General

 

 

Ahmad, K. (2005). Increased Asian collaboration in fight against avian flu. Lancet Infectious Diseases 5(1): 9.  ISSN: 1473-3099.

            Descriptors:  influenza, avian prevention and control, international cooperation, southeastern Asia, birds, influenza, avian mortality.

Al Natour, M.Q. and M.N. Abo Shehada (2005). Sero-prevalence of avian influenza among broiler-breeder flocks in Jordan. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 70(1-2): 45-50.

            NAL Call Number:  SF601.P7

            Abstract:  Thirty blood samples were collected randomly from each of the 38 breeder-broiler farms in Jordan. Serum samples were examined using indirect ELISA for specific antibodies to avian influenza virus. The overall true flock-level sero-prevalence of avian influenza was 71% (95% CI: 55,83). Positive flocks had 2-30 sero-positive chickens and half of flocks had >20 sero-positive birds. The number of sero-positive flocks varied in the studied localities with more sero-positives in farms located within the migratory route of migratory wild fowl. The examined broiler-breeder flocks had no clinical signs, or noticeable decrease in egg production; mortalities were within the normal range (0.1-1%). The number of positive sera/flock correlated with flock size. There were a no significant (Pearsons r = 0.21, p = 0.21) correlation between positive flocks and age. A non-pathogenic AI virus infects broiler-breeder farms in Jordan. Wild local and migrating birds might promote the further spread of this virus in Jordan and other countries.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza, poultry, viral diseases, broiler-breeder, ELISA, age influence, Jordan.

Alexander, D.J. (1998). Avian influenza ecology: a brief review. Fish Veterinary Journal (United Kingdom) (3): 74-78.

            Descriptors:  fishes, fish diseases, avian influenza virus, etiology, salmonoidei, animal diseases, bony fishes, influenza virus, orthomyxoviridae, viruses, salmonidae.

Alexander, D.J. (1982). Avian influenza--recent developments. Veterinary Bulletin 52(6): 341-359.  ISSN: 0042-4854.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 T752

            Descriptors:  recent developments, avian influenza virus, turkeys, ducks.

Alexander, D.J. (1981). Current situation of avian influenza in poultry in Great Britain. In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, p. 35-45.

            NAL Call Number: aSF995.6.I6I5 1981a

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, poultry, ducks, turkeys, Great Britain.

Alexander, D.J. (2000). The history of avian influenza in poultry. World Poultry (Special): 7-8.  ISSN: 1388-3119.

            NAL Call Number:  SF481.M54

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, poultry, Gallus gallus, outbreaks, disease transmission, history.

Alexander, D.J. (1988). Influenza A isolations from exotic caged birds. Veterinary Record 123(17): 442.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  birds microbiology, fowl plague epidemiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, England, fowl plague microbiology, quarantine.

Alexander, D.J. (1998). Influenza aviare. Epidemiologia ed attuale situazione mondiale. [Avian influenza. Epidemiology and present world situation]. Selezione Veterinaria (Italy) (12): 935-951.

            NAL Call Number:  241.71 B75

            Descriptors:  aviary birds, avian influenza virus, epidemiology, etiology, viroses, animal diseases, pathogenicity, disease transmission, zoonoses, human diseases, wild animals, chickens, turkeys, ducks, ostriches, pheasants, geese, guinea fowl, quails, world, Anseriformes, biological properties, birds, domestic animals, Galliformes, infectious diseases, influenza virus, livestock, microbial properties, orthomyxoviridae, pathogenesis, poultry, Struthioniformes, useful animals, viruses, wildlife.

Alexander, D.J. (1982). Isolation of influenza A viruses from birds in Great Britain during 1980 and 1981. Veterinary Record 111(14): 319-21.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Abstract:  During 1980 and 1981 influenza A viruses of subtypes H3N2, H3N8, H4N1, H4N6, H6N2, H6N8, H7N7, H11N8 and H11N9 were isolated from birds in Great Britain, usually as a result of investigations of disease or death. However, all viruses were shown to be of low virulence for chickens in pathogenicity index tests. There was one occurrence of influenza virus infection of turkeys (H6N8) but viruses were frequently obtained from domestic ducks. Other viruses were isolated from exotic birds in zoos or bird collections.

            Descriptors:  birds microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, animals, zoo microbiology, antibodies, viral analysis, chickens, Great Britain, hemagglutination inhibition tests veterinary, immunodiffusion veterinary, avian immunology, avian pathogenicity, poultry microbiology.

Alexander, D.J. (1981). Isolation of influenza A viruses from exotic birds in Great Britain. In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, p. 79-92.

            NAL Call Number: aSF995.6.I6I5 1981a

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, isolation of influenza A virus, aviary birds, exotic birds, Great Britain.

Alexander, D.J. (1980). Isolation of influenza viruses from avian species in Great Britain. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 3(1-2): 165-70.  ISSN: 0147-9571.

            NAL Call Number:  QR180.C62

            Descriptors:  birds microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, influenza A virus isolation and purification, turkeys microbiology, Great Britain, avian classification, influenza A virus classification, serotyping.

Alexander, D.J. (2002). Keynote: Newcastle disease and avian influenza. Research in Veterinary Science 72(Suppl. A): 15.  ISSN: 0034-5288.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 R312

            Descriptors:  infection, Newcastle disease, viral disease, influenza virus A infection, viral disease, influenza virus B infection, viral disease, influenza virus C infection, viral disease, mortality, virulence, meeting abstract.

Alexander, D.J. (1989). New definitions for avian influenza viruses requiring intervention by governments. Implications to the situation in Great Britain. State Veterinary Journal (United Kingdom) 43(123): 172-187.  ISSN: 0269-5545.

            NAL Call Number:  SF601.S8

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, transmission, poultry,  wild birds, Great Britain, laws.

Alexander, D.J. (1996). Orthomyxoviridae (avian influenza). In: F.T.W.  Jordan and M. Pattison (editors), Poultry Diseases, 4th edition,  London, UK, p. 156-165. ISBN: 0-7020-1912-7.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.P65 1996

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, epidemiology, diagnosis, control, immunization, poultry diseases.

Alexander, D.J. (2000). A review of avian influenza in different bird species. Veterinary Microbiology 74(1-2): 3-13.  ISSN: 0378-1135.

            NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44

            Abstract:  Only type A influenza viruses are known to cause natural infections in birds, but viruses of all 15 hemagglutinin and all nine neuraminidase influenza A subtypes in the majority of possible combinations have been isolated from avian species. Influenza A viruses infecting poultry can be divided into two distinct groups on the basis of their ability to cause disease. The very virulent viruses cause highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), in which mortality may be as high as 100%. These viruses have been restricted to subtypes H5 and H7, although not all viruses of these subtypes cause HPAI. All other viruses cause a much milder, primarily respiratory disease, which may be exacerbated by other infections or environmental conditions. Since 1959, primary outbreaks of HPAI in poultry have been reported 17 times (eight since 1990), five in turkeys and 12 in chickens. HPAI viruses are rarely isolated from wild birds, but extremely high isolation rates of viruses of low virulence for poultry have been recorded in surveillance studies, giving overall figures of about 15% for ducks and geese and around 2% for all other species. Influenza viruses have been shown to affect all types of domestic or captive birds in all areas of the world, but the frequency with which primary infections occur in any type of bird depends on the degree of contact there is with feral birds. Secondary spread is usually associated with human involvement, probably by transferring infective faeces from infected to susceptible birds.

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, amino acid sequence, ducks virology, Great Britain, avian pathogenicity, molecular sequence data, turkeys virology.

Alexander, D.J. (2000). The role of the international reference laboratory. World Poultry (Special): 15-16.  ISSN: 1388-3119.

            NAL Call Number:  SF481.M54

            Descriptors:  international reference laboratory, diagnosis, avian influenza virus, poultry.

Alexander, D.J. (2003). Should we change the definition of avian influenza for eradication purposes? Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 976-981.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  The current definitions of high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI), formulated over 10 years ago, were aimed at including viruses that were overtly virulent in in vivo tests and those that had the potential to become virulent. At that time the only virus known to have mutated to virulence was the one responsible for the 1983-84 Pennsylvania epizootic. The mechanism involved has not been seen in other viruses, but the definition set a precedent for statutory control of potentially pathogenic as well as overtly virulent viruses. The accumulating evidence is that HPAI viruses arise from low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) H5 or H7 viruses infecting chickens and turkeys after spread from free-living birds. At present it can only be assumed that all H5 and H7 viruses have this potential and mutation to virulence is a random event. Therefore, the longer the presence and greater the spread in poultry the more likely it is that HPAI virus will emerge. The outbreaks in Pennsylvania, Mexico, and Italy are demonstrations of the consequences of failing to control the spread of LPAI viruses of H5 and H7 subtypes. It therefore seems desirable to control LPAI viruses of H5 and H7 subtype in poultry to limit the probability of a mutation to HPAI occurring. This in turn may require redefining statutory AI. There appear to be three options: 1) retain the current definition with a recommendation that countries impose restrictions to limit the spread of LPAI of H5 and H7 subtypes; 2) define statutory AI as an infection of birds/poultry with any AI virus of H5 or H7 subtype; 3) define statutory AI as any infection with AI virus of H5 or H7 subtype, but modify the control measures imposed for different categories of virus and/or different types of host.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, avian influenza, infectious disease, prevention and control, respiratory system disease, viral disease, disease eradication, epizootics, viral virulence.

Alexander, D.J. and W.H. Allan (1982). Avian influenza in turkeys: a survey of farms in eastern England, 1979/80. British Veterinary Journal 138(6): 473-9.  ISSN: 0007-1935.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V643

            Descriptors:  fowl plague epidemiology, poultry diseases epidemiology, turkeys, England, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification.

Alexander, D.J., M.S. Collins, and R.E. Gough (1980). Isolation of an influenza A virus from avian faeces samples collected at a London reservoir.  Veterinary Record 107(2): 41-2.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  birds microbiology, feces microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, water supply, antigens, viral analysis, avian immunology, London, water pollution.

Alexander, D.J. and R.E. Gough (1986). Isolations of avian influenza virus from birds in Great Britain. Veterinary Record 118(19): 537-8.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  birds microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, chickens microbiology, ducks microbiology, Great Britain,  turkeys microbiology.

Alexander, D.J. and J.C. Stuart (1982). Isolation of an influenza A virus from domestic fowl in Great Britain. Veterinary Record 111(18): 416.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  chickens microbiology, fowl plague microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, antibodies, viral analysis, chickens immunology, Great Britain, avian immunology.

Alfonso, C.P., B.S. Cowen, and H. Van Campen (1995). Influenza A viruses isolated from waterfowl in two wildlife management area of Pennsylvania. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 31(2): 179-185.  ISSN: 0090-3558.

            NAL Call Number:  41.9 W64B

            Abstract:  A survey was conducted at two wildlife management areas of Pennsylvania (USA) to evaluate an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) for the detection of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in cloacal swabs from waterfowl and to determine the influenza A virus subtypes and the distribution of these viruses among waterfowl. We collected 330 cloacal swabs from hunter-killed waterfowl in the fall of 1990 and from cage-captured waterfowl in the summer of 1991. Thirty-one hemagglutinating agents were isolated by chicken embryo inoculation (CEI) of which 27 were influenza A viruses and four Newcastle disease viruses (NDV). The prevalence of AIV infection was 8.2%. Compared to CEI, AC-ELISA was only 15% sensitive and 61% specific. Based on the distribution of AIV by species of waterfowl, mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and American wigeons (Anas americana) were at equal risk of AIV infection even though most of the AIV isolates came from mallards. Although significant crude effects of sampling site and season on AIV recovery could be established, juvenile age was identified as the primary risk factor of AIV recovery. Twelve AIV subtypes were identified by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neuraminidase inhibition (NI) tests. The most prevalent subytpes were H4N8 and H6N8. We concluded that AC-ELISA was not useful for the detection of AIV in cloacal swabs from waterfowl and that CEI, HI, and NI tests remain as the method of choice for AIV screening in waterfowl. Based on the results AIV infected preferentially the young which represent the high risk group in waterfowl populations. The results from the AIV subtyping in our waterfowl survey are consistent with the results from numerous longitudinal studies of waterfowl in North America.

            Descriptors:  ecology, enzymology, immune system, infection, pathology, veterinary medicine, wildlife management, ELISA, epidemiology.

Allan, W.H. (1981). Uncomplicated infection with virulent strains of avian influenza viruses. In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, 4-7 p.

            NAL Call Number: aSF995.6.I6I5 1981a

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, infection, virulence.

Almeida, J.D. and A.P. Waterson (1967). Some observations on the envelope of an influenza virus. Journal of General Microbiology 46(1): 107-10.  ISSN: 0022-1287.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 J823

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus avian, lipoproteins analysis, microscopy, electron, viral proteins analysis.

Almond, J.W. (1977). A single gene determines the host range of influenza virus. Nature 270(5638): 617-8.  ISSN: 0028-0836.

            NAL Call Number:  472 N21

            Descriptors:  genes viral, influenza A virus avian genetics, virus replication, cell line, DNA directed RNA polymerases genetics, DNA directed RNA polymerases metabolism, avian physiology, RNA viral genetics, viral proteins genetics, viral proteins physiology.

Amin, A., M.A. Shalaby, and I.Z. Imam (1980). Studies on influenza virus isolated from migrating birds in Egypt. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 3(1-2): 241-6.  ISSN: 0147-9571.

            NAL Call Number:  QR180.C62

            Descriptors:  birds microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, antigens, viral analysis, Egypt, avian classification, avian immunology, serotyping.

Anderson, R.E. (1981). Economic impact of avian influenza in domestic fowl on international trade. Feedstuffs 53(32) ISSN: 0014-9624.

            NAL Call Number:  286.81 F322

            Descriptors:  economic impact, avian influenza virus, disease control, international trade, domestic fowl.

Andral, B., C. Louzis, D. Trap, J.A. Newman, G. Bennejean, and R. Gaumont (1985). Respiratory disease (rhinotracheitis) in turkeys in Brittany, France, 1981-1982. I. Field observations and serology. Avian Diseases 29(1): 26-34.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  During the summer of 1981, a respiratory disease epidemic occurred in turkeys in Brittany, France. Since this initial epizootic, which lasted through fall, epizootic waves similar to the initial one have occurred at approximately 6-month intervals, with smaller peaks at 2-month intervals. The epidemiology, clinical signs, and postmortem findings were highly suggestive of an epizootic of chlamydiosis. Serological tests for chlamydia, paramyxoviruses, avian influenza, adenovirus 127, Mycoplasma, and Alcaligenes faecalis were conducted. The chlamydia tests were the only ones consistently positive.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks veterinary, poultry diseases epidemiology, respiratory tract infections veterinary, rhinitis veterinary, tracheitis veterinary, turkeys, antibodies, bacterial analysis, chlamydia immunology, complement fixation tests veterinary, France, poultry diseases immunology, respiratory tract infections epidemiology, respiratory tract infections immunology, rhinitis epidemiology, rhinitis immunology, seasons, tracheitis epidemiology, tracheitis immunology.

Andresen, M. (2004). Avian flu: WHO prepares for the worst. CMAJ Canadian Medical Association Journal; Journal De L'Association Medicale Canadienne 170(5): 777.  ISSN: 0820-3946.

            NAL Call Number:  R11.C3

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus, avian influenza A virus, human, influenza, avian virology, birds, Canada, disease outbreaks, health plan implementation, influenza vaccines therapeutic use, avian influenza drug therapy, avian influenza prevention and control, poultry, World Health Organization.

Anonymous (2004). Avian influenza. Epidemiological Bulletin 25(1): 5-8.  ISSN: 0256-1859.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virology, Asia, birds virology, influenza A virus, avian physiology, avian influenza prevention and control, avian influenza transmission.

Anonymous (2005). Avian influenza: perfect storm now gathering? Lancet 365(9462): 820.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 L22

            Descriptors:  influenza prevention and control, avian influenza A virus immunology, influenza epidemiology, influenza transmission, influenza virology, influenza vaccines, avian influenza prevention and control, avian influenza transmission, international cooperation, poultry.

Anonymous (1998). Avian influenza results in depopulation in Hong Kong. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 212(3): 331, 335.  ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Am3

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks, fowl plague transmission, influenza prevention and control, influenza A virus avian, zoonoses, Hong Kong epidemiology, influenza epidemiology.

Anonymous (2004). Avian influenza should be ruffling our feathers. Lancet Infectious Diseases 4(10): 595.  ISSN: 1473-3099.

            Descriptors:  antiviral agents therapeutic use, bird diseases epidemiology, disease outbreaks veterinary, influenza veterinary, influenza vaccines therapeutic use, acetamides therapeutic use, amantadine therapeutic use, southeastern Asia epidemiology, Far East epidemiology, influenza drug therapy, influenza epidemiology, influenza prevention and control, international cooperation, neuraminidase antagonists and inhibitors, rimantadine therapeutic use, sialic acids therapeutic use, World Health Organization.

Anonymous (2004). Avian influenza--the facts from the WHO. South African Medical Journal; Suid Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde 94(3): 158.  ISSN: 0256-9574.

            Descriptors:  influenza epidemiology, influenza A virus, avian isolation and purification, human isolation and purification, avian influenza epidemiology, birds, incidence, influenza prevention and control, avian influenza prevention and control, poultry, risk assessment, survival rate, World Health Organization.

Anonymous (2004). Avian influenza: the threat looms. Lancet 363(9405): 257.  ISSN: 1474-547X.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 L22

            Descriptors:  fowl plague transmission, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, Asia epidemiology, communicable diseases, emerging epidemiology, communicable diseases, emerging prevention and control, communicable diseases, emerging virology, disease outbreaks prevention and control, disease outbreaks statistics and numerical data, disease outbreaks veterinary, fowl plague epidemiology, fowl plague virology, Hong Kong epidemiology, avian pathogenicity, influenza vaccine supply and distribution, poultry virology, zoonoses transmission, zoonoses virology.

Anonymous (1993). Avian influenza virus in ratites: 1993. Foreign Animal Disease Report (21-4): 9-10.  ISSN: 0091-8199.

            NAL Call Number:  aSF601.U5

            Descriptors:  United States, emus, rheas, avian influenza virus, epidemiology, birds, ratites, North America, viruses, FAD report.

Anonymous (2004). China: towards "xiaokang", but still living dangerously. Lancet  363(9407): 409.  ISSN: 1474-547X.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 L22

            Descriptors:  public health practice standards, social change, China epidemiology, communicable disease control standards, communicable disease control trends, disease outbreaks prevention and control, disease outbreaks statistics and numerical data, influenza, avian epidemiology, avian influenza prevention and control, population surveillance methods, poultry, severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemiology, severe acute respiratory syndrome prevention and control, world health.

