Controls, Preventions and Vaccines

 

 

Abraham, A., V. Sivanandan, D. Karunakaran, D.A. Halvorson, and J.A. Newman (1988). Comparative serological evaluation of avian influenza vaccine in turkeys. Avian Diseases 32(4): 659-62.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Four- and six-week-old turkeys were vaccinated subcutaneously using avian influenza virus (AIV) A/Duck/613/MN/79 (H4N2) killed oil-emulsion vaccine. Sequential serological tests using agar gel precipitin (AGP), hemagglutination inhibition (HI), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring antibodies to AIV were performed up to 4 weeks postvaccination, when birds were challenged intranasally using A/Turkey/MN/80 (H4N2) live AIV. The ELISA was 25 to 1600 times more sensitive than the HI test and was able to detect antibody production earlier than the HI test. All turkeys with an ELISA titer of greater than or equal to 800 were protected against homologous challenge, as measured by virus recovery 3 days postchallenge. Four turkeys out of 20 serologically negative by AGP and HI tests but ELISA-positive were protected.

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus avian immunology, sensitivity and specificity, turkeys immunology, viral vaccines immunology, antibodies, viral analysis, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay veterinary, fowl plague immunology, fowl plague prevention and control, hemagglutination inhibition tests veterinary, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, precipitin tests veterinary,  vaccines, inactivated immunology.

Abraham, A.J.S. (1984). Comparative serological evaluation of avian influenza vaccination in turkeys. Dissertation Abstracts International, B 45(5): 1381.

            NAL Call Number:  Z5055.U49D53

            Descriptors:  viral diseases, avian influenza., turkeys,  immunization, ELISA.

Abraham, A.S., V. Sivanadan, D. Karunakaran, and J.A. Newman (1983). Serological evaluation of avian influenza vaccine in turkeys. [Abstract]. Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases 64: 39.

            NAL Call Number:  SF605.C59

            Descriptors:  avian influenza, turkeys, vaccine, serological evaluation, abstract.

Alexander, D.J. (1995). The epidemiology and control of avian influenza and Newcastle disease. Journal of Comparative Pathology 112(2): 105-26.  ISSN: 0021-9975.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 J82

            Descriptors:  fowl plague epidemiology, Newcastle disease epidemiology, animal husbandry, animals, domestic, birds, disease outbreaks prevention and control, disease outbreaks veterinary, fowl plague prevention and control, fowl plague transmission, influenza A virus avian classification, Newcastle disease prevention and control, Newcastle disease transmission, Newcastle disease virus classification, poultry, vaccination veterinary.

Alexander, D.J. (2000). Highly pathogenic avian influenza. In: Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. List A and B Diseases of Mammals, Birds and Bees, 4th edition, p. 212-220. ISBN: 92-9044-510-6.

            NAL Call Number:  SF771.M36 2000

            Descriptors:  fowl plague virus, influenza virus A, immunization, diagnosis, techniques, mortality, pathogenicity, diagnostic tests, manual of standards, vaccines, Gallus gallus, poultry.

Allan, W.H., C.R. Madeley, and A.P. Kendal (1971). Studies with avian influenza A viruses: cross protection experiments in chickens. Journal of General Virology 12(2): 79-84.  ISSN: 0022-1317.

            NAL Call Number:  QR360.A1J6

            Descriptors:  antigens, immunization, orthomyxoviridae immunology, antigens, viral, birds, chickens, cross reactions, erythrocytes immunology, glycoproteins, hemagglutination inhibition tests, hemagglutinins viral analysis, immune sera, injections, intramuscular, neuraminidase analysis, orthomyxoviridae enzymology, serologic tests, species specificity, turkeys.

Anonymous (2004). Avian influenza. Epidemiological Bulletin 25(1): 5-8.  ISSN: 0256-1859.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virology, Asia, birds virology, influenza A virus, avian physiology, avian influenza prevention and control, avian influenza transmission.

Anonymous (2005). Avian influenza: perfect storm now gathering? Lancet 365(9462): 820.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 L22

            Descriptors:  influenza prevention and control, avian influenza A virus immunology, influenza epidemiology, influenza transmission, influenza virology, influenza vaccines, avian influenza prevention and control, avian influenza transmission, international cooperation, poultry.

Anonymous (2004). Avian influenza--the facts from the WHO. South African Medical Journal; Suid Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde 94(3): 158.  ISSN: 0256-9574.

            Descriptors:  influenza epidemiology, influenza A virus, avian isolation and purification, human isolation and purification, avian influenza epidemiology, birds, incidence, influenza prevention and control, avian influenza prevention and control, poultry, risk assessment, survival rate, World Health Organization.

Anonymous (2004). China: towards "xiaokang", but still living dangerously. Lancet  363(9407): 409.  ISSN: 1474-547X.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 L22

            Descriptors:  public health practice standards, social change, China epidemiology, communicable disease control standards, communicable disease control trends, disease outbreaks prevention and control, disease outbreaks statistics and numerical data, influenza, avian epidemiology, avian influenza prevention and control, population surveillance methods, poultry, severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemiology, severe acute respiratory syndrome prevention and control, world health.

Anonymous (2004). Flu: the fowl news. Harvard Health Letter from Harvard Medical School 29(6): 7.  ISSN: 1052-1577.

            NAL Call Number:  R11.H3

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks prevention and control, disease outbreaks veterinary, influenza epidemiology, influenza, avian prevention and control, child, influenza, avian epidemiology, poultry.

Anonymous (2004). Fowl flu fuels fears. Nature Medicine 10(3): 211.  ISSN: 1078-8956.

            Descriptors:  chickens virology, influenza epidemiology, influenza virology, influenza A virus, avian immunology, influenza vaccines, influenza prevention and control, influenza, avian epidemiology, zoonoses epidemiology.

Anonymous (2004). Getting out into the field, and forest. Lancet Infectious Diseases 4(3): 127.  ISSN: 1473-3099.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks prevention and control, avian influenza transmission, poultry diseases transmission, vaccination, animals, domestic animals, wild birds, disease notification, avian influenza epidemiology, avian influenza prevention and control, poultry, poultry diseases epidemiology, poultry diseases prevention and control, zoonoses.

Anonymous (2004). World is ill-prepared for "inevitable" flu pandemic. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 82(4): 317-8.  ISSN: 0042-9686.

            NAL Call Number:  449.9 W892B

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks prevention and control, influenza epidemiology, world health, Asia epidemiology, influenza prevention and control, influenza virology, influenza A virus, avian influenza pathogenicity, avian influenza epidemiology, avian influenza prevention and control, avian influenza virology, public health practice.

Apisarnthanarak, A., S. Erb, I. Stephenson, J.M. Katz, M. Chittaganpitch, S. Sangkitporn, R. Kitphati, P. Thawatsupha, S. Waicharoen, U. Pinitchai, P. Apisarnthanarak, V.J. Fraser, and L.M. Mundy (2005). Seroprevalence of anti-H5 antibody among Thai health care workers after exposure to Avian influenza (H5N1) in a tertiary care center. Clinical Infectious Diseases 40(2): e16-8.  ISSN: 1537-6591.

            NAL Call Number:  RC111.R4

            Abstract:  After the initial atypical presentation of a patient with avian influenza (H5N1) infection, paired acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum samples obtained from 25 health care workers (HCWs) who were exposed to the patient were compared with paired serum samples obtained from 24 HCWs who worked at different units in the same hospital and were not exposed to the patient. There was no serologic evidence of anti-H5 antibody reactivity or subclinical infection in either of the groups.

            Descriptors:  H5N1, seroprevalence, anti-H5 antibody, health care workers, avian influenza, patient, serum samples, exposure.

Bahl, A.K., A. Langston, and R.A. Van Deusen (1979). Prevention and control of avian influenza in turkeys. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association (83): 355-63.  ISSN: 0082-8750.

            NAL Call Number:  449.9 Un3r

            Descriptors:  fowl plague prevention and control, turkeys, fowl plague epidemiology, fowl plague transmission, Minnesota.

Beard, C. (2000). Vaccination can help to control AI. World Poultry (Special): 18-19.  ISSN: 1388-3119.

            NAL Call Number:  SF481.M54

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, vaccination, disease control, disease prevention, poultry.

Beard, C.W. (1981). Immunization approaches to avian influenza. In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, p. 172-177.

            NAL Call Number: aSF995.6.I6I5 1981a

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, control, prevention, immunization, vaccines, symposium.

Beard, C.W. (1981). Turkey influenza vaccination. Veterinary Record 108(25): 545.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  fowl plague prevention and control, turkeys, vaccination veterinary, influenza A virus avian immunology, viral vaccines.

Beard, C.W., W.M. Schnitzlein, and D.N. Tripathy (1992). Effect of route of administration on the efficacy of a recombinant fowlpox virus against H5N2 avian influenza. Avian Diseases 36(4): 1052-5.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  A recombinant fowlpox vaccine virus containing the H5 hemagglutinin gene of avian influenza virus was administered to susceptible chickens via wing-web puncture, eye drop, instillation into the nares, and drinking water. Even though there was a negligible hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) serologic response, all 10 chickens vaccinated by wing-web puncture remained without obvious signs of disease and survived challenge with a highly pathogenic strain of H5N2 avian influenza virus. All unvaccinated chickens and those vaccinated by nasal and drinking-water routes died following challenge. Eight of 10 chickens vaccinated with the recombinant by eyedrop died. All vaccinates were negative on the agar gel precipitin (AGP) test, and only one chicken had a positive HI titer before challenge. All chickens that survived challenge had high levels of HI antibody and were positive on the AGP test, indicating that they were infected by the challenge virus.

            Descriptors:  chickens immunology, fowl plague prevention and control, fowlpox virus immunology, poultry diseases prevention and control, viral vaccines administration and dosage, evaluation studies, fowl plague pathology, poultry diseases microbiology, poultry diseases pathology, vaccines, synthetic administration and dosage, vaccines, synthetic immunology, viral vaccines immunology.

Beard, C.W., W.M. Schnitzlein, and D.N. Tripathy (1991). Protection of chickens against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N2) by recombinant fowlpox viruses. Avian Diseases  35(2): 356-359.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Two recombinant fowlpox viruses containing the avian influenza H5 hemagglutinin (HA) gene were evaluated for their ability to protect chickens against challenge with a highly pathogenic isolate of avian influenza virus (H5N2). Susceptible chickens were vaccinated with the parent fowlpox vaccine virus or recombinant viruses either by wing-web puncture or comb scarification. Following challenge 4 weeks later with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, all birds vaccinated by the wing-web method were protected by both recombinants, while 50% and 70% mortality occurred in the two groups of birds vaccinated by comb scarification. Birds vaccinated with the unaltered parent fowlpox vaccine virus or unvaccinated controls experienced 90% and 100% mortality, respectively, following challenge. Hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody levels were low, and agar-gel precipitin results were negative before challenge. Very high HI titers and positive precipitating antibody responses were observed in all survivors following challenge.

            Descriptors:  fowls, avian influenza virus, recombinant vaccines, fowl pox virus, disease prevention, vaccination, mortality, wing web puncture, comb scarification.

Belshe, R.B. (1995). A review of attenuation of influenza viruses by genetic manipulation. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 152(4, Pt. 2): S72-5.  ISSN: 1073-449X.

            Descriptors:  genetic engineering methods, influenza A virus human genetics, influenza B virus genetics, influenza vaccine genetics, adult, infant, avian immunology, human immunology, human pathogenicity, influenza B virus immunology, influenza B virus pathogenicity, influenza vaccine immunology, vaccines, attenuated genetics, vaccines, attenuated immunology, vaccines, combined genetics,  vaccines, combined immunology.

Bennink, J.R. and T.N. Palmore (2004). The promise of siRNAs for the treatment of influenza. Trends in Molecular Medicine 10(12): 571-4.  ISSN: 1471-4914.

            Abstract:  Current WHO reports on the Asian avian influenza virus outbreaks are poignant reminders of the potential for the emergence of highly virulent strains of influenza A virus (IAV) and the fact that it remains a scourge on human health. As IAV drifts and shifts its genetic and antigenic composition, it presents an ever-changing challenge for vaccines and antiviral medications. Short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are the latest class of potential antiviral therapeutics to be developed. Recent reports using siRNAs in mice suggest that they hold great promise for the prevention and treatment of IAV infections.

            Descriptors:  antiviral agents therapeutic use, influenza drug therapy, influenza A virus genetics, small interfering RNA therapeutic use, mice, RNA interference physiology, short-interfering RNA.

Beyer, R.S. (1996). Avian influenza prevention in gamebird and ratite facilities. MF, Cooperative Extension Service, Kansas State University (2114): 2.

            Online:  http://www.ksre.ksu.edu/library/LVSTK2/Mf2114.pdf

            NAL Call Number:  S544.3.K2K3 no. 2114

            Descriptors:  avian influenza, prevention, game birds, Ratites.

Bogdan, J., O.J. Vrtiak, R. Polony, and T. Pauer (1968). Dynamics of immunomorphological changes in the organs of chickens after immunization with BPL vaccine and after challenge with fowl plague virus. Bulletin Office International Des Epizooties 69(5): 725-44.  ISSN: 0300-9823.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 OF2

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus avian immunology, orthomyxoviridae infections veterinary, poultry diseases immunology, antibody formation, chickens, lactones, orthomyxoviridae infections immunology, vaccination, vaccines.

Boyle, D.B. and H.G. Heine (1993). Recombinant fowlpox virus vaccines for poultry. Immunology and Cell Biology 71(5): 391-397.  ISSN: 0818-9641.

            NAL Call Number:  QR180.I43

            Abstract:  The intensive poultry industries rely heavily upon the use of vaccines for disease control. Viral vector based vaccines offer new avenues for the development of vaccines for effective disease control in poultry. Techniques developed for the construction of recombinant vaccinia viruses have been readily adapted to the construction of recombinant viruses based on fowlpox virus (rFPV). The ability to insert several genes into the large genome of fowlpox may enable the development of multivalent vaccines and vaccines incorporating immune response modifiers such as lymphokines. Newcastle disease, avian influenza, infectious bursal disease and Marek's disease antigens expressed by rFPV have been shown to be effective vaccines in poultry. None appear, however, to provide a substantial improvement in vaccine efficacy. Recombinant FPV will be a valuable adjunct to conventional vaccines currently in widespread use. Whether rFPV or other vector based vaccines can circumvent the problems of vaccination in the presence of high maternally derived antibodies is yet to be resolved. The observation that avipoxvirus recombinants may be suitable for the vaccination of non-avian species provides an added dimension to vaccines based on FPV or other avipoxviruses. Recombinant FPV will be a valuable adjunct to conventional vaccines currently in widespread use. Whether rFPV or other find a useful role in poultry disease control when used in conjunction with conventional vaccines.

            Descriptors:  genetics, immune system, infection, microbiology, pharmacology, veterinary medicine, avian influenza virus biotechnology genetic engineering.

Boyle, D.B., P. Selleck, and H.G. Heine (2000). Vaccinating chickens against avian influenza with fowlpox recombinants expressing the H7 haemagglutinin. Australian Veterinary Journal 78(1): 44-8.  ISSN: 0005-0423.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Au72

            Abstract:  OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the vaccine efficacy of a fowlpox virus recombinant expressing the H7 haemagglutinin of avian influenza virus in poultry. PROCEDURE: Specific-pathogen-free poultry were vaccinated with fowlpox recombinants expressing H7 or H1 haemagglutinins of influenza virus. Chickens were vaccinated at 2 or 7 days of age and challenged with virulent Australian avian influenza virus at 10 and 21 days later, respectively. Morbidity and mortality, body weight change and the development of immune responses to influenza haemagglutinin and nucleoprotein were recorded. RESULTS: Vaccination of poultry with fowlpox H7 avian influenza virus recombinants induced protective immune responses. All chickens vaccinated at 7 days of age and challenged 21 days later were protected from death. Few clinical signs of infection developed. In contrast, unvaccinated or chickens vaccinated with a non-recombinant fowlpox or a fowlpox expressing the H1 haemagglutinin of human influenza were highly susceptible to avian influenza. All those chickens died within 72 h of challenge. In younger chickens, vaccinated at 2 days of age and challenged 10 days later the protection was lower with 80% of chickens protected from death. Chickens surviving vaccination and challenge had high antibody responses to haemagglutinin and primary antibody responses to nucleoprotein suggesting that although vaccination protected substantially against disease it failed to completely prevent replication of the challenge avian influenza virus. CONCLUSION: Vaccination of chickens with fowlpox virus expressing the avian influenza H7 haemagglutinin provided good protection against experimental challenge with virulent avian influenza of H7 type. Although eradication will remain the method of first choice for control of avian influenza, in the circumstances of a continuing and widespread outbreak the availability of vaccines based upon fowlpox recombinants provides an additional method for disease control.

            Descriptors:  chickens, fowl plague immunology, fowl plague prevention and control, fowlpox virus immunology, influenza A virus avian immunology, vaccines, synthetic, viral vaccines, antibodies, viral blood, DNA primers, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, fowl plague blood, fowlpox virus classification, fowlpox virus genetics, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus genetics, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus immunology, influenza A virus avian genetics, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, specific pathogen free organisms.

Bright, R.A., T.M. Ross, K. Subbarao, H.L. Robinson, and J.M. Katz (2003). Impact of glycosylation on the immunogenicity of a DNA-based influenza H5 HA vaccine. Virology 308(2): 270-278.  ISSN: 0042-6822.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 V81

            Abstract:  Avian H5N1 influenza viruses isolated from humans in Hong Kong in 1997 were divided into two antigenic groups based on the presence or absence of a potential glycosylation site at amino acid residues 154-156 in the HA1 region of the viral hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein. To assess the impact of glycosylation on the immunogenicity of an HA-expressing DNA vaccine, a series of plasmid vaccine constructs that differed in the presence of potential glycosylation sites at amino acid residues 154-156, 165-167, and 286-288 were used to immunize BALB/c mice. Postvaccination serum IgG, hemagglutination inhibition, and neutralizing antibody titers as well as the morbidity and mortality following a lethal H5N1 viral challenge did not vary significantly among any of the experimental groups. We conclude that the glycosylation pattern of the influenza virus HA1 domain has little impact on the murine antibody response raised to a DNA vaccine encoding the H5 HA, thereby minimizing the concern that the pattern of glycosylation sites encoded by the vaccine match those of closely related H5 viruses.

            Descriptors:  immune system, pharmacology, antibody response glycosylation.

Brooks, M.J., J.J. Sasadeusz, and G.A. Tannock ( 2004). Antiviral chemotherapeutic agents against respiratory viruses: where are we now and what's in the pipeline? Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine 10(3): 197-203.  ISSN: 1070-5287.

            Abstract:  PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome in late 2002 and the recent outbreaks of avian influenza in Asia are timely reminders of the ever present risks from respiratory viral diseases. Apart from influenza, there are no vaccines and very few antiviral chemotherapeutic agents available for the prevention and treatment of respiratory viral infections-the most common cause of human illness. If the current H5N1 avian influenza outbreak ever assumes the role of a pandemic, formidable technical difficulties relating to the properties of the agent, itself, will ensure that vaccines will only become available after a significant lead time and then only to a relatively small percentage of the population. The use of existing antivirals could be critical in limiting the initial spread of a pandemic, although their use in the control of epidemics caused by nonpandemic viruses has not been evaluated. It is against this background that a review of recent developments in respiratory antivirals has been undertaken. RECENT FINDINGS: The late 1990s were a period of unprecedented activity in the development of new and much superior antivirals for the treatment of influenza infections. However, during the past 2 to 3 years and largely for commercial reasons, there has been a decline in interest in their further development by major drug companies. This situation may soon change with the possible advent of new pandemic viruses, and moves are afoot in several countries to consider the stockpiling of antivirals. The neuraminidase inhibitors zanamivir and oseltamivir, and the M2 inhibitors amantadine and rimantadine, remain the only options for controlling respiratory disease caused by influenza viruses, although the latter two could not be used against very recent H5N1 strains. There are several other neuraminidase inhibitors in development. Compounds with activity against other respiratory viruses, notably rhinoviruses, are also in development, many based on a newer knowledge of viral protein structure and function (rational drug design). SUMMARY: The following is an overview of recent papers on the further development of neuraminidase inhibitors against influenza viruses and on recent development of newer antivirals against RSV and rhinoviruses. Where possible, comparisons are made with existing antivirals. For considerations of space, this review has been structured around stages in the replication cycle of significant respiratory viruses that have been traditionally used as targets for inhibition.

            Descriptors:  antiviral agents therapeutic use, respiratory tract infections drug therapy, respiratory tract infections virology, virus diseases drug therapy, antiviral agents pharmacology, drugs investigational pharmacology, drugs investigational therapeutic use, enzyme inhibitors pharmacology, enzyme inhibitors therapeutic use, ion channels antagonists and inhibitors.

Brower, V. (2005). Variability is its specialty. Influenza vaccine shortages and the spectre of an avian influenza epidemic. EMBO Reports 6(1): 13-6.  ISSN: 1469-221X.

            NAL Call Number:  QH506.E46

            Descriptors:  influenza, vaccine, variability, avian influenza, epidemic, shortages.

Brown, D.W., Y. Kawaoka, R.G. Webster, and H.L. Robinson (1992). Assessment of retrovirus-expressed nucleoprotein as a vaccine against lethal influenza virus infections of chickens. Avian Diseases 36(3): 515-20.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 AV5

            Abstract:  Hemagglutinin-based influenza vaccines stimulate protection in chickens that is limited to the serotype of the expressed hemagglutinin. To evaluate whether a more highly conserved influenza virus protein might stimulate a broader protective response, the influenza virus nucleoprotein (NP) was introduced into a retroviral vector (mRCAS/NP). NP is an internal influenza virus protein that has been shown to stimulate cytotoxic T-cell responses in influenza-virus-infected mice. Cells infected with mRCAS/NP expressed approximately 10% of the level of NP observed in influenza-virus-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts. Immunocompetent chicks were vaccinated intramuscularly with approximately 1 x 10(5) NP-expressing units of mRCAS/NP. Four weeks later, chicks were bled and challenged with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (A/Chicken/Victoria/1/85). The NP-expressing vector stimulated an influenza-virus-specific response, as indicated by the presence of antibody to NP, but failed to protect against the lethal challenge.

            Descriptors:  chickens immunology, influenza A virus avian immunology, influenza vaccine immunology, nucleoproteins immunology, poultry diseases immunology, viral core proteins immunology, antibodies, viral blood, fowl plague immunology, genetic vectors immunology, influenza vaccine biosynthesis, leukosis virus, avian metabolism, nucleoproteins biosynthesis, poultry diseases microbiology, vaccines, synthetic biosynthesis, vaccines, synthetic immunology, viral core proteins biosynthesis.

Brugh, M., C.W. Beard, and H.D. Stone (1979). Immunization of chickens and turkeys against avian influenza with monovalent and polyvalent oil emulsion vaccines. American Journal of Veterinary Research 40(2): 165-9.  ISSN: 0002-9645.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Am3A

            Abstract:  Chickens and turkeys vaccinated with inactivated virus oil-emulsion vaccines containing different concentrations of either 1 (monovalent) or 4 (polyvalent) strains of avian influenza virus (AIV) were challenged-exposed with virulent AIV A/chicken/Scotland/59 or A/turkey/Ontario/7732/66. Four of 6 vaccines protected completely against postexposure mortality. Vaccine valency did not alter the serologic and challenge-exposure responses of chickens vaccinated with AIV A/turkey/Wisconsin/68, which was the virus component common to both monovalent and polyvalent vaccines. The magnitude of the serologic responses and protection against challenge-exposure were dependent on the concentration of virus in the vaccines. These data indicate that control of virulent AIV in chickens and turkeys by vaccination with inactivated vaccines may be feasible.

            Descriptors:  chickens, influenza veterinary, influenza vaccine administration and dosage, poultry diseases prevention and control, turkeys,  vaccination veterinary, antigens, viral immunology, emulsions, hemagglutinins viral analysis, immunity, influenza immunology, influenza prevention and control, influenza A virus immunology, oils, poultry diseases immunology.

Butterfield, W.K. and C.H. Campbell (1978).  Vaccination for fowl plague. American Journal of Veterinary Research 39(4): 671-4.  ISSN: 0002-9645.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Am3A

            Abstract:  Influenza A/turkey/Oregon/71 virus has antigenic characteristics of fowl plague virus but is avirulent for chickens. The virus was inoculated intratracheally in chickens at several dosage levels and resulted in the formation of antibody and immunity against fowl plague. The avirulent virus replicated in chickens and was recoverable by tracheal swab specimens up to 4 days after inoculation. Although the virus was transmitted to contact controls at the time when their cagemates were inoculated, it was not transmitted to contact controls placed with chickens inoculated 24 hours earlier. After 10 passages in chickens, the virus remained avirulent for chickens and turkeys.

            Descriptors:  chickens, fowl plague prevention and control, vaccination veterinary, antibodies, viral analysis, influenza A virus avian growth and development, avian immunology, avian isolation and purification, trachea microbiology, viral vaccines, virulence.

Butterfield, W.K. and C.H. Campbell (1978).  Vaccination of chickens with influenza A/Turkey/Oregon/71 virus and immunity challenge exposure to five strains of fowl plague virus. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association (82): 320-4.  ISSN: 0082-8750.

            NAL Call Number:  449.9 Un3r

            Descriptors:  fowl plague prevention and control, influenza A virus avian growth and development, immunology, chickens, cloaca microbiology, fowl plague immunology, vaccination.

Canada. Health Canada (2004). Statement on influenza vaccination for the 2004-2005 season. Canada Communicable Disease Report; Releve Des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada 30(ACS-3): 1-32.  ISSN: 1188-4169.

            Descriptors:  human diseases, immunization, influenza, occupational hazards, infected poultry.

Capua, I., G. Cattoli, and S. Marangon (2004). DIVA--a vaccination strategy enabling the detection of field exposure to avian influenza. Developmental Biology (Basel) 119: 229-33.  ISSN: 1424-6074.

            Abstract:  The present paper reports on the development, validation and field application of a control strategy for avian influenza infections in poultry. The "DIVA" (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) strategy is based on the use of an inactivated oil emulsion vaccine containing the same haemagglutinin (H) subtype as the challenge virus, but a different neuraminidase (N). The possibility of using the heterologous N subtype, to differentiate between vaccinated and naturally infected birds, was investigated through the development of an "ad hoc" serological test based on the detection of specific anti-N antibodies. This test is based on an indirect fluorescent antibody assay, using as an antigen a baculovirus expressing recombinant N proteins. The vaccination strategy has been tested in the laboratory and shown to be efficacious both against challenge with highly pathogenic AI viruses and with low pathogenicity AI viruses, ensuring clinical protection, reduction of duration and titre of shedding. In addition, vaccination resulted in an increased resistance to infection. The companion diagnostic tests directed to the detection of anti-N1 and anti-N3 antibodies have been validated in the laboratory and using field samples. The serological assay showed an "almost perfect agreement" (Kappa value) with the HI test, with relative sensitivity and specificity values of 98.1 and 95.7, respectively. The results of the present investigation suggest that the "DIVA" control strategy may represent a tool to support the eradication of avian influenza infections in poultry.

            Descriptors:  animals, viral blood antibodies, viral immunology antibodies, genetic engineering, avian influenza A virus enzymology, avian influenza diagnosis, avian influenza prevention and control, neuraminidase genetics, poultry, sensitivity and specificity, veterinary serologic tests, marker vaccines, viral vaccines immunology, virus shedding.

Capua, I. and S. Marangon (2002). "DIVA" was a successful strategy to eradicate avian influenza in Italy. World Poultry 18(7): 44-45.  ISSN: 1388-3119.

            NAL Call Number:  SF481.M54

            Descriptors:  poultry, disease control, epidemics, immune response, immunization, avian influenza virus, DIVA, Italy.

Capua, I. and S. Marangon (2004). Novel perspectives for the control of avian influenza. Zootecnica International (2): 48-57.  ISSN: 0392-0593.

            NAL Call Number:  SF600.Z6

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, disease control, inactivated vaccines, recombinant vaccines, vaccination, regulations, fowl.

Capua, I. and S. Marangon (2003). Vaccination in the control of avian influenza in the EU. Veterinary Record 152(9): 271.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  avian influenza, control, distribution, prevalence, European Union, Italy, outbreaks, poultry,  vaccination.

Capua, I. and S. Marangon. (2003). Vaccination policy applied for the control of avian influenza in Italy. In: Vaccines for OIE list A and emerging animal diseases. Proceedings of a symposium, Ames, Iowa, USA, Developments in Biologicals, p. 213-219.  ISBN: 3-8055-7577-7

            NAL Call Number: QR180.3.D4 v. 114

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, control programs, disease control, immunization, poultry, Italy.

Capua, I., S. Marangon, M. Dalla Pozza, and U. Santucci (2000). Vaccination for avian influenza in Italy.  Veterinary Record 147(26): 751.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks veterinary, fowl plague epidemiology, fowl plague prevention and control, influenza veterinary, influenza A virus avian immunology, vaccination veterinary, influenza epidemiology, influenza prevention and control, Italy epidemiology, poultry.

Capua, I., C. Terregino, G. Cattoli, and A. Toffan (2004). Increased resistance of vaccinated turkeys to experimental infection with an H7N3 low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus. Avian Pathology 33(2): 158-163.  ISSN: 0307-9457.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.A1A9

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, disease control, disease prevention, disease resistance, experimental infection, immune response, vaccination, turkeys.

Capua, I. and S. Marangon (2003). The use of vaccination as an option for the control of avian influenza. Avian Pathology 32(4): 335-343.  ISSN: 0307-9457.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.A1A9

            Abstract:  Recent epidemics of highly contagious animal diseases included in list A of the Office International des Epizooties, such as foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever and avian influenza (AI), have led to the implementation of stamping-out policies resulting in the depopulation of millions of animals. The enforcement of a control strategy based on culling animals that are infected, suspected of being infected or suspected of being contaminated, which is based only on the application of sanitary restrictions on farms, may not be sufficient to avoid the spread of infection, particularly in areas that have high animal densities, thus resulting in mass depopulation. In the European Union, the directive that imposes the enforcement of a stamping-out policy (92/40/EC) for AI was adopted in 1992 but was drafted in the 1980s. The poultry industry has undergone substantial changes in the past 20 years, mainly resulting in shorter production cycles and in higher animal densities per territorial unit. Due to these organizational changes, infectious diseases are significantly more difficult to control because of the greater number of susceptible animals reared per given unit of time and due to the difficulties in applying adequate biosecurity measures. The slaughter and destruction of great numbers of animals is also questionable from an ethical point of view. For this reason, mass depopulation has raised serious concerns for the general public and has recently led to very high costs and economic losses for national and federal governments, stakeholders and, ultimately, for consumers. In the past, the use of vaccines in such emergencies has been limited by the impossibility of differentiating vaccinated/infected from vaccinated/noninfected animals. The major concern was that through trade or movement of apparently uninfected animals or products, the disease could spread further or might be exported to other countries. For this reason, export bans have been imposed on countries enforcing a vaccination policy. This review considers the possible strategies for the control of avian influenza infections, bearing in mind the new proposed definition of AI, including the advantages and disadvantages of using conventional inactivated (homologous and heterologous) vaccines and recombinant vaccines. Reference is made to the different control strategies, including the restriction measures to be applied in case of the enforcement of a vaccination policy. In addition, the implications of a vaccination policy on trade are discussed. It is concluded that if vaccination is accepted as an option for the control of AI, vaccine banks, including companion diagnostic tests, must be established and made available for immediate use.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, public health, veterinary medicine, avian influenza, epidemiology, infectious disease, prevention and control, respiratory system disease, viral disease, vaccination, clinical techniques, biosecurity, disease control strategies, disease control vaccination policy, epizootics, slaughter and destruction, disease control.

Capua, I. and S. Marangon (2004). Vaccination for avian influenza in Asia. Vaccine 22(31-32): 4137-4138.  ISSN: 0264-410X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR189.V32

            Descriptors:  avian influenza, infection, vaccination,  prevention and control, Food and Agriculture Organization, Asia.

Capua, I., C. Terregino, G. Cattoli, F. Mutinelli, and J.F. Rodriguez (2003). Development of a DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) strategy using a vaccine containing a heterologous neuraminidase for the control of avian influenza. Avian Pathology 32(1): 47-55.  ISSN: 0307-9457.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.A1A9

            Abstract:  The present paper reports of the development and validation of a control strategy for avian influenza infections in poultry. The "DIVA" (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) strategy is based on the use of an inactivated oil emulsion vaccine containing the same haemagglutinin (H) subtype as the challenge virus, but a different neuraminidase (N). The possibility of using the heterologous N subtype, to differentiate between vaccinated and naturally infected birds, was investigated through the development of an "ad hoc" serological test based on the detection of specific anti-N1 antibodies. This was achieved using a baculovirus expressing a recombinant N1 protein. The A/ck/Pakistan/H7N3 virus was used as a vaccine and birds were challenged with the HPAI A/ty/Italy/4580/V99/H7N1 strain. The homologous H group ensured a clinical protection of 93% regardless of the vaccination scheme used, and was able to prevent viraemia and muscle colonization in the clinically healthy challenged birds. However, it was not able to prevent viral shedding. The "ad hoc" serological assay was developed as an indirect immunofluorescence test, and was validated using 608 field sera, and showed an "almost perfect agreement" (Kappa value) with the HI test, with relative sensitivity and specificity values of 98.1 and 95.7, respectively. The results of the present investigation suggest that the "DIVA" control strategy may represent a tool for the control of avian influenza infections in poultry.

            Descriptors:  immune system, infection, pharmacology, avian influenza, infectious disease, viral disease, differentiating infected from vaccinated animals strategy (DIVA strategy) clinical techniques, laboratory techniques, poultry vaccination clinical techniques, therapeutic and prophylactic techniques, serological assay clinical techniques, diagnostic techniques, laboratory techniques, viral challenge clinical techniques.

Capua, l., G. Cattoli, S. Marangon, L. Bortolotti, and G. Ortali (2002). Strategies for the control of avian influenza in Italy. Veterinary Record 150(7): 223.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  fowl plague prevention and control, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, birds, Italy.

Ceron H, M., H. Rodriguez Velazco, D. Garcia L, R. Palacios Miguel, T. Mickle R, E. Montiel N, H. Tinoco G, and J. Garcia Garcia. (1996). Estudios de evaluacion de una vacuna recombinante para prevenir la influenza aviar. III. Interferencia de la inmunidad pasiva con la vacunacion. [Studies on fowl pox-avian influenza recombinant vaccine. III. Passive immunity to vaccination]. In: Reunion Nacional de Investigacion Pecuaria, Cuernavaca, Morelos, (Mexico), p. 134.

            Abstract: En virtud de la sero-conversion observada, en pollos centinelas, al virus de Influenza Aviar (IA) en ciertas zonas avicolas del pais, los productores de pollo introducen en sus granjas pollos con anticuerpos maternos como una medida de prevencion. El objeto del presente trabajo fue el de determinar si los pollos con anticuerpos maternos, como una medida de la inmunidad pasiva, tenian una respuesta diferencial con respecto a los pollos sin anticuerpos, al ser vacunados al primer dia de edad con la vacuna recombinante de Viruela-Influenza Aviar. Se realizaron 2 estudios en los que grupos de 15 y 30 pollos respectivamente para cada estudio, se siguieron serologicamente despues de vacunarlos al dia de edad. Se realizaron desafios a los 7, 21, 35 y 49 dias post-vacunacion para el primer estudio y a los 7, 21 y 49 dias para el segundo. En todos los casos, los pollos a los 49 dias post-vacunacion fueron serologicamente negativos en la prueba de inhibicion de la hemoaglutinacion. comparados con pollos que fueron vacunados con vacuna emulsionada en que mostraron el 100% de sero-conversion en este periodo. En cuanto a la proteccion al desafio tanto los pollos con anticuerpos como los sin anticuerpos maternos estuvieron protegidos con la vacuna recombinante al momento de los desafios. Los resultados indican que la vacuna recombinante aqui probada induce una buena proteccion al ser aplicada en pollos comerciales de engorda tanto aquellos que tienen inmunidad pasiva como a los que no la tienen. De tal manera que este estado no limita la utilizacion de la vacuna.

            Descriptors: broiler chickens, avian influenza virus, synthetic vaccines, immune response, maternal immunity, birds, chickens, domestic animals, Galliformes, immunity, influenza virus, livestock, meat animals, orthomyxoviridae, passive immunity, poultry, useful animals, vaccines, viruses.

Chambers, T.M. and R.G. Webster (1991). Protection of chickens from lethal influenza virus infection by influenza A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1/83 virus: characterization of the protective effect. Virology 183(1): 427-32.  ISSN: 0042-6822.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 V81

            Abstract:  The influenza A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1/83 (H5N2) virus is the first known example of an influenza virus isolated from a natural infection which contained primarily defective interfering particles (T. M. Chambers and R. G. Webster, J. Virol. 61, 1517-1523, 1987). In chickens, coinoculation of this virus together with the closely related but highly virulent influenza A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/83 virus results in reduced mortality compared to virulent virus infection alone (Bean et al., J. Virol. 54, 151-160, 1985). The biological basis of this protective effect has not been established. Protective activity required greater than or equal to 100-fold excess input of protecting virus over virulent virus, functioned effectively during the first generations of virulent virus multiplication, and also functioned against an antigenically heterologous (H7N7) virulent influenza virus. Protection was correlated with the complete inhibition of virulent virus spread to the brain of infected chickens. Plaque-purified chicken/Pennsylvania/1/83 virus depleted of defective interfering particles, and beta-propiolactone-inactivated virus, had no protective effect. These characteristics are consistent with the hypothesis that protection was the result of defective interfering particle-mediated interference with virulent virus multiplication within the respiratory tract of the chicken.

            Descriptors:  influenza prevention and control, influenza A virus avian pathogenicity, viral vaccines therapeutic use, chickens, disease outbreaks, influenza epidemiology, avian growth and development, propiolactone pharmacology, United States epidemiology, virulence, virus activation.

Chen, H., Y. Matsuoka, Q. Chen, N.J. Cox, B.R. Murphy, and K. Subbarao (2003). Generation and characterization of an H9N2 cold-adapted reassortant as a vaccine candidate. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 1127-1130.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  H9N2 subtype avian influenza viruses have been identified in avian species worldwide, and infections in pigs were confirmed in Hong Kong in 1998. Subsequently, H9N2 viruses were isolated from two children in Hong Kong in 1999, and five human infections were reported from China, raising the possibility that H9N2 viruses pose a potential pandemic threat for humans. These events prompted us to develop a vaccine candidate to protect humans against this subtype of influenza A viruses. Reassortant H1N1 and H3N2 human influenza A viruses with the six internal gene segments of A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (H2N2)(AA) cold-adapted (ca) virus have been tested extensively in humans and have proved to be attenuated and safe as live virus vaccines. Using classical genetic reassortment, we generated a reassortant that contains the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes from A/chicken/Hong Kong/G9/97 (H9N2) and six internal gene segments from the AAca virus. The G9/AAca reassortant virus exhibits the ca phenotype and the temperature-sensitive phenotypes of the AAca virus and was attenuated in mice. The reassortant virus was immunogenic and protected mice from wild-type H9N2 virus challenge. The G9/AAca virus bears the in vitro and in vivo phenotypes specified by the AAca virus and will be evaluated as a potential vaccine candidate in humans.

