is divided into three sections: the
current status of farm-to-school programs in Hawaii; the feasibility of
farm-to-school programs; and concluding remarks and opportunities for change.
Appended to the report are the stakeholder inputs on the feasibility of
farm-to-school programs in Hawaii and a listing of existing state-wide
farm-to-school programs nationally.
Abstract: A very concise report from the Southern Legislative
Conference detailing the history of school lunch, school nutrition, the rise of
obesity, small farms, models for connecting schools to farms, and many case
studies and resources with contacts for more information. This short document
is a good introduction to the farm-to-school issue for policy makers.
reports and articles in this section comprise socio-economic considerations of
Farm to School from some historical efforts to bring local food into schools to
the role of Farm to School activities in local foods systems models and the
greater community. Some of the items do not focus specifically on Farm to
School, but rather the role of Farm to School in the greater food system and
Anon. 1977. "Farm Fresh Products from Field to Plate." School Foodservice Journal.
31 (4): 42-43.
Ayers, L. J. 1987. "Chalk
up Profits with Back-to-school Sales." New Farm.
9 (2): 27-30. NAL Call Number: S1.N32
Abstract: This article relates the experience of Joe Crawford, a
school superintendent from Minnesota in buying food directly from farmers.
Farmers who worked with Crawford are also interviewed.
Coolman, R. M. 2003. Green
House Project: Sustainable Agriculture in Urban Areas. SARE
Research and Education Project: Northeast Region, Project LNE99-128. [College
Park, MD]: U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Institute of Food and
Agriculture, Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program. NAL Call Number: S441.S855 LNE99-128 URL: http://mysare.sare.org/mySARE/ProjectReport.aspx?do=viewProj&pn=LNE99-128 [Accessed 6/3/2011]
Abstract: The Green House Project believes that participatory
education is a key to keeping a healthy agricultural presence within our urban
and suburban communities. Our efforts focused on three fronts. Over the past
three years we developed a model year-round production system on Rutgers
University Cook College campus targeted at local, urban markets that had 86
people contribute to construction, management and harvesting. We integrated
this effort with local elementary, university and adult educators reaching an
estimated 597 students in formal class settings. Our year-round food production
efforts resulted in a contribution of over 25,000 pounds of fresh organic
produce to local feeding programs that affected over 1000 families. Our
community outreach program worked with 642 families on a diversity of local
issues from community gardens to emergency health care to nutrition education.
A total of 15 farmers contributed to the overall intellectual development of
this effort. In addition, an estimated 343 farmers, consumers, and business
people attended our workshops on localization of the food system.
Diamond, Adam, James Barham, and
Debra Tropp. 2009. Emerging Market Opportunities for Small-scale
Producers: Proceedings of a Special Session at the 2008 USDA Partners Meeting. [Washington, D.C.]: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing
Service, Marketing Services Program. x, 24 p. URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/getfile?dDocName=STELPRDC5076556 &acct=wdmgeninfo [Accessed 6/3/2011]
Abstract: This report summarizes one of the panel discussions, "Emerging
Market Opportunities for Small-scale Producers," held as part of the
August 2008 USDA Fifth Annual Partners Meeting. The purpose of the annual event
is to support a dialogue between USDA and community-based organizations that work
with socially disadvantaged farmers. The panels and discussions provide
information and serve as forums for attendees to share experiences and learn
from food and agriculture experts. This session, organized by the AMS Marketing
Services Division, offered an opportunity for farmers and farmer organizations
to learn directly from industry insiders what it takes to work successfully
with wholesale produce buyers. The panel featured food industry experts from
across the food industry spectrum, from institutional food service to retail, who
currently purchase locally grown fruits and vegetables. The audience included
more than 80 farmers and representatives of organizations that work with
minority and socially disadvantaged farmers.
Abstract: Farm to school programs are expanding rapidly, with
over 1,100 active programs in 34 states. This makes it an excellent time to
launch a network to coordinate, promote, and expand this movement. The
Community Food Security Coalition and the Center for Food and Justice at
Occidental College have done just that, launching the National Farm to School
Network in September of 2007.
Abstract: This paper briefly describes the concept of community
food security. It then examines a variety of community food security programmes
(food stamp outreach programmes, farmers markets, community gardens, food
buying cooperatives, community-supported agriculture programmes, farm-to-school
initiatives, and food recovery programmes) in the USA, looking at their scope,
their limitations, and their successes.
King, R. P., M. S. Hand, G.
DiGiacomo, K. Clancy, M. I. Gómez, S. D. Hardesty, L. Lev, and E. W.