Anonymous (2004). Fowl flu fuels fears. Nature Medicine 10(3): 211.  ISSN: 1078-8956.

            Descriptors:  chickens virology, influenza epidemiology, influenza virology, influenza A virus, avian immunology, influenza vaccines, influenza prevention and control, influenza, avian epidemiology, zoonoses epidemiology.

Anonymous (2004). Getting out into the field, and forest. Lancet Infectious Diseases 4(3): 127.  ISSN: 1473-3099.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks prevention and control, avian influenza transmission, poultry diseases transmission, vaccination, animals, domestic animals, wild birds, disease notification, avian influenza epidemiology, avian influenza prevention and control, poultry, poultry diseases epidemiology, poultry diseases prevention and control, zoonoses.

Anonymous (1997). Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 infection in humans. Communicable Disease Report. CDR Weekly 7(50): 441.  ISSN: 1350-9357.

            Descriptors:  fowl plague transmission, influenza epidemiology, influenza A virus avian classification, adolescent, bacterial typing techniques,  chickens, child, preschool, fowl plague epidemiology, Hong Kong epidemiology, incidence, avian isolation and purification, middle aged, survival rate.

Anonymous (1976). An outbreak of avian influenza in commercial chickens. Foreign Animal Disease Report : 2.

            NAL Call Number:  aSF601.U5

            Descriptors:  avian influenza, commercial chickens, report, outbreaks.

Anonymous (1998). Picture story. Fight the flu. Nature Structural Biology 5(12): 1032.  ISSN: 1072-8368.

            Descriptors:  hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus ultrastructure, influenza A virus avian genetics, avian pathogenicity, hydrogen-ion concentration, influenza genetics, influenza mortality, influenza virology, avian physiology, models, molecular, protein conformation, protein precursors ultrastructure.

Anonymous (1973). Report of the Subcommittee on Avian Influenza to the Committee on Transmissible Diseases of Poultry. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association (77): 246-50.  ISSN: 0082-8750.

            NAL Call Number:  449.9 Un3r

            Descriptors:  bird diseases immunology, bird diseases microbiology, fowl plague immunology, fowl plague microbiology, antibodies, viral analysis, birds, ducks, geese, influenza A virus avian immunology, avian isolation and purification, pigeons, poultry diseases immunology, poultry diseases microbiology, quail, turkeys.

Anonymous (1998). Surveillance for avian influenza continues. Public Health Reports 113(3): 194.  ISSN: 0033-3549.

            NAL Call Number:  151.65 P96

            Descriptors:  influenza virology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, population surveillance, chickens virology, China, fowl plague virology, World Health Organization.

Anonymous (1998). Update: isolation of avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses from humans--Hong Kong, 1997-1998. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 46(52-53): 1245-7.  ISSN: 0149-2195.

            NAL Call Number:  RA407.3.M56

            Abstract:  As of January 6, 1998, a total of 16 confirmed and three suspected cases of human infection with avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses have been identified in Hong Kong. Confirmed cases are those from which an influenza A (H5N1) virus was isolated or in which a seroconversion to influenza A (H5N1) virus was detected by a neutralization assay. Suspected cases are those with influenza-like illness (ILI) and preliminary laboratory evidence of influenza A (H5N1) infection. This report summarizes interim findings from the ongoing epidemiologic and laboratory investigation of influenza A (H5N1) cases by health officials in Hong Kong and by CDC.

            Descriptors:  influenza epidemiology, influenza virology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, Hong Kong epidemiology, seroepidemiologic studies.

Anonymous (2004). World is ill-prepared for "inevitable" flu pandemic. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 82(4): 317-8.  ISSN: 0042-9686.

            NAL Call Number:  449.9 W892B

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks prevention and control, influenza epidemiology, world health, Asia epidemiology, influenza prevention and control, influenza virology, influenza A virus, avian influenza pathogenicity, avian influenza epidemiology, avian influenza prevention and control, avian influenza virology, public health practice.

Anraku, M.M.C., W.C. de Faria, and D.C. Takeyama (1971). Influenza aviaria em aves silvestres brasileiras. I. Inquerito sorologico atraves de imunodifusao. [Avian influenza in wild Brazilian birds. I. Serological survey using the immunodiffusion test]. Revista Do Instituto De Medicina Tropical De Sao Paulo 13(4) ISSN: 0036-4665.

            NAL Call Number:  RC960.R48

            Descriptors:  avian influenza, wild birds, diseases, serological survey, birds.

Anraku, M.M.C., C.V.F. de Godoy, M. da G. R. Oscar, and W.C. de Faria (1977). Influenza aviaria em aves silvestres brasilieres. II. Distribucao mensal de surtos epizooticos, detectados por tecnicas serologicas di imunodifusao. [Avian influenza in wild birds of Brazil. II. Monthly distribution of epizootic outbreaks, detected by gel diffusion tests]. Revista Do Instituto De Medicina Tropical De Sao Paulo 19(4): 237-240.  ISSN: 0036-4665.

            NAL Call Number:  RC960.R48

            Descriptors:  outbreaks, detection, gel diffusion tests, avian influenza virus, wild birds, Brazil.

Anup Bhaumik, M.K. Saha, and K.R. Viswanathan ( 2001). Avian influenza infection in chickens. Pashudhan 16(9): 3, 7.

            NAL Call Number:  SF604.P27

            Descriptors:  avian influenza infection, diagnosis, transmission, chickens, Gallus gallus.

Apisarnthanarak, A., R. Kitphati, K. Thongphubeth, P. Patoomanunt, P. Anthanont, W. Auwanit, P. Thawatsupha, M. Chittaganpitch, S. Saeng Aroon, S. Waicharoen, P. Apisarnthanarak, G.A. Storch, L.M. Mundy, and V.J. Fraser (2004). Atypical avian influenza (H5N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases 10(7): 1321-4.  ISSN: 1080-6040.

            NAL Call Number:  RA648.5.E46

            Abstract:  We report the first case of avian influenza in a patient with fever and diarrhea but no respiratory symptoms. Avian influenza should be included in the differential diagnosis for patients with predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly if they have a history of exposure to poultry.

            Descriptors:  gastrointestinal diseases physiopathology, influenza physiopathology, influenza A virus, avian pathogenicity, adult, chickens virology, fatal outcome, gastrointestinal diseases virology, health personnel, influenza virology, influenza, avian transmission, influenza, avian virology, poultry diseases transmission, poultry diseases virology.

Artois, M., R. Manvell, E. Fromont, and J.B. Schweyer (2002). Serosurvey for Newcastle disease and avian influenza A virus antibodies in great cormorants from France. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 38(1): 169-71.  ISSN: 0090-3558.

            NAL Call Number:  41.9 W64B

            Abstract:  Inland great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) culled in France were examined in the winter of 1997-98 and 1998-99 for antibodies to Newcastle disease (ND) and influenza A strains H5 and H7 by the hemagglutination inhibition test. Antibodies to influenza A group antigen were tested by agar gel precipitin test. Ten of 53 adult individuals were seropositive for ND virus. All sera were negative for influenza A antibodies. It is speculated that ND occurred in the sampled population.

            Descriptors:  antibodies, viral blood, fowl plague epidemiology, influenza A virus avian immunology, Newcastle disease epidemiology, Newcastle disease virus immunology, birds, fowl plague blood, fowl plague immunology, France epidemiology, hemagglutination inhibition tests veterinary, avian isolation and purification, Newcastle disease blood, Newcastle disease immunology, Newcastle disease virus isolation and purification, seroepidemiologic studies.

Astapovich, L.G., G.A. Ivanova, and S.B. Logginov (1968). Elektronnomikroskopicheskoe izuchenie shtammov virusa klassicheskoi chumy ptits. [An electron microscopic study of strains of the virus of classic fowl plague]. Veterinariia 45(9): 24-6.  ISSN: 0042-4846.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V6426

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus avian cytology, chick embryo, microscopy, electron.

Atwell, J.K. (1981). Regulatory problems associated with avian influenza. In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, p. 211-213.

            NAL Call Number: aSF995.6.I6I5 1981a

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, regulatory problems, disease control.

Austin, F.J. and V.S. Hinshaw (1984). The isolation of influenza A viruses and paramyxoviruses from feral ducks in New Zealand. Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science 62(Pt. 3): 355-60.  ISSN: 0004-945X.

            NAL Call Number:  442.8 Au7

            Abstract:  Tracheal and cloacal swabs from apparently healthy ducks, gulls, shearwaters and terns in New Zealand were tested for myxoviruses by inoculation into embryonated eggs. Seven influenza A viruses belonging to three antigenic subtypes (H4N6; H1N3; H11N3) and nine paramyxoviruses of two antigenic subtypes (PMV-1; PMV-4) were isolated from feral ducks. The occurrence of the same virus subtypes in birds, including ducks, in other countries suggests that they were introduced into New Zealand by the importation of infected poultry or game birds. Ducks experimentally infected with two of the influenza A virus isolates excreted virus in their faeces for 12 days. Infection with H4N6 subtype prevented reinfection with the same subtype but not with a different one (H11N3).

            Descriptors:  ducks microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, paramyxoviridae isolation and purification, immunity, avian immunology, New Zealand, virus replication.

Austin, F.J. and R.G. Webster (1993). Evidence of ortho- and paramyxoviruses in fauna from Antarctica. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 29(4): 568-71.  ISSN: 0090-3558.

            NAL Call Number:  41.9 W64B

            Abstract:  Serum antibodies to influenza A viruses and paramyxoviruses were detected in Adelie penguin (Pysoscelis adeliae) and Antarctic skua (Stercorarius skua maccormicki) sera in the Ross Sea Dependency. An avian paramyxovirus was isolated from a penguin cloacal swab.

            Descriptors:  avulavirus immunology, bird diseases epidemiology, fowl plague epidemiology, influenza A virus avian immunology, respirovirus infections veterinary, antarctic regions epidemiology, antibodies, viral blood, avulavirus isolation and purification, birds, cloaca microbiology, hemagglutination inhibition tests, immunoenzyme techniques, respirovirus infections epidemiology, seals.

Bahl, A.K., M.C. Kumar, and B.S. Pomeroy (1973). Epidemiologic and field observations on avian influenza viruses in breeder and grower flocks in Minnesota. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 163(10): 1197-1198.  ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Am3

            Descriptors:  avian influenza, epidemiology, field observations, Minnesota.

Bahl, A.K., A.C. Peterson, J.H. Sautter, and B.S. Pomeroy (1974). Avian influenza A and Mycoplasma synoviae infection in turkeys: A/turkey/Butterfield/72 (Hav6 Neq2) infection superimposed with M. synoviae. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 165(8): 743.  ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Am3

            Descriptors:  Mycoplasmosis synoviae, infection, avian influenza, turkeys.

Bahl, A.K., B.S. Pomeroy, S. Mangundimedjo, and B.C. Easterday (1977). Isolation of type A influenza and Newcastle disease viruses from migratory waterfowl in the Mississippi flyway. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 171(9): 949-51.  ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Am3

            Abstract:  Twenty-seven chicken red blood cell agglutinating agents were isolated from 187 tracheal swabbings of apparently healthy migratory mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) in the Mississippi flyway. Twenty-four of the isolants were type A influenza virus; 3 lentogenic Newcastle disease viruses were isolated. Isolations were not made from either 65 giant Canada geese (Branta canadensis) or 60 Franklins' gulls (Larus pipixcan).

            Descriptors:  birds microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, Newcastle disease virus isolation and purification, ducks microbiology, geese microbiology, avian immunology, Mississippi, trachea microbiology.

Bailey, T.A., U. Wernery, R.E. Gough, R. Manvell, and J.H. Samour (1996). Serological survey for avian viruses in houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii). Veterinary Record 139(10): 238-9.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  antibodies, viral blood, bird diseases diagnosis, birds blood, coronavirus infections diagnosis, fowl plague immunology, infectious bronchitis virus immunology, influenza A virus avian immunology, respirovirus immunology, respirovirus infections diagnosis, antibodies, viral immunology, bird diseases blood, bird diseases epidemiology, birds immunology, birds virology, coronavirus infections blood, coronavirus infections epidemiology, data collection, respirovirus infections blood, respirovirus infections epidemiology, United Arab Emirates epidemiology.

Bankowski, R.A. (1981). Introduction and objectives of the symposium. In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, p. vii-xiv.

            NAL Call Number: aSF995.6.I6I5 1981a

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, disease prevention, disease control, poultry, symposium.

Bankowski, R.A., R.D. Conrad, and B. Reynolde (1968). Avian influenza A and paramyxo viruses complicating respiratory disease diagnosis in poultry. Avian Diseases 12(2): 259-78.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Descriptors:  orthomyxoviridae infections veterinary, poultry diseases diagnosis, respiratory tract infections veterinary, turkeys, hemagglutination inhibition tests, influenza diagnosis, influenza veterinary, Newcastle disease diagnosis, orthomyxoviridae infections diagnosis, respiratory tract infections diagnosis.

Bankowski, R.A. and B. Samadieh (1980). Avian influenza in turkeys. Poultry Digest 39: 326-332.  ISSN: 0032-5724.

            NAL Call Number:  47.8 N219

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, turkeys, control, prevention.

Banks, J., E.C. Speidel, J.W. McCauley, and D.J. Alexander (2000). Phylogenetic analysis of H7 haemagglutinin subtype influenza A viruses. Archives of Virology 145(5): 1047-58.  ISSN: 0304-8608.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ar23

            Abstract:  A 945 nucleotide region (bases 76-1020) of the HA1 part of the HA gene was obtained for 31 influenza viruses of H7 subtype isolated primarily from Europe, Asia and Australia over the last 20 years. These were analysed phylogenetically and compared with sequences of the same region from 23 H7 subtype viruses available in Genbank. The overall results showed two geographically distinct lineages of North American and Eurasian viruses with major sublineages of Australian, historical European and equine viruses. Genetically related sublineages and clades within these major groups appeared to reflect geographical and temporal parameters rather than being defined by host avian species. Viruses of high and low virulence shared the same phylogenetic branches, supporting the theory that virulent viruses are not maintained as a separate entity in waterfowl.

            Descriptors:  hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus genetics, influenza A virus avian classification, avian genetics, amino acid sequence, fowl plague virology, genes viral, avian isolation and purification, phylogeny, poultry, sequence homology, amino acid.

Barclay, W.S. and M. Zambon (2004). Pandemic risks from bird flu. BMJ Clinical Research 328(7434): 238-9.  ISSN: 1468-5833.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks, fowl plague epidemiology, influenza epidemiology, Asia, Southeastern epidemiology, birds, chickens, influenza A virus avian, human.

Barr, D.A., M.D. O'Rourke, D.C. Grix, R.L. Reece, A.P. Kelly, R.T. Badman, and A.R. Campey (1986). Avian influenza on a multi-age chicken farm. Australian Veterinary Journal 63(6): 195-196.  ISSN: 0005-0423.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Au72

            Abstract:  An account of an outbreak on a farm near Bendigo in 1985, where 120,000 birds were housed in 12 sheds. The virus, highly virulent, was subtype H7N7. The outbreak occurred in birds already affected with complex respiratory disease.

            Descriptors:  chickens, avian influenza virus, Victoria, Australia, birds, domestic animals, domesticated birds, Galliformes, influenza virus, livestock, Oceania, poultry, useful animals, viruses, chickens viruses.

Baumeister, E.G. and V.L. Savy (1998). Human circulation of avian influenza (H5N1) in Hong Kong. Boletķn De La Asociación Argentina De Microbiologķa (129): 12-13.  ISSN: 0325-6480.

            Descriptors:  human diseases, influenza virus A, epidemics, clinical aspects, diagnosis, reviews,  Hong Kong.

Beard, C.W. (1984). Focus on ... avian influenza. Foreign Animal Disease Report 12(2): 5-11.  ISSN: 0091-8199.

            NAL Call Number:  aSF601.U5

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, poultry diseases, reviews.

Beard, C.W. (1997). Historical lessons about avian influenza.  Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 46: 29-31.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, lessons, history.

Beard, C.W. (1997). Historical lessons from avian influenza. Zootecnica International 20(6): 16-18.  ISSN: 0392-0593.

            NAL Call Number:  SF600.Z6

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, disease control, lessons, history, vaccination, strains, reservoir hosts, geographical distribution.

Beard, C.W. (1981). Turkey influenza vaccination. Veterinary Record 108(25): 545.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  fowl plague prevention and control, turkeys, vaccination veterinary, influenza A virus avian immunology, viral vaccines.

Beard, C.W., M. Brugh, and D.C. Johnson (1984). Laboratory studies with the Pennsylvania avian influenza viruses (H5N2). Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association 88: 462-473.

            NAL Call Number:  449.9 Un3r

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, laboratory diagnosis, survival, feces, chickens.

Beard, C.W., S.B. Hitchner, C.H. Domermuth, H.G. Purchase (ed.) and   J.E. Williams (ed.) (1975). Avian influenza. In: Isolation and Identification of Avian Pathogens, American Association of Avian Pathologists:p. 174-181.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.I86

            Descriptors:  virus identification, detection, laboratory diagnosis, influenza, ducks, quails.

Beard, C.W. (2002). Avian influenza debate continues. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 221(11): 1546.  ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Am3

            Descriptors:  animal husbandry, infection, respiratory system, veterinary medicine, influenza, infectious disease, prevention and control, respiratory system disease, viral disease, biosecurity, disease eradication, pathogenic outbreaks.

Beare, A.S. and R.G. Webster (1991). Replication of avian influenza viruses in humans. Archives of Virology 119(1-2): 37-42.  ISSN: 0304-8608.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ar23

            Abstract:  Volunteers inoculated with avian influenza viruses belonging to subtypes currently circulating in humans (H1N1 and H3N2) were largely refractory to infection. However 11 out of 40 volunteers inoculated with the avian subtypes, H4N8, H6N1, and H10N7, shed virus and had mild clinical symptoms: they did not produce a detectable antibody response. This was presumably because virus multiplication was limited and insufficient to stimulate a detectable primary immune response. Avian influenza viruses comprise hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes 1-14 and it is possible that HA genes not so far seen in humans could enter the human influenza virus gene pool through reassortment between avian and circulating human viruses.

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus avian pathogenicity, adult, antibodies, viral blood, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus, hemagglutinins viral immunology, avian isolation and purification, avian physiology, middle aged, species specificity, virus replication.

Beckford Ball, J. (2004). Building awareness of the avian flu outbreak and its symptoms. Nursing Times 100(6): 28-9.  ISSN: 0954-7762.

            Abstract:  The current outbreak of avian influenza in South East Asia has resulted in a small number of human deaths. Avian flu can pass from birds to humans, although the number of humans infected is low. The fear is that the avian flu virus could mutate in a human who was also infected with a common flu virus, creating a new strain that could pass from human to human. Nurses, especially those working in travel health, should keep themselves informed of the latest developments.