            Descriptors:  infection, pharmaceuticals, avian influenza, infectious disease, respiratory system disease, viral disease, candidate vaccine strains, genetic reassortment, temperature sensitive phenotypes.

Chen Hua Lan, Yu Kang Zhen, Tian Guo Bin, Tang Xiu Ying, and Lu Jing Liang  (1998). Protective immune response against avian influenza virus in chicken induced by DNA inoculation. Scientia Agricultura Sinica 31(5): 63-68.  ISSN: 0578-1752.

            NAL Call Number:  S471.C6N89

            Descriptors:  immune response, DNA vaccines, vaccine development, avian influenza virus, chickens.

Chen, H., K. Subbarao, D. Swayne, Q. Chen, X. Lu, J. Katz, N. Cox, and Y. Matsuoka (2003). Generation and evaluation of a high-growth reassortant H9N2 influenza A virus as a pandemic vaccine candidate. Vaccine 21(17-18): 1974-1979.  ISSN: 0264-410X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR189.V32

            Abstract:  H9N2 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are widely distributed in avian species and were isolated from humans in Hong Kong and Guangdong province, China in 1999 raising concern of their potential for pandemic spread. We generated a high-growth reassortant virus (G9/PR8) that contains the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from the H9N2 avian influenza virus A/chicken/Hong Kong/G9/97 (G9) and six internal genes from A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) by genetic reassortment, for evaluation as a potential vaccine candidate in humans. Pathogenicity studies showed that the G9/PR8 reassortant was not highly pathogenic for mice or chickens. Two doses of a formalin-inactivated G9/PR8 virus vaccine induced hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies and conferred complete protection against challenge with G9 and the antigenically distinct H9N2 A/Hong Kong/1073/99 (G1-like) virus in a mouse model. These results indicate that the high growth G9/PR8 reassortant has properties that are desirable in a vaccine seed virus and is suitable for evaluation in humans for use in the event of an H9 pandemic.

            Descriptors:  immune system, infection, influenza A virus infection, prevention and control, viral disease.

Chen Yi Ping, Wu Li Li, Wan Hong Quan, Xu Yi Min, Wang Bao An, and Zhu Kun Xi  (2002). Effect of experimental infection with H9 avian influenza virus on the immune system of chicken. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science 22(2): 153-154.  ISSN: 1005-4545.

            NAL Call Number:  SF604.C58

            Descriptors:  immune system, leokocytes, lymphocytes, avian influenza virus, experimental infection, chicken.

Chen, Z.E. (2004). Influenza DNA vaccine: an update. Chinese Medical Journal Beijing 117(1): 125-132.  ISSN: 0366-6999.

            Descriptors:  DNA vaccines, genes, human diseases, immune response, immunization, influenza A, influenza B, reviews, influenza virus A, influenza virus B.

Cheng Jian, Liu Xiu Fan, Peng Da Xin, Liu Hong Qi, Wu Yan Tao, and Zhang Ru Kuang  (2003). Recombinant fowlpox virus coexpressing HA from subtype H9N2 of avian influenza virus and chicken type II interferon and its protective efficacy against homologous challenge in chickens. Chinese Journal of Virology 19(1): 52-58.  ISSN: 1000-8721.

            Descriptors:  recombinant vaccines, avian influenza virus, fowl pox virus, hemagglutinins, interferon, chickens.

Cheng, J., X. Liu, D. Pen, and H. Liu (2002).  Recombinant fowlpox virus expressing HA from subtype H9N2 of avian influenza virus and its protective immunity against homologous challenge in chickens. Weishengwu Xuebao 42(4): 442-447.  ISSN: 0001-6209.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ac83

            Abstract:  The hemagglutinin (HA) gene from the AIV, A/Chicken/China/F/1998 (H9N2) was amplified with the RT-PCR technique and directionally inserted into transferring vector 1175, resulted in recombinant transferring vector 1175HA. In order to generate recombinant fowlpox virus expressing HA (rFPV-HA), the recombinant transferring vector 1175HA was used to transfect the chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) pre-infected with wide type fowlpox virus. Then, by selection of blue plaques on the CEF overlaid with agar containing X-gal, rFPV-HA was obtained and purified. The expression of HA by rFPV-HA was detected in the recombinant virus-infected CEF by indirect immunofluorescence. Experiments on chickens demonstrated that rFPV-HA could induce detectable HI antibodies 7 days post-vaccination and those HI antibodies of relatively high titers could persist 55 days. rFPV-HA also had the same protective efficacies to suppress SPF chickens or commercial broiler chickens with antibodies against FPV from shedding challenged virus from intestine as inactivated vaccine in oil emulsion.

            Descriptors:  immune system, infection, methods and techniques, avian influenza, viral disease, protective immunity.

Cherbonnel, M., J. Rousset, and V. Jestin (2003). Strategies to improve protection against low-pathogenicity H7 avian influenza virus infection using DNA vaccines. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 1181-1186.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Eukaryotic expression plasmids encoding either the avian influenza hemagglutinin or matrix genes (pCMV-HA and pCMV-M, respectively) were constructed. The viral genes were derived from a low-pathogenicity H7N1 strain, A/Chicken/Italy/1067/99, isolated during the 1999-2001 epizootic in Italy. The plasmid was administered to 4-to-5-wk-old specific-pathogen-free chickens by several different injection methods. For the initial studies comparing methods of vaccine injection, results were compared based on hemagglutination inhibition (HI) response following immunization with pCMV-HA. Additional studies with coadministration of both pCMV-HA and pCMV-M was evaluated based on HI response and viral isolation after homologous challenge. Preliminary results indicate that a device intended to inject insulin in humans (Medijector) and the coadministration of both plasmids improved protection against H7 infection.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, pharmaceuticals, public health, avian influenza, infectious disease, respiratory system disease, viral disease, immunization clinical techniques, therapeutic and prophylactic techniques, epizootic.

Clough, J.D. (2004). Birds, viruses, and history: the current 'genuine adventure'. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine 71(4): 270.  ISSN: 0891-1150.

            Descriptors:  communicable disease control organization and administration, influenza A virus, avian isolation and purification, virus diseases epidemiology, birds, communicable diseases epidemiology, incidence, influenza epidemiology, influenza prevention and control, avian influenza epidemiology, avian influenza prevention and control, risk assessment, severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemiology, severe acute respiratory syndrome prevention and control, virus diseases prevention and control, world health.

Colby, M.M., Y.J. Johnson, N.L. Tablante, and W.H. Hueston (2003). Evaluation of two systems for managing emergency poultry diseases in intensive poultry production regions. International Journal of Poultry Science 2(3): 234-241.  ISSN: 1682-8356.

            Descriptors:  disease control, disease surveys, geographical information systems, intensive production, monitoring, outbreaks, poultry diseases, risk factors, avian influenza virus, Delmarva Peninsula, United States.

Cowen, B.S., R.A. Wilson, S.K. Harris, R.L. Hyde, and J.E. Pearson (1996). Avian influenza vaccine (H5N2) studies in light and heavy breeds of chickens. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 45: 30-31.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  chickens, vaccines, avian influenza virus, birds, domestic animals, domesticated birds, Galliformes, influenza virus, livestock, orthomyxoviridae, poultry, useful animals, viruses.

Crawford, J., B. Wilkinson, A. Vosnesensky, G. Smith, M. Garcia, H. Stone, and M.L. Perdue (1999). Baculovirus-derived hemagglutinin vaccines protect against lethal influenza infections by avian H5 and H7 subtypes. Vaccine 17(18): 2265-74.  ISSN: 0264-410X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR189.V32

            Abstract:  Baculoviruses were engineered to express hemagglutinin (HA) genes of recent avian influenza (AI) isolates of the H5 and H7 subtypes. The proteins were expressed as either intact (H7) or slightly truncated versions (H5). In both cases purified HA proteins from insect cell cultures retained hemagglutination activity and formed rosettes in solution, indicating proper folding. Although immunogenic in this form, these proteins were more effective when administered subcutaneously in a water-in-oil emulsion. One or two-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) White Rock chickens, free of maternal AI antibodies, responded with variable serum HI titers, but in some cases the titers were comparable to those achieved using whole virus preparations. Vaccination of three-week-old chickens with 1.0 microg of protein per bird generated a more consistent serum antibody response with an average geometric mean titer (GMT) of 121 (H5) and 293 (H7) at 21 days postvaccination. When challenged with highly pathogenic strains of the corresponding AI subtypes, the vaccinated birds were completely protected against lethal infection and in some cases exhibited reduced or no cloacal shedding at 3 days postinfection. Vaccine protocols employing these recombinant HA proteins will not elicit an immune response against internal AI proteins and thus will not interfere with epidemiological surveys of natural influenza infections in the field.

            Descriptors:  baculoviridae immunology, fowl plague immunology, fowl plague prevention and control, hemagglutinins viral immunology, influenza vaccine immunology, amino acid sequence,  chickens, cloning, molecular, hemagglutinins viral chemistry, hemagglutinins viral genetics, influenza A virus avian immunology, molecular sequence data, recombinant proteins chemistry, recombinant proteins genetics, recombinant proteins immunology, turkeys.

Crawford, J.M., M. Garcia, H. Stone, D. Swayne, R. Slemons, and M.L. Perdue (1998). Molecular characterization of the hemagglutinin gene and oral immunization with a waterfowl-origin avian influenza virus. Avian Diseases 42(3): 486-496.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Vaccination against highly pathogenic (HP) subtypes of avian influenza (AI) virus in poultry has been prohibited in the United States. Recently, policy has been changed to potentially allow use of inactivated vaccines in emergency programs to control HP H5 and H7 AI. Vaccination with inactivated virus against non-highly pathogenic AI viruses has been allowed in the U.S. turkey industry since 1979 (1) but requires expensive handling of individual birds for parenteral inoculation. Oral immunization would provide a less expensive method to protect commercial poultry from AI. Prime candidates for oral vaccines are waterfowl-origin (WFO) isolates, which have a tropism for the alimentary tract. One WFO isolate, A/mallard/Ohio/556/1987 (H5N9) (MOh87), was characterized by determining the complete nucleotide sequence of its hemagglutinin (HA) gene. The HA protein of this isolate possessed a deduced amino acid sequence nearly identical to the consensus amino acid sequence for all published H5 genes, indicating that it has potential as a broadly effective vaccine. Experimental results demonstrated measurable serum antibody responses to orally delivered live and inactivated preparations of MOh87. Oral vaccination also protected chickens from diverse, lethal H5 AI virus challenge strains and blocked cloacal shedding of challenge virus.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, chickens, hemagglutinins, immunization, oral administration, genes, oral vaccination, virulence, live vaccines, inactivated vaccines, experimental infections, strain differences, nucleotide sequences, amino acid sequences, immune response, molecular sequence data, GENBANK u67783.

Curran, R. (2004). Asian bird flu. Emergency Medical Services 33(5): 38-9.  ISSN: 0094-6575.

            Descriptors:  influenza virology, influenza A virus, avian pathogenicity, zoonoses virology, chickens virology, influenza epidemiology, influenza prevention and control, influenza transmission, isolation and purification, Japan epidemiology, respiratory protective devices, zoonoses epidemiology, zoonoses transmission.

D'Aprile, P.N., J.B. McFerran (ed.), and M.S. McNulty (ed.) (1986). Current situation of avian influenza in Italy and approaches to its control. Current Topics in Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science - Acute Virus Infections of Poultry 37: 29-35.

            NAL Call Number:  SF600.C82

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, control, outbreaks, Italy.

D' Yakonova, E.V., Y.U.V. Rodin, and M.S. Gribov. (1983). Effectiveness of control measures against avian influenza on poultry farms. In: Patologiya organov dykhaniya i pishchevareniya sel'skokhozyaistvennykh zhivotnykh. [Pathology of the organs of respiration and digestion in farm animals], p. 69-72.

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, poultry, disease control, disinfection, immunization, farm animals, pathology.

Davison, S., C.E. Benson, A.F. Ziegler, and R.J. Eckroade (1999). Evaluation of disinfectants with the addition of antifreezing compounds against nonpathogenic H7N2 avian influenza virus.  Avian Diseases 43(3): 533-537.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  In the winter of 1997 and 1998, in the midst of the H7N2 avian influenza outbreak in Pennsylvania, producers added antifreeze or windshield washer fluid to disinfectant solutions in wash stations to prevent freezing. The purpose of this study was to determine if the addition of these products to the disinfectant solutions would have deleterious effects. Four disinfectants (two phenols, one quarternary ammonium, and one combination product: quarternary ammonium and formaldehyde) and one sodium hypochlorite detergent product currently used in the poultry industry were studied. Each product was diluted according to the manufacturer's recommendation in sterile distilled water and compared with dilutions of the disinfectants with the addition of antifreeze products (ethylene glycol or propylene glycol) or windshield washer fluid for their effectiveness in killing nonpathogenic H7N2 avian influenza virus. All products diluted according to the manufacturer's recommendation killed the nonpathogenic H7N2 avian influenza virus in this test system. The phenol products and the quaternary ammonium product were still efficacious with the addition of the antifreeze containing ethylene glycol. Both the combination product and the sodium hypochlorite detergent had decreased efficacy when the ethylene glycol product was added. When the propylene glycol product was added, the efficacy of all disinfectants remained unaffected, whereas the efficacy of the sodium hypochlorite detergent decreased. With the addition of the windshield washer fluid (methyl alcohol), all products remained efficacious except for the combination product.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, disinfectants, efficacy, propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, fluids, methanol, freezing point, windshield washer fluid.

De, B.K., M.W. Shaw, P.A. Rota, M.W. Harmon, J.J. Esposito, R. Rott, N.J. Cox, and A.P. Kendal (1988). Protection against virulent H5 avian influenza virus infection in chickens by an inactivated vaccine produced with recombinant vaccinia virus. Vaccine 6(3): 257-61.  ISSN: 0264-410X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR189.V32

            Abstract:  A cloned cDNA copy of the haemagglutinin (HA) gene of A/Chicken/Scotland/59 (H5N1) influenza virus has been expressed in vaccinia virus. This pox virus is poorly infectious or non-infectious for chickens. However, immunization of chickens with lysates of cell cultures infected with the recombinant vaccinia virus, that had been emulsified with adjuvant and which contained an estimated 0.5 microgram influenza HA, elicited a substantial neutralizing antibody response to influenza virus. Challenges of immunized and non-immunized adult chickens with virulent A/Chicken/Scotland/59 influenza virus showed that the immunized animals were highly protected while the non-immunized controls died. Immunized birds were also protected against infection with the recent virulent H5 avian influenza virus, A/Chicken/Pennsylvania/83 (H5N2).

            Descriptors:  antigens immunology, fowl plague prevention and control, influenza A virus avian immunology, vaccines, synthetic immunology, vaccinia virus immunology, viral vaccines immunology, chickens, fluorescent antibody technique, hemagglutinins viral analysis, immunochemistry, immunoenzyme techniques,  neutralization tests.

De Clercq, K. and N. Goris (2004). Extending the foot-and-mouth disease module to the control of other diseases. Developmental Biology (Basel) 119: 333-40.  ISSN: 1424-6074.

            Abstract:  During the recent devastating epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), bluetongue (BT), the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and New Castle disease, more than 115 million animals were culled. The mass slaughter of animals raised serious ethical questions. These epidemics showed that the use of emergency vaccination is an essential element in disease control. During the last decade the FMD antigen banks have proved to be effective and this module should be extended. An international vaccine stock should be considered for classical swine fever and HPAI. Agreements with vaccine producers should be made easily available, with instant access to a vaccine reserve for rinderpest, peste des petits ruminants, BT, African horse sickness and Rift valley fever. These vaccines should meet international standards and should allow distinction between vaccinated and infected animals. Information should be gathered proactively on the use of vaccines for lumpy skin disease, sheep and goat pox and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

            Descriptors:  animals, Australia, communicable disease control methods, disease outbreaks prevention and control, veterinary disease outbreaks, drug storage, emergency treatment methods, veterinary emergency treatment, animal euthanasia, foot-and-mouth disease prevention and control, international cooperation, viral vaccines immunology, viral vaccines supply and distribution.

Desheva, J.A., L.G. Rudenko, G.I. Alexandrova, X. Lu, A.R. Rekstin, J.M. Katz, N.J. Cox, and A.I. Klimov (2004). Reassortment between avian apathogenic and human attenuated cold-adapted viruses as an approach for preparing influenza pandemic vaccines. International Congress Series 1263: 724-727.

            Abstract:  To prepare candidate influenza pandemic vaccines, we are developing an approach based on reassortment of antigenically appropriate nonpathogenic avian viruses of different subtypes (H5, H9, H7) with the cold-adapted master strain (MS) A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (Len/17) that is currently used in Russia for preparing licensed live attenuated vaccines for adults and children. In the present study, reassortants between A/Duck/Potsdam/1402-6/86(H5N2) (H5N2-wt) and Len/17 were obtained. One of the clones, A/17/Duck/Potsdam/86-92(H5N2) (Len17/H5), was chosen for further detailed genetic and antigenic analysis. Len17/H5 inherited the HA gene from the H5N2-wt and all other genes from Len/17 (7:1 genome composition). The HA gene sequence of Len17/H5 was identical to that of the parent H5N2-wt virus. The antigenic profile of the reassortant virus was similar to that of the H5N2-wt parent strain in the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test with a panel of antisera to different avian and human H5 viruses. The reassortant demonstrated high growth ability (9.3+0.3 lg EID50/ml) in embryonated hens' eggs (CE) at optimal (34 [deg]C) temperature, comparable with that of the parent Len/17 MS. Also, Len17/H5 demonstrated cold-adapted (ca) and temperature-sensitive (ts) phenotypes similar to those of Len/17 and was attenuated for mice.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza, live attenuated reassortant vaccine.

Di, T.L., P. Cordioli, E. Falcone, G. Lombardi, A. Moreno, G. Sala, and M. Tollis (2003). Standardization of an inactivated H7N1 avian influenza vaccine and efficacy against A/chicken/Italy/13474/99 high-pathogenicity virus infection. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 1042-1046.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  The minimum requirements for assessing the immunogenicity of an experimental avian influenza (AI) vaccine prepared from inactivated A/Turkey/Italy/2676/99 (H7N1) low-pathogenicity (LP) AI (LPAI) virus were determined in chickens of different ages. A correlation between the amount of hemagglutinin (HA) per dose of vaccine and the protection against clinical signs of disease and infection by A/Chicken/Italy/13474/99 highly pathogenic (HP) AI (HPAI) virus was established. Depending on the vaccination schedule, one or two administrations of 0.5 mug of hemagglutinin protected chickens against clinical signs and death and completely prevented virus shedding from birds challenged at different times after vaccination.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, avian influenza, epidemiology, infectious disease, prevention and control, respiratory system disease, transmission, viral disease, vaccination clinical techniques, immunogenicity, viral shedding.

Dragun, M., B. Rada, L. Novotny, and J. Beranek (1990). Antiviral activities of pyrimidine nucleoside analogues: some structure--activity relationships. Acta Virologica 34(4): 321-9 .  ISSN: 0001-723X.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 AC85

            Abstract:  Seventeen nucleoside derivatives (derived from arabinosylcytosine, resp. cytidine, 5-fluorouracil and uracil) were tested by agar-diffusion plaque-inhibition test for their antiviral activity with herpes simplex, vaccinia, fowl plague, Newcastle disease and western equine encephalomyelitis viruses. The highest antiviral activity against DNA viruses exhibited arabinosylcytosine, N4-acylarabinosylcytosines, arabinosylthiouracil, cyclocytidine and its 5'-chloroderivative. RNA viruses were inhibited by 5-fluorouridine only, whereas other tested compounds were ineffective or showing marginal activity only. By search for relationship between chemical structure and antiviral activity a tendency was found of higher antiviral activity at lower lipophilicity. This is probably due to better transport of the studied compounds into cell. The chemical structure, however, is the main reason of antiviral activity.

            Descriptors:  antiviral agents chemistry, pyrimidine nucleosides pharmacology, encephalitis virus, western equine drug effects, encephalitis virus, western equine growth and development, influenza A virus avian drug effects, avian growth and development, Newcastle disease virus drug effects, Newcastle disease virus growth and development, plaque assay, pyrimidine nucleosides chemistry, simplexvirus drug effects, simplexvirus growth and development, structure activity relationship, vaccinia virus drug effects,  vaccinia virus growth and development.

Easterday, B.C. (1975). Antigens (and recombinants) and immune response to avian influenza. American Journal of Veterinary Research 36(4 Pt. 2): 503-4.  ISSN: 0002-9645.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Am3A

            Descriptors:  antibody formation, antigens, viral, bird diseases immunology, influenza veterinary, orthomyxoviridae immunology, birds microbiology, chickens microbiology, cross reactions, ducks microbiology, hemagglutinins viral, immunization, influenza immunology, influenza A virus avian immunology, influenza vaccine, neuraminidase metabolism, orthomyxoviridae enzymology, orthomyxoviridae isolation and purification, poultry diseases immunology, turkeys microbiology.

Easterday, B.C., M. E. Rose, L. N. Payne (ed.), and B. M. Freeman (ed.). (1981). Immunity to Newcastle disease and avian influenza. In: Avian immunology. Proceedings of the 16th Poultry Science Symposium, p. 179-185.

            NAL Call Number: SF481.2.P68 no.16

            Descriptors: Newcastle disease, avian influenza virus, immunity, immunization, reviews, poultry.  

Ebrahimi, M.M., M. Moghaddampour, A. Tavassoli, and S. Shahsavandi (2000). Vaccination of chicks with experimental Newcastle disease and avian influenza oil-emulsion vaccines by in ovo inoculation. Archives of Razi Institute (51): 15-25.  ISSN: 0365-3439.

            NAL Call Number:  QR189.A73

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, chicks, embryos, immunization, inactivated vaccines.

Eckroade, R.J. and H.M. Acland (1985). Serological and challenge response in chickens vaccinated with inactivated H5N2 avian influenza virus--a preliminary report. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 34: 21-22.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  fowls, avian influenza virus, vaccines, vaccination, USDA, disease control, Pennsylvania.

Ellis, T.M., C.Y. Leung, M.K. Chow, L.A. Bissett, W. Wong, Y. Guan, and J.S. Malik Peiris (2004). Vaccination of chickens against H5N1 avian influenza in the face of an outbreak interrupts virus transmission. Avian Pathology 33(4): 405-12.  ISSN: 0307-9457.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.A1A9

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks veterinary, influenza A virus, avian, influenza, avian epidemiology, poultry diseases prevention and control, vaccination, agriculture methods, chickens, disease outbreaks prevention and control, Hong Kong epidemiology, prevention and control, transmission, poultry diseases epidemiology, poultry diseases transmission, poultry diseases virology.

Erokhina, L.M., N.I. Arkhipov, N.A. Lagutkin, M.M. Zubairov, N.I. Mitin, and VP Shishkov (ed.). (1980). Morfologicheskaya otsenka xhimioterapevticheskogo deistviya Midantana i preparata C-4. [Morphological assessment of the chemotherapeutic activity of the antiviral agents Midantan and C-4 (amantadine-1-boradamantine) in avian influenza]. In: Patomorfologiya, patogenez i diagnostika boleznei s. kh. zhivotnykh, Nauchnye Trudy VASKNIL, p. 168-169.

            NAL Call Number: SF769.P36

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, chemotherapy, antiviral agents.

Escamilla J, J.A., R. Palacios Miguel, J.L. Garcia Martinez, J. Quezada F, M.L. Calderon Hernandez, M.A. Rico Gaytan, J.A. Lopez Perez, T. Mickle R, E. Montiel N, R. Fernandez T, H. Tinoco G, and J. Garcia Garcia. (1996). Estudios de evaluacion de una vacuna recombinante para prevenir la influenza aviar. IV. Prueba de campo 1b. [[Studies on fowl pox-avian influenza recombinant vaccine. IV. 2nd. field trial]. In: Reunion Nacional de Investigacion Pecuaria, Cuernavaca, Morelos, (Mexico), p. 135.

            Abstract: La vacuna recombinante de Viruela-Influenza Aviar ha sido evaluada en el laboratorio y en el campo, en pollos comerciales de engorda con anticuerpos maternos para el virus de Influenza Aviar (IA). En este estudio se pretendio evaluar los parametros productivos incluyendo la mortalidad observada durante las 4 primeras semanas despues de la vacunacion en pollos sin y con anticuerpos maternos para el virus de IA. Se vacunaron 36,000 pollos en la incubadora, al dia de edad, los cuales fueron divididos en 2 casetas en una granja localizada en el estado de Queretaro. Estudios serologicos semanales fueron conducidos en 50 pollos vacunados y elegidos arbitrariamente en cada muestreo. Asi como en 25 pollos sin vacunar de cada caseta. Se realizo un desafio a las 3 semanas post-vacunacion Los resultados indicaron al igual que en un estudio anterior, que la vacunacion no tuvo ningun efecto adverso en los indices de produccion de la parvada ni tampoco se observaron lesiones en la mortalidad atribuibles al producto. Los indices de produccion asi como los datos de necropsias de los pollos vacunados con el producto recombinante, fueron comparados con los datos obtenidos del resto de las casetas de la seccion y de la granja. La reciproca de las medias geometricas de anticuerpos para IA, detectados en los muestreos, fueron despresiables al compararse con los titulos observados en pollos vacunados con vacuna inactivada, aplicada a los 10 dias de edad en los pollos de otras casetas. La mortalidad al desafio, realizado a las 3 semanas de edad, indicaron un 100% de proteccion obtenido en los pollos originalmente libres de anticuerpos, con un 80% de proteccion en los pollos que provenian de reproductoras vacunadas para IA. Los resultados de este estudio senalan que la vacuna recombinante de Viruela-IA es confiable, no afecta los indices productivos y es eficaz para evitar la mortalidad causada por virus de IA de alta patogenicidad y que puede ser usada como un producto adicional en la campana de erradicacion, ya que esta no contiene el genoma completo de virus de IA, por lo que es incapaz de causar la enfermedad en aves vacunadas.

            Descriptors: broiler chickens, avian influenza virus, synthetic vaccines, immune response, birds, chickens, domestic animals, Galliformes, immunity, influenza virus, livestock, meat animals, orthomyxoviridae, poultry, useful animals, vaccines, viruses.

Eskelund, K.H. (1984). Use of inactivated vaccine to control avian influenza outbreaks. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 33: 8-10.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, inactivated vaccine, immunization, control, outbreaks.

Fatunmbi, O.O., J.A. Newman, D.A. Halvorson, and V. Sivanandan (1993). Effect of temperature on the stability of avian influenza virus antigens under different storage conditions. Avian Diseases 37(3): 639-646.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  The combined effect of time and temperature on the stability of two avian influenza virus (AIV) isolates concentrated with polyethylene glycol (PEG), stored at different temperatures, and used in the preparation of avian influenza vaccine was evaluated in turkeys at 24 hr and at 12, 24, 30, 36, and 42 months of storage. The differences detected between antibodies raised in turkeys by vaccines made from isolates under different storage conditions, times, and temperatures were not significant (P > 0.05), especially with vaccines prepared from one isolate. Virus recovery rates following challenge studies of vaccinated birds were similar. However, birds that were vaccinated twice had lower rates of virus recovery from the trachea, lungs, pancreas, and fecal samples following challenge infection. The results suggest that if stable isolates of AIV can be identified, such isolates can be rapidly concentrated with PEG and stored at -20 C or -196 C for at least 42 months without any loss of potency in the vaccine prepared from these isolates. This would reduce the costs associated with vaccine storage and subsequent expiration dates.

            Descriptors:  turkeys, avian influenza virus, antigens, vaccines, freezing, storage, temperature, time, alcohols, polyethylene, vaccination, birds, disease control, Galliformes, immunization, immunological factors, immunology, immunostimulation, immunotherapy, influenza virus, polymers, processing, therapy, viruses, viral antigens, potency, polyethylene glycol.

Fatunmbi, O.O., J.A. Newman, V. Sivanandan, and D.A. Halvorson (1992). Enhancement of antibody response of turkeys to trivalent avian influenza vaccine by positively charged liposomal avridine adjuvant. Vaccine 10(9): 623-6.  ISSN: 0264-410X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR189.V32

            Abstract:  Trivalent avian influenza (AIV) antigens (H4N8, H5N2 and H7N3), mixed with positively charged, negatively charged and neutral avridine-containing liposomes, and oil-emulsion were subcutaneously administered to 6-week-old turkeys. Charged liposomal avridine adjuvant, either positive or negative, produced a better antibody response than uncharged liposomal avridine or oil-emulsion adjuvants when used in a trivalent avian influenza vaccine. The antibody response to the different antigens was generally greater to the positively charged adjuvanted vaccine compared with the negatively or neutral charged or oil-emulsion adjuvanted vaccines and these differences were significant (P less than 0.05) with the three antigens. The results suggest that the positively charged liposomal avridine plays a significant role as adjuvant to the AIV antigens.

            Descriptors:  fowl plague prevention and control, influenza A virus avian immunology, influenza vaccine administration and dosage, adjuvants, immunologic administration and dosage, antibodies, viral biosynthesis, antigens, viral administration and dosage, diamines administration and dosage, electrochemistry, liposomes, surface properties, turkeys.

Fatunmbi, O.O. (1991). Development and Improvement of Avian Influenza Vaccines in Turkeys, p. xiv, 165 leaves, [2] leaves of plates, ill.

            NAL Call Number:  DISS 91-25,801

            Descriptors:  turkeys, avian influenza vaccines, improvements, developments.

Fleck, W.F., D.G. Strauss, and H. Prauser (1980). Naphthochinon-Antibiotica aus Streptomyces lateritius I. Fermentation, Isolierung und Charakterisierung der Granatomycine A, C und D. [Naphthoquinone antibiotics from Streptomyces lateritius. I Fermentation, isolation and characterization of granatomycins A, C, and D]. Zeitschrift Fur Allgemeine Mikrobiologie 20(9): 543-51.  ISSN: 0044-2208.

            NAL Call Number:  QR1.Z4

            Abstract:  The fermentation and isolation procedures of the antibiotic granatomycin produced by Streptomyces lateritius are described. Furthermore, the producing strain ZIMET 43 627 and the main constituents of granatomycin will be characterized. Granatomycin is a red-violet pigment antibiotic of the naphthoquinone type. The physicochemical properties of granatomycin resemble those of granaticin. The antibiotic can be isolated from culture filtrates and from the mycelium by extraction with lower aliphatic alcohols. It can be purified by gel filtration methods. Granatomycin displays antimicrobial activity, particularly against grampositive and gramnegative bacteria, and antiviral activity against fowl-plaque-virus in mammalian cells. Granatomycin is useful in selection of resistant mutants of bacteria and viruses with decreased virulence but high immunogenity suitable for use as life vaccines against infection diseases. The physicochemical properties of the main constituents of granatomycin studied confirm the identity of granatomycin C with granaticin and the identity of granatomycin D with dihydrogranaticin Granatomycin A is identical with the well-known semisynthetic methylester of dihydrogranaticin. Therefore, the production of granatomycin A is the first possibility to produce this derivative of granaticin biosynthetically.

            Descriptors:  anti bacterial agents isolation and purification, naphthoquinones isolation and purification, Streptomyces metabolism, anti bacterial agents analysis, anti bacterial agents pharmacology, bacteria drug effects, chemistry, influenza A virus avian drug effects.

Frame, D. (2000). H7N3 outbreak halted by vaccine. World Poultry (Special): 20-21.  ISSN: 1388-3119.

            NAL Call Number:  SF481.M54

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, outbreaks, vaccines, disease control, poultry.

Frame, D.D., B.J. McCluskey, R.E. Buckner, and F.D. Halls (1996). Results of an H7N3 avian influenza vaccination program in commercial meat turkeys. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 45: 32.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  avian influenza, vaccination program, turkeys,  results.

Fynan, E.F., H.L. Robinson, and R.G. Webster (1993). Use of DNA encoding influenza hemagglutinin as an avian influenza vaccine. DNA and Cell Biology 12(9): 785-9.  ISSN: 1044-5498.

            NAL Call Number:  QH443.D5

            Abstract:  Recently, we demonstrated that direct inoculation of a hemagglutinin 7 (H7)-expressing DNA could vaccinate chickens against a lethal H7 influenza virus challenge. These experiments used a defective-retroviral-based vector to express H7 (p188) (Robinson et al., 1993). Here, we report protective immunizations using a non-retroviral-based vector for H7 expression (pCMV/H7). Unlike the previously used retroviral-based vector, this vector cannot be transmitted as an infectious agent (as a consequence of phenotypic mixing with exogenous or endogenous virus proteins). Vaccination was accomplished by inoculating young, immunocompetent chickens by each of three routes (intravenous, intraperitoneal, and intramuscular) with 100 micrograms of cesium chloride-purified pCMV/H7 DNA in saline. After two immunizations, birds were challenged via the nares with a lethal dose of a highly virulent chicken influenza virus of the H7 subtype. The results of five independent vaccine trials demonstrated protective immunizations in approximately 60% of the pCMV/H7 DNA-inoculated chickens. By contrast, only 3% of the chickens inoculated with control DNA survived the lethal challenge.

            Descriptors:  hemagglutinins viral immunology, influenza A virus avian immunology, influenza vaccine genetics, poultry diseases prevention and control, vaccines, synthetic immunology, antibodies, viral biosynthesis, chickens, DNA, viral genetics, gene expression, genes, structural, viral, genetic vectors, hemagglutinins viral genetics, neutralization tests.

Fynan, E.F., R.G. Webster, D.H. Fuller, J.R. Haynes, J.C. Santoro, and H.L. Robinson (1993). DNA vaccines: protective immunizations by parenteral, mucosal, and gene-gun inoculations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 90(24): 11478-82.  ISSN: 0027-8424.

            NAL Call Number:  500 N21P

            Abstract:  Plasmid DNAs expressing influenza virus hemagglutinin glycoproteins have been tested for their ability to raise protective immunity against lethal influenza challenges of the same subtype. In trials using two inoculations of from 50 to 300 micrograms of purified DNA in saline, 67-95% of test mice and 25-63% of test chickens have been protected against a lethal influenza challenge. Parenteral routes of inoculation that achieved good protection included intramuscular and intravenous injections. Successful mucosal routes of vaccination included DNA drops administered to the nares or trachea. By far the most efficient DNA immunizations were achieved by using a gene gun to deliver DNA-coated gold beads to the epidermis. In mice, 95% protection was achieved by two immunizations with beads loaded with as little as 0.4 micrograms of DNA. The breadth of routes supporting successful DNA immunizations, coupled with the very small amounts of DNA required for gene-gun immunizations, highlight the potential of this remarkably simple technique for the development of subunit vaccines.

            Descriptors:  DNA, viral administration and dosage, fowl plague prevention and control, hemagglutinins viral genetics, influenza prevention and control, influenza A virus avian immunology, human immunology, cell line, chickens, DNA, viral immunology, fowl plague immunology,  genes viral, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus, hemagglutinins viral biosynthesis, influenza immunology, avian genetics, human genetics, injections, injections, intramuscular, injections, intravenous, mice, mice inbred BALB c, mucous membrane, restriction mapping, transfection, viral envelope proteins biosynthesis, viral envelope proteins genetics.

Garcia, A., H. Johnson, D.K. Srivastava, D.A. Jayawardene, D.R. Wehr, and R.G. Webster (1998). Efficacy of inactivated H5N2 influenza vaccines against lethal A/chicken/Queretaro/19/95 infection. Avian Diseases 42(2): 248-256.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  The control and eventual eradication of H5N2 influenza virus from domestic poultry in Mexico is dependent on the use of avian influenza (AI) vaccine strategies. This study was performed to determine the amount of hemagglutinin (HA) antigen required to control the signs of disease from a highly pathogenic H5N2 influenza virus (A/Chicken/Queretaro/19/95) and the amount of antigen required to prevent shedding of virus from vaccinated birds. Six commercial inactivated water in oil H5N2 vaccines available in Mexico were compared with standardized vaccines to assess their efficacy. The amount of HA required to prevent the signs of disease from A/Chicken/Queretaro/19/95 influenza virus was approximately 0.4 microgram per dose. Each of the six commercially available vaccines prevented disease signs, and half of the vaccines significantly reduced viral shedding from vaccinated birds. There is a need for standardization of AI virus vaccine, and the antigen content should be increased in some of the commercially available AI vaccines in Mexico.

            Descriptors:  Mexico, chickens, avian influenza virus, vaccines, vaccination, disease control, symptoms, pathogenicity, agglutinins, antigens, disease transmission, dosage, mortality, America,  biological properties, birds, domestic animals, Galliformes, immunization, immunological factors, immunostimulation, immunotherapy, influenza virus, livestock, microbial properties, North America, orthomyxoviridae, pathogenesis, poultry, proteins, therapy, useful animals, viruses, inactivated vaccines, virulence, hemagglutinins, shedding.

Garcia L, D., H. Rodriguez Velazco, M. Ceron H, R. Palacios Miguel, T. Mickle R, E. Montiel N, H. Tinoco G, and J. Garcia Garcia. (1996). Estudios de evaluacion de una vacuna recombinante para prevenir la influenza aviar. II. Inocuidad y transmision horizontal. [Studies on fowl pox-avian influenza recombinant vaccine. II. Safety test and horizontal transmission]. In: Reunion Nacional de Investigacion Pecuaria, Cuernavaca, Morelos, (Mexico), p. 133.

            Abstract: El virus de viruela aviar es miembro de la familia Poxviridae, y afecta solo a ciertas especies de aves. El objeto del presente estudio fue determinar que el virus de viruela aviar utilizado, en la vacuna recombinante, como vector para acarrear el DNA complementario del gene de la hemoaglutinina 5 del virus de Influenza Aviar (I.A) no causara reacciones adversas al aplicarse una dosis mayor que la recomendada en pollos y que este virus no se trasmite en forma horizontal de pollos vacunados a pollos susceptibles. Para lo cual grupos de 20 pollos fueron vacunados mediante puncion en el ala y por via subcutanea con 10 dosis de la vacuna recombinante. 2 dias despues de la vacunacion se introdujeron a la jaula 20 pollos de la misma edad, sin vacunar. Ambos grupos fueron observados diariamente durante 21 dias. Se realizaron estudios serologicos y al final del periodo de observacion se desafiaron tanto a los pollos vacunados como a los contactos, con una cepa de virus de I.A. de alta patogenicidad. Ninguno de los pollos vacunados con 10 dosis del producto, por cualquiera de las vias utilizadas, mostraron signos de enfermedad o lesiones patologicas durante el periodo de observacion. Serologicamente los pollos en contacto fueron negativos a la prueba de inhibicion de la hemoaglutinacion (IH) para IA y ambos grupos negativos en las pruebas de inmunodifusion. La seropositividad por IH fue de 1 a 3 pollos con titulos de 1:10 a 1:40 en los grupos de pollos vacunados con la recombinante. Posterior al desafio todos los pollos vacunados mostraron titulos serologicos con medias geometricas mayores a 1:40. Los pollos en contacto fueron susceptibles al desafio y en todos los casos no se demostro la presencia de anticuerpos para el virus de I.A. Se concluye que la vacuna es segura, ya que no causo reacciones adversas inclusive al aplicar 10 veces la dosis recomendada, que la insercion no modifica el tropismo del virus de viruela a otros organos y que no se transmite en forma horizontal por contacto directo.