McLaughlin. 2010. Comparing the Structure, Size, and Performance of
Local and Mainstream Food Supply Chains. Economic Research
Report, no. 99. [Washington, D.C.]: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic
Research Service. v, 73 p. NAL Call Number: aHD9005.C59 2010 URL: http://www.ers.usda.gov/Publications/ERR99/ERR99.pdf [Accessed 6/13/2011]
Abstract: A series of coordinated case studies compares the
structure, size, and performance of local food supply chains with those of
mainstream supply chains. Interviews and site visits with farms and businesses,
supplemented with secondary data, describe how food moves from farms to
consumers in 15 food supply chains. Key comparisons between supply chains
include the degree of product differentiation, diversification of marketing
outlets, and information conveyed to consumers about product origin. The cases
highlight differences in prices and the distribution of revenues among supply
chain participants, local retention of wages and proprietor income,
transportation fuel use, and social capital creation. One case study features
farm-to-school activity as a supply chain facilitated by an intermediary.
Abstract: This report examines the environmental, economic and
social benefits of local food, showcases existing procurement policies in
Italy, Britain, the United States, and Canada, and examines lessons learned in
other jurisdictions. It is a preliminary review of some literature on local
Shimkoski, D. 1980. "Schools
Buy Farm Fresh Produce." Food and Nutrition. 10 (1): 14-17. NAL Call Number: aTX341.F615
Abstract: The San Juan, California, School District contracted
with a local farmer to provide fresh produce during the summer of 1979 to test
the feasibility of direct purchase for a large-scale food service operation.
Savings averaged 38 percent; quality remained the same or was better. The
program benefits the family-owned farm by providing another market. The
Concord, New Hampshire, School District buys fruits and vegetables from local
farmers and stores them in a community-donated root cellar. There is little
cost savings, but the schools have the freshest product available and money is
spent within the state. The local farmers' cooperative has helped to create a
curriculum covering many facets of food and nutrition education.
Zajfen, Vanessa. 2008. Fresh
Food Distribution Models for the Greater Los Angeles Region: Barriers and
Opportunities to Facilitate and Scale up the Distribution of Fresh Fruits and
Vegetables. [Los Angeles, CA]: Occidental College, Urban and
Environmental Policy Institute, Center for Food and Justice. 23 p. URL: http://departments.oxy.edu/uepi/publications/TCE_Final_Report.pdf [Accessed 6/13/2011]
Abstract: The Center for Food and Justice (CFJ) has just
released the findings from a year-long planning grant titled Fresh
Food Distribution Models for the Greater Los Angeles Region: Barriers and
Opportunities to Facilitate and Scale Up the Distribution of Fresh Fruits and
Vegetables. The California Endowment funded CFJ for a year long
planning grant to explore the most effective strategies and opportunities to
scale up the distribution of locally grown fruits and vegetables in Southern
California. Our work sought to identify solutions to the barriers to accessing
locally grown foods that have prevented more institutions from supporting local
agriculture. This report lays the groundwork for farm to institution
distribution efforts that will be undertaken by CFJ over the coming years.
Farm to School Organizations and Additional Resources
select group of organizations known for their support of Farm to School,
community food systems, school nutrition and sustainable agriculture, that
provide numerous resources for schools and/or farmers in beginning or
sustaining Farm to School related activities are listed below.
Americorps Farm to School Program
University of Wisconsin-Madison, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences; Wisconsin
Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection (DATCP). http://www.cias.wisc.edu/americorps-farm-to-school-program/ http://datcp.wi.gov/Business/Buy_Local_Buy_Wisconsin/Farm_to_School_Program/index.aspx
The goal of the AmeriCorps Farm to School program is
to provide an innovative approach to decreasing childhood obesity by promoting
healthy eating habits in students and increasing access to local foods in
schools. The program provides two half-time AmeriCorps members per site; a
local food procurement member and a nutrition education member. The food
procurement member is focused on identifying and addressing hurdles facing
local food procurement in school districts including: distribution, processing,
and pricing while building relationships with farmers. The nutrition education
member works to develop and implement curriculum and wellness plans that teach
students about healthier eating habits.
for Ecoliteracy http://www.ecoliteracy.org
The Center for Ecoliteracy is best known for its
pioneering work with school gardens, school lunches, and integrating ecological
principles and sustainability into school curricula. This organization offers
hundreds of downloadable resource materials, including practical guides, essays
by leading writers and experts, and inspiring stories of school communities and
organizations across the country.
Community Food Security Coalition (CFSC) http://www.foodsecurity.org
The Community Food Security Coalition is a leader in
the Farm to School movement and has a wide variety of information on Farm to
School funding, case studies, policy, resources and publications.