            Descriptors:  avian flu, outbreak, symptoms, South East Asia, human deaths, birds.

Becquart, P. (2003). Avian influenza: a mutant [Grippe aviaire : le grand mutant couve]. Biofutur (France)  (235): 5-6. P4220.  ISSN: 0294-3506.

            NAL Call Number:  TP248.13.B565

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, mutants, disease transmission, zoonoses.

Belshe, R.B. (1998). Influenza as a zoonosis: how likely is a pandemic? Lancet  351(9101): 460-1.  ISSN: 0140-6736.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 L22

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks, fowl plague transmission, influenza transmission, influenza virology,  influenza A virus avian, zoonoses, Asia epidemiology, chickens virology, Hong Kong epidemiology, influenza epidemiology.

Belshe, R.B. (1995). A review of attenuation of influenza viruses by genetic manipulation. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 152(4, Pt. 2): S72-5.  ISSN: 1073-449X.

            Descriptors:  genetic engineering methods, influenza A virus human genetics, influenza B virus genetics, influenza vaccine genetics, adult, infant, avian immunology, human immunology, human pathogenicity, influenza B virus immunology, influenza B virus pathogenicity, influenza vaccine immunology, vaccines, attenuated genetics, vaccines, attenuated immunology, vaccines, combined genetics,  vaccines, combined immunology.

Bennejean, G. (1981). Is an international regulation of avian influenza feasible? In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza, Beltsville, Maryland, USA,  p. 198-210.

            NAL Call Number: aSF995.6.I6I5 1981a

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, disease control, international regulation, symposium.

Bennink, J.R. and T.N. Palmore (2004). The promise of siRNAs for the treatment of influenza. Trends in Molecular Medicine 10(12): 571-4.  ISSN: 1471-4914.

            Abstract:  Current WHO reports on the Asian avian influenza virus outbreaks are poignant reminders of the potential for the emergence of highly virulent strains of influenza A virus (IAV) and the fact that it remains a scourge on human health. As IAV drifts and shifts its genetic and antigenic composition, it presents an ever-changing challenge for vaccines and antiviral medications. Short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are the latest class of potential antiviral therapeutics to be developed. Recent reports using siRNAs in mice suggest that they hold great promise for the prevention and treatment of IAV infections.

            Descriptors:  antiviral agents therapeutic use, influenza drug therapy, influenza A virus genetics, small interfering RNA therapeutic use, mice, RNA interference physiology, short-interfering RNA.

Bhattacharjee, Y. (2004). Microbiology. Scientist pleads guilty of receiving illegally imported avian flu virus. Science 305(5692): 1886.  ISSN: 1095-9203.

            NAL Call Number:  470 Sci2

            Descriptors:  crime, influenza A virus, avian, microbiology legislation and jurisprudence, chickens, commerce legislation and jurisprudence, licensure, Saudi Arabia, United States.

Bi Yingzuo and Cao Yongchang (1994). Serological investigation of avian influenza in Guangdong, China. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Medicine 21(7): 8-9.

            NAL Call Number:  SF604.C485

            Descriptors:  chickens, avian influenza virus, pathogenicity, symptoms, immunodiagnosis, Guangdong, Asia, biological properties, birds, China, diagnosis, domestic animals, domesticated birds, East Asia, Galliformes, immunological techniques, influenza virus, livestock, microbial properties, poultry, useful animals, viruses.

Biggs, P.M. (1982). The epidemiology of avian herpesviruses in veterinary medicine. Developments in Biological Standardization 52: 3-11.  ISSN: 0301-5149.

            NAL Call Number:  QR180.3.D4

            Abstract:  There are ten avian herpesviruses, which have been isolated from eight orders. Six of these are of veterinary importance: Pacheco's parrot disease virus, pigeon herpesvirus, duck plague virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, herpesvirus of turkeys and Marek's disease virus. The knowledge on the epidemiology of each virus and the disease it causes is discussed. Features in common to infections with most avian herpesviruses are: infection is persistent in individuals and ubiquitous in populations; virus is shed for long periods of time after infection although in some cases erratically; infection does not necessarily result in disease and at least in some avian herpesvirus infections the incidence of disease is affected by the pathogenicity of the virus; the genetic constitution of the host and stress factors affecting the host. It is concluded that man's interference with the natural history of host species often increases the threat and incidence of disease unless preventive action is taken.

            Descriptors:  birds microbiology, herpesviridae isolation and purification, herpesviridae infections veterinary, ducks microbiology, herpesvirus 1, gallid isolation and purification, herpesvirus 2, gallid isolation and purification, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, pigeons microbiology, turkeys microbiology.

Bikour, M.H., E.H. Frost, S. Deslandes, B. Talbot, and Y. Elazhary (1995). Persistence of a 1930 swine influenza A (H1N1) virus in Quebec. Journal of General Virology 76(Pt. 10): 2539-47.  ISSN: 0022-1317.

            NAL Call Number:  QR360.A1J6

            Abstract:  Two antigenically distinct H1N1 influenza A viruses were isolated during an outbreak of respiratory disease in Quebec swine in 1990/91. Analysis of haemagglutinin and partial nucleoprotein sequences indicated that one was a variant of the swine H1N1 influenza virus circulating in the American Midwest whereas the other was very similar to virus isolated from swine in 1930. The existence of this latter isolate supports the concept that influenza viruses can be maintained for long periods in swine, perhaps in geographically limited pockets. Serological evidence indicates that these distinct strains continued to circulate widely in south-central Quebec until at least 1993.

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus, porcine genetics, influenza A virus, porcine immunology, orthomyxoviridae infections veterinary, phylogeny, swine diseases virology, amino acid sequence,  antigenic variation, antigens, viral analysis, base sequence, capsid genetics, disease outbreaks, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus, hemagglutinins viral analysis, hemagglutinins viral genetics, avian genetics, human genetics, molecular sequence data, orthomyxoviridae infections epidemiology, orthomyxoviridae infections virology, quebec epidemiology, sequence analysis, DNA, sequence homology, amino acid, swine, swine diseases epidemiology, viral core proteins genetics.

Bisgaard, M. (1977). Virusbetingede luftvejslidelser hos fjerkrae--forekomst og diagnostik. [Respiratory diseases in poultry caused by viruses--occurrence and diagnosis (author's transl)]. Nordisk Veterinaermedicin 29(7-8): 305-24.  ISSN: 0029-1579.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 N813

            Abstract:  The highly intensive conditions, that economic necessity has forced upon the poultry industry, have resulted in strongly changed environmental conditions and management which combined with the use of a constantly increasing number of live vaccines has highly complicated clearing up the etiology in diseased flocks. This is true not least as far as respiratory diseases concerns, which thereby often run an atypical course. A review, however, not complete, is given of the occurrence and diagnostic procedures in respiratory diseases caused by viruses, the greatest importance attached to infections caused by adeno- and infectious bronchitis virus.

            Descriptors:  poultry diseases diagnosis, poultry diseases epidemiology, respiratory tract infections veterinary, virus diseases veterinary, herpesvirus 1, gallid isolation and purification, infectious bronchitis virus isolation and purification, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, paramyxoviridae isolation and purification, poultry, reoviridae isolation and purification, respiratory tract infections diagnosis, respiratory tract infections epidemiology, virus diseases diagnosis, virus diseases epidemiology.

Bogdan, J., O.J. Vrtiak, R. Polony, and T. Pauer (1968). Dynamics of immunomorphological changes in the organs of chickens after immunization with BPL vaccine and after challenge with fowl plague virus. Bulletin Office International Des Epizooties 69(5): 725-44.  ISSN: 0300-9823.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 OF2

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus avian immunology, orthomyxoviridae infections veterinary, poultry diseases immunology, antibody formation, chickens, lactones, orthomyxoviridae infections immunology, vaccination , vaccines.

Bonaduce, A., G. Iovane, and F. Martone (1986). L'influenza aviaria. [Avian influenza]. Acta Medica Veterinaria 32(3-4): 143-287.  ISSN: 0001-6136.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 AC84

            Descriptors:  avian influenza, reviews.

Bonn, D. (2004). Avian influenza: the whole world's business. Lancet Infectious Diseases 4(3): 128.  ISSN: 1473-3099.

            Descriptors:  ducks virology, avian influenza transmission, poultry diseases transmission, zoonoses, Asia epidemiology, food contamination, avian influenza epidemiology, poultry diseases epidemiology, public health.

Boudreault, A., J. Lecomte, and V.S. Hinshaw (1980). Caracterisation antigenique des virus influenza A isoles des oiseaux captures dans l'Ontario, le Quebec et les provinces maritimes durant la saison 1977. [Antigenic characterization of influenza A virus isolated from birds captured in Ontario, Quebec, and the maritime provinces during the 1977 season]. Revue Canadienne De Biologie Editee Par L'Universite De Montreal 39(2): 107-14.  ISSN: 0035-0915.

            NAL Call Number:  442.8 R325

            Abstract:  A total of 145 influenza A viruses were isolated from ducks, geese and passerine birds in Ontario, Quebec and the Maritimes in July-August 1977. Antigenic characterization of these isolates included five hemagglutinin (Hsw1, Hav4, Hav5, Hav6, Hav7) and five neuraminidase subtypes (N1, N2, Neq1, Neq2, Nav1) in nine different combinations; one combination Hav7 Neq1 had not been previously reported. The majority of these viruses were Hsw1 N1, antigenically related to influenza viruses in pigs and humans. This large reservoir of influenza A viruses circulating in ducks may well be involved in the appearance of new viruses in other species, including humans.

            Descriptors:  animal population groups microbiology, animals, wild microbiology, birds microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, Canada, disease reservoirs, ducks microbiology, hemagglutinins viral analysis, avian immunology, neuraminidase analysis,  viral proteins analysis.

Brewster, R.ed. (1984). Proceedings, Newcastle disease and fowl plague seminar, Sydney, vi + 140 p.

            NAL Call Number: SF995.6.N4N48 1984

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, seminar, Sydney, review, disease control, viral diseases, poultry, Newcastle disease.

Bricaire, F. (2004). La grippe aviaire, quel risque de transmission interhumaine? [Avian flu, what are the risks of inter-human transmission?]. Presse Medicale Paris, France 1983 33(6): 366-7.  ISSN: 0755-4982.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks, influenza A virus, avian influenza, avian influenza epidemiology, avian influenza transmission, zoonoses, human, porcine, avian influenza prevention and control, poultry, risk factors, swine.

Brown, H. (2004). WHO confirms human-to-human avian flu transmission. Lancet  363(9407): 462.  ISSN: 1474-547X.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 L22

            Descriptors:  disease transmission, horizontal statistics and numerical data, fowl plague transmission, Asia epidemiology, fowl plague epidemiology, fowl plague prevention and control, influenza A virus avian, poultry, World Health Organization, zoonoses epidemiology, zoonoses transmission.

Brown, I.H., P.A. Harris, J.W. McCauley, and D.J. Alexander (1998). Multiple genetic reassortment of avian and human influenza A viruses in European pigs, resulting in the emergence of an H1N2 virus of novel genotype. Journal of General Virology 79(Pt. 12): 2947-55.  ISSN: 0022-1317.

            NAL Call Number:  QR360.A1J6

            Abstract:  Novel H1N2 influenza A viruses which were first detected in pigs in Great Britain in 1994 were examined antigenically and genetically to determine their origins and establish the potential mechanisms for genetic reassortment. The haemagglutinin (HA) of all swine H 1 N2 viruses examined was most closely related to, but clearly distinguishable both antigenically and genetically from, the HA of human H1N1 viruses which circulated in the human population during the early 1 980s. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene revealed that the swine H 1 N2 viruses formed a distinct branch on the human lineage and were probably introduced to pigs shortly after 1980. Following apparent transfer to pigs the HA gene underwent genetic variation resulting in the establishment and cocirculation of genetically and antigenically heterogeneous virus populations. Genetic analyses of the other RNA segments of all swine H1N2 viruses indicated that the neuraminidase gene was most closely related to those of early 'human-like' swine H3N2 viruses, whilst the RNA segments encoding PB2, PB1, PA, NP, M and NS were related most closely to those of avian viruses, which have been circulating recently in pigs in Northern Europe. The potential mechanisms and probable progenitor strains for genetic reassortment are discussed, but we propose that the swine H1N2 viruses examined originated following multiple genetic reassortment, initially involving human H1N1 and 'human-like' swine H3N2 viruses, followed by reassortment with 'avian-like' swine H1N1 virus. These findings suggest multiple reassortment and replication of influenza viruses may occur in pigs many years before their detection as clinical entities.

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus avian genetics, human genetics, recombination, genetic, antigens, viral immunology, base sequence, DNA, viral, Europe, genes viral, genotype, hemagglutination inhibition tests, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus genetics, avian immunology, human immunology, molecular sequence data, phylogeny, sequence analysis, DNA, swine.

Brown, I.H., S. Ludwig, C.W. Olsen, C. Hannoun, C. Scholtissek, V.S. Hinshaw, P.A. Harris, J.W. McCauley, I. Strong, and D.J. Alexander (1997). Antigenic and genetic analyses of H1N1 influenza A viruses from European pigs. Journal of General Virology 78(pt. 3): 553-562.  ISSN: 0022-1317.

            NAL Call Number:  QR360.A1J6

            Abstract:  H1N1 influenza A viruses isolated from pigs in Europe since 1981 were examined both antigenically and genetically and compared with H1N1 viruses from other sources. H1N1 viruses from pigs and birds could be divided into three groups: avian, classical swine and 'avian-like' swine viruses. Low or no reactivity of 'avian-like' swine viruses in HI tests with monoclonal antibodies raised against classical swine viruses was associated with amino acid substitutions within antigenic sites of the haemagglutinin (HA). Phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene revealed that classical swine viruses from European pigs are most similar to each other and are closely related to North American swine strains, whilst the 'avian-like' swine viruses cluster with avian viruses. 'Avian-like' viruses introduced into pigs in the UK in 1992 apparently originated directly from strains in pigs in continental Europe at that time. The HA genes of the swine viruses examined had undergone limited variation in antigenic sites and also contained fewer potential glycosylation sites compared to human H1N1 viruses. The HA exhibited antigenic drift which was more marked in 'avian-like' swine viruses than in classical swine strains. Genetic analyses of two recent 'avian-like' swine viruses indicated that all the RNA segments are related most closely to those of avian influenza A viruses.

            Descriptors:  influenza virus A, viral hemagglutinins, nucleotide sequences, phylogenetics, viral antigens, hemagglutination inhibition test, molecular sequence data, GENBANK u72666, GENBANK u72667, GENBANK u72668, GENBANK u72669, GENBANK z46436, GENBANK z46441.

Brugh, M. (1988). Highly pathogenic virus recovered from chickens infected with mildly pathogenic 1986 isolates of H5N2 avian influenza virus. Avian Diseases 32(4): 695-703.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  A combination of in vitro and in vivo selection procedures was used to examine the possibility that certain mildly pathogenic field isolates of avian influenza (AI) virus may contain minority subpopulations of highly pathogenic virus. Two mildly pathogenic H5N2 isolates, A/chicken/New Jersey/12508/86 (NJ12508) and A/chicken/Florida/27716/86 (FL27716), recovered from chickens epidemiologically associated with urban live-bird markets, were cloned in trypsin-free chicken embryo fibroblast cultures. Selected clones were inoculated intranasally and intratracheally (IN/IT) into specific-pathogen-free laying hens, and virus reisolated from the hens that died was serially passed in hens by IN/IT inoculation. Several highly pathogenic reisolates were recovered from hens infected with the cloned NJ12508 or FL27716 virus. A highly pathogenic NJ12508 reisolate killed 19 of 24 IN/IT-inoculated hens, and a FL27716 reisolate killed all 24 inoculated hens; signs and lesions were typical of fowl plague. In contrast, uncloned NJ12508 stock virus killed 1 of 24 hens and FL27716 stock virus killed 4 of 24 hens, and neither produced the complete spectrum of lesions associated with fowl plague. Recovery of highly pathogenic viruses from these isolates demonstrates the coexistence of pathogenically distinct subpopulations of virus. Competition for dominance among such subpopulations could explain the variable pathogenicity of some AI viruses.

            Descriptors:  chickens microbiology, influenza A virus avian pathogenicity, cultured cells, cytopathogenic effect, viral, fowl plague microbiology, fowl plague mortality, avian isolation and purification, serial passage, species specificity, trypsin diagnostic use.

Brugh, M. and C.W. Beard (1986). Influence of dietary calcium stress on lethality of avian influenza viruses for laying chickens. Avian Diseases 30(4): 672-8.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  The effect of calcium stress was studied in an attempt to reproduce lethal infections in laying chickens with A/Chicken/Alabama/75 (H4N8) influenza virus and with two nonpathogenic H5N2 influenza viruses from the 1983-84 outbreak in the eastern United States. Hens were fed calcium-deficient or standard diets for 7 to 14 days; then the calcium-deficient feed was replaced with standard feed supplemented with ad libitum oyster shell, and both groups of hens were inoculated with virus. When hens were infected with the H4N8 virus, respective mortalities of those on the calcium-deficient and standard diets were 19% (27/141) and 5% (7/143). The H5N2 viruses did not kill hens fed either diet. In standard pathogenicity tests, Alabama H4N8 viruses reisolated from the hens that died generally were more lethal for 4-week-old chickens than the stock virus. These results argue for characterization of the Alabama H4N8 virus as pathogenic rather than nonpathogenic as originally determined.

            Descriptors:  calcium deficiency, calcium, dietary metabolism, chickens metabolism, influenza A virus avian pathogenicity, orthomyxoviridae infections veterinary, poultry diseases microbiology, stress veterinary, orthomyxoviridae infections metabolism, poultry diseases metabolism, stress metabolism, stress microbiology.

Buckner, R.E. and D.D. Frame (1996). Observations an outbreak of avian influenza serotype H7N3 in turkeys at the Utah State University Snow Field Station, 1995. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 45: 294.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  turkeys, avian influenza virus, Utah, America, birds, Galliformes, influenza virus, mountain states United States, North America, orthomyxoviridae, United States, viruses, western states United States.

Butterfield, W.K. (1976). Avian influenza and fowl plague. In: Proceedings of 25th Western Poultry Disease Conference and 10th Poultry Health Symposium, March 8-11, 1976, p. 24-27.

            NAL Call Number: SF995.W4

            Descriptors: avian influenza, fowl plague, poultry.