            Descriptors: broiler chickens, avian influenza virus, synthetic vaccines, immune response, birds, chickens, domestic animals, Galliformes, immunity, influenza virus, livestock, meat animals, orthomyxoviridae, poultry, useful animals, vaccines, viruses.

Goncharskaia, T.I.A., S.M. Navashin, S.L. Grokhovskii, and A.L. Zhuze (1977). Izuchenie protivovirusnykh svoistv analogov distamitsina A. [Antiviral properties of analogs of distamycin A]. Antibiotiki  22(11): 998-1002.  ISSN: 0003-5637.

            NAL Call Number:  396.8 An84

            Abstract:  The effect of 9 analogues of distamycin A was studied in a tissue culture with respect to the virus of a smallpox vaccine and classical avian plague. Three analogues of distamycin A (I, VI, VII) were studied in chick embryos with respect to the smallpox and influenza viruses. The analogues were characterized by a loss or decrease of the activity against the smallpox vaccine virus as compared to distamycin A. In contrast to distamycin A analogue VII had an inhibitory effect on influenza infection in chick embryos.

            Descriptors:  antiviral agents, distamycins pharmacology, influenza A virus avian drug effects, orthomyxoviridae drug effects, pyrroles pharmacology, variola virus drug effects.

Gordon, S. (2004). Avian influenza: a wake-up call from birds to humans. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine 71(4): 273-4.  ISSN: 0891-1150.

            Descriptors:  communicable disease control organization and administration, influenza epidemiology, influenza A virus, avian isolation and purification, avian influenza epidemiology, birds, influenza prevention and control, avian influenza prevention and control, primary prevention organization and administration, risk assessment, vaccination methods, world health.

Gough, R.E., W.H. Allan, D.J. Knight, and J.W. Lieper (1975). Further studies on the adjuvant effect of an interferon inducer (BRL 5907) on Newcastle disease and avian influenza inactivated vaccines. Research in Veterinary Science 19(2): 185-8.  ISSN: 0034-5288.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 R312

            Abstract:  Vaccination of fowls with inactivated Newcastle disease (ND) virus and avian influenza (AI) virus oil emulsion vaccines containing an interferon inducer (BRL 5907) produced an enhanced immunological response. The Newcastle disease vaccine containing BRL 5907 induced earlier protection to challenge than Newcastle disease vaccine by itself and also produced an increase immune response when administered to day-old maternally immune and susceptible chicks.

            Descriptors:  adjuvants, immunologic, chickens immunology, influenza vaccine, interferon inducers, Newcastle disease virus immunology, RNA viral pharmacology, viral vaccines, antibody formation, influenza immunology, influenza veterinary, Newcastle disease immunology, orthomyxoviridae immunology, poultry diseases immunology.

Govorkova, E.A., I.A. Leneva, K. Bush, and R.G. Webster (2000). Efficacy of the oral neuraminidase inhibitor RWJ-270201 against avian influenza viruses including H5N1 and H9N2. Abstracts of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 40: 271.

            Descriptors:  infection, pharmacology, respiratory system, influenza, respiratory system disease, treatment, viral disease, ELISA analytical method, detection, labeling techniques, viral disease transmission, viral replication, inhibition, meeting abstract, meeting slide.

Govorkova, E.A., I.A. Leneva, O.G. Goloubeva, K. Bush, and R.G. Webster (2001). Comparison of efficacies of RWJ-270201, zanamivir, and oseltamivir against H5N1, H9N2, and other avian influenza viruses. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 45(10): 2723-32.  ISSN: 0066-4804.

            NAL Call Number:  RM265.A5132

            Abstract:  The orally administered neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor RWJ-270201 was tested in parallel with zanamivir and oseltamivir against a panel of avian influenza viruses for inhibition of NA activity and replication in tissue culture. The agents were then tested for protection of mice against lethal H5N1 and H9N2 virus infection. In vitro, RWJ-270201 was highly effective against all nine NA subtypes. NA inhibition by RWJ-270201 (50% inhibitory concentration, 0.9 to 4.3 nM) was superior to that by zanamivir and oseltamivir carboxylate. RWJ-270201 inhibited the replication of avian influenza viruses of both Eurasian and American lineages in MDCK cells (50% effective concentration, 0.5 to 11.8 microM). Mice given 10 mg of RWJ-270201 per kg of body weight per day were completely protected against lethal challenge with influenza A/Hong Kong/156/97 (H5N1) and A/quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 (H9N2) viruses. Both RWJ-270201 and oseltamivir significantly reduced virus titers in mouse lungs at daily dosages of 1.0 and 10 mg/kg and prevented the spread of virus to the brain. When treatment began 48 h after exposure to H5N1 virus, 10 mg of RWJ-270201/kg/day protected 50% of mice from death. These results suggest that RWJ-270201 is at least as effective as either zanamivir or oseltamivir against avian influenza viruses and may be of potential clinical use for treatment of emerging influenza viruses that may be transmitted from birds to humans.

            Descriptors:  antiviral agents pharmacology, influenza prevention and control, influenza A virus avian drug effects, virus replication drug effects, acetamides pharmacology, acetamides therapeutic use, antiviral agents therapeutic use, body weight drug effects, brain drug effects, brain virology, cyclopentanes pharmacology, cyclopentanes therapeutic use, disease models, animal, dogs, influenza A virus avian enzymology, influenza A virus avian physiology, lung drug effects, lung virology, mice, mice inbred BALB c,  neuraminidase antagonists and inhibitors,  sialic acids pharmacology, sialic acids therapeutic use, treatment outcome.

Govorkova, E.A. and Y.U.A. Smirnov (1997). Cross-protection of mice immunized with different influenza A (H2) strains and challenged with viruses of the same HA subtype. Acta Virologica 41(5): 251-7.  ISSN: 0001-723X.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 AC85

            Abstract:  Cross-protection of mice immunized with inactivated preparations of human and avian influenza A (H2) viruses was determined after lethal infection with mouse-adapted (MA) variants of human A/Jap x Bell/57 (H2N1) and avian A/NJers/78 (H2N3) viruses. The MA variants differed from the original strains by acquired virulence for mice and changes in the HA antigenicity. These studies indicated that mice vaccinated with human influenza A (H2) viruses were satisfactorily protected against challenge with A/Jap x Bell/57-MA variant; the survival rate was in the range of 61%-88.9%. Immunization of mice with the same viral preparations provided lower levels of protection against challenge with A/NJers/78-MA variant. Vaccination of mice with the avian influenza A (H2) viruses induced better protection than with human strains against challenge with both MA variants. Challenge with A/NJers/78-MA variant revealed that 76.2%-95.2% of animals were protected when vaccinated with avian influenza virus strains isolated before 1980, and that the protection reached only 52.4%-60.0% in animals vaccinated with strains isolated in 1980-1985. The present study revealed that cross-protection experiments in a mouse model could provide necessary information for the development of appropriate influenza A (H2) virus vaccines with a potential for these viruses to reappear in a human population.

            Descriptors:  influenza prevention and control, influenza A virus avian immunology, influenza A virus human immunology, influenza vaccine immunology, cross reactions, disease models, animal, influenza mortality, influenza A virus avian classification, influenza A virus avian pathogenicity, influenza A virus human classification, influenza A virus human pathogenicity, mice, vaccination, vaccines, attenuated immunology.

Hafez, H.M. (2004). European perspective on the control of some poultry diseases. Praxis Veterinaria (Zagreb) 52(1/2): 7-18.  ISSN: 0350-4441.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease, Salmonellosis, antibiotics, disease control, drug resistance, EU regulations, poultry, public health, reviews.

Hafez, H.M. (2003). Geflugelpest: Alte Krankheit mit standiger Gefahr fur Geflugel. [Fowl plague: an old disease that is a continuing danger to poultry]. Tierarztliche Umschau 58(7): 343-351.  ISSN: 0049-3864.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 T445

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, fowl plague virus, disease control, European Union, poultry, zoonoses.

Halvorson, D.A. (1989). Avian influenza: a Minnesota Cooperative Control Program. Minnesota Extension Service Folders : p. 1-5.

            NAL Call Number:  S451.M6M582

            Descriptors:  poultry, Minnesota, avian influenza virus, disease transmission, hosts, disease control, monitoring, vaccination, America, disease control, domestic animals, domesticated birds, immunization, immunostimulation, immunotherapy, influenza virus, lake states United States, livestock, North America, north central states United States, orthomyxoviridae, pathogenesis, therapy, United States, useful animals, viruses, reservoir hosts, disease prevention.

Halvorson, D.A. (1998). Avian influenza control in a new era. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 47: 72-73.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, turkeys, chickens, disease control.

Halvorson, D.A. (1995). Avian influenza control in Minnesota. Poultry Digest 54(9): 12-9.  ISSN: 0032-5724.

            NAL Call Number:  47.8 N219

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, immunization, disease control, prevention, turkeys, United States, Minnesota.

Halvorson, D.A. (2002). The control of H5 or H7 mildly pathogenic avian influenza: a role for inactivated vaccine. Avian Pathology 31(1): 5-12.  ISSN: 0307-9457.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.A1A9

            Abstract:  Biosecurity is the first line of defence in the prevention and control of mildly pathogenic avian influenza (MPAI). Its use has been highly successful in keeping avian influenza (AI) out of commercial poultry worldwide. However, sometimes AI becomes introduced into poultry populations and, when that occurs, biosecurity again is the primary means of controlling the disease. There is agreement that routine serological monitoring, disease reporting, isolation or quarantine of affected flocks, application of strict measures to prevent the contamination of and movement of people and equipment, and changing flock schedules are necessities for controlling AI. There is disagreement as to the disposition of MPAI-infected flocks: some advocate their destruction and others advocate controlled marketing. Sometimes biosecurity is not enough to stop the spread of MPAI. In general, influenza virus requires a dense population of susceptible hosts to maintain itself. When there is a large population of susceptible poultry in an area, use of an inactivated AI vaccine can contribute to AI control by reducing the susceptibility of the population.Does use of inactivated vaccine assist, complicate or interfere with AI control and eradication? Yes, it assists MPAI control (which may reduce the risk of highly pathogenic AI (HPAI)) but, unless steps are taken to prevent it, vaccination may interfere with sero-epidemiology in the case of an HPAI outbreak.Does lack of vaccine assist, complicate or interfere with AI control and eradication? Yes, it assists in identification of sero-positive (convalescent) flocks in a HPAI eradication program, but it interferes with MPAI control (which in turn may increase the risk of emergence of HPAI).A number of hypothetical concerns have been raised about the use of inactivated AI vaccines. Infection of vaccinated flocks, serology complications and spreading of virus by vaccine crews are some of the hypothetical concerns. The discussion of these concerns should take place in a scientific framework and should recognize that control of MPAI reduces the risk of HPAI. That inactivated vaccines have reduced a flock's susceptibility to AI infection, have reduced the quantity of virus shed post-challenge, have reduced transmission and have markedly reduced disease losses, are scientific facts. The current regulations preventing vaccination against H5 or H7 MPAI have had the effect of promoting circulation of MPAI virus in commercial poultry and live poultry markets. In the absence of highly pathogenic avian influenza, there is no justification for forbidding the use of inactivated vaccine.

            Descriptors:  influenza prevention and control, influenza veterinary, influenza A virus avian immunology, poultry virology, poultry diseases immunology, poultry diseases virology, vaccines, inactivated immunology, influenza immunology, influenza transmission, poultry immunology, poultry diseases epidemiology, poultry diseases transmission.

Halvorson, D.A. (1995). Experience with avian influenza control in Minnesota. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 44: 15-19.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, Minnesota, America,  influenza virus, lake states United States, North America, north central states United States, orthomyxoviridae, United States, viruses.

Halvorson, D.A. (2000). The importance of biosecurity. World Poultry (Special): 26-27.  ISSN: 1388-3119.

            NAL Call Number:  SF481.M54

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, disease control, prevention, transmission, biosecurity.

Harley, V.R., P.J. Hudson, B.E. Coupar, P.W. Selleck, H. Westbury, and D.B. Boyle (1990). Vaccinia virus expression and sequence of an avian influenza nucleoprotein gene: potential use in diagnosis. Archives of Virology 113(1-2): 133-41.  ISSN: 0304-8608.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ar23

            Abstract:  The nucleoprotein (NP) gene from avian influenza strain A/Shearwater/Aust/1/72 (H6N5) was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in vaccinia virus for the production of potent sera in immunised rabbits. The NP gene is 1565 bp and shares greater than 95% amino acid sequence identity with other NPs of the avian subtype. The recombinant NP expressed by vaccinia virus comigrated with endogenous A/Shearwater/Aust/1/72 NP by Western blot analysis. Polyclonal rabbit sera raised against recombinant NP was evaluated in an antigen capture ELISA system as a potential diagnostic tool for the detection of avian influenza. All type A strains, comprising several HA and NA subtypes, but not type B nor other avian viruses, were detected.

            Descriptors:  fowl plague diagnosis, genes viral, influenza A virus avian genetics, nucleoproteins genetics, vaccinia virus genetics, viral core proteins, viral proteins genetics, amino acid sequence, antibodies, viral immunology, base sequence, blotting, southern, cloning, molecular, DNA, viral, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, avian immunology, molecular sequence data, nucleoproteins immunology, predictive value of tests, thymidine kinase genetics, vaccinia virus immunology, viral proteins immunology.

Heckert, R.A., M. Best, L.T. Jordan, G.C. Dulac, D.L. Eddington, and W.G. Sterritt (1997). Efficacy of vaporized hydrogen peroxide against exotic animal viruses. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63(10): 3916-3918.  ISSN: 0099-2240.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ap5

            Abstract:  The efficacy of vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide in a pass-through box for the decontamination of equipment and inanimate materials potentially contaminated with exotic animal viruses was evaluated. Tests were conducted with a variety of viral agents, which included representatives of several virus families (Orthomyxoviridae, Reoviridae, Flaviviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Herpesviridae, Picornaviridae, Caliciviridae, and Rhabdoviridae) from both avian and mammalian species, with particular emphasis on animal viruses exotic to Canada. The effects of the gas on a variety of laboratory equipment were also studied. Virus suspensions in cell culture media, egg fluid, or blood were dried onto glass and stainless steel. Virus viability was assessed after exposure to vaporphase hydrogen peroxide for 30 min. For all viruses tested and under all conditions (except one), the decontamination process reduced the virus titer to 0 embryo-lethal doses for the avian viruses (avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses) or less than 10 tissue culture infective doses for the mammalian viruses (African swine fever, bluetongue, hog cholera, pseudorabies, swine vesicular disease, vesicular exanthema, and vesicular stomatitis viruses). The laboratory equipment exposed to the gas appeared to suffer no adverse effects. Vaporphase hydrogen peroxide decontamination can be recommended as a safe and efficacious way of removing potentially virus-contaminated objects from biocontainment level III laboratories in which exotic animal disease virus agents are handled.

            Descriptors:  biochemistry and molecular biophysics, methods and techniques, microbiology, pharmacology, veterinary medicine, biocontainment level III laboratories, disinfectant, disinfection efficacy, equipment decontamination, hydrogen peroxide, methodology, microbiology, pass through box, vaporized virus, titer reduction, virus viability.

Henzler, D.J., D.C. Kradel, S. Davison, A.F. Ziegler, D. Singletary, P. DeBok, A.E. Castro, H. Lu, R. Eckroade, D. Swayne, W. Lagoda, B. Schmucker, and A. Nesselrodt (2003). Epidemiology, production losses, and control measures associated with an outbreak of avian influenza subtype H7N2 in Pennsylvania (1996-98). Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 1022-1036.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  An outbreak of H7N2 low-pathogenicity (LP) avian influenza (AI) occurred in a two-county area in Pennsylvania from December of 1996 through April of 1998. The outbreak resulted in infection of 2,623,116 commercial birds on 25 premises encompassing 47 flocks. Twenty-one (one premise with infection twice) of the twenty-five infected premises housed egg-laying chickens and one premise each had turkeys, layer pullets, quail, and a mixed backyard dealer flock. Despite close proximity of infected flocks to commercial broiler flocks, no infected broilers were identified. Experimentally, when market age broilers were placed on an influenza-infected premise they seroconverted and developed oviduct lesions. The outbreak was believed to have originated from two separate introductions into commercial layer flocks from premises and by individuals dealing in sales of live fowl in the metropolitan New York and New Jersey live-bird markets. Source flocks for these markets are primarily in the northeast and mid-Atlantic areas, including Pennsylvania. Mixed fowl sold include ducks, geese, guinea hens, quail, chukar partridges, and a variety of chickens grown on perhaps hundreds of small farms. Infections with the H7N2 AI virus were associated with variable morbidity and temporary decreases in egg production ranging from 1.6% to 29.1% in commercial egg-laying chickens. Egg production losses averaged 4.0 weeks duration. Mortality ranged from 1.5 to 18.3 times normal (mean of 4.3 times normal). Duration of mortality ranged from 2 to 13 weeks (average of 3.9 weeks) in flocks not depopulated. Lesions observed were primarily oviducts filled with a mucous and white gelatinous exudates and atypical egg yolk peritonitis. Quarantine of premises and complete depopulation were the early measures employed in control of this outbreak. Epidemiological studies suggested that depopulation furthered the spread of influenza to nearby flocks. Thereafter, later control measures included quarantine, strict biosecurity, and controlled marketing of products.

            Descriptors:  animal husbandry, epidemiology, infection, biosecurity, disease control measures, disease outbreak, live fowl markets, production losses, quarantine.

Hernandez Magdaleno, A., H.M. Ceron, V.H. Rodriguez, and G.J. Garcia (1996). Proteccion por cuatro vacunas de influenza aviar (H5N2) en codornices (Coturnix coturnix japonica). [Protection of quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with 4 avian influenza (H5N2) vaccines]. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 45: 296-298.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  quails, vaccines, birds, Galliformes.

Hernandez Magdaleno, A., M.T. Casaubon Hugening, and J. Garcia Garcia. (1998). Patogenia del virus de influenza aviar (h5n2) altamente patogeno en aves susceptibles y en aves inmunizadas. [Pathogenesis study of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (h5n2) on susceptible and immunized chickens]. In: 34 Reunion Nacional de Investigacion Pecuaria, Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico), p. 252.

            Abstract: El objetivo de la presente investigacion fue estudiar la patogenia del virus de influenza aviar (H5N2) altamente patogeno (AP) en aves susceptibles (Av-Susc) y en aves inmunizadas (Av-Inm), durante las primeras 72 horas post-inoculacion (hpi). Se formaron dos grupos de 100 aves libres de patogenos especificos. A los 8 dias de edad, uno de los grupos fue inmunizado con una vacuna emulsionada contra influenza aviar (IA) y el otro grupo permanecio sin inmunizar. A las cuatro semanas de edad, ambos grupos fueron inoculados por via intranasal con 1 x 103 DLEP50 del virus A/Chicken/Queretaro/14588-19/95 (H5N2) altamente patogeno. Se tomaron aleatoriamente 3 aves de cada grupo a las 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, 48, 52, 56, 60, 64, 68 y 72 hpi. De cada ave se tomo una muestra de sangre para el aislamiento y titulacion viral; posteriormente, fueron sacrificadas humanitariamente y se tomaron muestras para histopatologia e inmunohistoquimica de los siguientes organos: cresta, timo, cornetes nasales, laringe, traquea, pulmon, proventriculo, duodeno, pancreas, tonsilas cecales, ileon y bolsa de Fabricio. Se realizaron seis diferentes procedimientos de la tecnica de inmunohistoquimica. Al examen microscopico, las lesiones fueron calificadas con un metodo numerico para calcular la media histologica de lesiones (MHL). Las Av-Susc mostraron signos clinicos, mortalidad y fue detectado virus circulante en la sangre, a partir de las 28 hpi. En las Av-Inm, a pesar de que hubo lesiones a nivel microscopico, estas fueron generalmente menos severas e incluso en la cresta no se observaron lesiones, a diferencia de las Av-Susc, en que la cresta fue el tejido mas afectado tal como se reflejo en la MHL. Las diferencias en la manifestacion de la enfermedad entre ambos grupos fueron marcadas y a pesar de que no se pudo demostrar mediante inmunohistoquimica la presencia del virus en los tejidos, en las Av-Susc hubo viremia, situacion que no sucedio en las Av-Inm. En las Av-Sus el dano al endotelio capilar producido por el virus pudo ser uno de los mecanismos responsables de la muerte de los animales, al desencadenar un colapso vascular generalizado. Asi mismo, el virus AP produjo apoptosis linfoide severa. La inmunidad conferida por la vacuna emulsionada contra la IA, protegio a las aves de la presentacion de signos clinicos y mortalidad, debido a que evito la viremia, con lo que el virus no pudo causar dano en los centros vitales de las aves.

            Descriptors: broiler chickens, avian influenza virus, pathogenicity, immunity, biological properties, birds, chickens, domestic animals, Galliformes, influenza virus, livestock, meat animals, microbial properties, orthomyxoviridae, poultry, useful animals, viruses.

Hinshaw, V.S., M.G. Sheerar, and D. Larsen (1990). Specific antibody responses and generation of antigenic variants in chickens immunized against a virulent avian influenza virus. Avian Diseases 34(1): 80-6.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  To examine the specificity of the antibody response to the influenza hemagglutinin and the generation of antigenic variants, chickens were immunized against the highly virulent H5 virus A/Ty/Ont/7732/66 (H5N9) and then challenged with a lethal dose of the virus. The antibody responses of these chickens to the hemagglutinin (HA) were examined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in which their sera were titrated for the ability to block the binding of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to five distinct neutralizing epitopes on the viral HA. Based on the ELISA results, a majority (5/6) of the chickens produced antibodies to three of the five neutralizing epitopes on the viral HA. After challenge, two of six immunized chickens shed virus and died; antigenic comparisons of isolates from these two chickens indicated the presence of an antigenic variant; i.e., there was a change in one neutralizing epitope on the HA of virus shed by one chicken. None of the chickens had produced antibodies to this particular epitope on the viral HA. Inoculation of chickens with this variant resulted in 100% mortality, demonstrating that a change in this particular epitope did not alter the virulence of the virus. These studies indicate that chickens immunized against highly virulent influenza viruses may excrete virulent variants following challenge with live virus.

            Descriptors:  antibodies, viral biosynthesis, antigens, viral immunology, chickens, fowl plague immunology, influenza A virus avian immunology, antibodies, monoclonal immunology, antigenic variation, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, epitopes immunology, fowl plague prevention and control, hemagglutination inhibition tests, hemagglutinins viral immunology, avian pathogenicity, nucleoproteins immunology, virulence.

Hoffmann, E., S. Krauss, D. Perez, R. Webby, and R.G. Webster (2002). Eight-plasmid system for rapid generation of influenza virus vaccines. Vaccine 20(25-26): 3165-70.  ISSN: 0264-410X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR189.V32

            Descriptors:  genetic vectors genetics, influenza A virus avian genetics, human genetics, influenza vaccine biosynthesis, reassortant viruses genetics, antigenic variation genetics, birds virology, cell line, chick embryo, China, Czechoslovakia, DNA, recombinant genetics, dogs, genes viral, avian immunology, avian isolation and purification, human immunology, human isolation and purification, influenza vaccine genetics, influenza vaccine immunology, influenza vaccine isolation and purification, New Caledonia, Panama, phenotype, reassortant viruses immunology, reassortant viruses isolation and purification, reproducibility of results, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, transfection, virus cultivation.

Hoffrogge, W., K.P. Linn, J.J. Arnold, J. Bachmeier, K.P. Behr, U. Lohren, M. Poppel, G. Reetz, and M. Voss (2003). Lessons and consequences of the highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak in the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany for the German Poultry Association [Erfahrungen und Konsequenzen aus dem HPAI-influenza-Geschehen in den Niederlanden, Belgien und Deutschland]. Archiv Fur Geflugelkunde 67(6): 264-283.  ISSN: 0003-9098.

            NAL Call Number:  47.8 Ar2

            Descriptors:  disease control, consequences, outbreaks, poultry, vaccination, avian influenza virus, Netherlands, Germany, Belgium.

Huang, C.Y., D.L. Suarez, and H.S. Mason (1999). Expression of recombinant influenza virus antigens in transgenic plants as an oral vaccine for poultry. FASEB Journal, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 13(4, Pt. 1): A290.  ISSN: 0892-6638.

            NAL Call Number:  QH301.F3

            Descriptors:  biochemistry and molecular biophysics, immune system, infection, pharmacology, influenza, respiratory system disease, viral disease, functional hemagglutination assay characterization method, immunoprecipitation technique characterization method, radiolabeling technique characterization method, agrobacterium mediated technique transformation method, western blot characterization method, immune responses, microsomal retention signal, plant expressing, cassettes, vaccine delivery, vaccine development, viral challenge, viral envelope, meeting, abstract.

Huang ShuJian  (1999). The diagnosis and control of avian influenza. Poultry Husbandry and Diseases Control (8): 8-10.

            Descriptors:  disease control, diagnosis, avian influenza virus, China.

Isaacs, D., D.E. Dwyer, and A.W. Hampson (2004). Avian influenza and planning for pandemics. Medical Journal of Australia 181(2): 62-3.  ISSN: 0025-729X.

            Descriptors:  communicable disease control organization and administration, communicable diseases, emerging prevention and control, disease outbreaks prevention and control, influenza epidemiology, influenza A virus, avian, avian influenza prevention and control, antiviral agents therapeutic use, Australia epidemiology, birds, emerging epidemiology, immunization programs organization and administration, influenza diagnosis, influenza drug therapy.

Itamura, S. (2000). Development of influenza vaccines against newly emerging A/H5N1 virus. Nippon Rinsho Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine 58(1): 255-64.  ISSN: 0047-1852.

            Abstract:  Emergence of highly virulent influenza A/H5N1 viruses in Hong Kong in 1997 posed a threat of pandemic and brought an urgent need to develop a suitable seed virus for vaccine production. The virulence of the H5N1 viruses to chicken embryos should hamper the efficient production of the vaccine. In addition, potential virulence to humans raised safety issue in manufacturing vaccine. Toward vaccine development, one approach is to use an avirulent avian influenza virus antigenically similar to the virulent ones as a surrogate vaccine strain. The other approach is based on the attenuation of pathogenicity of virulent H5N1 virus by genetic engineering of the hemagglutinin gene and selection of a gene constellation. The reverse genetics technique can make the latter approach possible. Candidate strains suitable for vaccine production could be prepared by using either approach.

            Descriptors:  influenza transmission, influenza A virus human genetics, human immunology, influenza vaccine, chick embryo, genes viral, genetic engineering, hemagglutinins chemistry, hemagglutinins genetics, vaccines, attenuated, virulence.

Jacotot, H. and A. Vallee (1967). Essais d'immunisation contre la peste aviaire (fowl pest) par virus inactive. [Trials of immunization against fowl plague by inactivated virus]. Bulletin De L'Academie Veterinaire De France 40(7): 333-43.  ISSN: 0001-4192.

            NAL Call Number:  41.9 R24

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus avian, orthomyxoviridae infections veterinary, poultry diseases prevention and control, viral vaccines, chickens, orthomyxoviridae infections prevention and control, vaccines.

Ji DeJun, Liu HongQi, Peng DaXin, Gao Song, Wu YanTao, and Liu XiuFan (2002). Immunity of chickens induced by recombinant fowl pox virus expressing HA gene of an H9-AIV. Journal of Yangzhou University, Agricultural and Life Sciences Edition, Yangzhou China 23(2): 13-16.  ISSN: 1671-4652.

            NAL Call Number:  S19.Y36

            Descriptors:  antibodies, immune response, immunization, avian influenza virus, fowl pox virus, chickens.

Ji DeJun, Peng DaXin, Liu HongQi, Chen SuJuan, Wu YanTao, Gao Song, and Liu XiuFan (2003). Genetic stability of a recombinant fowlpox virus with an avian influenza virus H9 hemaglutinin (HA) gene insert. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science 23(4): 347-349.  ISSN: 1005-4545.

            NAL Call Number:  SF604.C58

            Descriptors:  antibodies, genetic stability, hemagglutinins, immunity, avian influenza virus, fowl pox virus, chickens.

Jia LiJun, Zhang YanMei, Li JunWei, Wei DongPing, Liu HongQi, Chen SuJuan, Peng DaXin, Zhang RuKuan, and Liu XiuFan (2003). Protective efficacy of recombinant fowlpox virus expressing hemagglutinin gene of H5N1 subtype avian influenza virus against challenge with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in chickens. Journal of Yangzhou University, Agricultural and Life Sciences Edition, Yangzhou China  24(2): 11-13.  ISSN: 1671-4652.

            NAL Call Number:  S19.Y36

            Descriptors:  immunization, potency, recombinant vaccines, hemagglutinins, avian influenza virus, fowl pox virus, chickens.

Jia LiJun, Zhang YanMei, Peng DaXin, Liu HongQi, Cheng Jian, Zhang RuKuan, and Liu XiuFan (2004). Influence of dosage and maternal antibody on responses of chickens to recombinant fowl pox virus vaccine against H5 subtype avian influenza. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science 24(2): 150-152.  ISSN: 1005-4545.

            NAL Call Number:  SF604.C58

            Descriptors:  chicks, immune response, immunization, dosage, maternal antibodies, mortality, recombinant vaccines, avian influenza, fowl pox virus.

John, T.J. (2004). Avian influenza: expect the best but prepare for the worst. Indian Journal of Medical Research 119(2): iii-iv.  ISSN: 0971-5916.

            Descriptors:  birds virology, disease outbreaks prevention and control, influenza A virus, avian genetics, avian influenza transmission, India, avian influenza pathogenicity, avian influenza diagnosis.

Juan, G.G. (1996). Metodologias requeridas para la confiable elaboracion y comecializacion de una vacuna reecombinante de influenza aviar. [Methodologies required for the reliable evaluation and commercialization of a recombinant avian influenza vaccine]. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 45: 441-442.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  vaccines, avian influenza virus, influenza virus, orthomyxoviridae, viruses.

Juan, G.G., R.V. Humberto, H.M. Alejandro, C.H.J. Mario, and B.R. Karla (1996). Evaluacion de vacunas inactivadas de ia en Mexico, pruebas de laboratorio y de campo. [Evaluation of inactivated avian influenza vaccines in Mexico: laboratory and field trials]. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 45: 40-42.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, vaccines, Mexico, America, influenza virus, Latin America, North America, orthomyxoviridae, viruses.

Kalidari, G.A., N. Harzandi, and S.A.D. Moghadam (2002). Evaluation of the half life of maternal antibodies against Avian Influenza (AI) in broiler and layer chicks in Mashhad. Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran 57(1): 47-50.  ISSN: 1022-646X.

            NAL Call Number:  41.9 T23

            Descriptors:  hemagglutination, half life, maternal antibodies, immunity, vaccination, avian influenza virus, Iran, chickens.

Karunakaran, D., J.A. Newman, D.A. Halvorson, and A. Abraham (1987). Evaluation of inactivated influenza vaccines in market turkeys. Avian Diseases 31(3): 498-503.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  The potency and efficacy of an inactivated oil-emulsion influenza vaccine against infection, illness, and virus shed was studied in market turkeys. No undesirable local or systemic reactions occurred following vaccination. The vaccine induced measurable antibody to nucleocapsid and hemagglutinin antigens of the virus. Challenged unvaccinated controls experienced airsacculitis, but none of the vaccinates were affected. The percent of the birds shedding virus following intranasal challenge was lower in the vaccinated groups than in the controls, and the quantity of virus shed was also smaller in vaccinated groups than in the controls.

            Descriptors:  antibodies, viral biosynthesis, fowl plague immunology, influenza A virus avian immunology, turkeys, viral vaccines immunology, antigens, viral immunology, capsid immunology, fowl plague prevention and control, hemagglutination inhibition tests veterinary, hemagglutinins viral immunology, immunodiffusion veterinary, vaccination veterinary, viral core proteins immunology.

Katz, J.M., J. Plowden, M. Renshaw Hoelscher, X. Lu, T.M. Tumpey, and S. Sambhara (2004). Immunity to influenza: the challenges of protecting an aging population. Immunologic Research 29(1-3): 113-24.  ISSN: 0257-277X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR180.S88

            Abstract:  Influenza viruses cause annual epidemics and occasional pandemics of acute respiratory disease. Improved vaccines that can overcome the decline in immune function with aging and/or can induce broader immunity to novel pandemic strains are a high priority. To design improved vaccines for the elderly, we need to better understand the effects of age on both innate and adaptive immunity. In a murine model, we have determined that defects in antigen-presenting cell (APC) expression of pattern-recognition molecules, co-stimulatory molecules, and cytokine production may play an important role in the reduced clonal expansion of T cells in aging. The use of immunomodulators such as adjuvants may overcome some of the defects of aging immunity and may also be useful in the development of improved vaccines for avian influenza A subtypes that pose a pandemic threat. Several novel strategies including the use of ISCOM-formulated vaccines, mucosal delivery, or DNA vaccination provided cross-subtype protection that could provide an important component of immunity in the event of a pandemic.

            Descriptors:  aging immunology, disease outbreaks prevention and control, influenza prevention and control, influenza vaccines immunology, adjuvants, immunologic pharmacology, aged, immunity, active immunology, immunity, natural, influenza epidemiology, influenza immunology, influenza A virus, avian immunology, avian pathogenicity, membrane glycoproteins genetics, membrane glycoproteins metabolism, mice, orthomyxoviridae immunology, orthomyxoviridae pathogenicity, receptors, cell surface genetics, receptors, cell surface metabolism.

Kelly, D.C., R.J. Avery, and N.J. Dimmock (1974). Camptothecin: an inhibitor of influenza virus replication. Journal of General Virology 25(3): 427-32.  ISSN: 0022-1317.

            NAL Call Number:  QR360.A1J6

            Descriptors:  antiviral agents pharmacology, camptothecin pharmacology, influenza A virus avian growth and development, virus replication drug effects, antigens, viral analysis, autoradiography, cell line, dose response relationship, drug, hamsters, hemagglutination inhibition tests, hemagglutinins viral analysis, avian drug effects, kidney, methionine, neuraminidase analysis, nucleic acid hybridization, peptides analysis, RNA biosynthesis, sulfur radioisotopes, tritium, uridine.

Khafizova, E.D. (1976). Dezinfektsiya poverkhnostei i vozdukha pomeshchenii pri grippe kur. [Disinfection of surfaces and air of large poultry houses against avian influenza]. Problemy Veterinarnoi Sanitarii 54: 69-73.

            Descriptors:  peracetic acid, sodium hydroxide, formaldehyde, poultry housing, disinfection, air temperature.

King, D.J. (1991). Evaluation of different methods of inactivation of Newcastle disease virus and avian influenza virus in egg fluids and serum. Avian Diseases 35(3): 505-514.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Viruses conveyed in shipments of eggs, viral diagnostic reagents, or avian serum samples are a potential hazard for susceptible poultry. Different methods of treatment of those materials to eliminate the hazard of virulent and avirulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) or avian influenza virus (AIV) were evaluated. The NDV strains tested were more thermostable than the AIV strains. The results suggest that standard pasteurization methods would not reliably inactivate the concentrations of NDV used. Beta-propiolactone (BPL) (greater than or equal to 0.025%) inactivated NDV or AIV in allantoic fluid, but higher concentrations were needed to inactivate virus diluted in serum. Hemagglutination (HA) of NDV and AIV and hemolysis (HL) activity of NDV were reduced or eliminated by 0.4% BPL. Formalin (greater than or equal to 0.04%) inactivated either virus but adversely affected HA and HL activity. NDV or AIV was inactivated by binary ethylenimine (BEI) (0.01 M) with no adverse effect on HA or HL. Heat (56 C) or BEI (0.01 M) had no apparent effect on hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) titers of NDV and AIV antisera, the effect of formalin (0.1%) was variable, and BPL (greater than or equal to 0.25%) depressed the HI titers of both antisera. The optimum method should achieve virus inactivation without harming the treated material.

            Descriptors:  egg yolk, egg albumen, allantoic fluid, blood serum, Newcastle disease virus, inactivation, avian influenza virus, virulence.

Kitching, R.P. (2004). Management of exotic disease outbreaks: learning by example. Medecin Veterinaire Du Quebec 34(1-2): 83-85.  ISSN: 0225-9591.

            NAL Call Number:  SF602.M8

            Descriptors:  Newcastle disease, avian influenza, classical swine fever, foot and mouth disease, vaccination, clinical techniques, slaughtered, transmission, outbreaks.

Kodihalli, S., H. Goto, D.L. Kobasa, S. Krauss, Y. Kawaoka, and R.G. Webster (1999). DNA vaccine encoding hemagglutinin provides protective immunity against H5N1 influenza virus infection in mice. Journal of Virology 73(3): 2094-8.  ISSN: 0022-538X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR360.J6

            Abstract:  In Hong Kong in 1997, a highly lethal H5N1 avian influenza virus was apparently transmitted directly from chickens to humans with no intermediate mammalian host and caused 18 confirmed infections and six deaths. Strategies must be developed to deal with this virus if it should reappear, and prospective vaccines must be developed to anticipate a future pandemic. We have determined that unadapted H5N1 viruses are pathogenic in mice, which provides a well-defined mammalian system for immunological studies of lethal avian influenza virus infection. We report that a DNA vaccine encoding hemagglutinin from the index human influenza isolate A/HK/156/97 provides immunity against H5N1 infection of mice. This immunity was induced against both the homologous A/HK/156/97 (H5N1) virus, which has no glycosylation site at residue 154, and chicken isolate A/Ck/HK/258/97 (H5N1), which does have a glycosylation site at residue 154. The mouse model system should allow rapid evaluation of the vaccine's protective efficacy in a mammalian host. In our previous study using an avian model, DNA encoding hemagglutinin conferred protection against challenge with antigenic variants that differed from the primary antigen by 11 to 13% in the HA1 region. However, in our current study we found that a DNA vaccine encoding the hemagglutinin from A/Ty/Ir/1/83 (H5N8), which differs from A/HK/156/97 (H5N1) by 12% in HA1, prevented death but not H5N1 infection in mice. Therefore, a DNA vaccine made with a heterologous H5 strain did not prevent infection by H5N1 avian influenza viruses in mice but was useful in preventing death.