Cornell Farm to School Extension and Research Program
Cornell University. http://farmtoschool.cce.cornell.edu
Cornell has Farm to School resources specifically
targeted for educators, food service directors, parents, community members and
FamilyFarmed.org works directly with family farmers as
well as with local and national organizations that serve farmers and are
working to build local food systems.
Farmers’ Legal Action Group (FLAG) http://www.flaginc.org [Accessed 6/7/2011]
FLAG is a nonprofit law center that provides legal
services to family farmers and their rural communities in order to help keep
family farmers on the land.
Food Research and Action Center (FRAC) http://frac.org [Accessed 6/7/2011]
The Food Research and Action Center provides
information on policy related to school lunch and other nutrition programs and
obtaining USDA’s Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program grants.
FoodCorps http://food-corps.org [Accessed 6/9/2011]
FoodCorps members build Farm to School supply chains,
expand food system and nutrition education programs, and build and tend school
food gardens. The ultimate goal of the organization is to increase the health
and prosperity of vulnerable children while investing in the next generation of
farmers and public health leaders.
Tides Center. http://www.foodroutes.org [Accessed 6/7/2011]
FoodRoutes is a national non-profit organization
focused on reintroducing Americans to their food, the seeds it grows from, the
farmers who produce it, and the routes that carry it from the fields to our
tables. Materials provided include resources for Farm to College and Farm to
School (K-12) programs.
Growing Power http://www.growingpower.org [Accessed 6/7/2011]
Growing Power, Inc. is a national nonprofit
organization and land trust that helps to provide equal access to healthy,
high-quality, safe and affordable food for people in all communities.
Healthy Schools Campaign (HSC) http://www.healthyschoolscampaign.org [Accessed 6/7/2011]
Healthy Schools Campaign is an independent
not-for-profit organization that works to provide healthy school environments
and a voice for people who care about our environment, our children, and
Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (IATP) http://www.iatp.org [Accessed 6/7/2011]
The Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (IATP)
works locally and globally at the intersection of policy and practice to ensure
fair and sustainable food, farm and trade systems. IATP hosts www.farm2schoolmn.org, for farmers, schools, students, and other stakeholders
to learn about and participate in Farm to School activities.
Midwest Organic and Sustainable Education Service (MOSES) http://www.mosesorganic.org [Accessed 6/7/2011]
The Midwest Organic and Sustainable Education Service
(MOSES) facilitates training for farmers on Farm to School market
National Farm to School Network
Community Food Security Coalition; Occidental College, Urban and Environmental Policy
Institute. http://www.farmtoschool.org [Accessed 6/7/2011]
The National Farm to School Network connects schools
and local farms with the objectives of serving healthy meals in school
cafeterias, improving student nutrition, providing agriculture, health and
nutrition education opportunities, and supporting local and regional farmers.
The Web site is a one stop shop for all things Farm to School, as well as a
valuable database of Farm to School programs across the U.S.
National Sustainable Agriculture Coalition (NSAC) http://sustainableagriculture.net/ [Accessed 6/7/2011]
The National Sustainable Agriculture Coalition is an
alliance of grassroots organizations that advocates for Federal policy reform
to advance the sustainability of agriculture, food systems, natural resources,
and rural communities. NSAC policy recommendations are aligned with the goals
of Farm to School, which include ensuring opportunities for small and
medium-sized farms and promoting and sustaining local food economies.
School Food FOCUS http://www.schoolfoodfocus.org [Accessed 6/7/2011]
School Food FOCUS is a national initiative that helps
large school districts (those with 40,000 or more students) procure more
healthful, more sustainably produced and regionally sourced food, so that
children may perform better in school and be healthier in life. Projects
include a School Food Learning Lab, school food policy advocacy, developing a
school food Leadership Council, and communicating information and success
stories to support a healthier school food environment.
School Nutrition Association (SNA) http://www.schoolnutrition.org/Content.aspx?id=7986 [Accessed 6/7/2011]
The School Nutrition Association membership is
comprised of school nutrition services directors across the country and is a
valuable tool for spreading the word on Farm to School.
Seven Generations Ahead http://www.sevengenerationsahead.org [Accessed 6/7/2011]
Seven Generations Ahead is a nonprofit organization
whose mission is to promote ecologically sustainable and healthy communities.
SGA aims to grow a culture of healthy eating and environmental awareness among kids.
agencies and local school districts often
lead Farm to School efforts in their area. Many of these organizations have
begun to capture their Farm to School efforts on Web sites or in publications.
The National Farm to School Network compiles a listing of programs, policies,
local organizations, farmers, publication, events, funding opportunities, and
local contacts for each state and the District of Columbia in Farm
to School across the Nation. A listing of Regional Lead Agencies
with highlights from each is also included.