Butterfield, W.K. and C.H. Campbell (1978).  Vaccination for fowl plague. American Journal of Veterinary Research 39(4): 671-4.  ISSN: 0002-9645.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Am3A

            Abstract:  Influenza A/turkey/Oregon/71 virus has antigenic characteristics of fowl plague virus but is avirulent for chickens. The virus was inoculated intratracheally in chickens at several dosage levels and resulted in the formation of antibody and immunity against fowl plague. The avirulent virus replicated in chickens and was recoverable by tracheal swab specimens up to 4 days after inoculation. Although the virus was transmitted to contact controls at the time when their cagemates were inoculated, it was not transmitted to contact controls placed with chickens inoculated 24 hours earlier. After 10 passages in chickens, the virus remained avirulent for chickens and turkeys.

            Descriptors:  chickens, fowl plague prevention and control, vaccination veterinary, antibodies, viral analysis, influenza A virus avian growth and development, avian immunology, avian isolation and purification, trachea microbiology, viral vaccines, virulence.

Cameron, K.R., V. Gregory, J. Banks, I.H. Brown, D.J. Alexander, A.J. Hay, and Y.P. Lin (2000). H9N2 subtype influenza A viruses in poultry in Pakistan are closely related to the H9N2 viruses responsible for human infection in Hong Kong. Virology 278(1): 36-41.  ISSN: 0042-6822.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 V81

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks veterinary, influenza veterinary, influenza A virus avian classification, human classification, poultry diseases virology, antigens, viral genetics, antigens, viral immunology, cloning, molecular, genome, viral, hemagglutination inhibition tests, hemagglutinins viral genetics, Hong Kong epidemiology, influenza epidemiology, avian genetics, avian immunology, human genetics, human immunology, molecular sequence data, Pakistan epidemiology, phylogeny, poultry diseases epidemiology, sequence analysis, protein, viral proteins genetics, viral proteins immunology.

Campbell, C.H., R.G. Webster, and S.S.J. Breese (1970). Fowl plague virus from man. Journal of Infectious Diseases 122(6): 513-6.  ISSN: 0022-1899.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 J821

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, antigens analysis, chick embryo, chickens, cross reactions, hemagglutination inhibition tests, immune sera analysis, avian classification, avian immunology, avian pathogenicity, microscopy, electron, neuraminidase analysis, neutralization tests, poultry diseases immunology, vaccination, viral vaccines administration and dosage.

Campitelli, L., C. Fabiani, S. Puzelli, A. Fioretti, E. Foni, A. De Marco, S. Krauss, R.G. Webster, and I. Donatelli (2002). H3N2 influenza viruses from domestic chickens in Italy: an increasing role for chickens in the ecology of influenza? Journal of General Virology 83(Pt. 2): 413-20.  ISSN: 0022-1317.

            NAL Call Number:  QR360.A1J6

            Abstract:  In Italy, multiple H3N2 influenza viruses were isolated from chickens with mild respiratory disease and were shown to replicate in the respiratory tracts of experimentally infected chickens; this finding is the first to show that H3N2 influenza viruses can replicate and cause disease in chickens. H3N2 influenza viruses in pigs on nearby farms seemed a likely source of the virus; however, antigenic and molecular analyses revealed that the gene segments of the viruses in chickens were mainly of Eurasian avian origin and were distinguishable from those isolated from pigs and wild aquatic birds in Italy. Thus, several different H3 influenza viruses were circulating in Italy, but we failed to identify the source of the chicken H3N2 influenza viruses that have disappeared subsequently from Italian poultry. Until recently, the transmission of influenza viruses (other than the H5 and H7 subtypes) from their reservoir in aquatic birds to chickens was rarely detected and highly pathogenic and non-pathogenic viruses were considered to be restricted to poultry species. However, the recent reports of the transmission of H9N2 and H5N1 influenza viruses to chickens in Hong Kong and, subsequently, to humans and our findings of the transmission of H3N2 influenza viruses to domestic chickens in Italy suggest an increased role for chickens as an intermediate host in the ecology of influenza.

            Descriptors:  chickens, fowl plague virology, influenza veterinary, influenza A virus avian pathogenicity, poultry diseases virology, hemagglutination inhibition tests, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus genetics, influenza virology, avian isolation and purification, avian physiology, porcine isolation and purification, porcine pathogenicity, Italy, molecular sequence data, sequence analysis, DNA, swine diseases virology, viral proteins genetics, virus replication.

Canada. Agriculture Canada. (1985). Outbreak Alert: Avian Influenza, Publication, Vol. 1794/E, Communications Branch, Agriculture Canada: Ottawa, 1 folded sheet (6) p. ISBN: 0662138988.

            NAL Call Number:  7 C16Pu no. 1794

            Descriptors:  avian influenza, outbreak alert, Canada.

Cane, B.G., L.F. Leanes, and L.O. Mascitelli (2004). Emerging diseases and their impact on animal commerce: the Argentine lesson. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1026: 12-8.  ISSN: 0077-8923.

            NAL Call Number:  500 N484

            Abstract:  As a result of the Argentine experience with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in 2001, a need was postulated for the establishment of efficient supranational schemes for continuous surveillance of the interrelations between tropical extractives livestock systems and the prairies that are optimal for the feeding of livestock in the southern region of South America. FMD in Argentina and in other countries, new or re-emerging risks from avian influenza with potential risks for public health, the spongiform encephalopathies, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, and classical swine fever, among other animal diseases, have generated a strong reaction and evolution within the veterinary services of the country. These present lessons will influence decision-making within countries and should be accepted by the technical and scientific community. From the perspective of the official animal health sector and with the FMD eradication plan as a basis within the national territory, we have worked not only to achieve international recognition and credibility within animal health systems, but also to realize the formation of a regional block of countries that can be recognized internationally as an area with equivalent animal health status. We emphasize not only that this lesson is useful in FMD, but also that it is possible to apply the valuable conclusions reached for other emerging or re-emerging diseases.

            Descriptors:  animal husbandry, commerce, communicable diseases, emerging prevention and control, emerging transmission, foot and mouth disease prevention and control, foot and mouth disease transmission, domestic animals, Argentina, decision making, international cooperation, population surveillance, risk assessment.

Cappucci, D.T.J., D.C. Johnson, M. Brugh, T.M. Smith, C.F. Jackson, J.E. Pearson, and D.A. Senne (1985). Isolation of avian influenza virus (subtype H5N2) from chicken eggs during a natural outbreak. Avian Diseases 29(4): 1195-200.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Avian influenza virus (A/Chicken/Pennsylvania/83; H5N2) was recovered from the yolk, albumen, and shell surface of eggs obtained from naturally infected chicken flocks in Pennsylvania and Virginia. These findings represent the first reported isolation of avian influenza virus from the internal contents of eggs from naturally infected flocks. The need for adequate safeguards to prevent spread of the virus during commercial movement of table and hatching eggs, cracked and "checked" eggs, and egg flats and other materials is emphasized.

            Descriptors:  eggs, food microbiology, fowl plague transmission, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, chickens, fowl plague epidemiology, Pennsylvania, Virginia.

Capua, I. and D.J. Alexander (2004). Human health implications of avian influenza viruses and paramyxoviruses. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology 23(1): 1-6.  ISSN: 0934-9723.

            Abstract:  Among avian influenza viruses and avian paramyxoviruses are the aetiological agents of two of the most devastating diseases of the animal kingdom: (i). the highly pathogenic form of avian influenza, caused by some viruses of the H5 and H7 subtypes, and (ii). Newcastle disease, caused by virulent strains of APMV type 1. Mortality rates due to these agents can exceed 50% in naive bird populations, and, for some strains of AI, nearly 100%. These viruses may also be responsible for clinical conditions in humans. The virus responsible for Newcastle disease has been known to cause conjunctivitis in humans since the 1940s. The conjunctivitis is self-limiting and does not have any permanent consequences. Until 1997, reports of human infection with avian influenza viruses were sporadic and frequently associated with conjunctivitis. Recently, however, avian influenza virus infections have been associated with fatalities in human beings. These casualties have highlighted the potential risk that this type of infection poses to public health. In particular, the pathogenetic mechanisms of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in birds and the possibility of reassortment between avian and human viruses in the human host represent serious threats to human health. For this reason, any suspected case should be investigated thoroughly.

            Descriptors:  avulavirus isolation and purification, communicable disease control, disease outbreaks, fowl plague epidemiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, Newcastle disease epidemiology, birds, fowl plague prevention and control, Italy epidemiology, Newcastle disease prevention and control, prognosis, risk assessment, survival analysis.

Capua, I., B. Grossele, E. Bertoli, and P. Cordioli (2000). Monitoring for highly pathogenic avian influenza in wild birds in Italy. Veterinary Record 147(22): 640.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  fowl plague epidemiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, wild animals, birds, disease outbreaks veterinary, avian pathogenicity, Italy epidemiology, mass screening veterinary.

Capua, I. and S. Marangon (2000). The Italian experience: what can we learn from it? World Poultry (Special): 21-22.  ISSN: 1388-3119.

            NAL Call Number:  SF481.M54

            Descriptors:  disease control, avian influenza virus, turkeys, Italy.

Capua, I., S. Marangon, M. Dalla Pozza, and U. Santucci (2000). Vaccination for avian influenza in Italy.  Veterinary Record 147(26): 751.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks veterinary, fowl plague epidemiology, fowl plague prevention and control, influenza veterinary, influenza A virus avian immunology, vaccination veterinary, influenza epidemiology, influenza prevention and control, Italy epidemiology, poultry.

Capua, I., F. Mutinelli, C. Terregino, G. Cattoli, R.J. Manvell, and F. Burlini (2000). Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H7N1) in ostriches farmed in Italy. Veterinary Record 146(12): 356.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks veterinary, fowl plague, influenza A virus avian pathogenicity, ostriches virology, animal husbandry, digestive system pathology, Italy, necrosis.

Capua, I. and F. Mutinelli (2001). A Colour Atlas and Text on Avian Influenza.  [Influenza Aviaria: Testo e Atlante = Atlas Sobre La Influenza Aviar], 1 edition, Papi editore: Bologna,  xxv, 236 p.: col. ill., 1 col. map 1 CD-ROM (4 3/4 in.) p. ISBN: 8888369007.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.6.I6 C37 2001

            Descriptors:  avian influenza, color atlas, text.

Capua, I. and F. Mutinelli (2001). Mortality in Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) and domestic geese (Anser anser var. domestica) associated with natural infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of H7N1 subtype. Avian Pathology 30(2): 179-183.  ISSN: 0307-9457.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.A1A9

            Abstract:  Among the 413 outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) caused by a virus of the H7N1 subtype, which occurred in Italy during 1999 and 2000, an outbreak diagnosed in a backyard flock was characterized by mortality and nervous signs in ducks and geese. Dead geese (Anser anser var. domestica) and Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) were submitted to the laboratory for bacteriological, virological, histological and immunohistochemical investigations. Routine bacteriological tests resulted negative, while a HPAI virus of the H7N1 subtype was isolated from the geese. Pancreatic damage was observed in both the geese and the ducks, and the pancreas was also positive by immunohistochemistry for avian influenza in the geese. Histopathological lesions were observed in the central nervous system of both species, and this result was supported by positive immunohistochemical findings for the presence of the virus.

            Descriptors:  infection, veterinary medicine, highly pathogenic avian influenza, viral disease, immunohistochemistry, immunohistochemical, immunocytochemical techniques, diagnostic method, histology, mortality, case study.

Capua, I., F. Mutinelli, S. Marangon, and D.J. Alexander (2000). H7N1 avian influenza in Italy (1999 to 2000) in intensively reared chickens and turkeys. Avian Pathology 29(6): 537-543.  ISSN: 0307-9457.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.A1A9

            Abstract:  From the end of March to the beginning of December 1999, an epidemic of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) affected the industrial poultry population of northern Italy. The virus responsible for the epidemic was subtyped as H7N1 with an intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) of 0.0, and a deduced amino acid sequence of the region coding for the cleavage site of the haemagglutinin molecule typical of low pathogenicity viruses. The circulation of the virus in a susceptible population for several months caused the emergence of a highly pathogenic virus with an IVPI of 3.0 and the presence of multiple basic amino acids in the deduced amino acid sequence for the cleavage site of the haemagglutinin molecule. Over 13 million birds were affected by the epidemic and, in the present paper, we report the results of the clinical, virological and histopathological investigations performed on affected chickens and turkeys. Clinical, gross and microscopic lesions caused by LPAI were more severe in turkeys than in chickens, while highly pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) caused similar mortality rates in both species. Current European legislation considers LPAI and HPAI as two completely distinct diseases, not requiring any compulsory eradication policy for LPAI but enforcing eradication for HPAI. In the Italian 1999 to 2000 epidemic, LPAI mutated to HPAI in a densely populated area, causing great economic losses. A reconsideration of the current European Union legislation on avian influenza, including LPAI of the H5 and H7 subtypes, could possibly be an aid to avoiding devastating epidemics for the poultry industry.

            Descriptors:  animal husbandry, infection, epidemiology, respiratory system, avian influenza (LPAI), high pathogenicity  (HPAI), low pathogenicity, respiratory system disease, viral disease, clinical analysis analytical method, histopathological analysis analytical method, virological analysis analytical method, European Union legislation, economic losses, industrial poultry population, intravenous pathogenicity index, mortality rates.

Catelli, E. and A. Lavazza (2000). The health of poultry in Italy during the year 2000. Selezione Veterinaria (Italy) (11): 963-970.  ISSN: 0037-1521.

            NAL Call Number:  241.71 B75

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, health, pigeons, ducks, geese, pheasants, quails, ostriches, Italy.

Cavanagh, D. (1992). Recent advances in avian virology. British Veterinary Journal 148(3): 199-222.  ISSN: 0007-1935.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V643

            Abstract:  Selected, recent research on the following avian diseases, and their causative viruses, has been reviewed: chicken anaemia, infectious bursal disease, turkey rhinotracheitis, avian nephritis, fowlpox, influenza, infectious bronchitis and turkey enteritis.

            Descriptors:  bird diseases microbiology, virus diseases veterinary, birds, coronaviridae, DNA viruses, fowlpox virus, infectious bursal disease virus, influenza A virus avian, paramyxoviridae, picornaviridae, virus diseases microbiology.

Celko, A.M. and J. Rosina (1998). Epidemiologie ptaci chripky A (H5N1). [Epidemiology of avian influenza A (H5N1)]. Veterinarni Medicina UZPI (Czech Republic) 43(7): 219-220.  ISSN: 0375-8427.

            NAL Call Number:  41.9 C333

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, disease transmission, pathogenesis, disease resistance, disease control, influenza virus, orthomyxoviridae, pathogenesis, resistance to injurious factors, viruses.

Cernik, K., B. Tumova, B. Kaminskyj, and V. Rajtar (1985). Serologicky dukaz vyskytu aviarnich paramyuxoviru u holubu. [Serologic detection of the occurrence of avian paramyxoviruses in pigeons]. Veterinarni Medicina 30(10): 603-10.  ISSN: 0375-8427.

            NAL Call Number:  41.9 C333

            Abstract:  447 blood-serum samples of racing and free living pigeons collected in 11 districts of Czechoslovakia from August 1983 till March 1984 were examined by the haemagglutination inhibition test to the Newcastle disease virus, strain Roakin, to the pigeon PMV-1 and to the PMV-3; 121 of the samples were tested to other serotypes, PMV-2--PMV-9, and to the avian influenza A virus. 58.4% of samples were positive (greater than or equal to 2 log2) to the Roakin strain with the mean titre 3.6 log2 and 65.1% to the pigeon PMV-1 with the mean titre 4.5 log2. All samples tested were negative to other serotypes except two samples of one group positive to PMV-8 with the mean titre 4.3 log2. The titres of HI antibodies to the Roakin strain and to the pigeon PMV-1 were compared. The risk of the transmission and of the readaptation of pigeon virus to poultry was discussed.

            Descriptors:  bird diseases diagnosis, pigeons, respirovirus infections veterinary, antibodies, viral analysis, bird diseases epidemiology, Czechoslovakia, hemagglutination inhibition tests veterinary, paramyxoviridae immunology, respirovirus infections diagnosis, respirovirus infections epidemiology.

Chan, C.H., H.K. Shieh, Y.S. Lu, Y.L. Lee, D.F. Lin, and Y.K. Liao (1989). Study on avian influenza in Taiwan. 1. Epidemiology, viral isolation and identification. Taiwan Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry (53): 75-88.  ISSN: 0253-9128.

            NAL Call Number:  49 J822

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, disease surveys, epidemiology, ducks, turkeys, quail, geese, mallards, Taiwan.

Charlton, K.G. (2000). Antibodies to selected disease agents in translocated wild turkeys in California. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 36(1): 161-4.  ISSN: 0090-3558.

            NAL Call Number:  41.9 W64B

            Abstract:  Wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) trapped within California (n = 715) or imported into California from other states (n = 381) from 1986 to 1996 were tested for exposure to certain disease agents. Prevalence of antibody to Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma meleagridis, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella typhimurium, Newcastle disease virus, and avian influenza virus was low (0-4%) for wild turkeys trapped within California. With the exception of antibody prevalence to M. meleagridis of 33%, the same was true for wild turkeys imported into California from other states. Antibody prevalence to Mycoplasma synoviae was 8-10% for both groups.

            Descriptors:  bird diseases epidemiology, fowl plague epidemiology, mycoplasma infections veterinary, Newcastle disease epidemiology, Salmonella infections, animal epidemiology, turkeys, agglutination tests veterinary, animals, wild, antibodies, bacterial blood, antibodies, viral blood, California epidemiology, hemagglutination inhibition tests veterinary, immunodiffusion veterinary, influenza A virus avian immunology, mycoplasma immunology, Mycoplasma infections epidemiology, Newcastle disease virus immunology, Salmonella immunology, seroepidemiologic studies.

Chen Bolun (1994). Studies on avian influenza. I. Isolation and serological identification of influenza A viruses from chickens. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Medicine 27(10): 3-5.

            NAL Call Number:  SF604.C485

            Descriptors:  chickens, influenza virus, immunology, isolation techniques, birds, domestic animals, domesticated birds, Galliformes , livestock, poultry, useful animals, viruses.

Chen, H., G. Deng, Z. Li, G. Tian, Y. Li, P. Jiao, L. Zhang, Z. Liu, R.G. Webster, and K. Yu ( 2004). The evolution of H5N1 influenza viruses in ducks in southern China. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101(28): 10452-7.  ISSN: 0027-8424.