            Descriptors:  hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus immunology, influenza prevention and control, influenza A virus avian immunology, influenza vaccine immunology, vaccines, DNA immunology, antibodies, viral blood, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus genetics, immunization, mice, mice inbred BALB c.

Kodihalli, S., D.L. Kobasa, and R.G. Webster (2000). Strategies for inducing protection against avian influenza A virus subtypes with DNA vaccines. Vaccine 18(23): 2592-9.  ISSN: 0264-410X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR189.V32

            Abstract:  The cross-species transfer of a H5N1 influenza virus from birds to humans, and the systemic spread of this virus in mice, has accelerated the efforts to devise protective strategies against lethal influenza viruses. DNA vaccination with the highly conserved nucleoprotein gene appears to provide cross protection against influenza A viruses in murine models. Whether such vaccines would protect human hosts against different influenza A viruses, including strains with pandemic potential, is unclear. Our aim in this study is to evaluate the ability of a combination DNA vaccine consisting of two plasmids encoding the HA genes from two different subtypes and a DNA vaccine encoding the viral nucleoprotein gene from a H5 virus to induce protection against highly lethal infection caused by H5 and H7 influenza viruses in chickens. Chickens given a single dose of plasmids expressing H5 and H7 hemagglutinins protected the birds from infection by either subtype. However, birds immunized with nucleoprotein DNA and challenged with either A/Ck/Vic/1/85(H7N7) or A/Ty/Ir/1/83 (H5N8) showed definite signs of infection, suggesting inadequate immunity against viral infection. Fifty percent of the nucleoprotein DNA immunized birds survived infection by influenza A/Ty/Ir/1/83 (H5N8) virus (virus of same subtype) while 42% survived infection by influenza A/Ck/Vic/1/85/(H7N7) virus (virus of a different subtype). These studies demonstrate that immunization with DNA encoding a type-specific gene may not be effective against either homologous or heterologous strains of virus, particularly if the challenge virus causes a highly lethal infection. However, the combination of HA subtype vaccines are effective against lethal infection caused by viruses expressing any of the HA subtypes used in the combination preparation.

            Descriptors:  chickens immunology, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus immunology, influenza veterinary, influenza A virus avian immunology, influenza vaccine immunology, nucleoproteins, poultry diseases prevention and control, vaccination veterinary, vaccines, DNA immunology, viral core proteins immunology, cos cells, Cercopithecus aethiops, evaluation studies, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus genetics, influenza immunology, influenza prevention and control, influenza transmission, avian genetics, mice, plasmids immunology, poultry diseases immunology, recombinant fusion proteins immunology, species specificity, transfection, viral core proteins genetics, zoonoses.

Kodihalli, S., V. Sivanandan, K.V. Nagaraja, D. Shaw, and D.A. Halvorson (1994). A type-specific avian influenza virus subunit vaccine for turkeys: induction of protective immunity to challenge infection. Vaccine 12(15): 1467-72.  ISSN: 0264-410X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR189.V32

            Abstract:  The fraction NP/HA (nucleoprotein/haemagglutinin) obtained from n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside-treated influenza A H5N2 virus was highly enriched for NP with residual haemagglutinin. This preparation was incorporated in ISCOMs. This potent 'immunostimulating complex' induced the production of high antibody titres in turkeys. The NP/HA ISCOMs preparation was found to protect turkeys from both homologous and heterologous challenge infection as shown by reduced viral titres in the lung and trachea of vaccinated turkeys. Clearance of the virus from trachea and lungs was seen at late stages of infection. The vaccine also induced a cellular immune response as measured by T-cell proliferation and a delayed-type hypersensitivity response. The results reported in this study demonstrate that the NP/HA ISCOM vaccine is capable of inducing type-specific immunity and that it has potential utility as a vaccine in turkeys.

            Descriptors:  fowl plague prevention and control, influenza A virus avian immunology, influenza vaccine immunology, antibodies, viral biosynthesis, cell division drug effects, cell division immunology, fowl plague immunology, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus, hemagglutinins viral immunology, hypersensitivity, delayed, immunity, cellular, avian isolation and purification, lung virology, lymphocytes cytology, lymphocytes drug effects, lymphocytes immunology, mitogens pharmacology, nucleoproteins isolation and purification, trachea virology, turkeys.

Kodihalli, S. (1993). Diagnosis and Control of Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Turkeys, p. viii, 148 leaves, ill.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza, diagnosis, control, turkeys.

Kouwenhoven, B., A.G. Burger, J.B. McFerran (ed.), and M.S. McNulty (ed.) (1986). Experimental vaccination of chickens against avian influenza subtype H5 with an inactivated oil emulsion vaccine. Current Topics in Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science - Acute Virus Infections of Poultry 37: 45-51.

            NAL Call Number:  SF600.C82

            Descriptors:  inactivated vaccines, immune response, avian influenza virus, chickens, experimental infection.

Kreager, K. (1996). Biosecurity and avian influenza as it relates to the commercial table egg industry. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 45: 19-21.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  disease control, egg production, safety, animal production, production, disease prevention.

Kujumgiev, A., I. Tsvetkova, Y. Serkedjieva, V. Bankova, R. Christov, and S. Popov (1999). Antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity of propolis of different geographic origin. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 64(3): 235-40.  ISSN: 0378-8741.

            NAL Call Number:  RS160.J6

            Abstract:  Propolis samples from different geographic origins were investigated for their antibacterial (against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli), antifungal (against Candida albicans) and antiviral (against Avian influenza virus) activities. All samples were active against the fungal and Gram-positive bacterial test strains, and most showed antiviral activity. The activities of all samples were similar in spite of the differences in their chemical composition. In samples from the temperate zone, flavonoids and esters of phenolic acids are known to be responsible for the above mentioned activities of bee glue; tropical samples did not contain such substances but showed similar activities. Obviously, in different samples, different substance combinations are essential for the biological activity of the bee glue. It seems that propolis has general pharmacological value as a natural mixture and not as a source of new powerful antimicrobial, antifungal and antiviral compounds.

            Descriptors:  Candida albicans drug effects, Escherichia coli drug effects, influenza A virus avian drug effects, propolis pharmacology, Staphylococcus aureus drug effects, anti bacterial agents, anti infective agents pharmacology, antifungal agents pharmacology, antiviral agents pharmacology, antiviral agents toxicity, cell culture, chick embryo, fibroblasts virology, flavonoids analysis, phenols analysis.

Kung, N.Y., Y. Guan, N.R. Perkins, L. Bissett, T. Ellis, L. Sims,  R.S. Morris, K.F. Shortridge, and J.S.M. Peiris (2003). The impact of a monthly rest day on avian influenza virus isolation rates in retail live poultry markets in Hong Kong. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 1037-1041.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Retail live poultry markets (LPMs) may act as a reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). In this study we test the hypothesis that a rest day in the LPMs where the stalls are completely emptied of poultry, cleansed, and restocked will reduce the isolation rates of avian influenza viruses. The isolation rate of H9N2 subtype viruses from chicken was significantly lower after the rest day than prior to it, indicating its impact in reducing transmission. In contrast, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolation rates appear unaffected by this intervention, possibly reflecting differences in herd immunity or virus transmission dynamics.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, herd immunity, monthly rest day, retail live poultry markets, viral isolation rates, virus transmission dynamics.

Kutashova, N. and O. Endzina (1972). [Inactivated avian influenza vaccine as an inducer of non-specific resistance to infection in chicks]. Sbornik Nauchnykh Trudov, Moskovskaya Veterinarnaya Akademiya 62: 25-26.

            Descriptors:  vaccines, immunity, avian influenza virus, chicks.

Laddomada, A. (2003). Control and eradication of O.I.E. List A diseases: the approach of the European Union to the use of vaccines. Developmental Biology 114:  269-280.  ISSN: 1424-6074.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza, classical swine fever, foot and mouth disease, diagnostic techniques, vaccination, European Union, O.I.E. List A diseases, disease control, disease eradication, ethics, legislation.

LaFayette, P.R., S.C. Watkins, J.M. Garren, W.A. Parrott, M.W. Jackwood, B.S. Seal, and M.L. Perdue (2000). Engineering soybeans for the production of edible vaccines for poultry. Plant Biology (Rockville) : 138.

            Descriptors:  immune system, molecular genetics, veterinary medicine, PCR (polymerase chain reaction) genetic techniques, laboratory techniques, Southern blotting genetic techniques, laboratory techniques, direct viral antigen gene expression genetic techniques, immunologic techniques, laboratory techniques, genetic engineering genetic techniques, laboratory techniques, immunization therapeutic and prophylactic techniques, particle bombardment laboratory techniques, poultry disease management,applied and field techniques, cost savings, meeting abstract.

Lagutkin, N.A., N.I. Mitin, M.M. Zubairov, L.M. Erokhina, and N.I. Arkhipov (1984). Chemotherapy of avian influenza. Veterinariia (8): 39-41.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V6426

            Descriptors:  chemotherapy, antiviral agents, avian influenza virus, chickens.

Lang, G. and A.E. Ferguson (1981). The extent and control of avian influenza in Canada. Canadian Veterinary Journal Revue Veterinaire Canadienne  22(12): 377-81.  ISSN: 0008-5286.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 R3224

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks veterinary, fowl plague epidemiology, poultry diseases epidemiology, animals, wild microbiology, Canada, fowl plague prevention and control, influenza A virus classification, poultry diseases microbiology, poultry diseases prevention and control, turkeys microbiology.

Lang, G., O. Narayan, and B.T. Rouse (1970). Prevention of malignant avian influenza by 1-adamantanamine hydrochloride. Archiv Fur Die Gesamte Virusforschung 32(2): 171-84.  ISSN: 0003-9012.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ar23

            Descriptors:  amantadine administration and dosage, influenza veterinary, poultry diseases prevention and control, administration, oral, animal feed, antibodies analysis, body fluids, chick embryo, chlorides, hemagglutination inhibition tests, hemagglutination, viral, influenza blood, influenza immunology, influenza mortality, influenza prevention and control, orthomyxoviridae isolation and purification, time factors, turkeys.

Laver, G. (2004). From the great barrier reef to a "cure" for the flu - tall tales, but true. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47(4): 590-596.  ISSN: 0031-5982.

            NAL Call Number:  442.8 P43

            Descriptors:  infection, prevention and control, sea birds, drug development.

Ledesma, M.N., H.M.T. Casaubon, M.M. Escorcia, G.V.M. Petrone, and J.C. Del Rio (1996). Resultados de la respuesta inmune humoral en parvadas comerciales de pollo de engorda ante la vacunacion contra influenza aviar. [Results of humoral immune response in commercial broiler flocks after avian influenza vaccination]. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 45: 299-300.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  immune response, vaccination, broiler chickens, avian influenza virus, birds, chickens, disease control, domestic animals, domesticated birds, Galliformes, immunity, immunization, immunostimulation, immunotherapy, influenza virus, livestock, meat animals, orthomyxoviridae, poultry, therapy, useful animals, viruses.

Lee, C.W., D.A. Senne, and D.L. Suarez (2003). Development of hemagglutinin subtype-specific reference antisera by DNA vaccination of chickens. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 1051-1056.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Previously, we have shown that intramuscular vaccination of chickens with the eukaryotic expression vector (EEV), expressing the influenza H5 hemagglutinin (H) protein, can stimulate a measurable and protective antibody response. Based on these results, we cloned other H genes from Eurasian H5, North American and Eurasian H7, and H15 influenza viruses into the EEV for use in vaccination of chickens to produce reference antibodies for diagnostic purposes, such as the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Three-week-old specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were vaccinated with 100 mug of EEV mixed with a cationic lipid by intramuscular injection. Then the birds were boostered twice at monthly intervals after the original vaccination. Measurable antibody titers were present for most birds after 1 month and generally increased after each boost. To examine the cross reactivity of the sera with other subtypes, HI test was conducted with antigens prepared from 15 subtypes of influenza virus. Subtype specificity of the antisera prepared by DNA vaccination were comparable or better than the antisera prepared by traditional method using whole virus vaccination. Preparation of reference antisera by DNA vaccination holds good promise because it is safe and allows for the production of H specific antibodies without producing antibodies specific to other influenza viral proteins.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, immune system, infection, DNA vaccination genetic techniques, laboratory techniques, intramuscular vaccination, clinical techniques, therapeutic and prophylactic techniques, antibody titers, protective antibody response.

Lee, C.W., D.A. Senne, and D.L. Suarez (2004). Effect of vaccine use in the evolution of Mexican lineage H5N2 avian influenza virus. Journal of Virology 78(15): 8372-81.  ISSN: 0022-538X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR360.J6

            Abstract:  An outbreak of avian influenza (AI) caused by a low-pathogenic H5N2 type A influenza virus began in Mexico in 1993 and several highly pathogenic strains of the virus emerged in 1994-1995. The highly pathogenic virus has not been reported since 1996, but the low-pathogenic virus remains endemic in Mexico and has spread to two adjacent countries, Guatemala and El Salvador. Measures implemented to control the outbreak and eradicate the virus in Mexico have included a widespread vaccination program in effect since 1995. Because this is the first case of long-term use of AI vaccines in poultry, the Mexican lineage virus presented us with a unique opportunity to examine the evolution of type A influenza virus circulating in poultry populations where there was elevated herd immunity due to maternal and active immunity. We analyzed the coding sequence of the HA1 subunit and the NS gene of 52 Mexican lineage viruses that were isolated between 1993 and 2002. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the presence of multiple sublineages of Mexican lineage isolates at the time vaccine was introduced. Further, most of the viruses isolated after the introduction of vaccine belonged to sublineages separate from the vaccine's sublineage. Serologic analysis using hemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralization tests showed major antigenic differences among isolates belonging to the different sublineages. Vaccine protection studies further confirmed the in vitro serologic results indicating that commercial vaccine was not able to prevent virus shedding when chickens were challenged with antigenically different isolates. These findings indicate that multilineage antigenic drift, which has not been observed in AI virus, is occurring in the Mexican lineage AI viruses and the persistence of the virus in the field is likely aided by its large antigenic difference from the vaccine strain.

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus, avian genetics, avian pathogenicity, avian immunology, influenza vaccines immunology, amino acid sequence, chickens, evolution, hemagglutination inhibition tests, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus genetics, immune sera immunology, molecular sequence data, phylogeny.

Lee, C.W., D.A. Senne, and D.L. Suarez (2004). Generation of reassortant influenza vaccines by reverse genetics that allows utilization of a DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) strategy for the control of avian influenza. Vaccine  22(23-24): 3175-81.  ISSN: 0264-410X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR189.V32

            Abstract:  Vaccination of poultry with inactivated influenza vaccine can be an effective tool in the control of avian influenza (AI). One major concern of using inactivated vaccine is vaccine-induced antibody interference with serologic surveillance and epidemiology. In the United States, low pathogenicity H5 and H7 subtype AI viruses have caused serious economic losses in the poultry industry. Most of these viruses also have the accompanying N2 subtype and no H5N1 or H7N8 subtype AI viruses have been identified in poultry in the US. In order to allow the Differentiation of Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) while maintaining maximum efficacy of the vaccine, we generated reassortant viruses by reverse genetics that contained the same H5 and H7 hemagglutinin (HA) gene as the challenge virus, but a heterologous N1 or N8 neuraminidase (NA) gene. In vaccination-challenge experiments in 2-week-old specific pathogen free chickens, reassortant influenza vaccines (rH5N1 and rH7N8) demonstrated similar antibody profiles and comparable protection rates as vaccines prepared with parent H5N2 and H7N2 viruses. Further, we were able to differentiate the sera from infected and vaccinated birds by neuraminidase inhibition test and indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay on the basis of different antibodies elicited by their NA proteins. These results demonstrate the usefulness of a reverse genetics system for the rapid generation of reassortant AI virus that allows utilization of the DIVA strategy for the control of AI infections in poultry.

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus, avian immunology, influenza vaccines therapeutic use, avian influenza immunology, avian influenza prevention and control, poultry diseases immunology, poultry diseases prevention and control, antibodies, viral analysis, viral biosynthesis, chickens, fluorescent antibody technique, indirect, avian influenza A virus genetics, influenza vaccines genetics, plasmids genetics, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, vaccination, vaccines, DNA genetics, vaccines, DNA immunology.

Leneva, I.A., O. Goloubeva, R.J. Fenton, M. Tisdale, and R.G. Webster (2001). Efficacy of zanamivir against avian influenza A viruses that possess genes encoding H5N1 internal proteins and are pathogenic in mammals. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 45(4): 1216-24.  ISSN: 0066-4804.

            NAL Call Number:  RM265.A5132

            Abstract:  In 1997, an avian H5N1 influenza virus, A/Hong Kong/156/97 (A/HK/156/97), caused six deaths in Hong Kong, and in 1999, an avian H9N2 influenza virus infected two children in Hong Kong. These viruses and a third avian virus [A/Teal/HK/W312/97 (H6N1)] have six highly related genes encoding internal proteins. Additionally, A/Chicken/HK/G9/97 (H9N2) virus has PB1 and PB2 genes that are highly related to those of A/HK/156/97 (H5N1), A/Teal/HK/W312/97 (H6N1), and A/Quail/HK/G1/97 (H9N2) viruses. Because of their similarities with the H5N1 virus, these H6N1 and H9N2 viruses may have the potential for interspecies transmission. We demonstrate that these H6N1 and H9N2 viruses are pathogenic in mice but that their pathogenicities are less than that of A/HK/156/97 (H5N1). Unadapted virus replicated in lungs, but only A/HK/156/97 (H5N1) was found in the brain. After three passages (P3) in mouse lungs, the pathogenicity of the viruses increased, with both A/Teal/HK/W312/97 (H6N1) (P3) and A/Quail/HK/G1/97 (H9N2) (P3) viruses being found in the brain. The neuraminidase inhibitor Zanamivir inhibited viral replication in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells in virus yield assays (50% effective concentration, 8.5 to 14.0 microM) and inhibited viral neuraminidase activity (50% inhibitory concentration, 5 to 10 nM). Twice daily intranasal administration of Zanamivir (50 and 100 mg/kg of body weight) completely protected infected mice from death. At a dose of 10 mg/kg, Zanamivir completely protected mice from infection with H9N2 viruses and increased the mean survival day and the number of survivors infected with H6N1 and H5N1 viruses. Zanamivir, at all doses tested, significantly reduced the virus titers in the lungs and completely blocked the spread of virus to the brain. Thus, Zanamivir is efficacious in treating avian influenza viruses that can be transmitted to mammals.

            Descriptors:  antiviral agents therapeutic use, enzyme inhibitors therapeutic use, influenza drug therapy, influenza A virus avian drug effects, neuraminidase antagonists and inhibitors, sialic acids therapeutic use, administration, intranasal, antiviral agents administration and dosage, antiviral agents pharmacology, brain virology, cell line, dogs, enzyme inhibitors administration and dosage, enzyme inhibitors pharmacology, genes viral, influenza virology, avian genetics, avian pathogenicity, kinetics, lung virology, mice, mice inbred BALB c, microbial sensitivity tests, sialic acids administration and dosage, sialic acids pharmacology, species specificity, virus replication drug effects.

Leneva, I.A., N. Roberts, E.A. Govorkova, O.G. Goloubeva, and R.G. Webster (2000). The neuraminidase inhibitor GS4104 (oseltamivir phosphate) is efficacious against A/Hong Kong/156/97 (H5N1) and A/Hong Kong/1074/99 (H9N2) influenza viruses. Antiviral Research 48(2): 101-15.  ISSN: 0166-3542.

            NAL Call Number:  QR355.A5

            Abstract:  In 1997, an H5N1 avian influenza A/Hong Kong/156/97 virus transmitted directly to humans and killed six of the 18 people infected. In 1999, another avian A/Hong/1074/99 (H9N2) virus caused influenza in two children. In such cases in which vaccines are unavailable, antiviral drugs are crucial for prophylaxis and therapy. Here we demonstrate the efficacy of the neuraminidase inhibitor GS4104 (oseltamivir phosphate) against these H5N1 and H9N2 viruses. GS4071 (the active metabolite of oseltamivir) inhibited viral replication in MDCK cells (EC(50) values, 7.5-12 microM) and neuraminidase activity (IC(50) values, 7.0-15 nM). When orally administered at doses of 1 and 10 mg/kg per day, GS4104 prevented death of mice infected with A/Hong Kong/156/97 (H5N1), mouse-adapted A/Quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 (H9N2), or human A/Hong Kong/1074/99 (H9N2) viruses and reduced virus titers in the lungs and prevented the spread of virus to the brain of mice infected with A/Hong Kong/156/97 (H5N1) and mouse-adapted A/Quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 (H9N2) viruses. When therapy was delayed until 36 h after exposure to the H5N1 virus, GS4104 was still effective and significantly increased the number of survivors as compared with control. Oral administration of GS4104 (0.1 mg/kg per day) in combination with rimantadine (1 mg/kg per day) reduced the number of deaths of mice infected with 100 MLD(50) of H9N2 virus and prevented the deaths of mice infected with 5 MLD(50) of virus. Thus, GS4104 is efficacious in treating infections caused by H5N1 and H9N2 influenza viruses in mice.

            Descriptors:  acetamides pharmacology, antiviral agents pharmacology, influenza drug therapy, influenza A virus avian drug effects, human drug effects, neuraminidase antagonists and inhibitors, acetamides therapeutic use, antiviral agents therapeutic use, brain virology, cell line, dogs, enzyme inhibitors pharmacology, enzyme inhibitors therapeutic use, influenza virology, avian enzymology, avian pathogenicity, human enzymology, human pathogenicity, kidney, lung virology, mice, mice inbred BALB c, neuraminidase metabolism, rimantadine therapeutic use, virus replication drug effects.

Li, S., M.L. Perdue, and E. Patzer (2002). Seed viruses containing novel avian HA and NA antigens for prevention against potential influenza pandemic. Developments in Biologicals 110: 135-41.  ISSN: 1424-6074.

            NAL Call Number:  QR180.3.D4

            Abstract:  An influenza pandemic could arise unexpectedly with rapid spread across the world. The efficiency of production of a vaccine and the ability to administer it widely will be among the most important factors in the ability to protect public health. The current process for producing inactivated or live attenuated influenza vaccines requires six to nine months. That reduces considerably the likelihood that the vaccine will be available during the first wave of the pandemic. Therefore, a key element of preparedness is to optimize the production process and to reduce the vaccine development time. During the 1997 H5N1 outbreak in Hong Kong, seed viruses were prepared for production of inactivated and live-attenuated vaccines. We used the cold-adapted A/Ann Arbor/6/60 as the donor virus to generate live attenuated vaccines containing genetically modified HA and NA genes from H5N1 influenza viruses. These reassortants were shown to be safe and protective in animal models. This study indicates that production of live attenuated avian influenza vaccines is feasible and that development of a library of reassortants containing different subtype HA and NA genes may reduce the vaccine preparation time for future influenza pandemics.

            Descriptors:  antigens, viral immunology, influenza prevention and control, influenza A virus avian immunology, influenza epidemiology, influenza vaccine administration and dosage.

Lipatov, A.S., A.K. Gitelman, and Y.U.A. Smirnov (1997). Prevention and treatment of lethal influenza A virus bronchopneumonia in mice by monoclonal antibody against haemagglutinin stem region. Acta Virologica 41(6): 337-40.  ISSN: 0001-723X.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 AC85

            Abstract:  The protective properties of monoclonal antibody (MoAb) C179 directed to the stem region of haemagglutinin (HA) H2 that possessed fusion-inhibition and unique broad cross-neutralizing activities were examined in a mouse model. The MoAb efficiently protected mice against a lethal challenge with pneumovirulent human (H1) and avian (H2) strains of influenza A virus. Survival rates in mice that received intraperitonealy (i.p.) 1000 micrograms of the MoAb per mouse a day before the virus challenge were 90% for H1 and 100% for H2 strain. The dose of the MoAb of 100 micrograms per mouse significantly decreased mortality in mice. Moreover, the MoAb was also efficient in treatment of lethal bronhopneumonia caused by H2 influenza virus. The survival rate in mice that received 1000 micrograms of the MoAb per mouse 2 days after the virus challenge was 90%, while that in the control group was 30% only. These results indicate that the MoAb was effective in protection of animals against lethal influenza A infection without significant difference between H1 and H2 subtypes. The MoAb exerted significant effect in treatment of mice infected with H2 influenza virus. Thus, these data allow to suggest that the stem region of HA might be a potential target for prevention of influenza virus infection and antiviral therapy.

            Descriptors:  antibodies, monoclonal therapeutic use, bronchopneumonia therapy, hemagglutinins viral immunology, influenza therapy, influenza A virus avian immunology, human immunology, pneumonia, viral therapy, antibodies, monoclonal immunology, bronchopneumonia prevention and control, dose response relationship, immunologic, influenza prevention and control, mice, pneumonia, viral prevention and control, random allocation, time factors.

Liu HongQi, Huang Yong, Cheng Jian, Peng DaXin, Jia LiJun, Zhang RuKuan, and Liu XiuFan (2002). Genetic mutations of the hemagglutinin gene of H9N2 subtype avian influenza viruses under the selective pressure of vaccination. Chinese Journal of Virology 18(2): 149-154.  ISSN: 1000-8721.

            Descriptors:  vaccination, avian influenza virus, genetic mutations, poultry.

Lopez, H.C., E.R. Cruz, and M.I. Enrich (1996). Situacion y perspectivas del programa de erradicacion de la influenza aviar en Mexico. [Status and perspective of the avian influenza eradication program in Mexico]. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 45: 13-16.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, Mexico, America, influenza virus, Latin America, North America, orthomyxoviridae, viruses.

Lopez Perez, J.A., H. Rodriguez Velazco, M.A. Rico Gaytan, R. Palacios Miguel, and J. Garcia Garcia. (1996). Evaluacion sobre la proteccion conferida por una vacuna inactivada de influenza aviar y una vacuna inactivada, bivalente de influenza aviar-enfermedad de newcastle, administrada a dosis completa y media dosis en pollos de engorda. [Evaluation ofthe effectivity of avian influenza inactivated vaccine single or combined with newcastle disease, administrated as a complete or half dose in broilers]. In: Reunion Nacional de Investigacion Pecuaria, Cuernavaca, Morelos, (Mexico),  p. 130.

            Abstract: El estudio se concreto en evaluar la respuesta serologica y la resistencia al desafio de una vacuna sola y una vacuna combinada de I.A-ENC. que contenia 9.2 DIEP50 por ml del virus de IA. Grupos de 20 pollos fueron vacunados al dia de edad con la dosis completa de las vacunas y con 0.25 ml del producto, y fueron estudiados serologicamente a los 0, 3, 7, 10 y 14 dias post-vacunacion (PV), para despues hacerlo cada 8 dias hasta el dia 96. Se realizaron 4 desafios para IA a los 14, 28, 63 y 96 dias PV. Se colocaron pollos en contacto, 3 dias despues del desafio, para evaluar si el virus de IA replicaba en las aves vacunadas, en cantidad suficiente para causar morbilidad y/o mortalidad en pollos susceptibles. Los resultados indican que a los 14 dias PV, un bajo porcentaje de las aves mostraron anticuerpos para la vacuna de I.A. sola o combinada aplicada a dosis completa. Las aves vacunadas con media dosis de I.A. permanecieron sero-negativas en este muestreo. A partir de los 21 dias PV se detectaron anticuerpos para I.A. En todos los grupos con porcentajes de 83 a 100% de sero-conversion, el ultimo unicamente fue alcanzado en el grupo de pollos que recibieron la dosis completa de vacuna de I.A. sola. Porcentajes de proteccion al desafio del 100%, con una cepa de alta patogenicidad, fueron alcanzados en pollos vacunados con I.A. o combinada con ENC aplicada en dosis completa. La vacuna bivalente de I.A.- ENC aplicada a media dosis, gradualmente incremento la proteccion hasta alcanzar el 100% a los 63 dias PV. Sin embargo, es importante senalar de que a pesar de haberse observado una buena proteccion cuando se aplica la vacuna sola de I.A. a media dosis, esta en ningun caso alcanzo el 100% de proteccion. En este estudio se confirma que no hay una relacion que permita asociar la proteccion con la excrecion viral, de tal manera que las aves vacunadas con dosis completa de vacuna tanto sola o combinada eliminaron virus en cantidad suficiente para causar la muerte de las aves en contacto.

            Descriptors: broiler chickens, avian influenza virus, vaccines, application rates, Newcastle disease, birds, chickens, domestic animals, Galliformes, infectious diseases, influenza virus, livestock, meat animals, orthomyxoviridae, poultry, useful animals, viroses, viruses.

Lu, B.L., R.G. Webster, and V.S. Hinshaw (1982). Failure to detect hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies with intact avian influenza virions. Infection and Immunity 38(2): 530-5.  ISSN: 0019-9567.

            NAL Call Number:  QR1.I57

            Descriptors:  antibodies, viral analysis, hemagglutinins viral immunology, influenza A virus avian immunology, orthomyxoviridae infections immunology, ducks immunology, ferrets immunology, hemagglutination inhibition tests, avian physiology, mice, mice inbred BALB c immunology, T lymphocytes, cytotoxic immunology, virus replication.

Lu, X., M. Renshaw, T.M. Tumpey, G.D. Kelly, J. Hu Primmer, and J.M. Katz (2001). Immunity to influenza A H9N2 viruses induced by infection and vaccination. Journal of Virology 75(10): 4896-901.  ISSN: 0022-538X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR360.J6

            Abstract:  Avian influenza A H9N2 viruses are widespread among domestic poultry and were recently isolated from humans with respiratory illness in China. Two antigenically and genetically distinct groups of H9N2 viruses (G1 and G9) are prevalent in China. To evaluate a strategy for vaccination, we compared G1 and G9 viruses for their relative immunogenicity and cross-protective efficacy. Infection of BALB/c mice with representative viruses of either group protected against subsequent challenge with the homologous or heterologous H9N2 virus in the absence of detectable cross-reactive serum hemagglutination inhibition antibody. Mice injected intramuscularly with inactivated G1 whole virus vaccine were completely protected from challenge with either H9N2 virus. In contrast, mice administered inactivated G9 vaccine were only partially protected against heterologous challenge with the G1 virus. These results have implications for the development of human vaccines against H9N2 viruses, a priority for pandemic preparedness.

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus avian immunology, influenza vaccine immunology, cross reactions, disease models, animal, influenza immunology, influenza prevention and control, avian physiology, mice, inbred BALB c, vaccination, vaccines, inactivated, virus replication.

Luescher, M.M. (2003). Algae, a possible source for new drugs in the treatment of HIV and other viral diseases. Current Medicinal Chemistry Anti Infective Agents 2(3): 219-225.  ISSN: 1568-0126.

            Descriptors:  immune system, infection, pharmacognosy, HIV infection, human immunodeficiency virus infection, blood and lymphatic disease, drug therapy, immune system disease, viral disease, avian influenza, viral disease, viral diseases, drug therapy, viral disease, HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) clinical techniques, therapeutic and prophylactic techniques, drug resistance, drug sources, phagocytic activity synergism, viral replication cycle.

Luo KaiJian, Liang ZhaoPing, Zhao MingQiu, Liao Ming, Guo XiaoFeng, Ren Tao, Zhang GuiHong, Cao WeiSheng, and Xin ChaoAn (2004). Studies on the immunogenicity of avian influenza virus strain A/Chicken/Guangdong/SS/94 (H9N2) by paraffin section. Chinese Journal of Zoonoses 20(3): 196-198, 202.  ISSN: 1002-2694.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, histopathology, immunization, inactivated vaccines, fowl.

Luo KaiJian, Liao Ming, Ren Tao, and Xin ChaoAn (1999). Investigation of an emulsion preparation to control avian influenza. Poultry Husbandry and Diseases Control (8): 11.

            Descriptors:  disease control, avian influenza virus, emulsion preparation, China.

Luo KaiJian  and Xin ChaoAn  (2001). Trivalent inactivated oil-emulsion vaccine of Avian Influenza Virus, Newcastle Disease Virus and Infectious Bronchitis Virus. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science 21(2): 119-121.  ISSN: 1005-4545.

            NAL Call Number:  SF604.C58

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, infectious bronchitis virus, Newcastle disease virus, immune response, polyvalent vaccines.

Luschow, D., O. Werner, T.C. Mettenleiter, and W. Fuchs (2001). Protection of chickens from lethal avian influenza A virus infection by live-virus vaccination with infectious laryngotracheitis virus recombinants expressing the hemagglutinin (H5) gene. Vaccine 19(30): 4249-59.  ISSN: 0264-410X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR189.V32

            Abstract:  The H5 hemagglutinin (HA) gene of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV) isolate (A/chicken/Italy/8/98) was cloned and sequenced, and inserted at the non-essential UL50 (dUTPase) gene locus of a virulent strain of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Northern and Western blot analyses of the obtained ILTV recombinants demonstrated stable expression of the HA gene under control of the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene promoter. In vitro replication of the HA-expressing ILTV mutants was not affected, and infection of chickens revealed a reduced but still considerable virulence, similar to that of a UL50 gene deletion mutant without foreign gene insertion. The immunized animals produced specific antibodies against ILTV and AIV HA, and were protected against challenge infections with either virulent ILTV, or two different highly pathogenic AIV strains (A/chicken/Italy/8/98, A/chicken/Scotland/59). After challenge, no ILTV could be reisolated from protected animals, and shedding of AIV was considerably reduced. Thus, although attenuation remains to be improved, genetically engineered ILTV live-virus vaccines might be used as vectors to protect chickens also against other pathogens.

            Descriptors:  hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus immunology, herpesvirus 1, gallid genetics, influenza A virus avian immunology, influenza vaccine immunology, vaccines, synthetic immunology, chickens, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus genetics, vaccination.

Machavariani, A.T. (1970 ). Primenenie zhivykh vaktsin protiv psevdochumy ptits. [Use of live vaccine against fowl pseudoplague]. Veterinariia (2): 49-52.  ISSN: 0042-4846.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V6426

            Descriptors:  fowl plague immunology, avian influenza virus, viral vaccines, aerosols, chickens.

Malogolovkin, S.A., I.M. Surgucheva, and N.M. Solovkina (1994). Sravnitel' naya otsenka razlichnykh metodov immunizatsii pri poluchenii gibridom k virusu grippa A ptits. [A comparison of different methods of immunization when obtaining hybridomas to avian influenza group A virus].  Biotekhnologiya (Russian Federation) (9-10): 19-21.

            Abstract:  An efficiency of various ways of immunization applied when obtaining hybridomas releasing monoclonal antibodies (mABs) against avian influenza virus has been estimated. It is shown that the intraspleen immunization can be successfully used together with routine methods without decrease of virous specific clones outcome.

            Descriptors:  laboratory animals, avian influenza virus, monoclonal antibodies, hybridomas, immunization, mice, animal biotechnology, veterinary medicine, antibodies, biotechnology, cells, disease control, immunological factors, immunostimulation, immunotherapy, influenza virus, mammals, orthomyxoviridae, Rodentia, therapy, useful animals, viruses.

Marangon, S., L. Bortolotti, I. Capua, M. Bettio, and P.M. Dalla (2003). Low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) in Italy (2000-01): Epidemiology and control. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 1006-1009.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  In 1999-2000, Italy was affected by the most severe avian influenza (AI) epidemic that has ever occurred in Europe. The epidemic was caused by a type A influenza virus of the H7N1 subtype, which originated from the mutation of a low-pathogenicity (LP) AI virus of the same subtype. From August to November 2000, 4 months after the eradication of the highly pathogenic (HP) AI virus, the LPAI strain re-emerged and infected 55 poultry farms mainly located in the southern area of Verona province (Veneto region). To supplement disease control measures already in force, an emergency vaccination program against the disease was implemented in the area. Vaccination was carried out using an inactivated heterologous vaccine (A/chicken/Pakistan/1995-H7N3). In order to establish whether LPAI infection was circulating in the area, regular serological testing of sentinel birds in vaccinated flocks and a discriminatory test able to distinguish the different types of antineuraminidase antibodies (anti-N1 and anti-N3) were performed. Shortly after the beginning of the vaccination campaign (December 2000 to March 2001), the H7N1 LPAI virus emerged again, infecting 23 farms. Among these, only one vaccinated flock was affected, and infection did not spread further to other vaccinated farms. The data reported in the present paper indicate that the combination of biosecurity measures, official control, and vaccination can be considered successful for the control of LPAI infections in densely populated poultry areas.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, public health, avian influenza, epidemiology, infectious disease, prevention and control, respiratory system disease, transmission, viral disease, serology, clinical techniques, diagnostic techniques, vaccination, disease control, emergency vaccination program.

Marangon, S., I. Capua, G. Pozza, and U. Santucci (2004). Field experiences in the control of avian influenza outbreaks in densely populated poultry areas. Developmental Biology (Basel) 119: 155-64.  ISSN: 1424-6074.

            Abstract:  From 1997 to 2003, Italy has been affected by two epidemics of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and by several outbreaks of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI). In 1999-2000 a severe HPAI epidemic affected the country, causing 413 outbreaks: a total of about 16 million birds died or were stamped out. From August 2000 to March 2001, a H7N1 LPAI strain infected 78 poultry farms. The last affected flock was stamped out on the 26th of March 2001. In October 2002, another LPAI virus of the H7N3 subtype emerged and infected a total of 388 poultry holdings. Eradication measures were based on stamping out or controlled marketing of slaughtered birds on infected farms and on the prohibition of restocking. Restriction measures on the movement of live poultry, vehicles and staff were also imposed. To supplement these disease control measures, two emergency vaccination programmes, based on the "DIVA" (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) strategy were implemented. The two vaccination campaigns (2000-2002 and 2002-2003) both resulted in the eradication of infection. However, the first campaign appeared to be more successful that the second and possible explanations are discussed.

            Descriptors:  animals, disease outbreaks prevention and control, veterinary disease outbreaks, avian influenza A virus immunology, avian influenza epidemiology, avian influenza prevention and control, Italy epidemiology, population density, poultry, veterinary vaccination, viral vaccines.

McCauley, J.W., L.A. Pullen, M. Forsyth, C.R. Penn, and G.P. Thomas (1995). 4-Guanidino-Neu5Ac2en fails to protect chickens from infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. Antiviral Research 27(1-2): 179-86.  ISSN: 0166-3542.

            NAL Call Number:  QR355.A5

            Abstract:  The effectiveness of the novel sialidase inhibitor 4-guanidino-Neu5Ac2en, which is highly effective in mouse and ferret models of influenza virus infection (von Itzstein et al. (1993) Nature 363, 418-423), has been assessed as a prophylactic agent in the prevention of infection of chickens with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. At best a small delay in the onset of pyrexia and death was observed with one strain of fowl plague virus, but not with two other strains. These results demonstrate that a locally acting drug may be ineffective if virus can escape from the site of inoculation and replicate elsewhere.