            NAL Call Number:  500 N21P

            Abstract:  The pathogenicity of avian H5N1 influenza viruses to mammals has been evolving since the mid-1980s. Here, we demonstrate that H5N1 influenza viruses, isolated from apparently healthy domestic ducks in mainland China from 1999 through 2002, were becoming progressively more pathogenic for mammals, and we present a hypothesis explaining the mechanism of this evolutionary direction. Twenty-one viruses isolated from apparently healthy ducks in southern China from 1999 through 2002 were confirmed to be H5N1 subtype influenza A viruses. These isolates are antigenically similar to A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 (H5N1) virus, which was the source of the 1997 Hong Kong "bird flu" hemagglutinin gene, and all are highly pathogenic in chickens. The viruses form four pathotypes on the basis of their replication and lethality in mice. There is a clear temporal pattern in the progressively increasing pathogenicity of these isolates in the mammalian model. Five of six H5N1 isolates tested replicated in inoculated ducks and were shed from trachea or cloaca, but none caused disease signs or death. Phylogenetic analysis of the full genome indicated that most of the viruses are reassortants containing the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96-like hemagglutinin gene and the other genes from unknown Eurasian avian influenza viruses. This study is a characterization of the H5N1 avian influenza viruses recently circulating in ducks in mainland China. Our findings suggest that immediate action is needed to prevent the transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from the apparently healthy ducks into chickens or mammalian hosts.

            Descriptors:  ducks virology, evolution, molecular, influenza A virus, avian genetics, avian pathogenicity, influenza, avian virology, chickens, China, genes, viral genetics, genotype, avian transmission, mice, molecular sequence data, phylogeny, virulence.

Chernetsov, I.U.V., A.N. Slepushkin, D.K. L'vov, N.A. Braude, and A.E. Gavrilov (1980). Izoliatsiia virusa grippa ot chernoi krachki (Chlidonias nigra) i serologicheskoe obsledovanie ptits na antitela k virusu grippa. [Isolation of influenza virus from Chlidonias nigra and serologic examination of the birds for antibodies to influenza virus]. Voprosy Virusologii (1): 35-40.  ISSN: 0507-4088.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 P942

            Abstract:  Influenza A virus with the antigenic formulae Hav4Neq2 has been isolated from Chlidonias nigra in the region of mass moulting in the territory of the Kazakh SSR. Antihemagglutinins for the newly isolated virus were detected in the sera of some specimens of the sea gull order. The data obtained suggest an active circulation of the virus in this region during the summer of 1977.

            Descriptors:  animal population groups microbiology, animals, wild microbiology, birds microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, antibodies, viral analysis, hemagglutination inhibition tests, influenza A virus avian classification, Kazakhstan, microscopy, electron, neutralization tests, orthomyxoviridae infections epidemiology, orthomyxoviridae infections veterinary, serotyping.

Chokephaibulkit, K., M. Uiprasertkul, P. Puthavathana, P. Chearskul, P. Auewarakul, S.F. Dowell, and N. Vanprapar (2005). A child with avian influenza A (H5N1) infection. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 24(2): 162-6.  ISSN: 0891-3668.

            Abstract:  Human infections with avian influenza viruses can be severe and may be harbingers of the evolution of a pandemic strain. We present a patient in Thailand who was infected with influenza A (H5N1) virus. Prominent features included the progression from fever and dyspnea to the acute respiratory distress syndrome in a short period, lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. Establishing the diagnosis for this patient increased public awareness of the virus and was soon followed by a halting of poultry-to-human transmission. On the basis of available data, any child with suspected avian influenza infection should be treated with oseltamivir.

            Descriptors:  infection, pediatrics, human medicine, pharmacology, avian influenza A virus, orthomyxoviridae, child, Thailand.

Claas, E.C., J.C. de Jong, R. van Beek, G.F. Rimmelzwaan, and A.D. Osterhaus (1998). Human influenza virus A/HongKong/156/97 (H5N1) infection. Vaccine 16(9-10): 977-8.  ISSN: 0264-410X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR189.V32

            Abstract:  Introduction of influenza viruses with gene segments of avian origin into the human population may result in the emergence of new pathogenic human influenza viruses. The recent infection of a 3-year-old boy with an influenza A (H5N1) virus of avian origin can be considered as an example of such an event. However, this virus, influenza A/Hong Kong/156/97 (H5N1) and the 17 additional H5N1 viruses isolated from humans by the end of 1997 lack the ability to spread efficiently amongst humans and therefore have limited pandemic potential. However, the possibility of reassortment of these viruses with currently circulating human viruses illustrates the need for pandemic preparedness.

            Descriptors:  influenza virology, influenza A virus avian genetics, avian pathogenicity, human genetics, human pathogenicity, chickens, child, preschool, disease outbreaks veterinary, fowl plague epidemiology, fowl plague virology, Hong Kong epidemiology, influenza epidemiology, influenza transmission, avian classification, human classification, phylogeny, recombination, genetic.

Clough, J.D. (2004). Birds, viruses, and history: the current 'genuine adventure'. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine 71(4): 270.  ISSN: 0891-1150.

            Descriptors:  communicable disease control organization and administration, influenza A virus, avian isolation and purification, virus diseases epidemiology, birds, communicable diseases epidemiology, incidence, influenza epidemiology, influenza prevention and control, avian influenza epidemiology, avian influenza prevention and control, risk assessment, severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemiology, severe acute respiratory syndrome prevention and control, virus diseases prevention and control, world health.

Cohen, J. (1997). The flu pandemic that might have been. Science 277(5332): 1600-1.  ISSN: 0036-8075.

            NAL Call Number:  470 Sci2

            Descriptors:  influenza transmission, influenza virology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, human isolation and purification, chickens virology, child preschool, China epidemiology, disease outbreaks, fowl plague virology, Hong Kong epidemiology, influenza epidemiology.

Connor, R.J., Y. Kawaoka, R.G. Webster, and J.C. Paulson (1994). Receptor specificity in human, avian, and equine H2 and H3 influenza virus isolates. Virology 205(1): 17-23.  ISSN: 0042-6822.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 V81

            Abstract:  The receptor specificity of 56 H2 and H3 influenza virus isolates from various animal species has been determined to test the relevance of receptor specificity to the ecology of influenza virus. The results show that the receptor specificity of both H2 and H3 isolates evaluated for sialic acid linkage specificity and inhibition of hemagglutination by horse serum correlates with the species of origin, as postulated earlier for H3 strains based on a limited survey of five human, three avian, and one equine strain. Elucidation of the amino acid sequence of several human H2 receptor variants and analysis of known sequences of H2 and H3 isolates revealed that receptor specificity varies in association with an amino acid change at residues 228 in addition to the change at residue 226 previously documented to affect receptor specificity of H3 but not H1 isolates. Residues 226 and 228 are leucine and serine in human isolates, which preferentially bind sialic acid alpha 2,6-galactose beta 1,4-N-acetyl glucosamine (SA alpha 2,6Gal), and glutamine and glycine in avian and equine isolates, which exhibit specificity for sialic acid alpha-2,3-galactose beta-1,3-N-acetyl galactosamine (SA alpha 2,3Gal). The results demonstrate that the correlation of receptor specificity and species of origin is maintained across both H2 and H3 influenza virus serotypes and provide compelling evidence that influenza virus hosts exert selective pressure to maintain the receptor specificity characteristics of strains isolated from that species.

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus avian metabolism, human metabolism, metabolism, receptors, virus metabolism, amino acid sequence, amino acids genetics, carbohydrate sequence, chick embryo, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus, hemagglutinins viral genetics, molecular sequence data, species specificity, viral envelope proteins genetics.

Cooper, R.G., J.O. Horbanczuk, and N. Fujihara ( 2004). Viral diseases of the ostrich (Struthio camelus var. Domesticus). Animal Science Journal 75(2): 89-95.  ISSN: 1344-3941.

            NAL Call Number:  SF1.A542

            Descriptors:  Crimea Congo hemorrhagic fever, Newcastle disease, avian influenza, avipoxvirus, Borna disease, disease prevention, disease control, disease transmission methods, ostrich, Struthio camelus , livestock.

Couceiro, J.N., J.R. Chaves, C.T. Brandao, and R.D. Machado (1982). Isolamento e caracterizacao de virus influenza A, em aves ornamentais, no Rio de Janeiro. [Isolation and characterization of influenza virus type A, in ornamental birds, in Rio de Janeiro]. Anais De Microbiologia 27:  159-67.  ISSN: 0485-1854.

            Descriptors:  fowl plague microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, birds, Brazil, feces microbiology, fowl plague epidemiology, hemagglutination inhibition tests, serotyping.

Couceiro, J.N.S.S., R.D. Machado, E.S.S. Couceiro, and M.C. Cabral (1988). Study of an ornamental bird flock over a period of three years: incidence of avian influenza viruses. Revista De Microbiologia 19(4): 453-458.  ISSN: 0001-3714.

            NAL Call Number:  QR1.R4

            Descriptors:  carrier state, survey, avian influenza virus, ornamental birds, aviary birds, sparrows, doves, waxbills, Rio de Janeiro.

Crinion, R.A.P. (1988). Newcastle disease and avian influenza. Irish Veterinary News 10(5) ISSN: 0332-236X.

            Descriptors:  Newcastle disease, avian influenza virus, symptoms, diagnosis, disease control.

Curran, R. (2004). Asian bird flu. Emergency Medical Services 33(5): 38-9.  ISSN: 0094-6575.

            Descriptors:  influenza virology, influenza A virus, avian pathogenicity, zoonoses virology, chickens virology, influenza epidemiology, influenza prevention and control, influenza transmission, isolation and purification, Japan epidemiology, respiratory protective devices, zoonoses epidemiology, zoonoses transmission.

Cyranoski, D. (2004). Bird flu data languish in Chinese journals. Nature  430(7003): 955.  ISSN: 1476-4687.

            NAL Call Number:  472 N21

            Descriptors:  biomedical research, birds virology, influenza veterinary, influenza A virus, avian isolation and purification, language, periodicals, swine virology, southeastern Asia epidemiology, China epidemiology, communicable disease control, communication barriers, influenza epidemiology, influenza transmission, influenza virology, avian classification, publishing, time factors, zoonoses transmission, zoonoses virology.

Cyranoski, D. (2001). Outbreak of chicken flu rattles Hong Kong. Nature 412(6844): 261.  ISSN: 0028-0836.

            NAL Call Number:  472 N21

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks, fowl plague epidemiology, poultry diseases epidemiology, chickens, Hong Kong epidemiology, influenza A virus avian, poultry diseases virology.

Das, P. (2004). Infectious disease surveillance update. Lancet Infectious Diseases 4(8): 481.  ISSN: 1473-3099.

            Descriptors:  chickens, disease outbreaks veterinary, influenza A virus, avian growth and development, avian influenza epidemiology, poultry diseases epidemiology, West Nile fever epidemiology, West Nile virus growth and development, Arizona epidemiology, California epidemiology, China epidemiology, influenza, avian virology, middle aged, poultry diseases virology, Vietnam epidemiology, West Nile fever virology.

Daszak, P., G.M. Tabor, A.M. Kilpatrick, J. Epstein, and R. Plowright (2004). Conservation medicine and a new agenda for emerging diseases. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1026: 1-11.  ISSN: 0077-8923.

            NAL Call Number:  500 N484

            Abstract:  The last three decades have seen an alarming number of high-profile outbreaks of new viruses and other pathogens, many of them emerging from wildlife. Recent outbreaks of SARS, avian influenza, and others highlight emerging zoonotic diseases as one of the key threats to global health. Similar emerging diseases have been reported in wildlife populations, resulting in mass mortalities, population declines, and even extinctions. In this paper, we highlight three examples of emerging pathogens: Nipah and Hendra virus, which emerged in Malaysia and Australia in the 1990s respectively, with recent outbreaks caused by similar viruses in India in 2000 and Bangladesh in 2004; West Nile virus, which emerged in the New World in 1999; and amphibian chytridiomycosis, which has emerged globally as a threat to amphibian populations and a major cause of amphibian population declines. We discuss a new, conservation medicine approach to emerging diseases that integrates veterinary, medical, ecologic, and other sciences in interdisciplinary teams. These teams investigate the causes of emergence, analyze the underlying drivers, and attempt to define common rules governing emergence for human, wildlife, and plant EIDs. The ultimate goal is a risk analysis that allows us to predict future emergence of known and unknown pathogens.

            Descriptors:  clinical medicine trends, communicable diseases, emerging therapy, conservation of natural resources, disease outbreaks, ecology, interprofessional relations, zoonoses, amphibia microbiology, Chytridiomycota pathogenicity, emerging diagnosis, emerging epidemiology, forecasting, Hendra virus pathogenicity, public health, risk assessment, veterinary medicine trends, West Nile virus pathogenicity.

Davidson, W.R., H.W. Yoder, M. Brugh, and V.F. Nettles (1988). Serological monitoring of eastern wild turkeys for antibodies to Mycoplasma spp. and avian influenza viruses. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 24(2): 348-51.  ISSN: 0090-3558.

            NAL Call Number:  41.9 W64B

            Abstract:  From 1981 through 1986, plasma or serum samples were obtained from 322 wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) from Georgia (n = 111), Kentucky (n = 21), Louisiana (n = 22), North Carolina (n = 118), Tennessee (n = 19), Missouri (n = 24) and Iowa (n = 7). These samples were tested for antibodies to Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and in most instances, M. synoviae (MS), M. meleagridis (MM), and avian influenza (AI) virus. All 322 turkeys were seronegative for MG by the rapid plate agglutination (RPA) test. All of a subsample (n = 147) also were negative (titer less than or equal to 1:40) for MG by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Five of 253 turkeys (2%) were seropositive (+4 reaction) for MS by the RPA test; however, HI tests for MS on these five turkeys were negative as were attempts to isolate MS from trachea and homogenized lung tissue. Three of 253 turkeys (1%) were seropositive (+1 to +3 reactions) for MM by the RPA test. None of 210 turkeys had antibodies to AI by the agar gel precipitation test. These data suggest that populations of native eastern wild turkeys are not important in the epizootiology of MG, MS, MM, or AI.

            Descriptors:  antibodies, bacterial analysis, antibodies, viral analysis, influenza A virus avian immunology, Mycoplasma immunology, turkeys microbiology, animals, wild immunology, turkeys immunology.

Davison, S., D. Galligan, T.E. Eckert, A.F. Ziegler, and R.J. Eckroade (1999). Economic analysis of an outbreak of avian influenza, 1997-1998. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 214(8): 1164-1167.  ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Am3

            Descriptors:  economic losses, economic analysis, outbreaks, disease control, avian influenza virus, turkeys, United States, Pennsylvania.

de Boer, G.F., W. Back, and A.D. Osterhaus (1990). An ELISA for detection of antibodies against influenza A nucleoprotein in humans and various animal species. Archives of Virology 115(1-2): 47-61.  ISSN: 0304-8608.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ar23

            Abstract:  A double antibody sandwich blocking ELISA, using a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against influenza A nucleoprotein (NP) was developed to detect antibodies against influenza. Collections of serum samples were obtained from human and various animal species. All influenza A subtypes induced antibodies against hemagglutinins and NP. A close correlation between titers of the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and the NP-ELISA was seen. Antibodies against influenza NP were demonstrated in serum samples from humans, ferrets, swine, horses, chickens, ducks, guinea pigs, mice, and seals. The serum samples were collected at intervals during prospective epidemiological studies, from experimental and natural infections, and vaccination studies. The decline of maternal antibodies was studied in swine and horses. The NP-ELISA enables rapid serological diagnosis and is suited for influenza A antibody screening, especially in species which harbor several influenza subtypes. The HI and neuraminidase inhibition tests, however, must still be used for subtyping.

            Descriptors:  antibodies, viral analysis, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, influenza A virus immunology, nucleoproteins immunology, orthomyxoviridae infections immunology, viral core proteins immunology, ferrets, hemagglutination inhibition tests, horses, avian immunology, human immunology, porcine immunology, orthomyxoviridae infections veterinary, poultry, prospective studies, Rodentia, seals, species specificity, specific pathogen free organisms, swine, vaccination.

de Boer, G.F., C. van Maanen, J.T. Siebinga, and W. Back (1992). Klassieke vogelpest en mildere influenza-infecties bij vogels en zoogdieren. [Classical fowl plague and milder influenza infections in birds and mammals]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 117(24): 735-40.  ISSN: 0040-7453.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 T431

            Abstract:  Wild waterfowl are currently considered the largest reservoir of the various haemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) subtypes of influenza virus. Until now thirteen different H-types and nine different N-types have been detected in these populations. In the first instance, virus transmission from fowl to other animal species and to man is not causing disease problems. However, small changes at the molecular level of a given HN-subtype recently caused a dramatic increase in virulence for chickens. Genes fragments coding for haemagglutinin or neuraminidase can be exchanged between viruses which propagate in the same individual. This phenomenon-'genetic reassortment'-is of major epidemiological significance when it occurs in pigs. New influenza epidemics in the human population consistently originate in areas where waterfowl, pigs and human beings live close together. At the moment, the virological and serological diagnosis of influenza A infections is based ELISAs for antigen and antibody detection. Both ELISAs employ a monoclonal antibody directed against a conserved antigenic determinant of the influenza A nucleoprotein. The use of these tests can simplify the diagnosis of and screening for influenza A infections, particularly in those species which harbour several H- and N-subtypes.

            Descriptors:  fowl plague microbiology, orthomyxoviridae infections veterinary, birds microbiology, chickens microbiology, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay veterinary, influenza A virus avian genetics, avian isolation and purification, avian pathogenicity, orthomyxoviridae infections microbiology, orthomyxoviridae infections transmission, virulence.

De Clercq, K. and N. Goris (2004). Extending the foot-and-mouth disease module to the control of other diseases. Developmental Biology (Basel) 119: 333-40.  ISSN: 1424-6074.

            Abstract:  During the recent devastating epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), bluetongue (BT), the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and New Castle disease, more than 115 million animals were culled. The mass slaughter of animals raised serious ethical questions. These epidemics showed that the use of emergency vaccination is an essential element in disease control. During the last decade the FMD antigen banks have proved to be effective and this module should be extended. An international vaccine stock should be considered for classical swine fever and HPAI. Agreements with vaccine producers should be made easily available, with instant access to a vaccine reserve for rinderpest, peste des petits ruminants, BT, African horse sickness and Rift valley fever. These vaccines should meet international standards and should allow distinction between vaccinated and infected animals. Information should be gathered proactively on the use of vaccines for lumpy skin disease, sheep and goat pox and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

            Descriptors:  animals, Australia, communicable disease control methods, disease outbreaks prevention and control, veterinary disease outbreaks, drug storage, emergency treatment methods, veterinary emergency treatment, animal euthanasia, foot-and-mouth disease prevention and control, international cooperation, viral vaccines immunology, viral vaccines supply and distribution.

de Jong, J.C., G.F. Rimmelzwaan, R.A. Fouchier, and A.D. Osterhaus (2000). Influenza virus: a master of metamorphosis. Journal of Infection 40(3): 218-28.  ISSN: 0163-4453.

            Abstract:  Novel influenza viruses continuously emerge in the human population. Three times during the present century, an avian influenza virus subtype crossed the species barrier, starting a pandemic, and establishing itself for one to several decades in man. As the 1997 H5N1 event in Hong Kong indicated, the occurrence of another pandemic in the near future cannot be excluded. Sufficient vaccine may not be available to ameliorate the consequences of such an event, because of a shortage of time. During interpandemic periods, important antigenic drift variants sometimes arise at a point of time when, with the current state of the technique, production of a correspondingly adapted vaccine is also impossible. We may be able to solve these problems by increasing influenza surveillance and by adopting new ways of vaccine composition, production, formulation, presentation, and delivery. The recently developed anti-neuraminidase antivirals should only be considered as (valuable) adjuncts to vaccines.

            Descriptors:  antigenic variation, influenza epidemiology, orthomyxoviridae genetics, disease outbreaks, hn protein genetics, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus genetics, influenza mortality, influenza prevention and control, influenza vaccine therapeutic use, orthomyxoviridae enzymology, orthomyxoviridae pathogenicity, reassortant viruses genetics, reassortant viruses pathogenicity, virulence.

de Jong, M.D., V.C. Bach, T.Q. Phan, M.H. Vo, T.T. Tran, B.H. Nguyen, M. Beld, T.P. Le, H.K. Truong, V.V. Nguyen, T.H. Tran, Q.H. Do, and J. Farrar (2005). Fatal avian influenza A (H5N1) in a child presenting with diarrhea followed by coma. New England Journal of Medicine 352(7): 686-91.  ISSN: 1533-4406.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 N442

            Descriptors:  coma virology, diarrhea virology, encephalitis, viral etiology, influenza complications, influenza A virus, avian influenza genetics, avian influenza isolation and purification, acute disease, child, preschool child, viral virology, fatal outcome, influenza diagnosis, influenza virology, lung radiography, seizures virology.

de Marco, M.A., V. Guberti, E. Raffini, E. Foni, M. Delogu, and I. Donatelli (1999). Influenza aviaria. Indagini epidemiologiche in specie selvatiche [Italia]. [Avian influenza. Epidemiological surveys in wild birds in Italy]. Selezione Veterinaria (Italy) (12): 897-907.

            NAL Call Number:  241.71 B75

            Abstract:  Gli AA riportano i risultati di un monitoraggio sanitario sull'influenza aviaria, svolto in Italia su diverse specie selvatiche di volatili. Nel periodo compreso tra il 1992 e il 1998 sono stati sottoposti ad indagine sierologica, per evidenziare anticorpi nei confronti della nucleoproteina dei virus influenzali di tipo A, 404 anatidi, 277 folaghe, 40 fenicotteri, 394 fagiani, 258 quaglie, 147 rapaci. Di tali campioni sono risultati sierologicamente positivi 216 anatidi, 28 folaghe, 11 fenicotteri, 2 rapaci. Tamponi cloacali effettuati nel 1993 su 120 passeriforrni hanno dato esito negativo per la ricerca di virus influenzali di tipo A.

            Descriptors:  birds, disease surveys, wild animals, monitoring, animal diseases, Italy, immunological techniques, antibiotics, biopsy, avian influenza virus, epidemiology, laboratory diagnosis, identification, etiology, biological analysis, diagnosis, Europe, histocytological analysis, influenza virus, orthomyxoviridae, surveys,  viruses, Western Europe, wildlife.

Dea, S., M.A. Elazhary, and R.S. Roy (1980). Les virus influenza chez l'homme et les animaux. Une revue de la litterature. [Influenza viruses in man and animals. A literature review (author's transl)]. Canadian Veterinary Journal Revue Veterinaire Canadienne  21(6): 171-8.  ISSN: 0008-5286.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 R3224

            Descriptors:  animals, domestic, orthomyxoviridae infections microbiology, orthomyxoviridae infections veterinary, antigens, viral analysis, chickens, epitopes, fowl plague microbiology, horse diseases microbiology, horses, influenza microbiology, influenza A virus avian immunology, human immunology, porcine immunology, mutation, recombination, genetic, swine, swine diseases microbiology.

Deibel, R., D.E. Emord, W. Dukelow, V.S. Hinshaw, and J.M. Wood (1985). Influenza viruses and paramyxoviruses in ducks in the Atlantic flyway, 1977-1983, including an H5N2 isolate related to the virulent chicken virus. Avian Diseases 29(4): 970-85.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  From 1977 to 1983, waterfowl migrating along the Atlantic flyway were annually monitored for orthomyxoviruses and paramyxoviruses in an area in central New York State. A total of 168 influenza isolates were obtained from 1,430 waterfowl. Twenty-four combinations of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtypes were detected, with as many as 12 found in a single year. One combination, an H5N2 isolate in 1982, was closely related to the virulent chicken virus that appeared in Pennsylvania in 1983. The prevalence of influenza varied greatly among the common waterfowl species: mallards 42%, black ducks 30%, blue-winged teal 11%, wood ducks 2%, and Canada geese 0%. A total of 89 paramyxoviruses were also from these waterfowl. In contrast to findings with influenza virus, the prevalence of paramyxoviruses did not differ significantly among the duck species. Serotype 1 (Newcastle disease virus) was predominant; three other serotypes were also identified. These findings indicated that ducks in the Atlantic flyway continually harbor influenza viruses and paramyxoviruses. The viruses may be a source of infection for other species.

            Descriptors:  ducks microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, orthomyxoviridae isolation and purification, paramyxoviridae isolation and purification, antigens, viral analysis, demography, New York, species specificity.

DeLay, P.D., H.L. Casey, and H.S. Tubiash (1967). Comparative study of fowl plague virus and a virus isolated from man. Public Health Reports 82(7): 615-20.  ISSN: 0094-6214.

            NAL Call Number:  151.65 P96

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus avian immunology, orthomyxoviridae infections immunology, viruses immunology, chick embryo, haplorhini, hemagglutination inhibition tests, hemagglutination tests, neutralization tests, Newcastle disease immunology, Newcastle disease virus immunology, poultry, virus diseases immunology, virus diseases pathology.

Della Porta, A. J. (ed.). (1985). Avian diseases. In: Veterinary viral diseases, their significance in South East Asia and the Western Pacific, p. 317-358.

            NAL Call Number: SF780.4.I56 1984

            Descriptors: wild birds, avian influenza, Newcastle disease, viral diseases, threat, Australia, Korea, Malaysia, conference papers.

Donis, R.O., W.J. Bean, Y. Kawaoka, and R.G. Webster (1989). Distinct lineages of influenza virus H4 hemagglutinin genes in different regions of the world. Virology 169(2): 408-17.  ISSN: 0042-6822.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 V81

            Abstract:  To understand the determinants of influenza virus evolution, phylogenetic relationships were determined for nine hemagglutinin (HA) genes of the H4 subtype. These genes belong to a set of viruses isolated from several avian and mammalian species from various geographic locations around the world between 1956 and 1985. We found that the HA gene of the H4 subtype is 1738 nucleotides in length and is predicted to encode a polypeptide of 564 amino acids. The connecting peptide, which is removed from the precursor polypeptide by peptidases to yield the mature HA1 and HA2 polypeptides, contains only one basic amino acid. This type of connecting peptide is a feature of all avian avirulent HAs. On the basis of pairwise nucleotide sequence homology comparisons the genes can be segregated into two groups: influenza virus genes isolated in North America and those isolated from other parts of the world. A high degree of homology exists between pairs of genes from viruses of similar geographic origin. The nucleotide sequences within a group differ by 1.5 to 10.6%; in contrast, between groups the differences range from 15.8 to 19.4%. An evolutionary tree for the nine sequences suggests that North American isolates have diverged extensively from those circulating in other parts of the world. Geographic barriers which determine flyway outlay may prevent the gene pools from extensive mixing. The lack of correlation between date of isolation and evolutionary distance suggests that different H4 HA genes cocirculate in a fashion similar to avian H3 HA genes (H. Kida et al., 1987, Virology 159, 109-119) and influenza C genes (D. Buonagurio et al., 1985, Virology 146, 221-232) implying the absence of selective pressure by antibody that would give a significant advantage to antigenic variants. In contrast to avian influenza virus genes, human influenza virus genes evolve rapidly under the selective pressure of antibody.

            Descriptors:  hemagglutinins viral genetics, influenza A virus genetics, amino acid sequence, base sequence, cloning, molecular, geography, molecular sequence data, sequence homology, nucleic acid.

Dosser, E.M. (1970). Stimuliruiushchee vzaimodeistvie virusov zhivotnykh. [Stimulating interaction of animal viruses]. Voprosy Virusologii 15(4): 387-94.  ISSN: 0507-4088.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 P942

            Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus, viral interference, adenoviridae, arboviruses, cattle, cervix neoplasms, chick embryo, chikungunya virus, encephalomyocarditis virus, HeLa cells, influenza A virus avian, interferons antagonists and inhibitors, l cells cell line, lactones pharmacology, mice, orthomyxoviridae, parainfluenza virus 1, human drug effects, polioviruses, rabies virus, rats, respirovirus, swine, tissue culture, vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus, virus cultivation, virus replication.

Downie, J.C., V. Hinshaw, and W.G. Laver (1977). The ecology of influenza. Isolation of type 'A' influenza viruses from Australian pelagic birds. Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science 55(6): 635-43.  ISSN: 0004-945X.

            NAL Call Number:  442.8 Au7

            Abstract:  Three different type A influenza viruses have been isolated from pelagic birds nesting on islands of the Great Barrier Reef. One of these, isolated in 1972, was of subtype Hav6Nav5. The other two, which are described in this paper, were isolated in 1975 and belonged to subtypes Hav5Nav2 and Hav3Nav6. Of eight isolates of the latter virus, seven were recovered from cloacal swabs and only one from the trachea.

            Descriptors:  birds microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, antibodies, viral analysis, antigens, viral immunology, Australia, cloaca microbiology, hemagglutinins viral analysis, influenza A virus avian immunology, neuraminidase immunology, trachea microbiology.

Downie, J.C. and W.G. Laver (1973). Isolation of a type A influenza virus from an Australian pelagic bird. Virology 51(2): 259-269.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 V81

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus, birds, Puffinus pacificus chlororhynchus, shearwater bird.

Easterday, B.C. (1973). Avian influenza: a growing problem. Poultry Digest 32(378): 357-359.  ISSN: 0032-5724.

            NAL Call Number:  47.8 N219

            Descriptors:  avian influenza, poultry.

Easterday, B.C. (1973). Avian influenza: a worldwide enigma. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 163(10): 1197.  ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Am3

            Descriptors:  avian influenza, global, birds, ducks.

Easterday, B.C., C.W. Beard and  M. S. Hofstad (ed.) (1984). Avian influenza. In: Diseases of Poultry, 8th edition, p. 482-496.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.B5 1984

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, reviews, poultry diseases.

Easterday, B.C., D.O. Trainer, B. Tumova, and H.G. Pereira (1968). Evidence of infection with influenza viruses in migratory waterfowl. Nature 219(153): 523-4.  ISSN: 0028-0836.

            NAL Call Number:  472 N21

            Descriptors:  bird diseases microbiology, influenza veterinary, orthomyxoviridae infections veterinary, bird diseases immunology, disease reservoirs, ducks, England, geese, hemagglutination inhibition tests, Illinois, influenza immunology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, Michigan, Missouri, neutralization tests, Ontario, orthomyxoviridae isolation and purification, orthomyxoviridae infections immunology, South Dakota, Texas, turkeys, Wisconsin.

Easterday, B.C. and B. Tumova (1972). Avian influenza viruses: in avian species and the natural history of influenza. Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine 16: 201-22.  ISSN: 0065-3519.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 AC85

            Descriptors:  bird diseases etiology, influenza veterinary, orthomyxoviridae classification, orthomyxoviridae immunology, antigens, viral, bird diseases drug therapy, bird diseases prevention and control, birds, chickens, ducks, ecology, influenza drug therapy, influenza immunology, influenza pathology, influenza prevention and control, influenza A virus avian classification, avian immunology, poultry diseases, turkeys.

Easterday, B.C., B. Tumova and  M. S. Hofstad (ed.) (1972). Avian influenza. In: Diseases of Poultry, 6th edition, p. 670-700.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.I86

            Descriptors:  avian influenza, poultry, diseases.

Easterday, B.C., B. Tumova, M. S. Hofstad (ed.) and  others (ed.) (1978). Avian influenza. In: Diseases of Poultry, 7th edition, p. 549-573.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.B5 1972

            Descriptors:  reviews, birds, avian influenza virus, diseases.

Echaniz Aviles, G. (2004 ). Influenza aviar: debemos preocuparnos? Salud P'Ublica De M'Exico 46(2): 186-7.  ISSN: 0036-3634.

            Descriptors:  influenza epidemiology, influenza, avian epidemiology, Asia epidemiology, birds, influenza virology.

Eiros Bouza, J.M. (2004). Sindrome agudo respiratorio grave y gripe aviar [Severe acute respiratory syndrome and avian flu]. Anales De La Real Academia Nacional De Medicina 121(2): 263-88.  ISSN: 0034-0634.

            Abstract:  Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a new disease that caused large ourbreaks in several countries in the first half of 2003, resulting in infection in more than 8.000 people and more than 900 deaths. The disease originated in southern China and a novel coronavirus (SARS CoV) has been implicated as the causative organism. We present an overview of the etiology, clinical presentation and diagnosis, based on the current state of knowledge derived from published studies and our experience in the National Microbiology Centre. Influenza is a zoonosis. This appreciation of influenza ecology facilitated recognition of the H5N1 'bird flu' incident in Hong Kong in 1997 in what was considered to be an incipient pandemic situation, the chicken being the source of virus for humans and. The current outbreak of avian influenza in South East Asia has resulted in a small number of human deaths. These findings highlight the importance of systematic virus surveillance of domestic poultry in recognizing changes in virus occurrence, host range and pathogenicity as signals at the avian level that could presage a pandemic.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks, avian influenza epidemiology, severe acute respiratory syndrome diagnosis, severe acute respiratory syndrome etiology, severe acute respiratory syndrome virology, southeastern Asia epidemiology, China epidemiology, diagnosis, avian influenza mortality, avian influenza virology, middle aged adult.

Ek-Kommonen, C. (1996). Avian influenza. Suomen Eläinlääkärilehti 102(7/8): 399-402.  ISSN: 0039-5501.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 F49

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, poultry, disease prevalence, symptoms, diagnosis, control, vaccines.

Ekdahl, K., P. Penttinen, A. Ternhag, A. Linde, and J. Giesecke (2004). Fagelinfluensan--nasta globala infektionshot fran Asien. [Avian influenza--next global infection threat from Asia]. Lakartidningen 101(8): 683-5.  ISSN: 0023-7205.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks, fowl plague epidemiology, influenza epidemiology, influenza A virus avian genetics, avian pathogenicity, world health, birds, fowl plague transmission, influenza transmission, influenza virology, risk factors.

Enserink, M. (2004). Breakthrough of the year. Avian influenza: catastrophe waiting in the wings? Science 306(5704): 2016.  ISSN: 1095-9203.

            NAL Call Number:  470 Sci2

            Descriptors:  influenza virology, influenza A virus, avian pathogenicity, influenza, avian epidemiology, antiviral agents therapeutic use, Asia epidemiology, disease outbreaks veterinary, influenza epidemiology, influenza prevention and control, influenza vaccines, avian influenza prevention and control, avian influenza virology, poultry, vaccination veterinary, World Health Organization.

Enserink, M. (2005). Infectious diseases. Experts dismiss pig flu scare as nonsense. Science 307(5714): 1392.  ISSN: 1095-9203.

            NAL Call Number:  470 Sci2

            Descriptors:  genes, viral, orthomyxoviridae genetics, orthomyxoviridae isolation and purification, orthomyxoviridae infections veterinary, swine virology, swine diseases virology, databases, nucleic acid, influenza A virus, avian genetics, human genetics, Korea, orthomyxoviridae infections virology, RNA, viral genetics, World Health Organization.

Enserink, M. (2004). Influenza: girding for disaster. Looking the pandemic in the eye. Science 306(5695): 392-4.  ISSN: 1095-9203.

            NAL Call Number:  470 Sci2

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks, influenza epidemiology, world health, cost of illness, influenza transmission, influenza virology, avian pathogenicity, influenza A virus, avian physiology, influenza vaccines administration and dosage, influenza vaccines supply and distribution, models, biological, orthomyxoviridae pathogenicity, orthomyxoviridae physiology, public health, reassortant viruses.

Enserink, M. (2004). Virology. Tiptoeing around Pandora's Box.  Science 305(5684):  594-5.  ISSN: 1095-9203.

            NAL Call Number:  470 Sci2

            Descriptors:  influenza virology, influenza A virus, avian genetics, human genetics, reassortant viruses genetics, reassortant viruses pathogenicity, bioterrorism, birds, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention U.S., containment of biohazards, disease outbreaks, genome, viral, influenza epidemiology, influenza transmission, avian influenza pathogenicity, human pathogenicity, avian influenza epidemiology, avian influenza virology, recombination, genetic, risk assessment, United States, virulence, World Health Organization.

Erasmus, B.J. (2003). The latest on avian influenza. Poultry Bulletin South Africa Poultry Association : 14-17.  ISSN: 0257-201X.

            NAL Call Number:  47.8 So89

            Descriptors:  chickens, avian influenza virus, pathogenicity, vaccination, immunization, disinfection, South Africa, Africa, Africa South of Sahara, biological properties, birds, domestic animals, Galliformes, immunization, immunostimulation, immunotherapy, livestock, microbial properties, poultry, Southern Africa, therapy, useful animals.

Erickson, G.A., M. Brugh, and C.W. Beard (1978). Newcastle disease and avian influenza virus stability under simulated shipping conditions. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians 21: 309-318.

            NAL Call Number:  SF771.A53a

            Descriptors:  Newcastle disease virus, avian influenza virus, shipping, culture media, preservation, specimen handling.

Estola, T., P. Saikku, M. Pirkola, I. Hakkinen, P. Veijalainen, and C. Ek Kommonen (1980). Occurrence of influenza A viruses and their antibodies in migratory birds in Finland. Nordisk Veterinaermedicin 32(7-8): 321-4.  ISSN: 0029-1579.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 N813

            Abstract:  A Finnish material of 455 cloacal specimens from 24 species of small migratory birds and of 54 cloacal specimens from 10 species of waterfowl was investigated for the occurrence of A type influenza virus. Influenza A virus was isolated in only one specimen, originating from a mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Parallely, yolk material from 109 waterfowl representing 9 species was investigated for the occurrence of influenza A antibodies by complement fixation and immunodiffusion tests. In three yolk specimens, one from a widgeon (Anas penelope), one from a common gull (Larus canus) and one from a lesser blackbacked gull (Larus fuscus ), positive reactions with low titres of 1:2--1:4 were obtained. The study shows that waterfowl can carry influenza A virus, but the role of small migratory birds in this respect seems to be negligible in Finland.