            Descriptors:  antiviral agents pharmacology, chickens, fowl plague prevention and control, sialic acids pharmacology, body temperature, cell line, fowl plague mortality, influenza A virus avian drug effects, avian pathogenicity.

McManus, K. (2004). Asian avian influenza--a call to action. Australian Veterinary Journal 82(3): 135.  ISSN: 0005-0423.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Au72

            Descriptors:  chickens, disease outbreaks veterinary, avian influenza, prevention and control, southeastern Asia, epidemiology, disease outbreaks prevention and control, influenza A virus.

McNulty, M.S., G.M. Allan, and B.M. Adair (1986). Efficacy of avian influenza neuraminidase-specific vaccines in chickens. Avian Pathology 15(1): 107-115.  ISSN: 0307-9457.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.A1A9

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, immunization, vaccines, neuramidase, hemagglutination, poultry.

McNulty, M.S., J.B. McFerran, J.B. McFerran (ed.), and M.S. McNulty (ed.) (1986). Avian influenza: diagnosis and vaccination. Current Topics in Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science - Acute Virus Infections of Poultry 37: 36-44.

            NAL Call Number:  SF600.C82

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, diagnosis, vaccination.

Meijer, A., J.A. van der Goot, G. Koch, M. van Boven, and T.G. Kimman (2004). Oseltamivir reduces transmission, morbidity, and mortality of highly pathogenic avian influenza in chickens. International Congress Series 1263: 495-498.

            Abstract:  The effect of the neuraminidase inhibitors zanamivir and oseltamivir on the transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in chickens was studied. Per group, five chickens inoculated with HPAI A/Chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/83 H5N2 virus were placed 1 day post-inoculation (p.i.) in one cage with five contact chickens. Inoculated and contact chickens were treated twice daily from 1 day before inoculation up to day 7 p.i. All untreated inoculated and contact chickens became infected and four inoculated and two contact chickens died. Similarly, all of the zanamivir-treated inoculated and contact chickens became infected and all inoculated and four contact chickens died. Obviously, locally active zanamivir has no effect. In contrast, although oseltamivir could not prevent tracheal infection of the inoculated chickens, none had an infected cloaca and only one died. More important, only after stopping treatment three contact chickens became positive, suggesting limited transmission within or after the treatment period. In conclusion, treatment with systemically active oseltamivir limits to a large extent a severe outcome and chicken-to-chicken transmission of HPAI virus.

            Descriptors:  highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, chicken, transmission, antiviral treatment, antiviral prophylaxis, neuraminidase inhibitors, zanamivir, oseltamivir.

Mickle, T.R., N. Kinney, D.E. Page, D.E. Swayne, J. Beck, J. Taylor, R. Gettig, E. Paoletti, and R.G. Webster (1995). The development of a recombinant avian influenza-fowl pox vaccine. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association 99: 546-549.

            NAL Call Number:  449.9 Un3r

            Descriptors:  recombinant vaccines, recombinant fowl pox virus gene, immunization, Cox regression model, avian influenza virus, turkeys, poultry.

Mickle, T.R., N. Kinney, J. Taylor, R. Gettig, E. Paoletti, D.E. Swayne, J.R. Beck, and R.G. Webster (1996). Actualizacion sobre el desarrollo de una vacuna recombinante contra la influenza aviar en la que se utilize como vector al virus de la viruela. [An update on the development of a recombinant avian influenza-fowlpox vectored vaccine]. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 45: 33-35.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, vaccines, avipoxvirus, influenza virus, orthomyxoviridae, poxviridae, viruses.

Mitka, M. (2004). Health officials brace for flu season. JAMA the Journal of the American Medical Association 292(14): 1670-1.  ISSN: 1538-3598.

            NAL Call Number:  448.9 Am37

            Descriptors:  influenza prevention and control, influenza vaccines supply and distribution, influenza epidemiology, influenza A virus, avian, influenza vaccines administration and dosage, seasons, United States epidemiology.

Moghadaam, Z.A.K., B.H. Fard, V.M. Marandi, and A.M. Tabatabaii (2001). Comparative experimental study of immunogenesis of different inactivated H9N2 avian influenza vaccines in broiler chickens. Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran 56(3): 103-107.  ISSN: 1022-646X.

            NAL Call Number:  41.9 T23

            Descriptors:  antibodies, disease control, disease prevention, immunization, inactivated vaccines, hemagglutination inhibition test, immune response, avian influenza A virus, Iran, poultry, chickens, broilers.

Monti, D.J. (1998). Veterinarians integral in resolving avian influenza incidents, developing vaccine. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 212(11): 1686-7.  ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Am3

            Descriptors:  influenza prevention and control, influenza A virus avian physiology, influenza vaccine, avian immunology, poultry, swine.

Moreno, A. and R. Ruiz (1983). La influenza aviar. Epizootiologia, diagnostico y control. [Epidemiology, diagnosis and control of avian influenza - a review]. Revista Avicultura, Cuba 27(3): 89-108.

            NAL Call Number:  SF481.A9

            Descriptors:  reviews, avian influenza virus, epidemiology, diagnosis, control.

Moya, P., M.L. Alonso, E. Baixeras, and E. Ronda (1984). Immunomodulatory activity of isoprinosine on experimental viral infections in avian models. International Journal of Immunopharmacology 6(4): 339-43.  ISSN: 0192-0561.

            NAL Call Number:  QR180.I52

            Abstract:  The immunomodulatory activity of Isoprinosine treatments have been experimentally verified on chicken infected by three different viruses: Newcastle disease, fowl plague and avian infectious bronchitis. In protection tests, positive variations in the mean day of death rather than in the mortality rate were found depending on the modality of treatment. A stimulatory influence on primary anti-Newcastle disease virus antibody response was observed. In the avian model the Isoprinosine antiviral effect appears as due mainly to the enhancement of interferon production and to a synergistic interferon-isoprinosine interaction.

            Descriptors:  adjuvants, immunologic pharmacology, inosine analogs and derivatives, inosine pranobex pharmacology, virus diseases immunology, antibodies, viral biosynthesis, chickens, hemagglutination inhibition tests, infectious bronchitis virus immunology, influenza A virus avian immunology, interferons therapeutic use, kinetics, Newcastle disease virus immunology, vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus immunology, virus diseases drug therapy.

Muhmmad, K., P. Das, T. Yaqoob, A. Riaz, and R. Manzoor (2001). Effect of physico-chemical factors on survival of avian influenza virus (H7N3 type). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 3(4): 416-418.  ISSN: 1560-8530.

            Descriptors:  disease control, disinfectants, formaldehyde, pH, phenol, evaluation, chemical treatment, ultraviolet radiation, efficacy, avian influenza virus, poultry.

Mukhtar, M.M., M. Rabbani, K. Muhammad, and S.A. Khan (2003). Role of passive immunity against avian influenza disease infected broiler chicks. Pakistan Journal of Science 55(1-2): 10-15.  ISSN: 0030-9877.

            NAL Call Number:  475 P172

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, passive immunity, immunization, disease control, immunostimulation, immunotherapy, chickens, broilers, poultry.

Mungall, B.A., X. Xu, and A. Klimov (2003). Assaying susceptibility of avian and other influenza A viruses to zanamivir: Comparison of fluorescent and chemiluminescent neuraminidase assays. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 1141-1144.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Zanamivir has been shown to inhibit both human and avian influenza viral neuraminidases (NAs) and has been approved in several countries for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza infection. Reliable monitoring of drug resistance is important for assessment of the impact of drug therapy on circulating virus populations. This study compares the current fluorometric (FL) method for evaluating zanamivir susceptibility with a recently developed chemiluminescent (CL) NA activity assay using viruses representative of all nine NA subtypes. The CL assay displayed signal/noise ratios that are 50-100 times greater than those associated with the FL assay. Human H3N2 strains appeared to exhibit greater NA activity relative to avian subtypes with the FL substrate but not with the CL substrate. Additionally, the CL assay remained linear over three orders of magnitude compared to only one order of magnitude for the FL assay. Four of the nine NA subtypes tested in this study displayed slightly higher inhibitor concentration that inhibits 50% of neuraminidase activity values by CL than by FL, while four displayed the opposite effect. Implications for the routine determination of resistance to NA inhibitors are discussed.

            Descriptors:  infection, avian influenza, infectious disease, respiratory system disease, viral disease, chemiluminescent neuraminidase assay bioassay techniques, clinical techniques, diagnostic techniques, laboratory techniques, antiviral susceptibility, drug resistance.

Munir, Z., M. Rabbani, M.A. Muneer, S. Akhtar, and K. Saeed (2002). Immune response of broilers to inactivated (Alum precipitated and oil based) avian influenza H9N2-virus vaccines. Pakistan Journal of Scientific Research 54(3-4): 84-86.  ISSN: 0552-9050.

            NAL Call Number:  475 P173

            Abstract:  An epidemic of avian influenza was recorded in broiler flocks in Karachi area in 1999. Samples were collected for serosurveillance, isolation, stereotyping, development of inactivated (alum precipitated and oil based vaccines, to study immune response of broilers to these vaccines. Results of the project indicated that H9N2-AIV was associated with the epidemic occurred in the area of Karachi and inactivated alum precipitated and oil based vaccines developed from local isolate when inoculated to broilers (primed on day-5 with alum precipitated and boosted with oil based on day-21) provoked a GM-titer (range) 64-256 in the vaccinates.

            Descriptors:  broiler chickens, avian influenza virus, vaccines, immune response, Pakistan, Asia, birds, chickens, domestic animals, Galliformes, immunity, livestock, meat animals, poultry, South Asia, useful animals.

Murphy, B.R., M.L. Clements, E.L. Tierney, R.E. Black, J. Stienberg, and R.M. Chanock (1985). Dose response of influenza A/Washington/897/80 (H3N2) avian-human reassortant virus in adult volunteers. Journal of Infectious Diseases 152(1): 225-9.  ISSN: 0022-1899.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 J821

            Descriptors:  antibodies, viral biosynthesis, influenza A virus avian immunology, human immunology, influenza vaccine immunology, adult, dose response relationship, immunologic, influenza microbiology, influenza transmission, avian genetics, human genetics, recombination, genetic, vaccination, vaccines, attenuated.

Myers, T.J., M.D.A. Rhorer, and J. Clifford (2003). USDA options for regulatory changes to enhance the prevention and control of avian influenza. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 982-987.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  During the past decade, several examples of the ability of H5 and H7 low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses to mutate to high-pathogenicity (HP) viruses have been documented worldwide. During this time, the introduction and persistence of an H7N2 LPAI virus in the northeast live-bird marketing system in the United States has raised concern on how to prevent the possibility of such a mutation occurring in this country. The United States has periodically experienced trade restrictions based on the occasional introduction of H5 and H7 LPAI viruses into commercial poultry and based on AI-related changes in the import requirements for poultry and poultry products of several of our trading partners. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is exploring options for how our regulatory response to H5 and H7 LPAI viruses might be revised to better protect our domestic poultry flocks from HPAI and to ensure that any interruptions in trade are scientifically supportable. The options under consideration include mandatory and voluntary measures to improve the surveillance for and control of H5 and H7 LPAI virus infections.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, avian influenza, epidemiology, infectious disease, prevention and control, respiratory system disease, viral disease, influenza control, regulation, live bird markets, trade restrictions.

Neighbor, N.K., L.A. Newberry, G.R. Bayyari, J.K. Skeeles, J.N. Beasley, and R.W. McNew (1994). The effect of microaerosolized hydrogen peroxide on bacterial and viral poultry pathogens. Poultry Science (USA) 73(10): 1511-1516.  ISSN: 0032-5791.

            NAL Call Number:  47.8 Am33P

            Abstract:  The effect of microaerosolized H2O2 on bacterial and viral poultry pathogens was investigated. Bacterial cultures and viruses were dried on sterile glass Petri dishes and subjected to direct and indirect 5% (H2O2) microaerosol mist. In the trials using Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, there was complete inactivation following exposure to H2O2. Using Salmonella typhimurium, indirect exposure resulted in only partial inactivation whereas direct exposure to H2O2 gave complete inactivation. For the viruses studied, 5% H2O2 microaerosol mist completely inactivated infectious laryngotracheitis virus. Newcastle disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, and avian influenza virus showed reduced infectivity but were not completely inactivated. Avian reovirus susceptibility varied with the method of exposure and infectious bursal disease virus was highly resistant. The use of 10% H2O2 mist, however, resulted in total inactivation of infectious bursal disease virus. The effect of 10% H2O2 on equipment and selected materials representative of a hatcher or poultry house was investigated. A solar cell calculator, a thermostat containing a microswitch, and samples of uncoated steel, galvanized steel, and uncoated aluminum were subjected to 10 fumigation cycles. No damage was detected in the calculator and the thermostat. Both the uncoated steel and the galvanized steel showed signs of oxidation. The aluminum did not show signs of oxidation.

            Descriptors:  aerosols, fumigation, hydrogen peroxide, cell counting, bacteria, pathogens, avian infectious bronchitis virus, avian laryngotracheitis virus, avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, reoviridae, avian infectious bursitis, corrosion, application methods, bacteria, biological analysis, colloids, coronaviridae, deterioration, dispersions, enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia, herpetoviridae, infectious diseases, influenza virus, micrococcaceae, oxides, paramyxoviridae, peroxides, physical states, Salmonella, Staphylococcus, viroses, viruses,  inactivation, avian reovirus, infectious bursal disease virus.

Neumann, G., M. Hatta, and Y. Kawaoka (2003). Reverse genetics for the control of avian influenza. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 882-887.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Avian influenza viruses are major contributors to viral disease in poultry as well as humans. Outbreaks of high-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses cause high mortality in poultry, resulting in significant economic losses. The potential of avian influenza viruses to reassort with human strains resulted in global pandemics in 1957 and 1968, while the introduction of an entirely avian virus into humans claimed several lives in Hong Kong in 1997. Despite considerable research, the mechanisms that determine the pathogenic potential of a virus or its ability to cross the species barrier are poorly understood. Reverse genetics methods, i.e., methods that allow the generation of an influenza virus entirely from cloned cDNAs, have provided us with one means to address these issues. In addition, reverse genetics is an excellent tool for vaccine production and development. This technology should increase our preparedness for future influenza virus outbreaks.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, molecular genetics, avian influenza, genetics, infectious disease, prevention and control, respiratory system disease, viral disease, disease control, economic losses, global pandemics, reverse genetics, viral outbreaks, viral pathogenicity.

Neykova, N., D. Simov, G. Galunska, E. Velichkova, A.S. Galabov, and A. Karparov (1981). Benzoxazolone-5-sulphonanilides, 1-(benzoxazolone-5'-sulphonyl)-benzotriazoles and 4-hydroxy-3,2'-diaminobenzenesulphonanilides with antiviral activity. Arzneimittel Forschung 31(5): 747-52.  ISSN: 0004-4172.

            NAL Call Number:  RS1.A7

            Abstract:  benzoxazolone-5-(2'-nitro)-sulphonanilides were synthesized by acylation of o-nitroanilines with benzoxazolone-5-sulphochloride or 3-methylbenzoxazolone-5-sulphochloride. The nitro group in these compounds was subjected to reduction and the resulting amino derivatives were cyclysed to yield the corresponding 1-(benzoxazolone-5'-sulphonyl)-benzotriazoles. Decyclization of the oxazolone cycle of benzoxazolone-5-(2'-amino)-sulphonanilides resulted in 4-hydroxy-3,2'-diaminobenzenesulphonanilides. In vitro testing of the antiviral activity of the compounds obtained during successive synthetic steps revealed that some of them exhibited marked antiviral effect against toga, orthomixo, oncorna and herpes viruses.

            Descriptors:  antiviral agents chemical synthesis, benzoxazoles chemical synthesis, sulfanilamides chemical synthesis, antiviral agents pharmacology, benzoxazoles pharmacology, chemistry, cytopathogenic effect, viral drug effects, herpesvirus 1, suid drug effects, influenza A virus avian drug effects, mice, mice inbred BALB c, moloney murine leukemia virus drug effects, Semliki Forest virus drug effects, sulfanilamides pharmacology, triazoles chemical synthesis, triazoles pharmacology.

Nicholson, K.G., A.E. Colegate, A. Podda, I. Stephenson, J. Wood, E. Ypma, and M.C. Zambon (2001). Safety and antigenicity of non-adjuvanted and MF59-adjuvanted influenza A/Duck/Singapore/97 (H5N3) vaccine: A randomised trial of two potential vaccines against H5N1 influenza. Lancet 357(9272): 1937-1943.  ISSN: 0099-5355.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 L22

            Abstract:  Background: In 1997, pathogenic avian influenza A/Hong Kong/97 (H5N1) viruses emerged as a pandemic threat to human beings. A non-pathogenic variant, influenza A/Duck/Singapore/97 (H5N3), was identified as a leading vaccine candidate. We did an observer-blind, phase I, randomised trial in healthy volunteers to assess safety, tolerability, and antigenicity of MF59-adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted vaccines. Methods: 32 participants were randomly assigned MF59, and 33 non-adjuvanted vaccine. Two doses were given 3 weeks apart, of 7.5, 15, or 30 mug haemagglutinin surface-antigen influenza A H5N3 vaccine. Antibody responses were measured by haemagglutination inhibition, microneutralisation, and single radial haemolysis (SRH). The primary outcome was geometric mean antibody titre 21 days after vaccination. Findings: The A/Duck/Singapore vaccines were safe and well tolerated. Antibody response to non-adjuvanted vaccine was poor, the best response occurring after two 30 mug doses: one, four, four, and one person of eleven seroconverted by haemagglutination inhibition, microneutralisation, H5N3 SRH, and H5N1 SRH, respectively. The geometric mean titres of antibody, and seroconversion rates, were significantly higher after MF59 adjuvanted vaccine. Two 7.5 mug doses of MF59 adjuvanted vaccine gave the highest seroconversion rates: haemagglutination inhibition, six of ten; microneutralisation, eight of ten; H5N3 SRH, ten of ten; H5N1 SRH, nine of ten. Geometric mean titre of antibody to the pathogenic virus, A/Hong Kong/489/97 (H5N1), was about half that to A/Duck/Singapore virus. Interpretation: Non-adjuvanted A/Duck/Singapore/97 (H5N3) vaccines are poorly immunogenic and doses of 7.5-30 mug haemagglutinin alone are unlikely to give protection from A/Hong Kong/97 (H5N1) virus. Addition of MF59 to A/Duck/Singapore/97 vaccines boost the antibody response to protection levels. Our findings have implications for development and assessment of vaccines for future pandemics.

            Descriptors:  infection, pharmacology, influenza, respiratory system disease, viral disease, antigenicity safety.

Normile, D. (2005). Avian flu. Mild illnesses confound researchers. Science 307(5706): 27.  ISSN: 1095-9203.

            NAL Call Number:  470 Sci2

            Descriptors:  agricultural workers' diseases virology, antibodies, viral blood, influenza virology, influenza A virus, avian immunology, acetamides therapeutic use, agricultural workers' diseases immunology, agricultural workers' diseases prevention and control, antiviral agents therapeutic use, disease outbreaks, influenza epidemiology, influenza immunology, influenza prevention and control, Japan epidemiology, protective clothing.

Normile, D. (2004). Infectious diseases. WHO ramps up bird flu vaccine efforts. Science 303(5658): 609.  ISSN: 1095-9203.

            NAL Call Number:  470 Sci2

            Descriptors:  influenza prevention and control, influenza A virus, avian immunology, influenza vaccines, World Health Organization, cloning, molecular, hemagglutinins, viral genetics, viral immunology, influenza transmission, influenza virology, avian genetics, neuraminidase genetics, neuraminidase immunology, patents, vaccines, synthetic.

Normile, D. (2004). Influenza: girding for disaster. Vaccinating birds may help to curtail virus's spread. Science 306(5695): 398-9.  ISSN: 1095-9203.

            NAL Call Number:  470 Sci2

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks veterinary, influenza A virus, avian immunology, influenza vaccines immunology, avian influenza prevention and control, poultry, vaccination veterinary, Asia epidemiology, chickens, disease outbreaks prevention and control, immunization programs, influenza prevention and control, influenza transmission, influenza virology, avian influenza, epidemiology, avian influenza, transmission, risk assessment.

Obrosova Serova, N.P., L.M. Kupryasjina, V.A. Isachenko, R.M. Vorontsova, and V.G. Utkin (1976). Opyt profilaktiki grippa kura amantadinom. [Amantadine prophylaxis in avian influenza]. Veterinariia (11): 62-63.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V6426

            Descriptors:  chemoprophylaxis, antiviral agents, amantadine, avian influenza, mortality rate, drinking water, chicks, poultry.

Orr, P. and National Advisory Committee on Immunization (2004). An Advisory Committee Statement (ACS). National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI). Statement on influenza vaccination for the 2004-2005 season. Canada Communicable Disease Report; Releve Des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada 30: 1-32.  ISSN: 1188-4169.

            Descriptors:  influenza prevention and control, influenza vaccines therapeutic use, vaccines, inactivated therapeutic use, adolescent, adult, advisory committees, child, preschool child, enzyme inhibitors therapeutic use, immunization programs, infant, influenza epidemiology, influenza veterinary, influenza virology, influenza A virus, avian pathogenicity, influenza vaccines administration and dosage, influenza vaccines adverse effects, influenza vaccines immunology, middle aged, neuraminidase antagonists and inhibitors, Ontario epidemiology, population surveillance, United States epidemiology, vaccines, inactivated administration and dosage, vaccines, inactivated adverse effects, vaccines, inactivated immunology.

Osidze, N.G. (1980). Results of using inactivated avian influenza vaccine in chicks possessing passively acquired antibody. Sbornik Nauchnykh Trudov Moskovskaya Veterinarnaya Akademiya  113: 54-56.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, maternal immunity, immune response, inactivated vaccines, results, acquired antibody, chicks.

Osidze, N.G., V.I. Smolenskii, A.I. Kalashnikov, and V.N. Syrin (1977). Safety, antigenicity and immunogenicity of an experimental inactivated vaccine against avian influenza serotype GP6G3-N2. Sbornik Nauchnykh Trudov, Moskovskaya Veterinarnaya Akademiya 93: 62-63.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, experimental inactivated vaccine, safety, antigenicity, immunogenicity.

Pagnini, P., A. Bonaduce, F. Martone, and M. Compagnucci (1969). Profilassi della pseudo-peste aviaria. Ricerche con vaccino inattivato in adiuvante oleoso. [Prevention of avian pseudo-plague. Research with inactivated vaccine in oily adjuvant]. Acta Medica Veterinaria 15(5): 267-311.  ISSN: 0001-6136.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 AC84

            Descriptors:  fowl plague prevention and control, viral vaccines, influenza A virus avian, vaccination.

Palacios, M.R., V.H. Rodriguez, V.H. Ceron, and J. Garcia Garcia (1996 ). Evaluacion de 7 vacunas comerciales de influenza aviar. [Evaluation of 7 commercial avian influenza vaccines]. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 45: 38-40.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, vaccines, influenza virus, orthomyxoviridae, viruses.

Palacios Miguel, R., G. Lugo M, J. Quezada F, M.L. Calderon Hernandez, M.A. Rico Gaytan, J.A. Escamilla J, J.A. Lopez Perez, T. Mickle R, E. Montiel N, R. Fernandez T, H. Tinoco G, and J. Garcia Garcia. (1996). Estudios de evaluacion de una vacuna recombinante para prevenir la influenza aviar. IV. Prueba de campo 1a. [Studies on fowl pox-avian influenza recombinant vaccine. IV. 1st. field trial]. In: Reunion Nacional de Investigacion Pecuaria, Cuernavaca, Morelos, (Mexico), p. 13.

            Abstract: En el laboratorio y bajo condiciones de confinamiento, los ensayos con la vacuna recombinante de Viruela-Influenza Aviar, demostraron que el producto no representa riesgos relativos para los pollos ni para otras especies animales. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar si la vacuna tendria un efecto sobre los parametros productivos del pollo y la mortalidad asociada a la aplicacion del producto, en pollos comerciales de engorda. Para tal fin se utilizo un granja comercial localizada en el estado de Guanajuato, en donde fueron instalados pollos machos, con anticuerpos maternos, vacunadas en la incubadora, al dia de edad, en 2 casetas, teniendo un total de 48,000 pollos en el tratamiento. Al resto de las casetas de la granja se les aplico vacuna inactivada, emulsionada, bivalente de Newcastle (eNC)-Influenza Aviar.(IA) a los 10 dias de edad. Los pollos recibieron el resto de las vacunas, de acuerdo al calendario de vacunacion establecido por la empresa de pollos. Los pollos vacunados fueron observados diariamente por espacio de siete semanas, Se realizo la necropsia a la mortalidad diaria, Los pollos de la prueba fueron seguidos serologicamente de tal manera que 50 pollos vacunados y 25 centinelas de las 2 casetas de pollos vacunados con el producto recombinante, fueron sangrados semanalmente. Se hicieron 2 desafios, a las 3 y 6 semanas de edad, con el virus de alta patogenicidad de IA. Los resultados indican que la vacunacion no tuvo efectos negativos en los indices de produccion de los pollos utilizados, ni tampoco causo alguna mortalidad asociada a la vacunacion. Los pollos vacunados con el producto recombinante fueron serologicamente negativos a partir de las 4 semanas de edad hasta el momento de salir al mercado. Se obtuvo el 95% de proteccion en los pollos vacunados, cuando estos fueron desafiados experimentalmente en unidades de aislamiento, y que la mortalidad observada post-desafio estuvo asociada a la presencia de otros microorganismos involucrados asi como a la incidencia de ascitis en la parvada. El estudio senala que la vacuna no tuvo ningun efecto adverso en el campo, que induce una adecuada proteccion al desafio con cepas de alta patogenicidad del virus de IA a pesar de que, las aves vacunadas mostraron serologias negativas al final del ciclo de produccion.

            Descriptors: broiler chickens, avian influenza virus, synthetic vaccines, immune response, birds, chickens, domestic animals, Galliformes, immunity, influenza virus, livestock, meat animals, orthomyxoviridae, poultry, useful animals, vaccines, viruses.

Palacios Miguel, R., H. Rodriguez Velazco, M. Ceron H, and J. Garcia Garcia. (1996). Estudios sobre la induccion de anticuerpos y proteccion al desafio en pollos inmunizados con siete vacunas comerciales para prevenir la influenza aviar. [Studies on antibody induction and protection to challenge in chickens vaccinated with seven commercial vaccines against avian influenza]. In: Reunion Nacional de Investigacion Pecuaria, Cuernavaca, Morelos, (Mexico),   p. 128.

            Abstract: En enero de 1995, la DGSA autorizo la elaboracion de vacunas inactivadas, emulsionadas en aceite para controlar la Influenza Aviar (I.A) de alta patogenicidad. Los estudios iniciales demostraron la eficiencia de la vacuna para prevenir los signos y lesiones, asi como la mortalidad ante el desafio con las cepas de alta patogenicidad, aisladas en Puebla y Queretaro. Meses despues de haber sido autorizados 6 laboratorios a elaborar las vacunas, se realizo el siguiente trabajo de evaluacion. Se seleccionaron en forma aleatoria 3 vacunas inactivadas con formol, 2 vacunas inactivadas con beta-propiolactona y 2 vacunas bivalentes para prevenir ademas, la enfermedad de Newcastle, inactivadas con formol. Se vacunaron grupos de 20 pollos SPF con cada uno de los productos, se determino la presencia de anticuerpos inhibidores de la hemoaglutinacion a los 0, 7,10,14 y 21 dias pos-vacunacion (PV). A los 21 dias PV grupos de 18 pollos vacunados con cada producto fueron desafiados con un virus de alta patogenicidad, aislado en Queretaro. Los resultados serologicos indicaron que cuando menos una vacuna de cada grupo indujo el 100% de sero conversion al dia 21 PV con medias geometricas (MG) que variaron de 28 a 264 (reciproca de la MG). No se detecto ninguna asociacion entre el inactivante utilizado o en la combinacion con otro antigeno, con la capacidad del producto para inducir la formacion de anticuerpos. Independientemente de la presencia y del nivel de anticuerpos detectados en el suero, el 100% de los pollos vacunados estuvieron protegidos cuando de desafiaron con el virus de alta patogenicidad, lo cual demuestra que los laboratorios productores de vacuna elaboraron un producto de buena calidad que permite ayudar en el control de la enfermedad, que a los 21 dias PV encontramos del 84 al 100% de sero-conversion y el 100% de proteccion al desafio; por lo que la inmunidad humoral parece no ser la mas importante en la proteccion. La utilizacion de pollos en contacto con las aves vacunadas y desafiadas permitio identificar que las aves vacunadas despues del desafio replican y eliminan virus de progenie,en cantidad suficiente para causar la enfermedad y muerte de pollos susceptibles.

            Descriptors: broiler chickens, avian influenza virus, vaccines, immune response, birds, chickens, domestic animals, Galliformes, immunity, influenza virus, livestock, meat animals, orthomyxoviridae, poultry, useful animals, viruses.

Paoletti, E. (1990). Poxvirus-derived recombinant veterinary vaccines. In: Risk assessment in agricultural biotechnology. Proceedings of the international conference, Oakland, California, USA, p. 38-49.

            Descriptors: recombinant veterinary vaccines, fowl pox virus, influenza virus, rabies virus, risk assessment, agricultural biotechnology, poultry.

Pearson, J.E. (2003). International standards for the control of avian influenza. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 972-975.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  The Office International des Epizooties (OIE) has developed international standards to reduce the risk of the spread of high-pathogenicity avian influenza though international trade. These standards include providing a definition of high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI), procedures for prompt reporting of HPAI outbreaks, requirements that must be met for a country or zone to be defined as free of HPAI, requirements that should be met to import live birds and avian products into a HPAI-free country or zone, and the general provisions that countries should meet to reduce the risk of spread of HPAI through trade. The goal of these standards is to facilitate trade while minimizing the risk of the introduction of HPAI.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, avian influenza, epidemiology, infectious disease, prevention and control, respiratory system disease, viral disease, disease spread international, influenza control standards.

Penaredondo, C.C., V. Sivanandan, A.S. Abraham, and J.A. Newman (1985). Immune response of turkeys to adjuvanted killed avian influenza virus vaccine. Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases 66(321): 59.

            NAL Call Number:  SF605.C59

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, vaccine, turkeys, immune response.

Pour, M.M., M.A. Akhavizadegan, A.M.T. Shoshtary, N. Ghodsian, S. Charkhkar, and M.A. Alikhani (2004). The assay of parent flock antibody vaccinated by two different oil-emulsion influenza vaccines. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research 5(1, Ser. 9): 163-167.  ISSN: 1728-1997.

            Descriptors:  antibodies, immune response, immunization, avian influenza virus, fowl, poultry.

Price, R.J. (1981). Commercial avian influenza vaccines. In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, p. 178-179.

            NAL Call Number: aSF995.6.I6I5 1981a

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, control, prevention, commercial vaccines, poultry, symposium.

Puebla, N., E. Lucio, and A. Morales (1996). Evaluacion de dos vacunas emulsionadas experimentales, inactivadas con formalina y bromoetilenimina binaria (BEB), para la prevencion de la influenza aviar (IA). [Evaluation of one formalin-killed, and one binary bromoethylenimine-killed experimental, oil emulsion vaccine for the prevention of avian influenza]. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 45: 148-151.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, vaccines, evaluation, influenza virus, orthomyxoviridae, viruses.

Qiao, C.L., K.Z. Yu, Y.P. Jiang, Y.Q. Jia, G.B. Tian, M. Liu, G.H. Deng, X.R. Wang, Q.W. Meng, and X.Y. Tang (2003). Protection of chickens against highly lethal H5N1 and H7N1 avian influenza viruses with a recombinant fowlpox virus co-expressing H5 haemagglutinin and N1 neuraminidase genes. Avian Pathology 32(1): 25-31.  ISSN: 0307-9457.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.A1A9

            Abstract:  Inactivated whole avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccine provides protection against homologous haemagglutinin (HA) subtype virus, but poor protection against a heterologous HA virus. Moreover, it induces chickens to produce antibodies to cross-reactive antigens, especially nucleoprotein, which is limits AIV serological surveillance. In this study, a recombinant fowlpox virus co-expressing HA (H5 subtype) and NA (N1 subtype) genes of AIV was evaluated for its ability to protect chickens against intramuscular challenge with a lethal dose of highly pathogenic (HP) AIV. Susceptible chickens were also vaccinated by wing-web puncture with the parent fowlpox vaccine virus. Following challenge 4 weeks later with HPAIV, all chickens vaccinated with recombinant virus were protected, while the chickens vaccinated with either the unaltered parent fowlpox vaccine virus or unvaccinated controls experienced 100% mortality following challenge. This protection was accompanied by the high levels of specific antibody to the respective components of the recombinant vaccine. The above results showed that rFPV-HA-NA could be a potential vaccine to replace current inactivated vaccines for preventing AI.

            Descriptors:  animal husbandry, infection, pharmacology, intramuscular immune challenge clinical techniques, wing web puncture vaccination clinical techniques.

Qiao ChuanLing, Jiang YongPing, Yu KangZhen, Tian GuoBin, and Chen HuaLan (2004). Immune efficacy of a recombinant fowlpox virus co-expressing HA and NA genes of avian influenza virus in SPF chickens. Agricultural Sciences in China 3(9): 716-720.  ISSN: 1671-2927.

            NAL Call Number:  S417.C6Z462

            Descriptors:  antibodies, experimental infections, gene expression, immunity, potency, recombinant vaccines, vaccine development, viral hemagglutinins, avian influenza virus, fowl pox virus, chickens, poultry, fowl, mortality.

Qiao ChuanLing, Yu KangZhen, Jiang YongPing, Zhang JianLin, Deng GuoHua, Meng QingWen /Tian GuoBin, and Tang XiuYing (2003). Protection and construction of recombinant fowlpox virus expressing nucleoprotein gene of avian influenza virus. Scientia Agricultura Sinica 36(6): 704-708.  ISSN: 0578-1752.

            NAL Call Number:  S471.C6N89

            Descriptors:  antibodies, nucleoproteins, avian influenza virus, fowl pox virus, poultry.

Quirk, M. (2004). USA to manufacture two million doses of pandemic flu vaccine. Lancet Infectious Diseases 4(11): 654.  ISSN: 1473-3099.

            Descriptors:  influenza prevention and control, influenza A virus, avian immunology, influenza vaccines supply and distribution, drug industry, United States, vaccination.

Rassool, G.H. (2004). Unprecedented spread of avian influenza requires broad collaboration. Journal of Advanced Nursing 46(5): 567.  ISSN: 0309-2402.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks prevention and control, influenza A virus, avian influenza, avian influenza prevention and control, avian influenza transmission, international cooperation, zoonoses transmission.

Ratner, L.S., D. Omirzhanov, G.N. Pershin, and N.S. Bogdanova (1971). Izuchenie antivirusnogo deistviia khlozameshchennykh benzokhinona i gidrokhinona. [Study of antiviral effect of chlorine-substituted benzoquinine and hydroquinine]. Farmakologiia i Toksikologiia 34(1): 80-3.  ISSN: 0014-8318.

            Descriptors:  antiviral agents therapeutic use, chlorides administration and dosage, DNA viruses drug effects, hydroquinones administration and dosage, quinones administration and dosage, RNA viruses drug effects, virus diseases prevention and control, aphthovirus drug effects, chick embryo, cytopathogenic effect, viral drug effects, depression, chemical, herpesviridae drug effects, hydroquinones therapeutic use, influenza A virus avian drug effects, mice, quinones therapeutic use, tissue culture, viruses pathogenicity.

Ready, T. (2004). Race for pandemic flu vaccine rife with hurdles. Nature Medicine 10(3): 214.  ISSN: 1078-8956.

            Descriptors:  influenza prevention and control, influenza A virus, avian immunology, influenza vaccines, chickens, clinical trials, influenza virology.

Renegar, K.B. (1992). Influenza virus infections and immunity: a review of human and animal models. Laboratory Animal Science 42(3): 222-32.  ISSN: 0023-6764.

            NAL Call Number:  410.9 P94

            Abstract:  Studies of the pathogenesis of influenza infection have involved the extensive use of animal models. The development of the current concepts of immunity to influenza and of the contribution the secretory immune system makes toward the protection of mucosal surfaces against influenza infection would have been impossible without this use of animals. The pathology and clinical signs of influenza infection in both natural and experimental hosts, the advantages and disadvantages of the most common experimental influenza infection models, and the contribution of animal models to the understanding of local and systemic immunity to influenza infection are discussed.

            Descriptors:  influenza immunology, influenza veterinary, antibody formation, disease models, animal, ferrets, fowl plague immunology, hamsters, haplorhini, horse diseases immunology, horses, influenza A virus avian, influenza A virus human, influenza A virus, porcine, influenza A virus, influenza vaccine administration and dosage, mice.

Riberdy, J.M., K.J. Flynn, J. Stech, R.G. Webster, J.D. Altman, and P.C. Doherty (1999). Protection against a lethal avian influenza A virus in a mammalian system. Journal of Virology 73(2): 1453-9.  ISSN: 0022-538X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR360.J6

            Abstract:  The question of how best to protect the human population against a potential influenza pandemic has been raised by the recent outbreak caused by an avian H5N1 virus in Hong Kong. The likely strategy would be to vaccinate with a less virulent, laboratory-adapted H5N1 strain isolated previously from birds. Little attention has been given, however, to dissecting the consequences of sequential exposure to serologically related influenza A viruses using contemporary immunology techniques. Such experiments with the H5N1 viruses are limited by the potential risk to humans. An extremely virulent H3N8 avian influenza A virus has been used to infect both immunoglobulin-expressing (Ig+/+) and Ig-/- mice primed previously with a laboratory-adapted H3N2 virus. The cross-reactive antibody response was very protective, while the recall of CD8(+) T-cell memory in the Ig-/- mice provided some small measure of resistance to a low-dose H3N8 challenge. The H3N8 virus also replicated in the respiratory tracts of the H3N2-primed Ig+/+ mice, generating secondary CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-cell responses that may contribute to recovery. The results indicate that the various components of immune memory operate together to provide optimal protection, and they support the idea that related viruses of nonhuman origin can be used as vaccines.

            Descriptors:  influenza prevention and control, influenza A virus avian immunology, influenza vaccine immunology, base sequence, birds, CD4 positive T lymphocytes immunology, CD8 positive T lymphocytes immunology, DNA, viral, disease models, animal, immunoglobulins immunology, influenza immunology, mice, mice inbred BALB c, mice, inbred c57bl, molecular sequence data.

Rico Gaytan, M.A., J.A. Lopez Perez, R. Palacios Miguel, H. Rodriguez Velazco, and J. Garcia Garcia. (1996). Estudio para evaluar la presencia de anticuerpos maternos y su interferencia con la vacunacion de influenza aviar en productos que contienen el virus o se combinan con otros virus. [Studies for evaluating the interference of maternal antibodies to avian influenza on vaccination of single or combined inactivated vaccines]. In: Reunion Nacional de Investigacion Pecuaria, Cuernavaca, Morelos, (Mexico), p. 131.