            Descriptors:  antibodies, viral analysis, birds microbiology, influenza A virus avian immunology, birds immunology, cloaca microbiology, Finland, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification.

Estudillo, L.J. (1996). Consideraciones sobre el instinto migratorio de las aves silvestres y analisis de las posibilidades reales que estas hayan sido el vector del brote de influenza aviar en Mexico. [Considerations on the migratory instinct of wild birds and analysis of the actual possibilities for these birds to have served as vectors for the avian influenza outbreak in Mexico]. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 45: 22-20.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  birds, vectors, avian influenza virus, Mexico, America, disease transmission, influenza virus, Latin America, North America, orthomyxoviridae, pathogenesis, viruses.

Eto, M. and M. Mase (2003). Isolation of the Newcastle disease virus and the H9N2 influenza A virus from chicken imported from China. Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association 56(5): 333-339.  ISSN: 0446-6454.

            NAL Call Number:  41.9 J275

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus, Newcastle disease, avian influenza virus, imported products, chicken meat, pathogenicity, China

Fauci, A.S. (1998). New and reemerging diseases: The importance of biomedical research. Emerging Infectious Diseases 4(3): 374-378.  ISSN: 1080-6040.

            NAL Call Number:  RA648.5.E46

            Descriptors:  infection, public health, avian H5N1 influenza, outbreak response, respiratory system disease, viral disease, infectious diseases, infectious disease, new, reemerging, malaria, National Institute of Health initiatives, parasitic disease, blood and lymphatic disease, biomedical research importance, cross sector collaboration, vaccine development.

Ferguson, N.M., C. Fraser, C.A. Donnelly, A.C. Ghani, and R.M. Anderson (2004). Public health. Public health risk from the avian H5N1 influenza epidemic. Science 304(5673): 968-9.  ISSN: 1095-9203.

            NAL Call Number:  470 Sci2

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks veterinary, influenza epidemiology, influenza transmission, influenza A virus, avian genetics, avian pathogenicity, population surveillance, public health, animals, domestic, cluster analysis, influenza virology, human genetics, human pathogenicity, avian influenza epidemiology, avian influenza prevention and control, avian influenza transmission, avian influenza virology, mathematics, reassortant viruses genetics, reassortant viruses pathogenicity, recombination, genetic, risk assessment, world health, zoonoses.

Fernandez del Campo, J.A. (2004). Datos actuales sobre virus de la gripe de patos salvajes y pollos, y virus de la gripe tipo C. Agentes antigripales [Present data on influenza virus isolated from ducks and chickens, and influenza virus C. Anti-influenza drugs]. Anales De La Real Academia Nacional De Medicina 121(2): 305-30.  ISSN: 0034-0634.

            Abstract:  Present data on influenza virus isolated from ducks and chickens, and influenza virus C. Anti-influenza drugs. Within the broad field of Glycopathology and Glycotherapeutics, research on influenza virus types A, B and C from humans and several bird species (particularly migratory birds such as ducks, since they are reservoirs for viruses), as well as the search for improved drugs designed for the prevention or treatment of epidemics/pandemics produced by most of those viruses are issues of relevant interest not only from a scientific point of view but also for repercussions on health and the important economical consequences. The research work begun by the author and collaborators at the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of the University of Salamanca (Spain) in the middle of the 1970's, developed later in close cooperation with the "(Unite d'Ecologie Virale" of the Pasteur Institute of Paris (Prof. Claude Hannoun and collaborators), has been published in about twenty papers that mainly focus on the theoretic-experimental study of: The sialidase (neuraminidase) activity of human influenza viruses types A and B. The acetylesterase activity of type C virus from humans and dogs. The sialidase activity of type A virus from ducks and pigs, in comparison with that of humans. Certain sialidase inhibitors as useful anti-influenza drugs, especially in the case of possible future influenza pandemics of avian origin.

            Descriptors:  antiviral agents therapeutic use, chickens microbiology, ducks microbiology, influenza drug therapy, avian influenza drug therapy, neuraminidase antagonists and inhibitors, orthomyxoviridae isolation and purification, acetylesterase analysis, adolescent, aged adult, aged 80 and over, child, preschool child, disease reservoirs, dogs, influenza prevention and control, influenza vaccines administration and dosage, influenza virus A enzymology, influenza virus A isolation and purification, influenza virus B enzymology, influenza virus B isolation and purification, influenza virus C enzymology, influenza virus C isolation and purification, middle aged, neuraminidase analysis, research.

Fioretti, A., M. Calabria, and A. Piccirillo (1998). Influenza aviare. [Avian influenza]. [Italian Society of Poultry Pathology Meeting on World and Italian situation of avian influenza]. Legnaro, Padua (Italy). 7 Apr 1998. Selezione Veterinaria (Italy) (12): 921-929.

            NAL Call Number:  241.71 B75

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, history, symptoms, postmortem examination, vaccination, mortality, diagnosis, disease surveillance, chickens, Italy.

Fiszon, B., C. Hannoun, A. Garcia Sastre, E. Villar, and J.A. Cabezas (1989). Comparison of biological and physical properties of human and animal A (H1N1) influenza viruses. Research in Virology 140(5): 395-404.  ISSN: 0923-2516.

            NAL Call Number:  QR355.A44

            Abstract:  The study of biological properties of influenza virus strains belonging to the same subtype A(H1N1) and closely antigenically related, but isolated from different animal species (man, pig and duck), demonstrated that avian strains were more resistant than those isolated from mammals to high temperature and low pH, as shown by titration of residual infectivity in cell cultures (MDCK) and by sialidase assay. The difference in behaviour could be correlated to biological adaptation of the virus to its host. Avian body temperature is 40 degrees C and influenza virus, in ducks, is enterotropic and therefore capable of passing through the low pH values in the upper digestive tract of the animal. These results do not contradict the hypothesis of a possible filiation between avian and mammalian orthomyxoviruses.

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus physiology, body temperature, cell line, ducks, hemagglutination tests, hydrogen-ion concentration, influenza A virus avian enzymology, avian growth and development, avian physiology, human enzymology, human growth and development, human physiology, porcine enzymology, porcine growth and development, porcine physiology, influenza A virus enzymology, influenza A virus growth and development, neuraminidase analysis, plaque assay, swine, temperature, virus replication.

Fleck, F. (2004). Avian flu virus could evolve into dangerous human pathogen, experts fear. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 82(3): 236-7.  ISSN: 0042-9686.

            NAL Call Number:  449.9 W892B

            Descriptors:  influenza epidemiology, influenza A virus, avian pathogenicity, zoonoses, Asia, birds.

Fleury, H.J., M. Babin, J.F. Bonnici, J.D. Poveda, M. Beyrie, A. Vuillaume, and D.J. Alexander (1986). First simultaneous isolation of influenza A virus and duck enteritis virus from commercial ducks in France. Veterinary Record 119(9): 208-9.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  ducks microbiology, fowl plague complications, herpesviridae isolation and purification, herpesviridae infections veterinary, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, fowl plague microbiology, herpesviridae infections complications, herpesviridae infections microbiology, poultry diseases microbiology.

Fomsgaard, A., P.C. Grauballe, and S.O. Glismann (2004). Risiko for en ny influenzapandemi? [Risk of a new influenza pandemic?]. Ugeskrift for Laeger 166(10): 912-5.  ISSN: 0041-5782.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks prevention and control, influenza epidemiology, influenza A virus classification, influenza A virus genetics, influenza A virus pathogenicity, zoonoses virology, birds, communicable disease control, influenza prevention and control, influenza transmission, avian influenza transmission, poultry, world health, zoonoses transmission.

Fontaine, M. (1984). Influenza aviaire. [Avian influenza (review)]. Recueil De Medecine Veterinaire 160(11): 929-937.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 R24

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, review, birds, mammals.

Fontaine, M. and M. Aymard Henry (1975). Contribution a l'etude antigenique des virus influenza des animaux. I. Neuraminidase des virus influenza equins. [Contribution to the antigenic study of influenza viruses in animals. I. Neuraminidase of the equine influenza viruses (author's transl)]. Annales De Recherches Veterinaires Annals of Veterinary Research 6(4):  397-410.  ISSN: 0003-4193.

            NAL Call Number:  SF602.A5

            Abstract:  From the Revised Nomenclature of WHO, the fowl influenza virus A/Duck/Ukraine/63 (Hav7 Neq2) has the same neuraminidase as the equine virus A/equi 2/Miami/63 (Heq2 Neq2); the A/Chicken Germany "N"/49 virus has the same neuraminidase as the equine virus A/equi 1/Prague/56. A comparative study of the antigenic specificities confirms that the Neq2 neuraminidases are closely connected, whatever their animal origin, and that the fowl strain Hav7 Neq2 can be used for the titration of anti Neq2 antibodies in the serums of animals immunized with the equine virus Heq2 Neq2. The Neqi neuraminidases of various animal origins are connected, but the neuraminidase of the fowl strain Hav2 Neqi is slightly inhibited by the anti Neq1 antibodies of animals immunized with the Heq1 Neq1 virus: to titrate the anti Neq1 antibodies of equine origin, the H72 Neq1 recombinant should therefore be used. The antigenic characterization of the different equine influenza strains isolated since 1967 by the study of their neuraminidase has been completed: The various neuraminidases, like the hemagglutinins of the various strains belonging to the sub-type A equi2 are closely connected; a minor antigenic variation, concerning the two surface antigens, seems to exist between the strain A equi 1/Prague/56 and the strain of the same subtype isolated in 1973.

            Descriptors:  antigens, viral, neuraminidase immunology, orthomyxoviridae immunology, cross reactions, epitopes, hemagglutination inhibition tests, horse diseases immunology, horses, influenza immunology, influenza veterinary, influenza A virus avian immunology.

Fouchier, R.A., G.F. Rimmelzwaan, T. Kuiken, and A.D. Osterhaus (2005). Newer respiratory virus infections: human metapneumovirus, avian influenza virus, and human coronaviruses. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 18(2): 141-6.  ISSN: 0951-7375.

            Abstract:  PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recently, several previously unrecognized respiratory viral pathogens have been identified and several influenza A virus subtypes, previously known to infect poultry and wild birds, were transmitted to humans. Here we review the recent literature on these respiratory viruses. RECENT FINDINGS: Human metapneumovirus has now been detected worldwide, causing severe respiratory tract illnesses primarily in very young, elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Animal models and reverse genetic techniques were designed for human metapneumovirus, and the first vaccine candidates have been developed. Considerable genetic and antigenic diversity was observed for human metapneumovirus, but the implication of this diversity for vaccine development and virus epidemiology requires further study. Two previously unrecognized human coronaviruses were discovered in 2004 in The Netherlands and Hong Kong. Their clinical impact and epidemiology are largely unknown and warrant further investigation. Several influenza A virus subtypes were transmitted from birds to humans, and these viruses continue to constitute a pandemic threat. The clinical symptoms associated with these zoonotic transmissions range from mild respiratory illnesses and conjunctivitis to pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, sometimes resulting in death. More basic research into virus ecology and evolution and development of effective vaccines and antiviral strategies are required to limit the impact of influenza A virus zoonoses and the threat of an influenza pandemic. SUMMARY: Previously unknown and emerging respiratory viruses are an important threat to human health. Development of virus diagnostic tests, antiviral strategies, and vaccines for each of these pathogens is crucial to limit their impact.

            Descriptors:  coronavirus infections epidemiology, influenza virology, avian influenza A virus, metapneumovirus, paramyxoviridae infections epidemiology, respiratory tract infections virology, emerging communicable diseases, disease outbreaks, influenza epidemiology, risk factors, paramyxoviridae infections virology, coronavirus infections virology, influenza epidemiology.

Fukumi, H., K. Nerome, M. Nakayama, and M. Ishida (1977). Serological and virological investigations fo orthomyxovirus in birds in South-East Asian area. Developments in Biological Standardization 39: 475-60.  ISSN: 0301-5149.

            NAL Call Number:  QR180.3.D4

            Abstract:  We have previously reported that some species of migrating ducks (pintail, mallard, widgeon and falcated teal) possess in their sera antibodies against H antigens of human or avian influenza viruses. Such findings have also been reported from other workers, and the appearance of new types of influenza viruses accompanied by outbreaks of new influenza pandemics, or circulation of influenza virus antigens in animals, birds and humans have been discussed on the basis of such findings. Recently a number of orthomyxoviruses have been isolated from wild birds such as myna, banded parakeets, etc. imported from India and some areas of South-East Asia. Some of them have H antigens not recognized previously, and some are found to have more or less common reactions with human H3 antigen, and consequently antigens Hav 7 and Heq 2, which are known to show cross-reaction with H3. The significance of such a fact in connection with the appearance of a new influenza pandemic is discussed.

            Descriptors:  antibodies, viral, birds microbiology, influenza A virus avian immunology, Asia, Southeastern, ducks, hemagglutinins viral, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, Japan, neuraminidase immunology.

Furr, A.A. (1984). Avian influenza. Foreign Animal Disease Report 12(1): 1-2.  ISSN: 0091-8199.

            NAL Call Number:  aSF601.U5

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, poultry, depopulation, Pennsylvania.

Furr, A.A. (1984). Avian influenza update. Foreign Animal Disease Report 12(2): 1-2.  ISSN: 0091-8199.

            NAL Call Number:  aSF601.U5

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, outbreaks, turkeys,  Virginia, Pennsylvania.

Garcia, M., D.L. Suarez, J.M. Crawford, J.W. Latimer, R.D. Slemons, D.E. Swayne, and M.L. Perdue (1997). Evolution of H5 subtype avian influenza A viruses in North America. Virus Research 51(2): 115-24.  ISSN: 0168-1702.

            NAL Call Number:  QR375.V6

            Abstract:  The phylogenetic relationships of the hemagglutinin (HA) and non-structural (NS) genes from avian influenza (AI) H5 subtype viruses of North American origin are presented. Analysis of the HA genes of several previously uncharacterized isolates from waterfowl and turkeys provided clear evidence of significant sequence variation and existence of multiple virus clades or sub-lineages, maintained in migratory waterfowl. Phylogenetic analysis of NS gene sequences further demonstrated multiple sub-lineages and also demonstrated re-assortment of two NS alleles in wild duck populations. Based on currently available HA1 gene sequences, at least four clades exist with waterfowl isolates included in three of the four groups. The most genetically unstable of these sub-lineages is composed of recent poultry isolates from the outbreak of AI in Central Mexico. This group of viruses, which replicated unabated in chickens for at least 16 months, exhibited an increased rate of mutation in both the HA and NS gene. Comparison of the HA1 sequence data for all available North American H5 subtype viruses demonstrated minimal variation both in and around the amino acids predicted to be involved in the HA receptor binding site. The sequences also revealed that migratory waterfowl, live poultry market chicken, and turkey isolates uniformly lack a glycosylation site at amino acid 236 in the HA protein which is present in commercial chicken isolates.

            Descriptors:  evolution, molecular, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus genetics, influenza A virus avian genetics, viral nonstructural proteins genetics, base sequence, DNA, viral, influenza A virus avian classification, molecular sequence data, North America, phylogeny.

Gardner, I.D. and K.F. Shortridge (1979). Recombination as a mechanism in the evolution of influenza viruses: a two-year study of ducks in Hong Kong. Reviews of Infectious Diseases 1(5): 885-90.  ISSN: 0162-0886.

            NAL Call Number:  RC111.R4

            Abstract:  An analysis was made of 149 influenza A viruses isolated from ducks in Hong Kong during the period of November 1975 through October 1977. The viruses were isolated five times more frequently from ducks raised in the People's Republic of China than from those raised in Hong Kong. The isolation rate fo viruses was higher from the cloaca than it was from the trachea, but this pattern varied over the two years of investifation. The large number of different combinations (30) of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes suggests that recombination of viruses was taking place. Analysis of these combinations showed that their distribution was not random and that certain combinations occured more frequently, and others less frequently, than was expected. The recombination of influenza viruses and the excess or restriction of certain combinations may have implications for the evolution of pandemic strains of influenza virus in humans.

            Descriptors:  ducks microbiology, influenza A virus avian genetics, recombination, genetic, China, cloaca microbiology, evolution, gene frequency, genotype, hemagglutinins viral genetics, Hong Kong, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, neuraminidase genetics, paramyxoviridae isolation and purification, seasons, trachea microbiology.

Germanov, A.B., M.I. Sokolov, I.A. Myasnikova, N.A. Parasiuk, T.V. Vorontsova, and G.V. Kornilaeva (1972). Some biological and physico-chemical properties of plaque mutants of fowl plague virus. Brief report. Archiv Fur Die Gesamte Virusforschung 39(4): 389-92.  ISSN: 0003-9012.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ar23

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus avian drug effects, influenza A virus avian radiation effects, mutation, centrifugation, density gradient, chick embryo, chromatography, DEAE-cellulose, fibroblasts, mutagens, protamines pharmacology, radiation effects, sodium chloride, temperature, tissue culture, ultraviolet rays, virus replication.

Glass, S.E., S.A. Naqi, and L.C. Grumbles (1981). Isolation of avian influenza virus in Texas. Avian Diseases 25(2): 545-9.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  An avian influenza virus with surface antigens similar to those of fowl plague virus (Hav 1 Nav 2) was isolated in 1979 from 2 commercial turkey flocks in Central Texas. Two flocks in contact with these infected flocks developed clinical signs, gross lesions, and seroconversion but yielded no virus. This was the first recorded incidence of clinical avian influenza in Texas turkeys and only the second time that an agent with these surface antigens was isolated from turkeys in U.S.

            Descriptors:  fowl plague epidemiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, turkeys, antibodies, viral analysis, fowl plague immunology, hemagglutination tests veterinary, immunodiffusion veterinary, influenza A virus avian immunology, Texas.

Goodman, L. (2004). Viral crossings. Journal of Clinical Investigation 113(6): 786.  ISSN: 0021-9738.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 J8295

            Descriptors:  host parasite relations physiology, influenza A virus, avian metabolism, RNA virus infections epidemiology, Asia epidemiology, RNA virus infections metabolism, zoonoses.

Gordon, S. (2004). Avian influenza: a wake-up call from birds to humans. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine 71(4): 273-4.  ISSN: 0891-1150.

            Descriptors:  communicable disease control organization and administration, influenza epidemiology, influenza A virus, avian isolation and purification, avian influenza epidemiology, birds, influenza prevention and control, avian influenza prevention and control, primary prevention organization and administration, risk assessment, vaccination methods, world health.