            Abstract: La produccion de pollo en areas en donde se ha observado la sero-conversion de aves centinelas para Influenza Aviar (I:A:) ha propiciado que los productores introduzcan pollos con anticuerpos maternos para esta enfermedad. La practica de vacunacion en el campo es comun hacerla al dia de edad en la incubadora, o bien entre los 8 y 12 dias en la granja. La existencia de otras enfermedades como la enfermedad de Newcastle (eNC) y la hepatitis con cuerpos de inclusion (HCI) que se previenen con vacunas oleosas inactivadas, causan que estas se incluyan en el mismo producto. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo el evaluar en terminos de sero-conversion y proteccion al desafio de I.A. pollos sin anticuerpos y con anticuerpos para IA, vacunados al dia y a los 10 dias de edad, con productos que contienen el virus solo o combinados con eNC y eNC HCI. Los resultados indican que en aves sin anticuerpos, vacunadas al dia de edad, se logran porcentajes de proteccion al desafio de I.A. del 67 al 100% a los 14 dias post-vacunacion (PV). Que concentrar el virus de I.A. En un producto no reditua en una mejor proteccion. La aplicacion de vacunas a los 10 dias de edad en aves con anticuerpos maternos brindaron una mejor proteccion al desafio 7 dias PV que en pollos libres de anticuerpos. En todos los casos las aves sin anticuerpos vacunadas con cualquier producto, al dia de edad, mostraron una importante baja proteccion al desafio realizado 7 dias PV; lo anterior contrasta con la proteccion observada en pollos con anticuerpos maternos vacunados a los 10 dias de edad, los cuales mostraron el 73% de proteccion con vacuna sola y el 100% de proteccion con vacuna combinada con eNC. En este estudio, al igual que otros realizados, es importante senalar que los resultados serologicos no estuvieron relacionados con el indice de proteccion observado, ni tampoco con la eliminacion del virus de desafio, el cual en todos los casos causo morbilidad y mortalidad en pollos susceptibles introducidos a la jaula 3 dias despues del desafio.

            Descriptors: broiler chickens, avian influenza virus, vaccination, maternal immunity, birds, chickens, domestic animals, Galliformes, immunity, immunization, immunostimulation, immunotherapy, influenza virus, livestock, meat animals, orthomyxoviridae, passive immunity, poultry, therapy, useful animals, viruses.

Rimmelzwaan, G.F., E.C.J. Claas, G. van Amerongen, J.C. de Jong, and A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (1999). ISCOM vaccine induced protection against a lethal challenge with a human H5N1 influenza virus. Vaccine 17(11-12): 1355-1358.  ISSN: 0264-410X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR189.V32

            Abstract:  Recently avian influenza A viruses of the H5N1 subtype were shown to infect humans in the Hong Kong area, resulting in the death of six people. Although these viruses did not efficiently spread amongst humans, these events illustrated that influenza viruses of subtypes not previously detected in humans could be at the basis of a new pandemic. In the light of this pandemic threat we evaluated and compared the efficacy of a classical non-adjuvanted subunit vaccine and a vaccine based on immune stimulating complexes (ISCOM) prepared with the membrane glycoproteins of the human influenza virus A/Hong Kong/156/97 (H5N1) to protect roosters against a lethal challenge with this virus. The ISCOM vaccine induced protective immunity against the challenge infection whereas the non-adjuvanted subunit vaccine proved to be poorly immunogenic and failed to induce protection in this model.

            Descriptors:  immune system, infection, pharmacology, lethal viral challenge pandemic protective immunity, induction.

Robinson, H.L., L.A. Hunt, and R.G. Webster (1993). Protection against a lethal influenza virus challenge by immunization with a haemagglutinin-expressing plasmid DNA. Vaccine 11(9): 957-60.  ISSN: 0264-410X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR189.V32

            Abstract:  Direct DNA inoculations have been used to demonstrate that in vivo transfections can be used to elicit protective immune responses. The direct inoculation of an H7 haemagglutinin-expressing DNA protected chickens against lethal challenge with an H7N7 influenza virus. Three-week-old chickens were vaccinated by inoculating 100 micrograms of plasma DNA by each of three routes (intravenous, intraperitoneal and subcutaneous). One month later, chickens were boosted with 100 micrograms of DNA by each of the three routes. At 1-2 weeks postboost, chickens were challenged via the nares with 100 lethal doses of an H7N7 virus. Low to undetectable levels of H7-specific antibodies were present postvaccination and boost. High titres of H7-specific antibodies appeared within 1 week of challenge. In a series of four experiments, 50% (28/56) of the DNA-vaccinated and < 2% (1/67) of the control chickens survived the challenge. This exceptionally simple method of immunization holds high promise for the development of subunit vaccines.

            Descriptors:  DNA, viral genetics, defective viruses immunology, genetic vectors, hemagglutinins viral immunology, influenza prevention and control, influenza A virus avian immunology, influenza vaccine immunology, leukosis virus, avian genetics, plasmids, recombinant fusion proteins immunology, amantadine pharmacology, chickens immunology, defective viruses drug effects, defective viruses genetics, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus, hemagglutinins viral biosynthesis, hemagglutinins viral genetics, immunity, active, immunization, influenza A virus avian drug effects, influenza A virus avian genetics, recombinant fusion proteins biosynthesis, recombinant fusion proteins genetics, specific pathogen free organisms, transfection.

Rodriguez, V.H., R.J. Beltran, E.G. Socci, M.A. Hernandez, V.F. Diosdado, and J. Garcia Garcia (1996). Estudio comparativo sobre la eficiencia de la vacunacion contra influenza aviar en pollo de engorda al dia y a los ocho dias de edad. [Comparative study on the efficiency of avian influenza vaccination in broilers at 1 and 8 days of age]. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 45: 367-368.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, vaccination, disease control, immunization, immunostimulation, immunotherapy, influenza virus, orthomyxoviridae, therapy, viruses.

Rodriguez, V.H., H.M. Ceron, M.R. Palacios, M.A. Hernandez, D.C. Gomez, and J. Garcia Garcia (1996). Proteccion conferida por vacunas de influenza aviar inactivadas con formalina, b-propiolactona y etilenimina binaria. [Protection conferred by formalin-, B propiolactone-, or binary ethylenimine-inactivated avian influenza vaccines]. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 45: 307-309.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  broiler chickens, avian influenza virus, birds, chickens, domestic animals, domesticated birds, Galliformes, influenza virus, livestock, meat animals, orthomyxoviridae, poultry, useful animals, viruses.

Rodriguez Velazco, H., M. Ceron H, R. Palacios Miguel, D. Garcia L, T. Mickle R, E. Montiel N, H. Tinoco G, and J. Garcia Garcia. (1996). Estudios de evaluacion de una vacuna recombinante para prevenir la influenza aviar. I. Induccion de anticuerpos y proteccion al desafio. [Studies on fowl pox-avian influenza recombinant vaccine. I. Antibody induction and protection challenge]. In: Reunion Nacional de Investigacion Pecuaria, Cuernavaca, Morelos, (Mexico), p. 132.

            Abstract: Los laboratorios farmaceuticos, que han desarrollado productos derivados de la biotecnologia moderna, en la que se han manipulado genes de microorganismos, han empezado a solicitar el uso de esos productos tanto a nivel internacional como nacional. En Mexico una vez que se presentaron los brotes de Influenza Aviar (I.A.) de alta patogenicidad, se considero conveniente evaluar una vacuna recombinante, que fue construida mediante la insercion del DNA complementario, al gene que codifica para la hemoaglutinina 5 del virus de I.A., en el genoma del virus de viruela de las aves. Las ventajas que ofrece este producto es el que no utiliza el virus completo de I.A., y que por la serologia podrian diferenciarse pollos vacunados de infectados en el campo. El presente estudio se realizo en confinamiento, en unidades de aislamiento, teniendo como objetivo, evaluar la respuesta serologica y la proteccion al desafio de pollos vacunados al dia de edad con este producto, por 2 vias de administracion, subcutanea y en el pliegue del ala. La proteccion observada fue del 40-45% a los 7 dias pos-vacunacion (PV) alcanzando el 95% a los 14 dias PV y llegando al 100% a los 21 dias PV por ambas rutas de administracion. Los resultados serologicos indican que mediante la prueba de inhibicion de la hemoaglutinacion, un limitado numero de pollos dieron una reaccion positiva, dando como resultado una inapreciable media geometrica. En todos los casos las aves vacunadas dieron una reaccion negativa en la prueba de precipitacion en agar. Los pollos vacunados y desafiados mostraron una sero-conversion en el 100% de ellos, 7 dias despues del desafio. Las conclusiones de este trabajo indican que la vacuna recombinante administrada por cualquiera de estas vias en el pollo de un dia de edad induce una adecuada proteccion al desafio, y que se pueden diferenciar pollos vacunados de pollos infectados experimentalmente.

            Descriptors: broiler chickens, avian influenza virus, synthetic vaccines, immune response, birds, chickens, domestic animals, Galliformes, immunity, influenza virus, livestock, meat animals, orthomyxoviridae, poultry, useful animals, vaccines, viruses.

Rodriguez Velazco, H., R. Palacios Miguel, M. Ceron H, and J. Garcia Garcia. (1996). Estudio sobre el efecto de la dosis aplicada de vacuna inactivada de influenza aviar en la respuesta de anticuerpos y proteccion al desafio en pollos SPF. [Studies on the effect of the doses of inactivated avian influenza vaccine on the antibody response and protection to challenge in SPF chickens]. In: Reunion Nacional de Investigacion Pecuaria, Cuernavaca, Morelos, (Mexico), p. 129.

            Abstract: Las vacunas inactivadas, oleosas de Influenza Aviar (IA), elaboradas por seis laboratorios, demostraron que previnieron la morbilidad y mortalidad, de aves vacunadas, causadas por el desafio, con una cepa de alta patogenicidad del virus de IA. Con el fin de complementar estos estudios se decidio realizar 2 experimentos adicionales, para determinar la adecuada inactivacion del virus en el producto elaborado, demostrar que fueran seguras a la sobre-dosificacion y que si al aplicar dosis menores a la recomendada protegieran a los pollos ante el desafio con cepas de alta patogenicidad del virus de IA. A siete grupos, de 5 pollos cada uno, de 2 semanas de edad, se les aplicaron 4 dosis de vacuna, por via subcutanea, administrandola en 2 sitios diferentes. Las aves vacunadas de esta manera se observaron diariamente por un periodo de 21 dias. El dia de la vacunacion se introdujeron en cada grupo 5 pollos susceptibles. Tanto a los pollos vacunados como a los pollos en contacto fueron sangrados para determinar los niveles de anticuerpos en el suero por pruebas de inhibicion de la hemoaglutinacion y se desafiaron a los 21 dias post-vacunacion. Por otro lado a grupos de 9 pollos por vacuna, se les aplico a 3 de ellos la dosis normal, a 3 pollos 0.05 ml de la vacuna y 0.005 del producto a los 3 pollos restantes. Al igual que en el otro estudio se determinaron los titulos de anticuerpos y la proteccion al desafio. Los resultados indicaron que los pollos puestos en contacto con las aves que fueron vacunadas con 4 dosis de cada producto no sero-convirtieron al virus de I:A, y fueron susceptibles al desafio con la cepa de alta patogenicidad. Variaciones en cuanto a la sero-conversion, fueron observadas dependiendo de la dosis utilizada para cada producto, asi como una morbilidad y mortalidad variable a dosis de una decima o una centesima de la vacuna aplicada. Las vacunas probadas demostraron estar adecuadamente inactivadas y que no son capaces de causar trastornos en los pollos vacunados, inclusive hasta con 4 dosis. En este estudio se confirma que estas vacunas, utilizadas a la dosis indicada, confieren el 100% de proteccion al desafio; pero que dosis menores a la recomendada causaron morbilidad e inclusive mortalidad cuando a los pollos se les expuso a un virus altamente patogeno.

            Descriptors: broiler chickens, avian influenza virus, vaccines, application rates, immune response, birds, chickens, domestic animals, Galliformes, immunity, influenza virus, livestock, meat animals, orthomyxoviridae, poultry, useful animals, viruses.

Roth, J.A. and A.R. Spickler (2003). A survey of vaccines produced for OIE List A diseases in OIE member countries. Developmental Biology 114: 5-58.  ISSN: 1424-6074.

            Descriptors:  pharmacology, pathology, prevention, control, African horse sickness, Newcastle disease, bluetongue, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, foot and mouth disease, goat pox, highly pathogenic avian influenza, lumpy skin disease, peste des petits ruminants, Rift Valley fever, rinderpest, sheep pox, swine fever, vesicular stomatitis, Office International des Epizooties, OIE, List A diseases, member countries, symposium.

Rott, R., H. Becht, and M. Orlich (1974). The significance of influenza virus neuraminidase in immunity. Journal of General Virology 22(1): 35-41.  ISSN: 0022-1317.

            NAL Call Number:  QR360.A1J6

            Descriptors:  antibody formation, antigens, viral, fowl plague immunology, influenza A virus avian immunology, neuraminidase analysis, orthomyxoviridae immunology, chickens immunology, hemagglutination inhibition tests, hemagglutinins viral analysis, immune sera, immunization, influenza veterinary, avian enzymology, neutralization tests, orthomyxoviridae enzymology, rabbits immunology, swine, swine diseases microbiology.

Rousset, J., M. Cherbonnel, M.O. Le Bras, and V. Jestin (2003). Experimental challenge model with low pathogenic H7N1 avian influenza virus to assess protection against infection by these viruses. British Poultry Science 44(5): 830-1.  ISSN: 0007-1668.

            NAL Call Number:  47.8 B77

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, low pathogenic H7N1, experimental challenge, model, protection.

Saito, T., W. Lim, and M. Tashiro (2004). Attenuation of a human H9N2 influenza virus in mammalian host by reassortment with an avian influenza virus. Archives of Virology 149(7): 1397-407.  ISSN: 0304-8608.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ar23

            Abstract:  In order to develop a surrogate virus strain for production of an inactivated influenza vaccine against a human H9N2 virus, A/Hong Kong/1073/99 (HK1073: H9N2) was co-infected in embryonated chicken eggs with an apathogenic avian influenza virus, A/Duck/Czechoslovakia/56 (Dk/Cz: H4N6), for gene segment reassortment. Multiple-gene reassortants obtained were examined for replication in mammalian hosts in vitro and in vivo by infecting MDCK cells and by intranasal administration to hamsters, respectively. A 2-6 gene reassortant with both surface glycoproteins of HK1073 origin and the rest of Dk/Cz origin, HK/CZ-13, was shown to replicate poorly in the mammalian hosts both in vivo and in vitro comparing with HK1073, although this reassortant replicated as efficiently as each parental strain in embryonated eggs. No sequence difference was observed in the HA1 region between HK1073 and HK/CZ-13, indicating that the reassortant would be equivalent in its immunogenicity to the parental HK1073 strain when it is used as an inactivated vaccine. A virus strain with attenuation in mammalian hosts is preferable for production of an H9 vaccine, since it should reduce the risk of manufacturing-related infections of employees during the vaccine production. HK/CZ-13 can therefore be a surrogate strain for production of an inactivated vaccine as well as diagnostic antigens in case of a possible future pandemic caused by an HK1073-like H9 influenza virus.

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus, avian genetics, human genetics, influenza vaccines, reassortant viruses genetics, reassortant viruses physiology, administration, intranasal, cell line, chick embryo, DNA complementary chemistry, DNA complementary isolation and purification, hamsters, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus immunology, avian pathogenicity, avian physiology, human pathogenicity, human physiology, mesocricetus, neuraminidase immunology, RNA, viral isolation and purification, viral metabolism, reassortant viruses immunology, reassortant viruses pathogenicity, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, sequence analysis, specific pathogen free organisms, vaccines, attenuated, virus replication.

Sakoda, Y., T. Ito, K. Okazaki, A. Takada, Y. Ito, K. Tamai, M. Okamatsu, K.F. Shortridge, R.G. Webster, and H. Kida (2004). Preparation of a panel of avian influenza viruses of different subtypes for vaccine strains against future pandemics. International Congress Series 1263: 674-677.

            Abstract:  For the prediction of future influenza pandemics, global surveillance of avian influenza has been continuing since 1991 and carried out in Russia, Mongolia, China and Japan from 2000 to 2003. Influenza virus isolates of 50 combinations of HA and NA subtypes have been identified and 3 strains selected from each of those are stocked. In addition, 47 other combinations have been generated by standard genetic reassortment procedure in the laboratory. Since we have already shown that influenza viruses have been fully adapted to ducks and cause no disease signs and are in evolutionary stasis in their natural reservoirs, virus isolates from ducks are ideal as vaccine strains. Thus, influenza viruses of 97 combinations of HA and NA subtypes are now available as vaccine strain candidates against emerging pandemic influenza in humans, domestic animals and poultry.

            Descriptors:  global surveillance, vaccine, avian influenza virus, pandemic, prediction.

Samadieh, B. and R.A. Bankowski. (1981). Binary ethylenimine inactivated vaccine against avian influenza-A virus infection in turkeys. In: VIIth International Congress of the World Veterinary Poultry Association, Oslo, Norway, p. 56.

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, immunity, inactivated vaccines, turkeys.

Schettler, C.H. (1972). Immunologische Studien mit Tween-Ather Spaltprodukten von drei serologisch verschiedenen aviaren Influeza A Viren. [Immunological studies with Tween-ether fission products of three serologically different avian influenza A viruses]. Tierarztliche Umschau 27(10): 494-496.  ISSN: 0049-3864.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 T445

            Descriptors:  avian influenza, strains, vaccines, immunology, ducks.

Schmitt, B. (2003). International standards for vaccines for List A diseases. Developmental Biology 114: 27-29.  ISSN: 1424-6074.

            Descriptors:  pharmacology, prevention, control, foot and mouth disease, Newcastle disease, avian influenza, Office International des Epizooties, OIE, World Trade Organization, WTO, international standards, international animal health code, List A diseases.

Schroeder, C., H. Heider, B. Hegenscheid, M. Schoffel, V.I. Bubovich, and H.A. Rosenthal (1985). The anticholinergic anti-Parkinson drug Norakin selectively inhibits influenza virus replication. Antiviral Research (Suppl. 1): 95-9.  ISSN: 0166-3542.

            NAL Call Number:  QR355.A5

            Descriptors:  antiviral agents, biperiden pharmacology, influenza A virus avian drug effects, human drug effects, piperidines pharmacology, amantadine pharmacology, cell line, chick embryo, drug interactions, drug resistance, microbial, genes viral drug effects, hemagglutination, viral drug effects, hemolysis drug effects, avian physiology, human growth and development, human physiology, interferon type I biosynthesis, interferons pharmacology, measles virus drug effects, mutation, virus replication drug effects.

Sears, S.D., M.L. Clements, R.F. Betts, H.F. Maassab, B.R. Murphy, and M.H. Snyder (1988). Comparison of live, attenuated H1N1 and H3N2 cold-adapted and avian-human influenza A reassortant viruses and inactivated virus vaccine in adults. Journal of Infectious Diseases 158(6): 1209-19.  ISSN: 0022-1899.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 J821

            Abstract:  The infectivity, immunogenicity, and efficacy of live, attenuated influenza A/Texas/1/85 (H1N1) and A/Bethesda/1/85 (H3N2) avian-human (ah) and cold-adapted (ca) reassortant vaccines were compared in 252 seronegative adult volunteers. The immunogenicity and efficacy of the H1N1 reassortant vaccine were also compared with those of the trivalent inactivated virus vaccine. Each reassortant vaccine was satisfactorily attenuated. The 50% human infectious dose was 10(4.9) for ca H1N1, 10(5.4) for ah H1N1, 10(6.4) for ca H3N2, and 10(6.5) TCID50 for ah H3N2 reassortant virus. Within a subtype, the immunogenicities of ah and ca vaccines were comparable. Five to seven weeks after vaccination, volunteers were challenged with homologous wild-type influenza A virus. The magnitude of shedding of virus after challenge was greater than 100-fold less in H1N1 vaccinees and greater than 10-fold less in H3N2 vaccinees compared with unimmunized controls. The vaccines were equally efficacious, as indicated by an 86%-100% reduction in illness. Thus, the ah A/Mallard/New York/6750/78 and the ca A/Ann Arbor/6/60 reassortant viruses are comparable.

            Descriptors:  influenza prevention and control, influenza A virus avian immunology, human immunology, influenza vaccine, adult, antibodies, viral biosynthesis, cold, double blind method, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, hemagglutination inhibition tests, avian pathogenicity, avian physiology, human pathogenicity, human physiology, random allocation, vaccines, attenuated, vaccines, synthetic, virus replication.

Senne, D.A., B. Panigrahy, and R.L. Morgan (1994). Effect of composting poultry carcasses on survival of exotic avian viruses: highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus and adenovirus of egg drop syndrome-76. Avian Diseases 38(4): 733-737.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Eight-week-old chickens were inoculated with one of two exotic viruses to determine the effect of composting on virus survival. Group 1 chickens were inoculated with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus via the caudal thoracic air sac. Group 2 chickens were inoculated with the adenovirus that causes egg drop syndrome-76 (EDS-76) by the oral route. Five days after inoculation, lung, trachea, and air sacs for HPAI and spleen, cecal tonsils, and bursa of Fabricius for EDS-76 were collected and composted with poultry carcasses. At the end of the first 10 days of composting, virus-isolation efforts showed that the HPAI virus had been inactivated, and only 1 of 20 tissue samples yielded the adenovirus of EDS-76 The viruses of HPAI and EDS-76 were completely inactivated at the end of the second 10-day period of the two-stage composting process. Control tissues collected at necropsy and frozen at -70 C for virus isolation were all positive for virus.

            Descriptors:  chickens, avian influenza virus, aviadenovirus, survival, animal diseases, carcasses, waste disposal, composting, disease control, adenoviridae, birds, domestic animals, domesticated birds, environmental protection, Galliformes, influenza virus, livestock, orthomyxoviridae, pollution control, poultry, processing, useful animals, viruses, waste management, two stage composting, inactivation.

Seo, S.H. and R.G. Webster (2001). Cross-reactive, cell-mediated immunity and protection of chickens from lethal H5N1 influenza virus infection in Hong Kong poultry markets. Journal of Virology 75(6):  2516-25.  ISSN: 0022-538X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR360.J6

            Abstract:  In 1997, avian H5N1 influenza virus transmitted from chickens to humans resulted in 18 confirmed infections. Despite harboring lethal H5N1 influenza viruses, most chickens in the Hong Kong poultry markets showed no disease signs. At this time, H9N2 influenza viruses were cocirculating in the markets. We investigated the role of H9N2 influenza viruses in protecting chickens from lethal H5N1 influenza virus infections. Sera from chickens infected with an H9N2 influenza virus did not cross-react with an H5N1 influenza virus in neutralization or hemagglutination inhibition assays. Most chickens primed with an H9N2 influenza virus 3 to 70 days earlier survived the lethal challenge of an H5N1 influenza virus, but infected birds shed H5N1 influenza virus in their feces. Adoptive transfer of T lymphocytes or CD8(+) T cells from inbred chickens (B(2)/B(2)) infected with an H9N2 influenza virus to naive inbred chickens (B(2)/B(2)) protected them from lethal H5N1 influenza virus. In vitro cytotoxicity assays showed that T lymphocytes or CD8(+) T cells from chickens infected with an H9N2 influenza virus recognized target cells infected with either an H5N1 or H9N2 influenza virus in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings indicate that cross-reactive cellular immunity induced by H9N2 influenza viruses protected chickens from lethal infection with H5N1 influenza viruses in the Hong Kong markets in 1997 but permitted virus shedding in the feces. Our findings are the first to suggest that cross-reactive cellular immunity can change the outcome of avian influenza virus infection in birds in live markets and create a situation for the perpetuation of H5N1 influenza viruses.

            Descriptors:  chickens, fowl plague immunology, fowl plague virology, influenza A virus avian immunology, T lymphocytes, cytotoxic immunology, adoptive transfer, cross reactions, fowl plague prevention and control, hemagglutination inhibition tests, Hong Kong, immunity, cellular, immunization, avian classification, avian pathogenicity.

Serkedjieva, J., M. Konaklieva, S. Dimitrova Konaklieva, V. Ivanova, K. Stefanov, and S. Popov (2000). Antiinfluenza virus effect of extracts from marine algae and invertebrates. Zeitschrift Fur Naturforschung. C, Journal of Biosciences 55(1-2): 87-93.  ISSN: 0341-0382.

            NAL Call Number:  QH301.Z4

            Abstract:  Sixty products, derived from marine organisms, typical of the Bulgarian Black Sea coast, were examined for inhibitory activity on the reproduction of influenza viruses in tissue cultures. The antiviral effect was investigated by the reduction of virus infectivity. Using representative strains of influenza virus it was shown that apparently the inhibitory effect was strain-specific. The most effective products were further studied in fertile hen's eggs and in experimental influenza infection in white mice.

            Descriptors:  algae chemistry, antiviral agents pharmacology, influenza drug therapy, influenza A virus avian drug effects, human drug effects, plant extracts pharmacology, tissue extracts pharmacology, antiviral agents isolation and purification, chick embryo, hemagglutination inhibition tests, invertebrates, mice, seawater, species specificity.

Shieh, H.K., S.Y. Tai, J.H. Shien, and S.Y. Chiu (1993). Studies on the development of adjuvants and inactivated vaccines for avian influenza. Taiwan Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry (62): 11-20.  ISSN: 0253-9128.

            NAL Call Number:  49 J822

            Descriptors:  inactivated vaccines, adjuvants, poultry,  immunization, avian influenza virus.

Shneider, M.A., V.I. Golovkin, N.P. Chizhov, and E.B. Shtil'bans (1987 ). Amfogliukamin v kompleksnoi khimioterapii nekotorykh virusnykh zabolevanii. [Amphoglucamine in the combined chemotherapy of viral diseases]. Voprosy Virusologii 32(6): 736-9.  ISSN: 0507-4088.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 P942

            Descriptors:  amphotericin B analogs and derivatives, influenza drug therapy, multiple sclerosis drug therapy, amphotericin B pharmacology, amphotericin B therapeutic use, amphotericin B toxicity, chick embryo, drug evaluation, drug evaluation, preclinical, drug therapy, combination, influenza A virus avian drug effects, mice, rimantadine therapeutic use, tilorone therapeutic use, virus replication drug effects.

Shortridge, K.F. and D. Burrows (1997). Prevention of entry of avian influenza and paramyxoviruses into an ornithological collection. Veterinary Record 140(14): 373-4.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  avulavirus isolation and purification, bird diseases prevention and control, fowl plague prevention and control, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, rubulavirus infections veterinary, avulavirus pathogenicity, birds, feces microbiology, avian pathogenicity, quarantine, rubulavirus infections prevention and control.

Sinnecker, H., R. Sinnecker, and E. Zilske (1982). Detection of influenza A viruses by sentinel domestic ducks in an ecological survey. Acta Virologica 26(1-2): 102-4.  ISSN: 0001-723X.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 AC85

            Descriptors:  antibodies, viral immunology, ducks immunology, influenza A virus avian immunology, epidemiologic methods, fowl plague epidemiology.

Sivanandan, V., S. Kodihalli, K.V. Nagaraja, and D.A. Halvorson (1992). A subunit avian influenza vaccine. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 41: 55.  ISSN: 0094-8780.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, vaccines.

Smolenskii, V.I., N.G. Osidze, and A.I. Kalashnikov (1976). Izuchenie putei vydeleniya i sposobov peredachi virusa grippa ptits v eksperimente. [Experimental study of routes of excretion and methods of transmission of avian influenzavirus]. Sbornik Nauchnykh Trudov, Moskovskaya Veterinarnaya Akademiya 87: 77-82.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, epidemiology, excretion routes, transmission, secretions.

Snyder, M.H., M.L. Clements, R.F. Betts, R. Dolin, A.J. Buckler White, E.L. Tierney, and B.R. Murphy (1986). Evaluation of live avian-human reassortant influenza A H3N2 and H1N1 virus vaccines in seronegative adult volunteers. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 23(5): 852-7.  ISSN: 0095-1137.

            NAL Call Number:  QR46.J6

            Abstract:  An avian-human reassortant influenza A virus deriving its genes coding for the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase from the human influenza A/Washington/897/80 (H3N2) virus and its six "internal" genes from the avian influenza A/Mallard/NY/6750/78 (H2N2) virus (i.e., a six-gene reassortant) was previously shown to be safe, infectious, nontransmissible, and immunogenic as a live virus vaccine in adult humans. Two additional six-gene avian-human reassortant influenza viruses derived from the mating of wild-type human influenza A/California/10/78 (H1N1) and A/Korea/1/82 (H3N2) viruses with the avian influenza A/Mallard/NY/78 virus were evaluated in seronegative (hemagglutination inhibition titer, less than or equal to 1:8) adult volunteers for safety, infectivity, and immunogenicity to determine whether human influenza A viruses can be reproducibly attenuated by the transfer of the six internal genes of the avian influenza A/Mallard/NY/78 virus. The 50% human infectious dose was 10(4.9) 50% tissue culture infectious doses for the H1N1 reassortant virus and 10(5.4) 50% tissue culture infectious doses for the H3N2 reassortant virus. Both reassortants were satisfactorily attenuated with only 5% (H1N1) and 2% (H3N2) of infected vaccines receiving less than 400 50% human infectious doses developing illness. Consistent with this level of attenuation, the magnitude of viral shedding after inoculation was reduced 100-fold (H1N1) to 10,000-fold (H3N2) compared with that produced by wild-type virus. The duration of virus shedding by vaccines was one-third that of controls receiving wild-type virus. At 40 to 100 50% human infectious doses, virus-specific immune responses were seen in 77 to 93% of volunteers. When vaccinees who has received 10(7.5) 50% tissue culture infectious doses of the H3N2 vaccine were experimentally challenged with a homologous wild-type human virus only 2 of 19 (11%) vaccinees became ill compared with 7 of 14 (50%) unvaccinated seronegative controls ( P < 0.025; protective efficacy, 79%). Thus, three different virulent human influenza A viruses have been satisfactorily attenuated by the acquisition of the six internal genes of the avian influenza A/Mallard/NY/78 virus. The observation that this donor virus can reproducibly attenuate human influenza A viruses indicates that avian-human influenza A reassortants should be further studied as potential live influenza A virus vaccines.

            Descriptors:  hemagglutinins viral immunology, influenza A virus avian immunology, human immunology, neuraminidase immunology, viral vaccines immunology, adult, antibodies, viral biosynthesis, avian growth and development, human growth and development, virus replication.

Stech, J., H. Garn, M. Wegmann, R. Wagner, and H.D. Klenk (2005). A new approach to an influenza live vaccine: modification of the cleavage site of hemagglutinin. Nature Medicine 11(6): 683-689.  ISSN: 1078-8956.

            Abstract:  A reverse genetics approach provides a new mutant strain where a modified cleavage site within its hemagglutinin depends on proteolytic activation strictly by elastase.  The new strain grows well in cell culture and is entirely attenuated to mice.  It induced complete protection against a lethal challenge at a dose of 105 plaque-forming units.  This provides an approach that allows conversion of any epidemic strain into a genetically homologous attenuated virus.

            Descriptors:  mutant strain A, WSN, 33, elastase, cell culture, attenuated virus, strain conversion

Steinhoff, M.C., N.A. Halsey, L.F. Fries, M.H. Wilson, J. King, B.A. Burns, R.K. Samorodin, V. Perkis, B.R. Murphy, and M.L. Clements (1991). The A/Mallard/6750/78 avian-human, but not the A/Ann Arbor/6/60 cold-adapted, influenza A/Kawasaki/86 (H1N1) reassortant virus vaccine retains partial virulence for infants and children. Journal of Infectious Diseases 163(5): 1023-8.  ISSN: 0022-1899.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 J821

            Abstract:  Characteristics of avian-human (ah) and cold-adapted (ca) influenza A/Kawasaki/9/86 (H1N1) reassortant vaccine viruses were compared in 37 seronegative adults and 122 seronegative infants and children. The 50% human infectious dose (HID50) in infants and children was 10(2.9) and 10(2.6) TCID50 for the ah and ca vaccine, respectively. The ah influenza A/Kawasaki/9/86 reassortant was reactogenic: 24% of infants and children infected with greater than or equal to 100 HID50 had fever greater than or equal to 39.4 degrees C. Since H3N2 ah vaccines were previously shown to be adequately attenuated, it is reasonable to suggest that the genes that code for hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of the H1N1 virus apparently influence the reactogenicity of reassortant viruses derived from the avian influenza A/Mallard/New York/6750/78 donor virus. Because this avian virus does not reproducibly confer a satisfactory level of attenuation to each subtype of influenza A virus, it is not a suitable donor virus for attenuation of wild-type influenza viruses. In contrast, the ca A/Ann Arbor/6/60 donor virus reliably confers attenuation characteristics to a variety of H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A viruses.

            Descriptors:  influenza prevention and control, influenza A virus avian immunology, human immunology, influenza vaccine adverse effects, adult, child, preschool, infant, influenza etiology, avian pathogenicity, human pathogenicity, vaccines, attenuated adverse effects, vaccines, synthetic adverse effects, virulence.

Stephenson, I., R. Bugarini, K.G. Nicholson, A. Podda, J.M. Wood, M.C. Zambon, and J.M. Katz (2005). Cross-reactivity to highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses after vaccination with nonadjuvanted and MF59-adjuvanted influenza A/duck/Singapore/97 (H5N3) vaccine: a potential priming strategy. Journal of Infectious Diseases 191(8): 1210-5.  ISSN: 0022-1899.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 J821

            Abstract:  Antigenically well-matched vaccines against highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses are urgently required. Human serum samples after immunization with MF59 or nonadjuvanted A/duck/Singapore/97 (H5N3) vaccine were tested for antibody to 1997-2004 human H5N1 viruses. Antibody responses to 3 doses of nonadjuvanted vaccine were poor and were higher after MF59-adjuvanted vaccine, with seroconversion rates to A/HongKong/156/97, A/HongKong/213/03, A/Thailand/16/04, and A/Vietnam/1203/04 of 100% (P<.0001), 100% (P<.0001), 71% (P=.0004), and 43% (P=.0128) in 14 subjects, respectively, compared with 27%, 27%, 0%, and 0% in 11 who received nonadjuvanted vaccine. These findings have implications for the rational design of pandemic vaccines against influenza H5.

            Descriptors:  adjuvants immunologic, cross-reactions immunology, influenza vaccines immunology, avian influenza immunology, avian influenza virology, orthomyxoviridae classification, orthomyxoviridae immunology, immunosorbent assay, Hong Kong epidemiology, influenza vaccines administration and dosage, influenza vaccines aupply and and distribution, avian influenza epidemiology, avian influenza prevention and control, middle-aged, neutralization tests, orthomyxoviridae genetics, orthomyxoviridae pathogenicity, Singapore epidemiology, Thailand epidemiology, vaccination, Vietnam epidemiology.

Stephenson, I., K.G. Nicholson, J.M. Wood, M.C. Zambon, and J.M. Katz (2004). Confronting the avian influenza threat: vaccine development for a potential pandemic. Lancet Infectious Diseases 4(8): 499-509.  ISSN: 1473-3099.

            Abstract:  Sporadic human infection with avian influenza viruses has raised concern that reassortment between human and avian subtypes could generate viruses of pandemic potential. Vaccination is the principal means to combat the impact of influenza. During an influenza pandemic the immune status of the population would differ from that which exists during interpandemic periods. An emerging pandemic virus will create a surge in worldwide vaccine demand and new approaches in immunisation strategies may be needed to ensure optimum protection of unprimed individuals when vaccine antigen may be limited. The manufacture of vaccines from pathogenic avian influenza viruses by traditional methods is not feasible for safety reasons as well as technical issues. Strategies adopted to overcome these issues include the use of reverse genetic systems to generate reassortant strains, the use of baculovirus-expressed haemagglutinin or related non-pathogenic avian influenza strains, and the use of adjuvants to enhance immunogenicity. In clinical trials, conventional surface-antigen influenza virus vaccines produced from avian viruses have proved poorly immunogenic in immunologically naive populations. Adjuvanted or whole-virus preparations may improve immunogenicity and allow sparing of antigen.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks prevention and control, influenza immunology, influenza A virus, avian immunology, influenza vaccines immunology, avian influenza immunology, poultry diseases immunology, influenza prevention and control, influenza A virus, avian influenza genetics, influenza vaccines therapeutic use, avian influenza prevention and control, poultry, poultry diseases prevention and control, reassortant viruses immunology, vaccination, vaccines, attenuated immunology, attenuated therapeutic use.

Stephenson, I., J.M. Wood, K.G. Nicholson, A. Charlett, and M.C. Zambon (2004). Detection of anti-H5 responses in human sera by HI using horse erythrocytes following MF59-adjuvanted influenza A/Duck/Singapore/97 vaccine. Virus Research 103(1-2): 91-5.  ISSN: 0168-1702.

            NAL Call Number:  QR375.V6

            Abstract:  Haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests are a simple method used to assess immune responses to influenza haemagglutinin. However, HI tests are insensitive at detection of antibody responses to avian haemagglutinin after vaccination or natural infection, even in the presence of high titres of neutralising antibody or virus isolation. Avian influenza viruses preferentially bind to sialic acid receptors that contain N-acetylneuraminic acid alpha2,3-galactose (alpha2,3Gal) linkages while human viruses preferentially bind to those containing N-acetylneuraminic acid alpha2,6-galactose (alpha2,6Gal) linkages. By using horse erythrocytes in the HI test and thereby increasing the proportion of alpha2,3Gal linkages available for binding, we are able to demonstrate improved detection of antibody to avian H5 in human sera following vaccination with MF59-adjuvanted A/Duck/Singapore/97 surface antigen vaccine. This modified HI test was more sensitive in detection of anti-H5 antibody evoked by revaccination of primed subjects and may be useful in assessing potential avian HA vaccine candidates.

            Descriptors:  antibodies, viral blood, erythrocytes, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus immunology, horses, influenza A virus, avian immunology, influenza vaccines immunology, squalene immunology, adjuvants, immunologic, hemagglutination inhibition tests methods, influenza vaccines administration and dosage, polysorbates administration and dosage, receptors, virus metabolism, squalene administration and dosage, turkeys.

Stephenson, I.N.K.G., R. Gluck, R. Mischler, R.W. Newman, A.M. Palache, N.Q. Verlander, F. Warburton, J.M. Wood, and M.C. Zambon (2003). Safety and antigenicity of whole virus and subunit influenza A/Hong Kong/1073/99 (H9nN2) vaccine in healthy adults: phase I randomised trial. Lancet 362(9400): 1959-1966.  ISSN: 0099-5355.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 L22

            Descriptors:  clinical immunology, humans, infection, vaccination, clinical techniques, immune response.

Stohr, K. and M. Esveld (2004). Public health. Will vaccines be available for the next influenza pandemic? Science 306(5705): 2195-6.  ISSN: 1095-9203.

            NAL Call Number:  470 Sci2

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks, influenza epidemiology, influenza prevention and control, influenza vaccines supply and distribution, clinical trials, drug industry, influenza virology, influenza A virus, avian immunology, avian pathogenicity, human immunology, influenza vaccines administration and dosage, influenza vaccines economics, international cooperation, population surveillance, public policy, World Health Organization.

Stone, H., B. Mitchell, and M. Brugh (1997). In ovo vaccination of chicken embryos with experimental Newcastle disease and avian influenze oil-emulsion vaccines. Avian Diseases 41(4): 856-863.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Inactivated oil-emulsion (OE) Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) vaccines were injected into 18-day-old white rock (WR) and white leghorn (WL) chicken embryos to evaluate their immunologic efficacy and their effects on hatchability. Embryonating eggs were inoculated at 1.5 inches depth with various vaccine volumes and antigen concentrations. Serum hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) titers were first detected in chickens at 2 wk posthatch. Protection against morbidity and mortality was demonstrated in all of 10 chickens vaccinated as embryos and challenged with viscerotropic velogenic ND virus at 53 days of age and also in all of eight in ovo- vaccinated chickens challenged with highly pathogenic AI virus at 34 days of age. All of five unvaccinated control chickens for each respective ND- and AI-vaccinated group died. In pooled groups from successive hatches, the hatchability of WR or WL embryos injected with 100 microliters of vaccine was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from unvaccinated hatchmate controls when needle gauges of 22, 20, and 18 were used. Seroconversion rates of chickens vaccinated as embryos ranged from 27% to 100% with ND vaccination and 85% to 100% for AI vaccination. For ND, geometric mean HI titers of chickens per vaccine group ranged from 11 to 733, and in pooled groups, the range was 49 to 531. Titers for AI vaccine groups ranged from 156 to 1178. This study demonstrated that acceptable hatchability, seroconversion rates, and protective immunity can be attained with in ovo inoculation of ND or AI OE vaccines if the vaccines are prepared with sufficient antigen and administered properly.

            Descriptors:  chicks, vaccination, Newcastle disease virus,  avian influenza virus, viroses, vaccines, evaluation, egg hatchability, dosage, antigens, morbidity, mortality, pathogenicity, application methods, equipment, immune response, immunity, formulations, needle gauges, efficacy, seroconversion.

Stone, H.D. (1987). Efficacy of avian influenza oil-emulsion vaccines in chickens of various ages. Avian Diseases 31(3): 483-90.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  An experimental avian influenza (AI) oil-emulsion vaccine was formulated with 1 part inactivated A/turkey/Wisconsin/68 (H5N9) AI virus emulsified in 4 parts oil. Broilers were vaccinated subcutaneously (SC) either at 1 or 3 days old or at 4 or 5 wks old. Commercial white leghorn (WL) layers were vaccinated SC at 12 and 20 wks old or at only 20 wks old. Maximum geometric mean hemagglutination-inhibition titers postvaccination (PV) were 1:86-1:320 for broilers, 1:597 for twice-vaccinated layers, and 1:422 for once-vaccinated layers. Ninety to 100% of vaccinated broilers were protected against death and morbidity when challenged with highly pathogenic A/chicken/Penn/83 (H5N2) AI virus 4 weeks PV, and all were protected when challenged 8 wks PV. All controls and most vaccinates were infected by challenge virus, and 90-100% of controls died or exhibited clinical signs. Vaccinated commercial pullets were protected against morbidity, death, and egg-production decline at either peak of lay (25 wks old) or at 55 wks old. All unvaccinated controls became morbid or died, and egg production ceased 72 hours after challenge. The 0.5-ml vaccine dose was determined to contain 251 and 528 mean protective doses (PD50S) in 4-wk-old and 1-year-old SPF WL chickens, respectively, challenged 4 wks PV.

            Descriptors:  chickens, fowl plague prevention and control, influenza A virus avian immunology, vaccination veterinary, viral vaccines, specific pathogen free organisms.

Stone, H.D. (1993). Efficacy of experimental animal and vegetable oil-emulsion vaccines for Newcastle disease and avian influenza. Avian Diseases 37(2): 399-405.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Acceptable oil-emulsion vaccines were sought to replace mineral oil-emulsion vaccines that, by regulations, require a 42-day minimum holding period for poultry between injection and slaughter for consumption. Water-in-oil emulsions were prepared using animal or vegetable oils in a ratio of 4 parts oil to 1 part Newcastle disease or avian influenza aqueous antigen. Beeswax particles suspended in the oil at the 5% or 10% level (wt:vol) served as the oil-phase surfactant. Hemagglutination-inhibition titers induced by mineral-oil vaccines were not significantly different from those induced by the most efficacious formulations prepared from animal and vegetable oils. Tissue reaction from injection of animal- and vegetable-oil vaccines was less than that induced by mineral-oil vaccines. An inactivated avian influenza vaccine formulated from peanut oil induced protection against morbidity and death when vaccinated chickens were challenged with a virulent isolate of avian influenza virus.

            Descriptors:  chickens, vaccines, plant oils, animal oils, emulsions, vaccination, Newcastle disease, avian influenza virus, animal tissues, side effects, animal morphology, birds, disease control, domestic animals, domesticated birds, Galliformes, immunization, immunostimulation, immunotherapy, infectious diseases, influenza virus, livestock, oils, physical states, poultry, processed plant products, processed products, therapy, toxicity, useful animals, viroses, viruses, adverse effects.

Stone, H.D. (1988). Optimization of hydrophile-lipophile balance for improved efficacy of Newcastle disease and avian influenza oil-emulsion vaccines. Avian Diseases 32(1): 68-73.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Preparations of inactivated Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) oil-emulsion vaccines with surfactant hydrophile-lipophile-balance (HLB) values between 4.3 and 9.5 were evaluated for their efficacy in broiler-type white rock chickens. Chickens were vaccinated at 3-4 weeks of age and bled at 2-week intervals over 8 weeks. Post-vaccinal hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) geometric mean titers (reciprocals) ranged from 197 to 485 for ND vaccines and from 184 to 1040 for AI vaccines. Based on the HI response, an HLB value of 7.0 induced the greatest stimulation of antibody titers. Ten percent surfactant in the oil phase of the vaccines induced maximum titers at this HLB. The oil:aqueous ratios of the vaccines did not greatly influence the overall serologic response when the vaccines had an HLB of 7.0. These results indicate that manipulating surfactant HLB values of OE vaccine may maximize the HI response in broilers.

            Descriptors:  chickens immunology, fowl plague prevention and control, Newcastle disease prevention and control, surface active agents, viral vaccines therapeutic use, hemagglutination inhibition tests veterinary, poultry.

Stone, H.D., M. Brugh, S.R. Hopkins, H.W. Yoder, and C.W. Beard (1978). Preparation of inactivated oil-emulsion vaccines with avian viral or Mycoplasma antigens. Avian Diseases 22(4): 666-74.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  The influence of the composition of water-in-oil emulsions on their physical characteristics was determined by preparing experimental emulsions with various water-to-oil ratios and various emulsifiers. Emulsions containing Tween 80 in the aqueous phase and Arlacel A or Arlacel 80 in the oil phase were lower in viscosity than emulsions containing only an oil-phase emulsifier. Viscosity decreased as the concentration of oil increased. Oil-emulsion vaccines prepared with aqueous- and oil-phase emulsifiers had low viscosity, were stable for more than 12 weeks at 37 C, and induced a marked primary antibody response in chickens.

            Descriptors:  bacterial vaccines administration and dosage, Mycoplasma immunology, RNA viruses immunology, viral vaccines administration and dosage, antibody formation, chickens immunology, emulsions, infectious bronchitis virus immunology, influenza A virus avian immunology, methods, mineral oil, Newcastle disease virus immunology, viscosity.

Suarez, D.L. (2000). Bright future for AI vaccines. World Poultry (Special): 16-17.  ISSN: 1388-3119.

            NAL Call Number:  SF481.M54

            Descriptors:  immunization, vaccines, avian influenza virus, disease control, poultry, disease prevention.

Suarez, D.L. and C.S. Schultz (2000). Immunology of avian influenza virus: A review. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 24(2-3): 269-283.  ISSN: 0145-305X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR180.D4

            Abstract:  Avian influenza virus can cause serious disease in a wide variety of birds and mammals, but its natural host range is in wild ducks, gulls, and shorebirds. Infections in poultry can be inapparent or cause respiratory disease, decreases in production, or a rapidly fatal systemic disease known as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). For the protection of poultry, neutralizing antibody to the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins provide the primary protection against disease. A variety of vaccines elicit neutralizing antibody, including killed whole virus vaccines and fowl-pox recombinant vaccines. Antigenic drift of influenza viruses appears to be less important in causing vaccine failures in poultry as compared to humans. The cytotoxic T lymphocyte response can reduce viral shedding in mildly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, but provides questionable protection against HPAI. Influenza viruses can directly affect the immune response of infected birds, and the role of the Mx gene, interferons, and other cytokines in protection from disease remains unknown.

            Descriptors:  immune system, infection, highly pathogenic avian influenza, viral disease, avian influenza virus vaccination immunization method, antigenic drift cellular immunity.

Suarez, D.L. and C.S. Schultz (2000). The effect of eukaryotic expression vectors and adjuvants on DNA vaccines in chickens using an avian influenza model. Avian Diseases 44(4): 861-868.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Vaccination of poultry with naked plasmid DNA has been successfully demonstrated with several different poultry pathogens, but the technology needs to be further developed before it can be practically implemented. Many different methods can conceivably enhance the efficacy of DNA vaccines, and this report examines the use of different eukaryotic expression vectors with different promoters and different adjuvants to express the influenza hemagglutinin protein. Four different promoters in five different plasmids were used to express the hemagglutinin protein of an H5 avian influenza virus, including two different immediate early cytomegaloviruses (CMVs), Rous sarcoma virus, chicken actin, and simian virus 40 promoters. All five constructs expressed detectable hemagglutinin protein in cell culture, but the pCI-neo HA plasmid with the CMV promoter provided the best response in chickens when vaccinated intramuscularly at 1 day of age on the basis of antibody titer and survivability after challenge with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus at 6 wk postinoculation. A beneficial response was observed in birds boostered at 3 wk of age, in birds given larger amounts of DNA, and with the use of multiple injection sites to administer the vaccine. With the use of the pCI-neo construct, the effects of different adjuvants designed to increase the uptake of plasmid DNA, including 25% sucrose, diethylaminoethyl dextran, calcium phosphate, polybrene, and two different cationic liposomes, were examined. Both liposomes tested enhanced antibody titers as compared with the positive controls, but the other chemical adjuvants decreased the antibody response as compared with the control chickens that received just the plasmid alone. The results observed are promising for continued studies, but continued improvements in vaccine response and reduced costs are necessary before the technology can be commercially developed.

            Descriptors:  molecular genetics, immune system, influenza, respiratory system disease, viral disease, avian influenza model physical model, vaccination preventative method, antibody response, eukaryotic expression, vectors.

Subbarao, K., H. Chen, D. Swayne, L. Mingay, E. Fodor, G. Brownlee, X. Xu, X. Lu, J. Katz, N. Cox, and Y. Matsuoka (2003). Evaluation of a genetically modified reassortant H5N1 influenza A virus vaccine candidate generated by plasmid-based reverse genetics. Virology 305(1): 192-200.  ISSN: 0042-6822.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 V81

            Abstract:  Avian influenza A H5N1 viruses similar to those that infected humans in Hong Kong in 1997 continue to circulate in waterfowl and have reemerged in poultry in the region, raising concerns that these viruses could reappear in humans. The currently licensed trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines contain hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase genes from epidemic strains in a background of internal genes derived from the vaccine donor strain, A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8). Such reassortant candidate vaccine viruses are currently not licensed for the prevention of human infections by H5N1 influenza viruses. A transfectant H5N1/PR8 virus was generated by plasmid-based reverse genetics. The removal of the multibasic amino acid motif in the HA gene associated with high pathogenicity in chickens, and the new genotype of the H5N1/PR8 transfectant virus, attenuated the virus for chickens and mice without altering the antigenicity of the HA. A Formalin-inactivated vaccine prepared from this virus was immunogenic and protected mice from subsequent wild-type H5N1 virus challenge. This is the first successful attempt to develop an H5N1 vaccine seed virus resembling those used in currently licensed influenza A vaccines with properties that make it a promising candidate for further evaluation in humans.

            Descriptors:  infection, molecular genetics, pharmacology, influenza A virus infection, viral disease, plasmid based reverse genetics genetic techniques, laboratory techniques.

Swayne, D.E. (2004). Application of new vaccine technologies for the control of transboundary diseases. Developmental Biology (Basel) 119: 219-28.  ISSN: 1424-6074.

            Abstract:  Vaccines have played an important role in the control of diseases of livestock and poultry, including Transboundary Diseases. In the future, vaccines will play a greater role in controlling these diseases. Historically, inactivated whole viruses in various adjuvant systems have been used and will continue to be used in the near future. For the future, emerging technologies will allow targeted use of only the protective antigens of the pathogen and will provide the opportunity for differentiating between vaccinated and field-exposed animals. Furthermore, the expression of cytokines by vaccines will afford earlier or greater enhancement of protection than can be achieved by the protective response elicited by the antigenic epitopes of the pathogen alone. Avian influenza (AI) is a good case for studying future trends in vaccine design and use. Inactivated AI virus (AIV) vaccines will continue as the primary vaccines used over the next 10 years. These vaccines will use homologous haemagglutinin sub-types, either from the use of field strains or the generation of new strains through the use of infectious clones produced in the laboratory. The latter will allow creation of high growth reassortants, which will provide consistent high yields of antigen and result in potent vaccines. New viral and bacterial vectors with inserts of AIV haemagglutinin gene will be developed and potentially used in the field. Such new vectors will include herpesvirus-turkey, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, adenoviruses, various types of paramyxoviruses and Salmonella sp. In addition, there is a theoretical possibility of gene-deleted mutants that would allow the use of live AIV vaccines, but the application of such vaccines has inherent dangers for gene reassortment with field viruses in the generation of disease-causing strains. Subunit haemagglutinin protein and DNA haemagglutinin gene vaccines are possible, but with current technologies, the cost is prohibitive. In the future, effective AI vaccines must prevent clinical signs and death, increase resistance of the host to infection, decrease the rate of replication and shedding of a challenge or field virus and provide uniform protection following single immunization. Mass application technologies of new virus or bacterial vector systems will provide economic incentives for adoption over current labour-intensive manual individual bird injection methods used with today's AI vaccines.

            Descriptors:  animals, biotechnology, communicable disease control methods, avian influenza A virus genetics, avian influenza A virus immunology, avian influenza A virus pathogenicity, influenza vaccines genetics, influenza vaccines immunology, avian influenza immunology, avian influenza prevention and control, poultry, vaccination methods, vaccination standards, veterinary vaccination, inactivated vaccines genetics, inactivated vaccines immunology, viral vaccines.

Swayne, D.E. (1996). Protection of chickens against highly pathogenic Mexican-origin H5N2 avian influenza virus by a recombinant fowlpox vaccine. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association 100: 557-563.

            NAL Call Number:  449.9 Un3r

            Descriptors:  poultry, recombinant vaccines, avian influenza virus, chickens, highly pathogenic, Mexican origin.

Swayne, D.E. (2003). Vaccines for list A poultry diseases: emphasis on avian influenza. In: Vaccines for OIE list A and emerging animal diseases. Proceedings of a symposium, Ames, Iowa, USA, p. 201-212.

            NAL Call Number: QR180.3.D4 v. 114

            Descriptors: disease prevention, disease resistance, DNA vaccines, hemagglutinins, immune response, immunization, Newcastle disease, poultry, recombinant vaccines, avian influenza virus, turkeys.

Swayne, D.E., J.R. Beck, M. Garcia, and H.D. Stone (1999). Influence of virus strain and antigen mass on efficacy of H5 avian influenza inactivated vaccines. Avian Pathology 28(3): 245-255.  ISSN: 0307-9457.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.A1A9

            Abstract:  The influence of vaccine strain and antigen mass on the ability of inactivated avian influenza (AI) viruses to protect chicks from a lethal, highly pathogenic (HP) AI virus challenge was studied. Groups of 4-week-old chickens were immunized with inactivated vaccines containing one of 10 haemagglutinin subtype H5 AI viruses, one heterologous H7 AI virus or normal allantoic fluid (sham), and challenged 3 weeks later by intra-nasal inoculation with a HP H5 chicken-origin AI virus. All 10 H5 vaccines provided good protection from clinical signs and death, and produced positive serological reactions on agar gel immunodiffusion and haemagglutination inhibition tests. In experiment 1, challenge virus was recovered from the oropharynx of 80% of chickens in the H5 vaccine group. In five H5 vaccine groups, challenge virus was not recovered from the cloaca of chickens. In the other five H5 vaccine groups, the number of chickens with detection of challenge virus from the cloaca was lower than in the sham group (P < 0.05). Reductions in the quantity of challenge virus shed from the cloaca and oropharynx were also evident in some H5 vaccinate groups when compared to the sham group. However, there was no positive correlation between the sequence identity of the haemagglutinin gene from the vaccine strain and challenge virus, and the ability to reduce the quantity of challenge virus shed from the cloaca or oropharynx. As the quantity of AI antigen in the vaccines increased, all parameters of protection improved and were virus strain dependent. A/turkey/Wisconsin/68 (H5N9) was the best vaccine candidate of the H5 strains tested (PD50 = 0.006 mug AI antigen). These data demonstrate that chickens vaccinated with inactivated H5 whole virus AI vaccines were protected from clinical signs and death, but usage of vaccine generally did not prevent infection by the challenge virus, as indicated by recovery of virus from the oropharynx. Vaccine use reduced cloacal detection rates, and quantity of virus shed from the cloaca and oropharynx in some vaccine groups, which would potentially reduce environmental contamination and disease transmission in the field.

            Descriptors:  immune system, infection, veterinary medicine, avian influenza, prevention, viral disease, H5 avian influenza inactivated vaccine, antigen mass influence, efficacy, virus strain influence.

Swayne, D.E., J.R. Beck, and N. Kinney (2000). Failure of a recombinant fowl poxvirus vaccine containing an avian influenza hemagglutinin gene to provide consistent protection against influenza in chickens preimmunized with a fowl pox vaccine. Avian Diseases 44(1): 132-137.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Vaccines against mildly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) have been used in turkeys within the United States as part of a comprehensive control strategy. Recently, AI vaccines have been used in control programs against highly pathogenic (HP) AI of chickens in Pakistan and Mexico. A recombinant fowl pox-AI hemagglutinin subtype (H) 5 gene insert vaccine has been shown to protect specific-pathogen-free chickens from HP H5 AI virus (AIV) challenge and has been licensed by the USDA for emergency use. The ability of the recombinant fowl pox vaccine to protect chickens preimmunized against fowl pox is unknown. In the current study, broiler breeders (BB) and white leghorn (WL) pullets vaccinated with a control fowl poxvirus vaccine (FP-C) and/or a recombinant fowl poxvirus vaccine containing an H5 hemagglutinin gene insert (FP-HA) were challenged with a HP H5N2 AIV isolated from chickens in Mexico. When used alone, the FP-HA vaccine protected BB and WL chickens from lethal challenge, but when given as a secondary vaccine after a primary FP-C immunization, protection against a HP AIV challenge was inconsistent. Both vaccines protected against virulent fowl pox challenge. This lack of consistent protection against HPAI may limit use to chickens without previous fowl pox vaccinations. In addition, prior exposure to field fowl poxvirus could be expected to limit protection induced by this vaccine.

            Descriptors:  chickens, fowl pox virus, recombinant vaccines, genes, vaccination, efficacy, pathogenicity, experimental infections, disease prevention, immunity, evaluation, combination, morbidity, mortality.

Swayne, D.E., J.R. Beck, and T.R. Mickle (1997). Efficacy of recombinant fowl poxvirus vaccine in protecting chickens against a highly pathogenic Mexican-origin H5N2 avian influenza virus. Avian Diseases 41(4): 910-922.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Internationally and nationally, governments and the poultry industries have used various strategies to control avian influenza (AI), ranging from a minimum of living with mildly pathogenic AI virus (AIV) infections to the other extreme of implementing a total quarantine-slaughter approach for eradication of highly pathogenic (HP) forms of the disease. However, recent economic considerations in various countries have prompted a broader reevaluation of vaccination as one of several tools to be used in AI control programs, including H5 and H7 HP AI. In the current study, 1-day-old chickens were immunized with a recombinant fowl poxvirus vaccine containing a hemagglutinin gene insert (Vector-HA) from an H5 AIV. Vertor-HA- and negative control (vector-control)-vaccinated chicks were challenged with a HP H5N2 AIV isolated from chickens in Mexico. All immunized chickens were antibody negative on the agar gel precipitin test, indicating that vaccination would not interfere with routine AI serologic surveillance programs in the United States. However, in the hemagglutinin-inhibition test, a few immunized chickens (8%) had low serologic titers. Protection against illness (90-100%) and death (90-100%) was provided by the vector-HA vaccine from 3 wk of age to the end of the 20-wk study. The number of chickens shedding the challenge AIV from their enteric tracts was significantly reduced (50-75%) and the quantity of challenge AIV shed from respiratory and enteric tracts was significantly reduced (10(1)-10(2.1) mean embryo lethal dose/ml) in most vector-HA vaccine groups when compared with vector-control groups. Furthermore, vector-HA vaccination reduced in contact transmission of HP AI challenge virus to both vector-HA- and vector-control-vaccinated chickens. These findings indicate the recombinant fowl poxvirus vaccine can be a useful tool in an AI control program by preventing illness and death in chickens and reducing intestinal and respiratory shedding of H5 AIV.

            Descriptors:  chickens, avipoxvirus, avian influenza virus, pathogenicity, biological differences, synthetic vaccines, disease control, antibodies, experimental infection, in vivo experimentation, morbidity, mortality, digestive system, vaccination, dosage, injection, wings, application methods, biological properties, birds, body parts, body regions, disease transmission, domestic animals, epidemiology, experimentation, Galliformes, immunization, immunological factors, immunostimulation, immunotherapy, infection, influenza virus, limbs, livestock, microbial properties, orthomyxoviridae, pathogenesis, poultry, poxviridae, therapy, useful animals, vaccines, viruses, fowl pox virus, strain differences, recombinant vaccines, subcutaneous injection.

Swayne, D.E., M. Garcia, J.R. Beck, N. Kinney, and D.L. Suarez (2000). Protection against diverse highly pathogenic H5 avian influenza viruses in chickens immunized with a recombinant fowlpox vaccine containing an H5 avian influenza hemagglutinin gene insert. Vaccine 18(11-12): 1088-95.  ISSN: 0264-410X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR189.V32

            Abstract:  A recombinant fowlpox vaccine with an H5 hemagglutinin gene insert protected chickens against clinical signs and death following challenge by nine different highly pathogenic H5 avian influenza viruses. The challenge viruses had 87.3 to 100% deduced hemagglutinin amino acid sequence similarity with the recombinant vaccine, and represented diversely geographic and spatial backgrounds; i.e. isolated from four different continents over a 38 year period. The recombinant vaccine reduced detectable infection rates and shedding titers by some challenge viruses. There was a significant positive correlation in hemagglutinin sequence similarity between challenge viruses and vaccine, and the ability to reduce titers of challenge virus isolated from the oropharynx (r(s)=0.783, P=0.009), but there was no similar correlation for reducing cloacal virus titers (r(s)=-0.100, P=0.78). This recombinant fowlpox-H5 avian influenza hemagglutinin vaccine can provide protection against a variety of different highly pathogenic H5 avian influenza viruses and frequent optimizing of the hemagglutinin insert to overcome genetic drift in the vaccine may not be necessary to provide adequate field protection.

            Descriptors:  fowlpox virus genetics, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus immunology, influenza A virus avian immunology, vaccines, synthetic immunology, viral vaccines immunology, chickens, cloaca virology, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus genetics, immunization, oropharynx virology.

Swayne, D.E., M.L. Perdue, J.R. Beck, M. Garcia, and D.L. Suarez (2000). Vaccines protect chickens against H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza in the face of genetic changes in field viruses over multiple years. Veterinary Microbiology 74(1-2): 165-72.  ISSN: 0378-1135.

            NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44

            Abstract:  Inactivated whole avian influenza (AI) virus vaccines, baculovirus-derived AI haemagglutinin vaccine and recombinant fowlpoxvirus-AI haemagglutinin vaccine were tested for the ability to protect chickens against multiple highly pathogenic (HP) H5 AI viruses. The vaccine and challenge viruses, or their haemagglutinin protein components, were obtained from field AI viruses of diverse backgrounds and included strains obtained from four continents, six host species, and isolated over a 38-year-period. The vaccines protected against clinical signs and death, and reduced the number of chickens shedding virus and the titre of the virus shed following a HP H5 AI virus challenge. Immunization with these vaccines should decrease AI virus shedding from the respiratory and digestive tracts of AI virus exposed chickens and reduce bird-to-bird transmission. Although most consistent reduction in respiratory shedding was afforded when vaccine was more similar to the challenge virus, the genetic drift of avian influenza virus did not interfere with general protection as has been reported for human influenza viruses.

            Descriptors:  antigenic variation, fowl plague prevention and control, influenza A virus avian genetics, influenza vaccine immunology, baculoviridae, chickens, gene frequency, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus immunology, avian immunology, vaccination veterinary.

Swayne, D.E. and H.D. Stone (1996). Valuation of inactivated H5 avian influenza virus and fowlpox virus recombinant vaccines and diagnostic test reagents: implications in avian influenza control and prevention strategies. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 45: 35-38.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, vaccines, influenza virus, orthomyxoviridae, viruses.

Swayne, D.E., D.L. Suarez, C.S. Schultz, T.M. Tumpey, D.J. King, T. Nakaya, P. Palese, and S.A. Garcia (2003). Recombinant paramyxovirus type 1-avian influenza-H7 virus as a vaccine for protection of chickens against influenza and Newcastle disease. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 1047-1050.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Current vaccines to prevent avian influenza rely upon labor-intensive parenteral injection. A more advantageous vaccine would be capable of administration by mass immunization methods such as spray or water vaccination. A recombinant vaccine (rNDV-AIV-H7) was constructed by using a lentogenic paramyxovirus type 1 vector (Newcastle disease virus (NDV) B1 strain) with insertion of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from avian influenza virus (AIV) A/chicken/NY/13142-5/94 (H7N2). The recombinant virus had stable insertion and expression of the H7 AIV HA gene as evident by detection of HA expression via immunofluorescence in infected Vero cells. The rNDV-AIV-H7 replicated in 9-10 day embryonating chicken eggs and exhibited hemagglutinating activity from both NDV and AI proteins that was inhibited by antisera against both NDV and AIV H7. Groups of 2-week-old white Leghorn chickens were vaccinated with transfectant NDV vector (tNDV), rNDV-AIV-H7, or sterile allantoic fluid and were challenged 2 weeks later with viscerotropic velogenic NDV (vvNDV) or highly pathogenic (HP) AIV. The sham-vaccinated birds were not protected from vvNDV or HP AIV challenge. The transfectant NDV vaccine provided 70% protection for NDV challenge but did not protect against AIV challenge. The rNDV-AIV-H7 vaccine provided partial protection (40%) from vvNDV and HP AIV challenge. The serologic response was examined in chickens that received one or two immunizations of the rNDV-AIV-H7 vaccine. Based on hemagglutination inhibition and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests, chickens that received a vaccine boost seroconverted to AIV H7, but the serologic response was weak in birds that received only one vaccination. This demonstrates the potential for NDV for use as a vaccine vector in expressing AIV proteins.

            Descriptors:  animal husbandry, immune system, infection, veterinary medicine, Newcastle disease, infectious disease, viral disease, influenza, respiratory system disease, ELISA, immunologic techniques, laboratory techniques, hemagglutination test, mass immunization, clinical techniques, therapeutic and prophylactic techniques, seroconversion.

Swayne, D.E., J.R. Beck, M.L. Perdue, and C.W. Beard (2001). Efficacy of vaccines in chickens against highly pathogenic Hong Kong H5N1 avian influenza. Avian Diseases 45(2): 355-365.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  In 1997, highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) caused infections in poultry in Hong Kong and crossed into humans, resulting in a limited number of infections including 18 hospitalized cases and six associated deaths. The unique ability of this, AIV to infect both poultry and people raised a concern for the potential of humans to be biological as well as mechanical vectors of this AIV to poultry. The current study was undertaken to determine if existing vaccines and their technologies could be used during an outbreak to protect poultry. Commercial and experimental inactivated whole H5 AIV and baculovirus-expressed AIV H5 hemagglutinin protein vaccines provided protection from clinical signs and death in chickens after lethal challenge by human-origin HP H5N1 Hong Kong strains 156/97 and 483/97. The commercial and experimental inactivated vaccines had mean protective doses ranging from 0.25 to 0.89, which represents the milligrams of viral protein in the vaccines that provided protection from death in half of the birds. Furthermore, the vaccines reduced the ability of the challenge AIV to replicate in chickens and decreased the recovery of challenge AIV from the enteric and respiratory tracts, but the use of a vaccine will not totally prevent AI virus replication and shedding. Existing vaccines will protect poultry from mortality and reduce virus replication from the new HP AIV strain that can infect both poultry and humans.

            Descriptors:  immune system, infection, pharmacology, vector biology, avian influenza virus infection, viral disease, vaccination immunologic method, mortality.

Tagov, I. (1970). Kum antivirusnoto deistvie na amonieviia ion vurkhu reproduksiiata na niakoi virusi ot miksogrupata v kletuchni kulturi. [Anti-viral effect of the ammonium ion on the reproduction of certain viruses of the myxo-group in cell cultures]. Izvestiia Na Mikrobiologicheskiia Institut 21: 201-12.  ISSN: 0068-3957.

            NAL Call Number:  448.39 B87

            Descriptors:  ammonium chloride pharmacology, influenza A virus avian drug effects, orthomyxoviridae drug effects, virus replication drug effects, ammonium sulfate pharmacology, cattle immunology, kidney, tissue culture, virus cultivation.

Tahir Yaqub, Khushi Muhammad, Atta-Ur-Rehmann Rizvi , and M.A. Tariq (1996). Immune response of chickens to avian influenza vaccines. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 16(1): 1-6.  ISSN: 0253-8318.

            NAL Call Number:  SF604.P32

            Descriptors:  immunization, chickens, antibodies, vaccines, immune response, avian influenza virus.

Takada, A., N. Kuboki, K. Okazaki, A. Ninomiya, H. Tanaka, H. Ozaki, S. Itamura, H. Nishimura, M. Enami, M. Tashiro, K.F. Shortridge, and H. Kida (1999). Avirulent Avian influenza virus as a vaccine strain against a potential human pandemic. Journal of Virology 73(10): 8303-7.  ISSN: 0022-538X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR360.J6

            Abstract:  In the influenza H5N1 virus incident in Hong Kong in 1997, viruses that are closely related to H5N1 viruses initially isolated in a severe outbreak of avian influenza in chickens were isolated from humans, signaling the possibility of an incipient pandemic. However, it was not possible to prepare a vaccine against the virus in the conventional embryonated egg system because of the lethality of the virus for chicken embryos and the high level of biosafety therefore required for vaccine production. Alternative approaches, including an avirulent H5N4 virus isolated from a migratory duck as a surrogate virus, H5N1 virus as a reassortant with avian virus H3N1 and an avirulent recombinant H5N1 virus generated by reverse genetics, have been explored. All vaccines were formalin inactivated. Intraperitoneal immunization of mice with each of vaccines elicited the production of hemagglutination-inhibiting and virus-neutralizing antibodies, while intranasal vaccination without adjuvant induced both mucosal and systemic antibody responses that protected the mice from lethal H5N1 virus challenge. Surveillance of birds and animals, particularly aquatic birds, for viruses to provide vaccine strains, especially surrogate viruses, for a future pandemic is stressed.

            Descriptors:  influenza immunology, influenza A virus avian immunology, influenza vaccine immunology, communicable disease control, disease outbreaks, influenza prevention and control, influenza vaccine administration and dosage, mice, vaccination.

Taylor, J., R. Weinberg, Y. Kawaoka, R.G. Webster, and E. Paoletti (1988). Protective immunity against avian influenza induced by a fowlpox virus recombinant. Vaccine 6(6): 504-8.  ISSN: 0264-410X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR189.V32

            Abstract:  Fowlpox virus, the prototypic virus of the genus Avipoxvirus has a natural host range limited to avian species. As such, fowlpox virus provides a suitable candidate for the development of a species-specific recombinant viral vector. This paper reports the development of a fowlpox virus recombinant expressing the haemagglutinin molecule from a highly virulent avian influenza virus. On immunization of chickens and turkeys with the recombinant, protection is afforded against a lethal challenge with either the homologous or a heterologous influenza virus strain.

            Descriptors:  fowlpox virus genetics, hemagglutinins genetics, influenza immunology, poxviridae genetics, viral vaccines therapeutic use, chickens, fluorescent antibody technique, influenza prevention and control, orthomyxoviridae, poultry diseases prevention and control, recombinant proteins pharmacology, species specificity, turkeys, vaccination.

Tegerstedt, K., K. Andreasson, A. Vlastos, K.O. Hedlund, T. Dalianis, and T. Ramqvist (2003). Deletion of the non-essential ULO gene of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) virus leads to attenuation in chickens, and ULO mutants expressing influenza virus haemagglutinin (H7) protect against ILF and fowl plague. Journal of General Virology 84(12): 3443-3452.  ISSN: 0022-1317.

            NAL Call Number:  QR360.A1J6

            Descriptors:  vian influenza virus, avian laryngotracheitis virus, avian herpesvirus, herpesviridae,  disease prevention, disease resistance, genes, hemagglutinins, immunodiagnosis, laryngotracheitis, vaccination, vaccines, achickens.

Thomas, G.P., M. Forsyth, C.R. Penn, and J.W. McCauley (1994). Inhibition of the growth of influenza viruses in vitro by 4-guanidino-2,4-dideoxy-N-acetylneuraminic acid. Antiviral Research 24(4): 351-356.  ISSN: 0166-3542.

            NAL Call Number:  QR355.A5

            Abstract:  The sialidase inhibitor 4-guanidino-2,4-dideoxy-2,3-dehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid was tested for growth inhibitory effects against a panel of avian influenza A viruses encompassing all nine neuraminidase subtypes. Growth in tissue culture of viruses from each subtype was inhibited by this compound at concentrations within a range previously found effective against human N1 and N2 viruses. This compound may prove a selective agent for the treatment (and prevention) of influenza virus infections.

            Descriptors:  enzymology, microbiology, pharmacology, antiviral drug avian influenza viruses human influenza viruses neuraminidase inhibition pharmacodynamics 4-guanidino-2,4-dideoxy-N-acetylneuraminic acid.

Thrum, H., K. Eckardt, G. Bradler, R. Fugner, E. Tonew, and M. Tonew (1975). Streptovirudins, new antibiotics with antibacterial and antiviral activity. I. Culture taxonomy, fermentation and production of streptovirudin complex. Journal of Antibiotics 28(7): 514-21.  ISSN: 0021-8820.

            NAL Call Number:  396.8 J824

            Abstract:  A new antibiotic complex has been isolated from cultures of Streptomyces strain No. JA 10124. On the basis of taxonomic studies, the producing microorganism is described as Streptomyces griseoflavus (Krainsky, 1914) Waksman et Henrici, 1948, subsp. thuringiensis subsp. nov., type strain JA 10124. The antibiotic complex, designated as streptovirudin, was isolated from extracts of both mycelium and culture filtrate. It is a white amorphous material which consists of ten closely related components including streptovirudins A, B, C, D and E. The streptovirudin complex exhibits antibiotic activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Mycobacteria, and various DNA- and RNA-viruses.

            Descriptors:  anti bacterial agents isolation and purification, antiviral agents isolation and purification, administration, oral, anti bacterial agents administration and dosage, anti bacterial agents pharmacology, antiviral agents pharmacology, Chlamydia drug effects, fermentation, herpesvirus 1, suid drug effects, influenza A virus avian drug effects, injections, intraperitoneal, injections, intravenous, injections, subcutaneous, mice, Mycobacterium drug effects, Newcastle disease virus drug effects, sheep, sindbis virus drug effects, Streptomyces analysis, Streptomyces classification, vaccinia virus drug effects.

Tompkins, S.M., C.Y. Lo, T.M. Tumpey, and S.L. Epstein (2004). Protection against lethal influenza virus challenge by RNA interference in vivo. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101(23): 8682-6.  ISSN: 0027-8424.

            NAL Call Number:  500 N21P

            Abstract:  Influenza virus infection is responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths annually. Current vaccination strategies and antiviral drugs provide limited protection; therefore, new strategies are needed. RNA interference is an effective means of suppressing virus replication in vitro. Here we demonstrate that treatment with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) specific for highly conserved regions of the nucleoprotein or acidic polymerase inhibits influenza A virus replication in vivo. Delivery of these siRNAs significantly reduced lung virus titers in infected mice and protected animals from lethal challenge. This protection was specific and not mediated by an antiviral IFN response. Moreover, influenza-specific siRNA treatment was broadly effective and protected animals against lethal challenge with highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses of the H5 and H7 subtypes. These results indicate that RNA interference is promising for control of influenza virus infection, as well as other viral infections.

            Descriptors:  influenza prevention and control, RNA interference, base sequence, influenza A virus, avian genetics, avian physiology, mice, inbred balb c, RNA, small interfering administration and dosage, small interfering genetics, viral genetics, virus replication.

Tonew, E., M.K. Indulen, and D.R. Dzeguze (1982). Antiviral action of dipyridamole and its derivatives against influenza virus A. Acta Virologica 26(3): 125-9.  ISSN: 0001-723X.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 AC85

            Abstract:  Dipyridamole proved to be active against influenza viruses A/England 42/72, A/Bangkok 1/79 and A/fowl plague (FPV). The antiviral activities assayed by various methods varied from 90-99 per cent. No inhibition was found against influenza virus B/Leningrad 235/74 in vitro. Three dipyridamole derivatives were significantly active in tissue cultures against influenza virus A/England 42/72 and A/FPV. In white mice infected with influenza virus A/England 42/72 dipyridamole administered orally showed a protection rate of 62.5 per cent.

            Descriptors:  antiviral agents pharmacology, dipyridamole pharmacology, influenza A virus drug effects, dipyridamole analogs and derivatives, dipyridamole therapeutic use, influenza drug therapy, influenza A virus avian drug effects, mice, rimantadine therapeutic use.

Toure, M., D.P. Gupta, and R.A. Bankowski (1979). Cellular immune response in turkeys inoculated with two antigenically indistinguishable avian influenza-A viruses. Avian Diseases 23(2): 335-345.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Descriptors:  immunization, lymphocytes, avian influenza virus, turkeys, vaccines, immune response.

Treanor, J.J., B.E. Wilkinson, F. Masseoud, J. Hu Primmer, R. Battaglia, D. O'Brien, M. Wolff, G. Rabinovich, W. Blackwelder, and J.M. Katz (2001). Safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant hemagglutinin vaccine for H5 influenza in humans. Vaccine 19(13-14): 1732-7.  ISSN: 0264-410X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR189.V32

            Abstract:  Recent outbreaks of avian influenza in humans have demonstrated the need for vaccines for influenza viruses with pandemic potential. Recombinant hemagglutinins are an attractive option for such vaccines because they do not require handling potentially highly pathogenic influenza viruses for vaccine production. In order to evaluate the immunogenicity, optimum dosing and timing of administration of a recombinant baculovirus-expressed H5 HA (rH5) in humans, 147 healthy adults were assigned randomly to receive intramuscular rH5 as two doses of 25, 45 or 90 microg each, one dose of 90 microg followed by a dose of 10 microg, or two doses of placebo, at intervals between doses of 21, 28 or 42 days. All doses of rH5 were well tolerated. The rH5 vaccine was modestly immunogenic at high dose. Neutralizing antibody responses to a titer of 1:80 or greater were seen in 23% (14/60) of individuals after a single dose of 90 microg, and in 52% (15/29) after two doses of 90 microg. Varying intervals between doses from 21 to 42 days had no significant effect on antibody responses to vaccination. These results suggest that baculovirus-expressed H5 HA can induce functional antibody in individuals who have not had prior exposure to H5 viruses, but that further studies to improve the immunogenicity of the vaccine are needed.

            Descriptors:  hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus immunology, influenza A virus human immunology, influenza vaccine adverse effects, influenza vaccine immunology, vaccines, synthetic adverse effects,  vaccines, synthetic immunology, adult, antibodies, viral immunology, dose response relationship, immunologic, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus genetics, immunization schedule, kinetics, neutralization tests, vaccination.

Tripathy, D.N., C.W. Beard and  W.M. Schnitzlein (1994). Recombinant fowlpox virus vaccine containing avian influenza hemagglutinin gene: efficacy of routes of vaccination. In: G.P. Talwar, K.V.S. Rao and V.S. Chauhan (editor), Recombinant and Synthetic Vaccines, p. 36-38. ISBN: 3-540-57527-8.

            NAL Call Number:  QR189.2.R425 1994

            Descriptors:  recombinant vaccines, synthetic vaccines, avipoxvirus, Galliformes, avian influenza, hemagglutinin gene.

Tripathy, D.N. and W.M. Schnitzlein (1991).  Expression of avian influenza virus hemagglutinin by recombinant fowlpox virus. Avian Diseases 35(1): 186-191.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  A vaccine strain of fowlpox virus (FPV) was genetically engineered to produce avian influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA). This was accomplished by inserting a cDNA copy of the avian influenza virus HA gene, which was regulated by a vaccinia virus promoter, into the FPV thymidine kinase (TK) gene. Two types of recombinant viruses, differing only in the orientation of the HA gene relative to an adjacent foreign gene (lacZ), were created. Following preliminary identification of FPV recombinants based on the generation of beta-galactosidase (lacZ gene product), correct insertion of the HA gene into the genomes of these viruses was verified by hybridization studies. Susceptible chickens vaccinated with these FPV recombinants produced specific hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies against the HA antigen. In view of this immune response, these viruses may serve as vaccines against avian influenza virus. In this regard, they appeared to be less virulent than the parental virus.

            Descriptors:  fowls, recombinant vaccines, avian influenza virus, genes, hemagglutinins, fowl pox virus, immune response, virulence, genetic engineering, chickens.

Tumpey, T.M., D.R. Kapczynski, and D.E. Swayne ( 2004). Comparative susceptibility of chickens and turkeys to avian influenza A H7N2 virus infection and protective efficacy of a commercial avian influenza H7N2 virus vaccine. Avian Diseases 48(1):  167-76.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  During the spring of 2002, a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A (H7N2) virus caused a major outbreak among commercial poultry in Virginia and adjacent states. The virus primarily affected turkey flocks, causing respiratory distress and decreased egg production. Experimentally, turkeys were more susceptible than chickens to H7N2 virus infection, with 50% bird infectious dose titers equal to 10(0.8) and 10(2.8-3.2), respectively. Comparison of virus shedding from the cloaca and oropharynx demonstrated that recent H7N2 virus isolates were readily isolated from the upper respiratory tract but rarely from the gastrointestinal tract. The outbreak of H7N2 virus raised concerns regarding the availability of vaccines that could be used for the prevention and control of this virus in poultry. We sought to determine if an existing commercial avian influenza (AI) vaccine prepared from a 1997 seed stock virus could provide protection against a 2002 LPAI H7N2 virus isolated from a turkey (A/turkey/Virginia/158512/02 [TV/02]) in Virginia that was from the same lineage as the vaccine virus. The inactivated AI vaccine, prepared from A/chicken/ Pennsylvania/21342/97 (CP/97) virus, significantly reduced viral shedding from vaccinated turkeys in comparison with sham controls but did not prevent infection. The protective effect of vaccination correlated with the level of virus-specific antibody because a second dose of vaccine increased antiviral serum immunoglobulin G and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) reactivity titers in two different turkey age groups. Serum from CP/97-vaccinated turkeys reacted equally well to CP/97 and TV/02 antigens by HI and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These results demonstrate the potential benefit of using an antigenically related 1997 H7N2 virus as a vaccine candidate for protection in poultry against a H7N2 virus isolate from 2002.

            Descriptors:  chickens, influenza A virus, avian pathogenicity, avian etiology, poultry diseases etiology, turkeys, antibodies, viral blood, avian classification, avian immunology, prevention and control, poultry diseases immunology, poultry diseases prevention and control, species specificity, viral vaccines pharmacology.

Tumpey, T.M., M. Renshaw, J.D. Clements, and J.M. Katz (2001). Mucosal delivery of inactivated influenza vaccine induces B-cell-dependent heterosubtypic cross-protection against lethal influenza A H5N1 virus infection. Journal of Virology 75(11): 5141-50.  ISSN: 0022-538X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR360.J6

            Abstract:  Influenza vaccines that induce greater cross-reactive or heterosubtypic immunity (Het-I) may overcome limitations in vaccine efficacy imposed by the antigenic variability of influenza A viruses. We have compared mucosal versus traditional parenteral administration of inactivated influenza vaccine for the ability to induce Het-I in BALB/c mice and evaluated a modified Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin adjuvant, LT(R192G), for augmentation of Het-I. Mice that received three intranasal (i.n.) immunizations of H3N2 vaccine in the presence of LT(R192G) were completely protected against lethal challenge with a highly pathogenic human H5N1 virus and had nasal and lung viral titers that were at least 2,500-fold lower than those of control mice receiving LT(R192G) alone. In contrast, mice that received three vaccinations of H3N2 vaccine subcutaneously in the presence or absence of LT(R192G) or incomplete Freund's adjuvant were not protected against lethal challenge and had no significant reductions in tissue virus titers observed on day 5 post-H5N1 virus challenge. Mice that were i.n. administered H3N2 vaccine alone, without LT(R192G), displayed partial protection against heterosubtypic challenge. The immune mediators of Het-I were investigated. The functional role of B and CD8+ T cells in Het-I were evaluated by using gene-targeted B-cell (IgH-6(-/-))- or beta2-microglobulin (beta2m(-/-))-deficient mice, respectively. beta2m(-/-) but not IgH-6(-/-) vaccinated mice were protected by Het-I and survived a lethal infection with H5N1, suggesting that B cells, but not CD8+ T cells, were vital for protection of mice against heterosubtypic challenge. Nevertheless, CD8+ T cells contributed to viral clearance in the lungs and brain tissues of heterotypically immune mice. Mucosal but not parenteral vaccination induced subtype cross-reactive lung immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, and serum IgG anti-hemagglutinin antibodies, suggesting the presence of a common cross-reactive epitope in the hemagglutinins of H3 and H5. These results suggest a strategy of mucosal vaccination that stimulates cross-protection against multiple influenza virus subtypes, including viruses with pandemic potential.

            Descriptors:  B lymphocytes immunology, fowl plague prevention and control, influenza A virus avian immunology, influenza vaccine immunology, adjuvants, immunologic administration and dosage, administration, cutaneous, administration, intranasal, antibodies, viral analysis, antibodies, viral blood, bacterial toxins administration and dosage, CD8 positive T lymphocytes immunology, cross reactions, enterotoxins administration and dosage, Escherichia coli immunology, fowl plague immunology, fowl plague virology, Freund's adjuvant administration and dosage, hemagglutinins viral immunology, immunoglobulin A analysis, immunoglobulin A blood, immunoglobulin G analysis, immunoglobulin G blood, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, lung immunology, lung virology, mice inbred BALB c, mice, inbred c57bl, mice, knockout, species specificity, vaccines, inactivated immunology.

Ulupov, N.A. and S.B. Logginov (1969). Differentisiatsiia virusov n'iukaslskoi bolezni i klassicheskoi chumy ptits. [Differentiation of the virus of Newcastle disease from that of classical fowl plague]. Veterinariia 46(4): 25-6.  ISSN: 0042-4846.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V6426

            Descriptors:  fowl plague diagnosis, Newcastle disease diagnosis, chick embryo, chickens, diagnosis, differential, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, methods, Newcastle disease virus isolation and purification.

Van Kampen, K.R. (2001). Recombinant vaccine technology in veterinary medicine. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice 31(3): 535-8, vii.  ISSN: 0195-5616.

            NAL Call Number:  SF601.V523

            Abstract:  Recombinant technology is relatively new to veterinary medicine. It combines safety, purity, potency, and efficacy in the vaccine. Its positive features include not exposing the vaccinate to the pathogen, the lack of need for adjuvants, and stability that allows some vaccine to remain viable at ambient temperatures. These recombinants can receive multiple genetic inserts and present an opportunity to have multiple combination vaccines for use in animals. Licensed recombinant vaccines in veterinary medicine include those protecting against Lyme disease, pseudorabies, rabies, canine distemper, Newcastle disease, and a strain of avian influenza.

            Descriptors:  animal diseases prevention and control, vaccines, synthetic, veterinary medicine trends.

Vasfi Marandi, M., M.H. Bozorgmehri Fard, and M. Hashemzadeh (2002). Efficacy of inactivated H9N2 avian influenza vaccine against non-highly pathogenic A/Chicken/Iran/ZMT-173/1999 infection. Archives of Razi Institute (53): 23-32.  ISSN: 0365-3439.

            NAL Call Number:  QR189.A73

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, efficacy, antibodies, hemagglutination inhibition test, immune response, inactivated vaccines, pullets,  broilers, hens, vaccination, Galliformes.

Vastag, B. (2004). Agencies prepare worst-case flu vaccine. JAMA the Journal of the American Medical Association 291(12): 1429-30.  ISSN: 1538-3598.

            NAL Call Number:  448.9 Am37

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks prevention and control, influenza epidemiology, influenza prevention and control, influenza A virus avian immunology, influenza vaccine, world health, centers for disease control and prevention United States, influenza veterinary, poultry virology, poultry diseases epidemiology, poultry diseases virology, United States.

Veits, J., D. Lueschow, K. Kindermann, O. Werner, J.P. Teifke, T.C. Mettenleiter, and W. Fuchs (2003). Deletion of the non-essential UL0 gene of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) virus leads to attenuation in chickens, and UL0 mutants expressing influenza virus haemagglutinin (H7) protect against ILT and fowl plague. Journal of General Virology 84(12): 3343-3352.  ISSN: 0022-1317.

            NAL Call Number:  QR360.A1J6

            Descriptors:  infection, fowl plague, infectious laryngotracheitis virus infection, immunofluorescence, immunologic techniques, western blot, genetic techniques.

Voeten, A.C. (2004). Aviaire influenza en werkelijkheidszin. [Avian influenza and reality]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 129(17): 565-7.  ISSN: 0040-7453.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 T431

            Descriptors:  avian influenza epidemiology, poultry diseases epidemiology, birds, avian influenza prevention and control, Netherlands epidemiology, poultry, poultry diseases prevention and control.

Vrtiak, O.J. and B. Kapitancik (1967). Study of fowl plague virus resistance in biological and technical material. Bulletin Office International Des Epizooties 67(7): 969-88.  ISSN: 0300-9823.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 OF2

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus avian, humidity, hydrogen-ion concentration, temperature, virus cultivation.

Wainright, P.O., M.L. Perdue, M. Brugh, and C.W. Beard (1991). Amantadine resistance among hemagglutinin subtype 5 strains of avian influenza virus. Avian Diseases 35(1): 31-39.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Several avian influenza virus strains of hemagglutinin subtype 5 were assayed for sensitivity to the antiviral drug amantadine. Most strains exhibited little sensitivity to the drug as measured by plaque reduction. The A/Chicken/Scotland/59 (CS59), however, was highly sensitive, making it easily distinguishable from the other H5 strains. Drug sensitivity of the viruses was also assayed in chicken embryos. The in ovo patterns of amantadine sensitivity differed from those detected in cell culture. The CS59 isolate could not be distinguished from all the other strains on the basis of its response to amantadine in ovo. Although amantadine protected chickens inoculated with CS59 from morbidity and mortality, drug-resistant viruses were readily isolated from the infected birds. As found with other amantadine-resistant variants, the structure of the matrix gene was altered in the resistant isolates. These results demonstrate that amantadine resistance is widespread among avian influenza viruses of the H5 subtype, that drug sensitivity in cell culture does not necessarily reflect responses to amantadine in ovo and in vivo, and, as previously found, amantadine-resistant derivatives of H5 strains may be isolated from birds protected by the drug.

            Descriptors:  fowls, avian influenza virus, amantadine, susceptibility, drug resistance, strain differences, cell culture, ova, chickens.

Walli, T.K. and Keshab Barman (2004). Prevention and containment of transmittable diseases from livestock to man - a global challenge. Indian Dairyman 56(2): 37-43.  ISSN: 0019-4603.

            NAL Call Number:  44.8 In282

            Descriptors:  bovine spongiform encephalopathy, avian influenza virus, Coronavirus, disease control, disease distribution, disease prevalence, disease prevention, epidemiology, livestock, zoonoses, human, prions.

Wang HeMin, He Cheng, Zhang JianPing, and Li HaoPeng (2004). Studies on avian influenza inactivated vaccine of AIV-H5N1. Journal of China Agricultural University 9(1): 41-44.  ISSN: 1007-4333.

            NAL Call Number:  S19.C58

            Descriptors:  antibodies, antigens, disease control, disease prevention, dosage, immune response, inactivated vaccines, vaccination, vaccine development, avian influenza virus, fowl, embryos.

Wang XiuFeng  and Xin ChaoAn  (1998). Prevention and control of avian influenza. Poultry Husbandry and Diseases Control (6): 5-6.

            Descriptors:  disease prevention, disease control, disease transmission, diagnosis, quarantine, outbreaks, antibiotics, vaccination, avian influenza virus, China, Galliformes,  reviews.

Webby, R.J., D.R. Perez, J.S. Coleman, Y. Guan, J.H. Knight, E.A. Govorkova, L.R. McClain Moss, J.S. Peiris, J.E. Rehg, E.I. Tuomanen, and R.G. Webster (2004). Responsiveness to a pandemic alert: use of reverse genetics for rapid development of influenza vaccines. Lancet  363(9415): 1099-103.  ISSN: 1474-547X.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 L22

            Abstract:  BACKGROUND: In response to the emergence of severe infection capable of rapid global spread, WHO will issue a pandemic alert. Such alerts are rare; however, on Feb 19, 2003, a pandemic alert was issued in response to human infections caused by an avian H5N1 influenza virus, A/Hong Kong/213/03. H5N1 had been noted once before in human beings in 1997 and killed a third (6/18) of infected people. The 2003 variant seemed to have been transmitted directly from birds to human beings and caused fatal pneumonia in one of two infected individuals. Candidate vaccines were sought, but no avirulent viruses antigenically similar to the pathogen were available, and the isolate killed embryonated chicken eggs. Since traditional strategies of vaccine production were not viable, we sought to produce a candidate reference virus using reverse genetics. METHODS: We removed the polybasic aminoacids that are associated with high virulence from the haemagglutinin cleavage site of A/Hong Kong/213/03 using influenza reverse genetics techniques. A reference vaccine virus was then produced on an A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) backbone on WHO-approved Vero cells. We assessed this reference virus for pathogenicity in in-vivo and in-vitro assays. FINDINGS: A reference vaccine virus was produced in Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-grade facilities in less than 4 weeks from the time of virus isolation. This virus proved to be non-pathogenic in chickens and ferrets and was shown to be stable after multiple passages in embryonated chicken eggs. INTERPRETATION: The ability to produce a candidate reference virus in such a short period of time sets a new standard for rapid response to emerging infectious disease threats and clearly shows the usefulness of reverse genetics for influenza vaccine development. The same technologies and procedures are currently being used to create reference vaccine viruses against the 2004 H5N1 viruses circulating in Asia.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks prevention and control, influenza vaccines immunology, orthomyxoviridae immunology, orthomyxoviridae infections prevention and control, antibodies, viral immunology, Asia epidemiology, birds, communicable disease control methods, drug design, genetic engineering, Hong Kong epidemiology, influenza A virus, avian immunology, human immunology, avian influenza prevention and control, avian influenza virology, orthomyxoviridae chemistry, orthomyxoviridae growth and development, orthomyxoviridae infections immunology, orthomyxoviridae infections virology, plasmids immunology, poultry diseases immunology, poultry diseases prevention and control, poultry diseases virology, reassortant viruses chemistry, reassortant viruses growth and development, reassortant viruses immunology, transformation, genetic immunology, virulence factors isolation and purification.

Webster, R.G., Y. Kawaoka, W.J. Bean, C.W. Beard, and M. Brugh (1985). Chemotherapy and vaccination: a possible strategy for the control of highly virulent influenza virus. Journal of Virology 55(1): 173-6.  ISSN: 0022-538X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR360.J6

            Abstract:  The influenza A virus [A/Chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/83 (H5N2)] that caused up to 80% mortality among chickens provided a model system for testing the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents against highly virulent influenza virus. Amantadine and rimantadine administered in drinking water were efficacious both prophylactically and therapeutically. However, under conditions simulating natural transmission of virus, amantadine- and rimantadine-resistant viruses arose and were transmitted to other birds in contact with the infected chickens, causing mortality. Simultaneous administration of inactivated H5N2 vaccine and amantadine provided protection. Thus, chemotherapy may be useful in the treatment of a highly pathogenic influenza virus outbreak in humans or other animals when used in combination with vaccine.

            Descriptors:  adamantane analogs and derivatives, amantadine therapeutic use, fowl plague prevention and control, influenza A virus avian immunology, rimantadine therapeutic use, chickens, drug resistance, microbial, fowl plague drug therapy, fowl plague transmission, vaccination, viral vaccines immunology.

Webster, R.G., J. Taylor, J. Pearson, E. Rivera, and E. Paoletti (1996). Immunity to Mexican H5N2 avian influenza viruses induced by a fowl pox-H5 recombinant. Avian Diseases 40(2): 461-465.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  The presence of highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza in domestic poultry in Mexico that is not being eradicated by conventional depopulation methods constitutes an imminent problem for poultry producers and agricultural authorities in the United States. The present report considers the candidate vaccines available to H5N2 influenza virus and establishes that a fowl pox-H5 recombinant can provide protection from lethal Mexican H5N2, and prevent shedding in the feces and transmission to contact birds. Inactivated and recombinant vaccines may be useful adjuncts to eradication if the H5N2 influenza virus spreads to the United States or the countries in Central America.

            Descriptors:  Mexico, chickens, avian influenza virus, synthetic vaccines, avipoxvirus, disease control, immunity, agglutinins, genes, America, birds, cell structure, chromosomes, domestic animals, domesticated birds, Galliformes, influenza virus, Latin America, livestock, North America, nucleus, orthomyxoviridae, poultry, poxviridae, proteins, useful animals, vaccines, viruses, recombinant vaccines,  fowl pox virus, disease prevention, hemagglutinins.

Webster, R. (1999). DNA transcription unit vaccines that protect against avian influenza viruses and methods of use thereof. Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents 1223(5) ISSN: 0098-1133.

            NAL Call Number:  T223.A21

            Descriptors:  methods and techniques, pharmacology, veterinary medicine, avian vaccination method protective method.

Williams, J.R., P.Y. Chen, C.T. Cho, and T.D.Y. Chin (2002). Influenza: Prospect for prevention and control. Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences 18(9): 421-434.  ISSN: 1607-551X.

            Abstract:  Influenza is an emerging and re-emerging disease. Since the late 1930s influenza viruses have been isolated yearly from different parts of the world during epidemics and pandemics. The "epidemiologic success" of influenza is due largely to rapid and unpredictable antigenic changes (antigenic drift) among human influenza viruses, and the emergence of new subtypes (antigenic shift), mostly from reassortment between human and avian influenza viruses. Antigenic shifts were attributed to the global pandemic viruses of 1957 (H2N2 Asian flu) and 1968 (H3N2 Hong Kong flu). Concern over possible new pandemics has been heightened by recent reports of human infection in Asia in 1997 with avian viruses (H5N1) and in 1999 (H9N2) and isolation of human-avian reassorted viruses from pigs and humans in Europe. Influenza has a high rate of in apparent infection, short incubation and high infectivity; epidemics usually start abruptly and spread rapidly to neighboring communities and countries. Isolation and quarantine are often unsuccessful in preventing the spread of the infection. Although not perfect, immunization and chemoprophylaxis are highly effective at minimizing the spread of influenza and reducing morbidity and mortality, social disruption and economic loss. Plans for future influenza epidemics and pandemics require national and international programs to be in place for the monitoring of influenza activity, the dissemination and exchange of information and the provision and delivery of sufficient quantities of vaccines and antiviral agents. This paper reviews and discusses the antigenic variations of the influenza virus, potential influenza pandemics, protective efficacy of inactivated vaccines and antiviral agents and preparation for control of future epidemics and pandemics.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, influenza, epidemiology, prevention and control, respiratory system disease, viral disease, chemoprophylaxis clinical techniques, therapeutic and prophylactic techniques, immunization clinical techniques, therapeutic and prophylactic techniques, antigenic drift viral infectivity.

Wilpshaar, H., M.P.M. Meuwissen, F.H.M. Tomassen, M.C.M. Mourits, M.A.P.M. van Asseldonk and  R.B.M. Huirne (2003). Economic decision-making to prevent the spread of infectious animal diseases. In: Compendium of Technical Items Presented to the International Committee or to Regional Commissions 2001-2002, p. 337-388. ISBN: 9290446145.

            Descriptors:  animal diseases, disease control, disease transmission, decision making, economic analysis, losses, epidemiology, foot and mouth disease, Aphthovirus, avian influenza virus, swine fever virus.

Wood, J.M., Y. Kawaoka, L.A. Newberry, E. Bordwell, and R.G. Webster (1985). Standardization of inactivated H5N2 influenza vaccine and efficacy against lethal A/Chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/83 infection. Avian Diseases 29(3): 867-72.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  The hemagglutinin concentration of beta-propiolactone-inactivated influenza vaccine containing A/Duck/N.Y./189/82 (H5N2) virus was measured by single-radial-immunodiffusion (SRD) test. After administration of vaccine to chickens in Freund's complete adjuvant, vaccine efficacy was assessed by challenge with lethal A/Chicken/Penn./1370/83 (H5N2) virus. SRD potency values correlated with post-vaccination antibody levels and protection against infection.

            Descriptors:  fowl plague prevention and control, influenza A virus avian immunology, influenza vaccine standards, chickens, hemagglutinins viral immunology, influenza vaccine therapeutic use, neuraminidase immunology, poultry diseases prevention and control, vaccination.

Wood, J.M., D. Major, J. Daly, R.W. Newman, U. Dunleavy, C. Nicolson, J.S. Robertson, G.C. Schild, and Y.N. Lee Lin (1999). Vaccines against H5N1 influenza. Vaccine 18(7-8): 579-80.  ISSN: 0264-410X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR189.V32

            Descriptors:  influenza prevention and control, influenza A virus avian immunology, influenza vaccine therapeutic use, chickens, ducks, ferrets, human immunology, human isolation and purification, mice inbred BALB c.

Wood, J.M., D. Major, R.W. Newman, U. Dunleavy, C. Nicolson, J.S. Robertson, and G.C. Schild (2002). Preparation of vaccines against H5N1 influenza. Vaccine 20(Suppl. 2): S84-7.  ISSN: 0264-410X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR189.V32

            Abstract:  In response to the pandemic warning provided by the highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus infections in Hong Kong, there were world-wide attempts to develop vaccines. Three strategies were followed and although each was associated with some success, there were also some problems. Pre-clinical vaccine efficacy results are presented from one such strategy, that of using an apathogenic H5N3 avian strain for vaccine production.

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus avian immunology, influenza vaccine immunology, baculoviridae genetics, mice, vaccines, attenuated immunology, vaccines, synthetic immunology.

Wood, J.M., J. Mumford, G.C. Schild, R.G. Webster, and K.G. Nicholson (1986). Single-radial-immunodiffusion potency tests of inactivated influenza vaccines for use in man and animals. Developments in Biological Standardization 64: 169-77.  ISSN: 0301-5149.

            NAL Call Number:  QR180.3.D4

            Abstract:  Single-radial-immunodiffusion (SRD) provides a sensitive and reproducible in vitro assay for haemagglutinin (HA) concentration in inactivated influenza vaccines. The use of SRD for human influenza vaccine standardization and application for equine and avian influenza vaccines is discussed. In clinical trials, vaccine HA concentration measured by SRD has been shown to be directly related to antibody responses and to protection against challenge. The use of SRD may considerably reduce the usage of animals for potency testing of veterinary influenza vaccines.

            Descriptors:  influenza vaccine standards, vaccines, attenuated standards, antibodies, viral biosynthesis, chickens, horses, immunodiffusion standards, influenza prevention and control, influenza veterinary.

Wood, J.M., K.G. Nicholson, I. Stephenson, M. Zambon, R.W. Newman, D.L. Major, and A. Podda (2002). Experience with the clinical development of influenza vaccines for potential pandemics. Medical Microbiology and Immunology 191(3-4): 197-201.  ISSN: 0300-8584.

            Abstract:  During normal interpandemic influenza seasons, immune responses to vaccines are quite predictable and meet the licensing criteria of the European Union (EU) Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products (CPMP). In a pandemic situation, large sections, if not all of the community will be immunologically naive and therefore new immunisation strategies will be needed. In 1976 and 1977 H1N1 vaccines were prepared and tested clinically. To stimulate 'protective' antibody responses, two doses of vaccine were needed in people below the age of 24 years (no previous experience of H1N1 virus), whereas one conventional dose was adequate in older people. In 1997, the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus caused widespread concern when it infected man, with lethal effects. Due to safety concerns it was necessary to adopt new strategies for vaccine development and one such strategy was to produce vaccine from an avirulent H5N3 virus, A/Duck/Singapore-Q/F119-2/97. Clinical trials of a subunit vaccine prepared from A/Duck/Sing/97 virus revealed that even two doses of twice the normal vaccine concentration (i.e. 30 mug haemagglutinin) were poorly immunogenic, whereas an H5N3 vaccine adjuvanted with microfluidised emulsion (MF) 59 stimulated antibody levels that complied with CPMP criteria after two half strength doses (i.e. 7.5 mug haemagglutinin).

            Descriptors:  clinical immunology, epidemiology, infection, pharmacology, public health, pulmonary medicine, influenza, immunology, prevention and control, respiratory system disease, viral disease, pandemic prevention, vaccine development.

Wood, J.M. and J.S. Robertson (2004). From lethal virus to life-saving vaccine: developing inactivated vaccines for pandemic influenza. Nature Reviews Microbiology 2(10): 842-7.  ISSN: 1740-1526.

            Abstract:  Over the past eight years, cases of human infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses have raised international concern that we could be on the brink of a global influenza pandemic. Many of these human infections have proved fatal and if the viruses had been able to transmit efficiently from person to person, the effects would have been devastating. How can we arm ourselves against this pandemic threat when these viruses are too dangerous to use in conventional vaccine production? Recent technological developments (reverse genetics) have allowed us to manipulate the influenza virus genome so that we can construct safe, high-yielding vaccine strains. However, the transition of reverse-genetic technologies from the research laboratory to the manufacturing environment has presented new challenges for vaccine manufacturers as well as veterinary and public health authorities.

            Descriptors:  influenza vaccines isolation and purification, disease outbreaks prevention and control, genetic engineering, influenza prevention and control, influenza A virus, avian genetics, avian pathogenicity, avian ultrastructure, influenza vaccines genetics, safety, vaccines, inactivated genetics, vaccines, inactivated isolation and purification.

Wood, J.M. (2001). Developing vaccines against pandemic influenza. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B Biological Sciences 356(1416): 1953-1960.  ISSN: 0962-8436.

            NAL Call Number:  501 L84Pb

            Abstract:  Pandemic influenza presents special problems for vaccine development. There must be a balance between rapid availability of vaccine and the safeguards to ensure safety, quality and efficacy of vaccine. Vaccine was developed for the pandemics of 1957, 1968, 1977 and for the pandemic alert of 1976. This experience is compared with that gained in developing vaccines for a possible H5N1 pandemic in 1997-1998. Our ability to mass produce influenza vaccines against a pandemic threat was well illustrated by the production of over 150 million doses of 'swine flu' vaccine in the USA within a 3 month period in 1976. However, there is cause for concern that the lead time to begin vaccine production is likely to be about 7-8 months. Attempts to reduce this time should receive urgent attention. Immunogenicity of vaccines in pandemic situations is compared over the period 1968-1998. A consistent feature of the vaccine trials is the demonstration that one conventional 15 mug haemagglutinin dose of vaccine is not sufficiently immunogenic in naive individuals. Much larger doses or two lower doses are needed to induce satisfactory immunity. There is some evidence that whole-virus vaccines are more immunogenic than split or subunit vaccines, but this needs substantiating by further studies. H5 vaccines appeared to be particularly poor immunogens and there is evidence that an adjuvant may be needed. Prospects for improving the development of pandemic vaccines are discussed.

            Descriptors:  clinical immunology, epidemiology, infection, pharmacology, avian influenza, viral disease, pandemic influenza infection, prevention and control, respiratory system disease, viral disease, 1997-1998 pandemic, vaccine development.

World Health Organization (2004). Development of a vaccine effective against avian influenza H5N1 infection in humans. Weekly Epidemiological Record Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire 79(4): 25-6.  ISSN: 0049-8114.

            Descriptors:  influenza prevention and control, influenza A virus avian immunology, influenza vaccine, birds virology, influenza epidemiology, avian genetics, sentinel surveillance, vaccination, Vietnam.

Xie, Z.X. and H.D. Stone (1990). Immune response to oil-emulsion vaccines with single or mixed antigens of Newcastle disease, avian influenza, and infectious bronchitis. Avian Diseases 34(1): 154-62.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian influenza virus (AIV), and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) antigens were evaluated for immunological efficacy in monovalent and polyvalent vaccines. Vaccinated broilers were bled for hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests at 1- or 2-week intervals. Half of the chickens were challenged with the Largo isolate of velogenic viscerotropic (VV) NDV at 8 weeks post-vaccination, and the remainder were challenged with the Massachusetts 41 strain IBV at 9 weeks post-vaccination. Newcastle disease HI titers were reduced significantly (P less than 0.05) from those of monovalent control vaccine groups when IBV antigen was emulsified in mixtures with low (1-3x) concentrated NDV or NDV and AIV antigens. Avian influenza HI titers were significantly (P less than 0.05) lower than those of the control monovalent groups when highly concentrated NDV was part of the polyvalent vaccine. Infectious bronchitis HI titers were higher than those of control monovalent groups in 13 of 15 vaccine groups when IBV antigen was in polyvalent formulations. VV NDV challenge killed all non-NDV vaccinates and induced increased HI titers in NDV vaccinates but no morbidity or mortality. Sixty of 80 IBV vaccinates experienced a fourfold or greater HI titer increase following challenge. All non-IBV vaccinates seroconverted at 1 week post-challenge.

            Descriptors:  chickens immunology, coronaviridae immunology, infectious bronchitis virus immunology, influenza A virus avian immunology, Newcastle disease virus immunology, viral vaccines immunology, antibodies, viral biosynthesis, antigens, viral immunology, hemagglutination inhibition tests, specific pathogen free organisms, vaccines, inactivated immunology.

Xin ChaoAn (et al.)  (2000). Diagnosis, prevention and treatment of avian influenza. Poultry Husbandry and Diseases Control (7): 9-10.

            Descriptors:  diagnosis, prevention, treatment, avian influenza virus, fowl, Galliformes.

Xue JingShan, Xu HaiNie, Pan WenBo, Liao XiuYun, Yang Su, Bo QingRu, and Feng JiaWang (2001). The interference of inoculating chicks with avian influenza virus (AIV) type H9 vaccine on measuring the antibody to AIV type H5 in them. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology 31(6): 5-8.  ISSN: 1000-6419.

            Descriptors:  antibodies, chicks, poultry, birds, vaccines, immunization, measurement, avian influenza virus, orthomyxoviridae.

Yang, Y.H. (2004). [Pay enough attention to human infection with avian influenza virus]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 42(4): 246-7.  ISSN: 0578-1310.

            Descriptors:  influenza prevention and control, avian influenza A virus classification, avian influenza prevention and control, birds, China, Hong Kong, influenza etiology, avian influenza A virus pathogenicity, avian influenza virus complications, prognosis, World Health Organization.

Yilmaz, A., U. Heffels Redmann, and T. Redmann ( 2004). Evaluation of the virucidal efficacy of two chemical disinfectants against avian influenza virus A at different temperatures. Archiv Fur Geflugelkunde 68(2): 50-56.  ISSN: 0003-9098.

            NAL Call Number:  47.8 Ar2

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, disinfectants, formaldehyde, formic acid, potency, temperature, poultry.

Yu ZhenKang  and Fu ZhaoYang (et al)  (2001). Progress of research on avian influenza prevention and control in China. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science 21(1): 103-106.  ISSN: 1005-4545.

            NAL Call Number:  SF604.C58

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, disease control, disease prevention, poultry, China.

Zambon, M. (1998). Laboratory containment for influenza A H5N1 virus: level 2, level 3, or level 3+? Communicable Disease and Public Health PHLS 1(1): 71-2.  ISSN: 1462-1843.

            Abstract:  The recent alert over bird flu (influenza A H5N1) in Hong Kong has ruffled feathers in some countries, including the United Kingdom, as to how the virus should be handled in clinical and research laboratories.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks prevention and control, influenza prevention and control, influenza A virus avian pathogenicity, laboratory personnel, occupational exposure prevention and control, birds, Great Britain, Hong Kong.

Zanella, A., G. Poli, and M. Bignami. (1981). Avian influenza: approaches in the control of disease with inactivated vaccines in oil emulsion. In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, p.  180-183.

            NAL Call Number: aSF995.6.I6I5 1981a

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, control, inactivated vaccines, oil emulsion.

Zhang XiaoRong, Jiao XinAn, Pan ZhiMing, Zhang XiaoMing, Huang JinLin, Zhang RuKuan, and Liu XiuFan (2004). [DNA vaccines against H5 subtype of avian influenza virus delivered by attenuated Salmonella spp. and their immunogenicity in mice].  Animal Biotechnology Bulletin 9(1): 410-417.  ISSN: 1014-8469.

            Descriptors:  antigens, attenuation, DNA vaccines, immune response, polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcription, strains, vaccination, vaccine development, pathogenicity, avian influenza virus, poultry, fowl, mice, Salmonella typhimurium, genetic vectors.

Zhang ZhenXing (2004). Survey and ideas for the prevention and control of rare fowl avian influenza in our country. Journal of Economic Animal 8(3): 125-127.  ISSN: 1007-7448.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, disease control, disease prevalence, disease prevention, epidemiological surveys, pathogenicity, virulence, wild birds, ducks, fowl, ostriches, peafowl,  quail, Sturnidae, turkeys.

Zhao MingQiu, Xin ChaoAn, Zhao ChangWan, Ye GuoAn, Dan Kun, and Zhou SongLong (1998). Virucidal effects of 11 disinfectants on avian influenza virus. Poultry Husbandry and Diseases Control (1): 7.

            Descriptors:  hygiene, disinfectants, avian influenza virus,  disease control, China, Galliformes.

Zhou, E.M., M. Chan, M. McIsaac, and R.A. Heckert (1998). Evaluation of antibody responses of emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) to avian influenza virus infection. Avian Diseases 42(4): 757-761.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Emu antibody responses to avian influenza virus (AM infection were evaluated by the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests. AU birds infected with AIV H5N1, H5N3, or H7N7 developed antinucleoprotein (NP) antibodies as early as 7 days postinfection as detected by the C-ELISA. The responses lasted 49 days for the emus receiving H5N3 and at least 56 days for emus receiving the other two viruses. By  evaluating 50 emu field serum samples, the C-ELISA was found more sensitive than the AGID test for the detection of anti-NP antibodies. This study indicates that emus experimentally infected with AIV developed antibody responses that can be detected by C-ELISA, AGID, and HI tests. The results from this and our previous studies demonstrate the use of the C-ELISA as a substitute for the AGID test in a routine serodiagnostic screening for detection of antibodies to AIV infection in multiple avian  species.

            Descriptors:  immune system, infection, veterinary medicine, avian influenza virus infection, serodiagnosis, viral disease, agar gel immunodiffusion analytical method, competitive ELISA analytical method, hemagglutination inhibition test analytical method, antibody response: evaluation.

Zhu ChangGui  and Li YuMin  (1996). Diagnosis and management of an outbreak of avian influenza in exotic birds. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Medicine 22(1): 20.

            NAL Call Number:  SF604.C485

            Descriptors:  immunoprecipitation tests, serological surveys, avian influenza virus, diagnosis, management, outbreaks, pheasants, China.

Zimmerman, R.K. (2005). Recent changes in influenza epidemiology and vaccination recommendations. Journal of Family Practice 54(1 Suppl.): S1-8.  ISSN: 0094-3509.

            Abstract:  Influenza disease continues to cause thousands of deaths in the United States. Due to the burden of influenza hospitalizations among children, inactivated influenza vaccine is now routinely recommended for children age 6-23 months. A live, attenuated influenza vaccine was licensed in 2003 for healthy persons age 5-49 years.

            Descriptors:  influenza epidemiology, influenza vaccines administration and dosage, vaccination standards, age factors, influenza prevention and control, influenza virology, influenza vaccines adverse effects, avian influenza epidemiology, avian influenza prevention and control, avian influenza virology, attenuated vaccines administration and dosage, attenuated vaccines adverse effects, inactivated vaccines administration and dosage, inactivated vaccines adverse effects.


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