Gough, R.E., W.J. Cox, and D.J. Alexander (1990). Examination of sera from game birds for antibodies against avian viruses.  Veterinary Record 127(5): 110-1.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  antibodies, viral blood, birds immunology, coronaviridae immunology, herpesvirus 1, gallid immunology, infectious bronchitis virus immunology, infectious bursal disease virus immunology, influenza A virus avian immunology, Newcastle disease virus immunology, rotavirus immunology.

Gough, R.E. and A.S. Wallis (1986). Duck hepatitis type I and influenza in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). Veterinary Record 119(24): 602.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  duck hepatitis virus, mallard ducks, avian influenza virus, Anas platyrhynchos.

Gould, A.R. (2004). Virus evolution: disease emergence and spread. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 44(11): 1085-1094.  ISSN: 0816-1089.

            NAL Call Number:  23 Au792

            Descriptors:  viral evolution, viral replication, infection, geographic location.

Gourreau, J.M., C. Kaiser, M. Valette, A.R. Douglas, J. Labie, and M. Aymard (1994). Isolation of two H1N2 influenza viruses from swine in France. Archives of Virology 135(3-4): 365-82.  ISSN: 0304-8608.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ar23

            Abstract:  Samples collected in 1987 and 1988 in Brittany from influenza-infected swine made it possible to isolate and antigenically characterize two H1N2 recombinant viruses (Sw/France/5027/87 and Sw/France/5550/88). The former virus was cloned and reinoculated to swine to allow reproduction of the disease and reisolation of a strain similar to the original one. The serodiagnostic tests carried out on both the original sera and those from the experimentally infected animals confirmed that the virus was actually type Sw/H1N2.

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus, porcine isolation and purification, swine virology, antibodies, monoclonal, antibody formation, antigens, viral analysis, birds, cloning, molecular, France, influenza immunology, influenza A virus avian classification, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, influenza A virus human classification, influenza A virus human isolation and purification, influenza A virus, porcine genetics,  influenza A virus, porcine immunology, variation genetics.

Graves, I.L. (1992). Influenza viruses in birds of the Atlantic flyway. Avian Diseases 36(1): 1-10.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Isolation of type A influenza viruses from the feces of 5013 birds of 16 species was attempted during a 33-month study (1977-79). Seventy viruses were isolated from the feces of 3403 ring-billed gulls in Baltimore, Md., during 16 months of sampling. Six hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes and seven neuraminidase (NA) subtypes in 15 combinations were found. The H13N6 virus was the only subtype found each year and accounted for 40% of the isolates. The rate of isolation from gulls was 0.26% in the cold months and 3.0% in the warm months. Hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) and elution-inhibition antibody profiles reflected the presence of some but not all of the viruses isolated. In mute swans, the rates of seroconversions were 16% for HA antibody and 14% for NA antibody, whereas the viral isolation rate was 0.4% over a 3-year period. Both the H5 and the N2 subtypes, which were responsible for the lethal chicken outbreaks in 1983 in Pennsylvania, were isolated from gulls in 1978 in association with subtypes not found in the chicken virus. Also, seroconversions for the H5 HA occurred in mute swans in 1978.

            Descriptors:  antibodies, viral blood, feces microbiology, fowl plague epidemiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, age factors, Baltimore epidemiology, birds, hemagglutination inhibition tests, influenza A virus avian classification, influenza A virus avian immunology, mid-Atlantic region epidemiology, prevalence, seasons.

Gresikova, M., M. Sekeyova, B. Tumova, and A. Stumpa (1979). Isolation of an influenza A virus strain from a bird embryo (Larus ridibundus) collected in Slovakia. Acta Virologica 23(1): 89-92.  ISSN: 0001-723X.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 AC85

            Abstract:  Avian influenza virus A/Larus 36/77 (Hav7Nav1) was isolated in 1977 from a trinket (Larus ridibundus) embryo. This result suggests the possibility of vertical transmission of influenza A virus.

            Descriptors:  birds microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, antigens, viral analysis, birds embryology, Czechoslovakia, ecology, epitopes, influenza A virus avian immunology.

Groocock, C. (1994). Avian influenza in gamebirds in Maryland.  Foreign Animal Disease Report (22-2): 7.  ISSN: 0091-8199.

            NAL Call Number:  aSF601.U5

            Descriptors:  pheasants, waterfowl, avian influenza virus, disease control, birds, Galliformes, influenza virus, viruses, outbreaks.

Guan, Y., L.L. Poon, C.Y. Cheung, T.M. Ellis, W. Lim, A.S. Lipatov, K.H. Chan, K.M. Sturm Ramirez, C.L. Cheung, Y.H. Leung, K.Y. Yuen, R.G. Webster, and J.S. Peiris (2004). H5N1 influenza: a protean pandemic threat. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101(21): 8156-61.  ISSN: 0027-8424.

            NAL Call Number:  500 N21P

            Abstract:  Infection with avian influenza A virus of the H5N1 subtype (isolates A/HK/212/03 and A/HK/213/03) was fatal to one of two members of a family in southern China in 2003. This incident was preceded by lethal outbreaks of H5N1 influenza in waterfowl, which are the natural hosts of these viruses and, therefore, normally have asymptomatic infection. The hemagglutinin genes of the A/HK/212/03-like viruses isolated from humans and waterfowl share the lineage of the H5N1 viruses that caused the first known cases of human disease in Hong Kong in 1997, but their internal protein genes originated elsewhere. The hemagglutinin of the recent human isolates has undergone significant antigenic drift. Like the 1997 human H5N1 isolates, the 2003 human H5N1 isolates induced the overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines by primary human macrophages in vitro, whereas the precursor H5N1 viruses and other H5N1 reassortants isolated in 2001 did not. The acquisition by the viruses of characteristics that enhance virulence in humans and waterfowl and their potential for wider distribution by infected migrating birds are causes for renewed pandemic concern.

            Descriptors:  influenza epidemiology, influenza virology, birds virology, cytokines biosynthesis, cytokines immunology, hemagglutination inhibition tests, Hong Kong, inflammation mediators immunology, influenza transmission, influenza veterinary, influenza A virus, avian classification, avian genetics, avian immunology, avian pathogenicity, macrophages immunology, macrophages metabolism, mice, molecular sequence data, organ specificity, phylogeny, reassortant viruses immunology, reassortant viruses pathogenicity, time factors, virulence.

Guan, Y., K.F. Shortridge, S. Krauss, P.S. Chin, K.C. Dyrting, T.M. Ellis, R.G. Webster, and M. Peiris (2000). H9N2 influenza viruses possessing H5N1-like internal genomes continue to circulate in poultry in southeastern China. Journal of Virology 74(20): 9372-80.  ISSN: 0022-538X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR360.J6

            Abstract:  The transmission of H9N2 influenza viruses to humans and the realization that the A/Hong Kong/156/97-like (H5N1) (abbreviated HK/156/97) genome complex may be present in H9N2 viruses in southeastern China necessitated a study of the distribution and characterization of H9N2 viruses in poultry in the Hong Kong SAR in 1999. Serological studies indicated that H9N2 influenza viruses had infected a high proportion of chickens and other land-based birds (pigeon, pheasant, quail, guinea fowl, and chukka) from southeastern China. Two lineages of H9N2 influenza viruses present in the live-poultry markets were represented by A/Quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 (Qa/HK/G1/97)-like and A/Duck/Hong Kong/Y280/97 (Dk/HK/Y280/97)-like viruses. Up to 16% of cages of quail in the poultry markets contained Qa/HK/G1/97-like viruses, while about 5% of cages of other land-based birds were infected with Dk/HK/Y280/97-like viruses. No reassortant between the two H9N2 virus lineages was detected despite their cocirculation in the poultry markets. Reassortant viruses represented by A/Chicken/Hong Kong/G9/97 (H9N2) were the major H9N2 influenza viruses circulating in the Hong Kong markets in 1997 but have not been detected since the chicken slaughter in 1997. The Qa/HK/G1/97-like viruses were frequently isolated from quail, while Dk/HK/Y280/97-like viruses were predominately associated with chickens. The Qa/HK/G1/97-like viruses were evolving relatively rapidly, especially in their PB2, HA, NP, and NA genes, suggesting that they are in the process of adapting to a new host. Experimental studies showed that both H9N2 lineages were primarily spread by the aerosol route and that neither quail nor chickens showed evidence of disease. The high prevalence of quail infected with Qa/HK/G1/97-like virus that contains six gene segments genetically highly related to HK/156/97 (H5N1) virus emphasizes the need for surveillance of mammals including humans.

            Descriptors:  genome, viral, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, poultry virology, China, hemagglutination inhibition tests, influenza A virus avian genetics, phylogeny, temperature, virus replication.

Guan, Y., K.F. Shortridge, S. Krauss, and R.G. Webster (1999). Molecular characterization of H9N2 influenza viruses: were they the donors of the "internal" genes of H5N1 viruses in Hong Kong? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96(16): 9363-7.  ISSN: 0027-8424.

            NAL Call Number:  500 N21P

            Abstract:  The origin of the H5N1 influenza viruses that killed six of eighteen infected humans in 1997 and were highly pathogenic in chickens has not been resolved. These H5N1 viruses transmitted directly to humans from infected poultry. In the poultry markets in Hong Kong, both H5N1 and H9N2 influenza viruses were cocirculating, raising the possibility of genetic reassortment. Here we analyze the antigenic and genetic features of H9N2 influenza viruses with different epidemiological backgrounds. The results suggest that the H9N2 influenza viruses of domestic ducks have become established in the domestic poultry of Asia. Phylogenetic and antigenic analyses of the H9N2 viruses isolated from Hong Kong markets suggest three distinct sublineages. Among the chicken H9N2 viruses, six of the gene segments were apparently derived from an earlier chicken H9N2 virus isolated in China, whereas the PB1 and PB2 genes are closely related to those of the H5N1 viruses and a quail H9N2 virus-A/quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 (Qa/HK/G1/97)-suggesting that many of the 1997 chicken H9 isolates in the markets were reassortants. The similarity of the internal genes of Qa/HK/G1/97 virus to those of the H5N1 influenza viruses suggests that the quail virus may have been the internal gene donor. Our findings indicate that the human and poultry H5N1 influenza viruses in Hong Kong in 1997 were reassortants that obtained internal gene segments from Qa/HK/G1/97. However, we cannot be certain whether the replicate complex of H5N1 originated from Qa/HK/G1/97 or whether the reverse transfer occurred; the available evidence supports the former proposal.

            Descriptors:  genes viral, influenza epidemiology, influenza veterinary, influenza A virus avian classification, influenza A virus avian genetics, influenza A virus human classification, influenza A virus human genetics, poultry diseases epidemiology, chick embryo, chickens, coturnix, ducks, feces virology, Hong Kong epidemiology, influenza virology, influenza A virus avian pathogenicity, molecular sequence data, phylogeny, pigeons, poultry diseases virology.

Gust, I.D., A.W. Hampson, and D. Lavanchy (2001). Planning for the next pandemic of influenza. Reviews in Medical Virology 11(1): 59-70.  ISSN: 1052-9276.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks prevention and control, influenza epidemiology, world health, antiviral agents therapeutic use, influenza drug therapy, influenza prevention and control, influenza virology, influenza vaccine administration and dosage, orthomyxoviridae genetics, orthomyxoviridae immunology, practice guidelines, vaccination, World Health Organization.

Guzhgulova, G., N. Orezhkova, and G. Georgiev (2004).  Ptichi grip i infektsii s influentsa tip "A" virusi po ptitsite. [Avian influenza and infection with avian influenza A virus]. Veterinarna Sbirka (Bulgaria). Veterinary Collection 112(3-4): 5-9.  ISSN: 0205-3829.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V6463

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, genomes, antigens, hemagglutination tests, immunological techniques, nucleic acids.

Haas, W., G. Krause, U. Marcus, K. Stark, A. Ammon, and R. Burger (2004). "Emerging infectious diseases"Dengue-fieber, West-Nil-fieber, SARS, Vogelgrippe, HIV. [Emerging infectious diseases: Dengue-fever, West-Nile-fever, SARS, Vogelgrippe, HIV]. Internist 45(6): 684-92.  ISSN: 0020-9554.

            Abstract:  Some emerging infectious diseases have recently become endemic in Germany. Others remain confined to specific regions in the world. Physicians notice them only when travelers after infection in endemic areas present themselves with symptoms. Several of these emerging infections will be explained. HIV is an example for an imported pathogen which has become endemic in Germany. SARS and avian influenza are zoonoses with the potential to spread from person to person. Avian influenza in humans provides a possibility for the reassortment of a potential new pandemic strain. Outbreaks of dengue fever in endemic areas are reflected in increased infections in travelers returning from these areas. Currently, West-Nile-virus infections are only imported into Germany. The timely implementation of diagnostic, therapeutic and infection control measures requires physicians to include these diseases in their differential diagnosis. To achieve this goal, good cooperation between physicians, laboratories and the public health service is essential.

            Descriptors:  communicable diseases, control methods, emerging diagnosis, emerging therapy, disease outbreaks prevention and control, travel, virus diseases diagnosis, virus diseases therapy, birds, emerging epidemiology, Dengue diagnosis, Dengue epidemiology, Dengue therapy, diagnosis, differential, Germany epidemiology, HIV infections diagnosis, HIV infections epidemiology, HIV infections therapy, avian influenza diagnosis, avian influenza epidemiology, avian influenza therapy, internationality, patient care management methods, severe acute respiratory syndrome diagnosis, severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemiology, severe acute respiratory syndrome therapy, virus diseases epidemiology, West Nile fever diagnosis, West Nile fever epidemiology, West Nile fever therapy.

Hafez, H.M. (2003). Geflugelpest: Alte Krankheit mit standiger Gefahr fur Geflugel. [Fowl plague: an old disease that is a continuing danger to poultry]. Tierarztliche Umschau 58(7): 343-351.  ISSN: 0049-3864.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 T445

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, fowl plague virus, disease control, European Union, poultry, zoonoses.

Hafez, H.M., C. Prusas, S.C. de Jaeckel, D. Aldehoff, and O. Werner (2003). Investigations on avian influenza A in meat turkey flocks in Germany. Archiv Fuer Gefluegelkunde 67(1): 11-15.  ISSN: 0003-9098.

            NAL Call Number:  47.8 Ar2

            Abstract:  In the present investigation 315 commercial meat turkey flocks slaughtered in southern part of Germany in year 2001 were serologically examined for antibodies to avian influenza A viruses. Ten blood samples per flock were collected at the time of slaughter and examined using commercial ELISAs. Samples that reacted positively in ELISA were re-examined in haemagglutination inhibition test (HI) using subtype specific antigens. From the 3150 examined samples only 26 samples obtained from 7 flocks reacted positively in ELISA. Examination of these samples in HI revealed negative results to H1, H5, H7 and H9. On the other hand, all samples reacted positive in HI using H6 antigen. In all flocks neither clinical signs nor unusual increased mortalities were observed. End of December 2001 to January 2002 outbreaks of avian influenza were observed in three turkey flocks reared in the central-west region of Germany. In all cases sudden onset of depression, decrease in feed and water intake, respiratory signs accompanied with high mortality were observed. On necropsy pericarditis, petechial haemorrhages in pericardial fat, fibrinous airsacculitis, lung congestion and pneumonia were found. In addition, enlargement of the spleen and inflammation of pancreas were detected. Virological examinations resulted in isolation of an avian influenza A virus in embryonated chicken eggs. All isolates were identified as subtype H6N2 with an intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) of 0.0. The current observations indicate that low pathogenic avian influenza A of subtype 6 still circulated in German turkey flocks and in most of cases accompanied with high economic losses.

            Descriptors:  animal husbandry, epidemiology, immune system, infection, avian influenza, epidemiology, respiratory system disease, viral disease, ELISA immunologic techniques, laboratory techniques, serology clinical techniques, diagnostic techniques, meat, turkey flocks.

Hafez Mohamed Hafez  (2003). Avian influenza in poultry. World Poultry 19(Special): 11-12.  ISSN: 1388-3119.

            NAL Call Number:  SF481.M54

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, influenza virus A and B, clinical aspects, disease control, transmission, mortality, quarantine, vaccines, zoonoses, turkeys.

Halvorson, D., D. Karunakaran, D. Senne, C. Kelleher, C. Bailey, A. Abraham, V. Hinshaw, and J. Newman (1983). Epizootiology of avian influenza--simultaneous monitoring of sentinel ducks and turkeys in Minnesota. Avian Diseases 27(1): 77-85.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Isolation-reared mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were placed on ponds in turkey-rearing areas in Minnesota, and their cloacae were periodically swabbed to attempt isolating virus from embryonated chicken eggs. Nearby turkeys were sampled by taking cloacal and tracheal swabs as well as blood samples. Hemagglutinating viruses were identified at the National Veterinary Services Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa. During this two-year study, the weekly influenza virus-isolation rate from ducks varied from 0 to 24.4%. A total of 213 influenza viruses were isolated from the ducks. Twenty-six influenza virus subtypes were detected. Ninety-seven flocks of turkeys were diagnosed as having influenza by virus isolation and/or serology. Eight influenza virus subtypes were involved in the turkey outbreaks, and seven of these were also detected in the ducks and/or other avian species. The weekly infection rate of the sentinel ducks correlated directly with observations of wild ducks at the monitoring sites. Influenza virus was isolated from water samples collected near the sentinel duck sites during the study.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks veterinary, ducks, fowl plague epidemiology, turkeys, blood microbiology, cloaca microbiology, influenza A virus avian classification, avian isolation and purification, Minnesota, serotyping veterinary, trachea microbiology.

Halvorson, D.A. (2000). The importance of biosecurity. World Poultry (Special): 26-27.  ISSN: 1388-3119.

            NAL Call Number:  SF481.M54

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, disease control, prevention, transmission, biosecurity.

Halvorson, D.A. (2002). Is avian influenza research meeting the needs of the poultry veterinarian? Veterinary Journal 164(3): 173-5.  ISSN: 1090-0233.

            NAL Call Number:  SF601.V484

            Descriptors:  fowl plague prevention and control, influenza A virus avian immunology, avian physiology, influenza vaccine immunology, poultry virology, poultry diseases prevention and control, veterinary medicine, biomedical research, fowl plague immunology, poultry immunology, poultry diseases immunology.

Halvorson, D.A., D. Karunakaran, and J.A. Newman (1980). Avian influenza in caged laying chickens. Avian Diseases 24(1): 288-294.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, case reports, United States, Minnesota, chickens.

Halvorson, D.A., C.J. Kelleher, and D.A. Senne ( 1985). Epizootiology of avian influenza: effect of season on incidence in sentinel ducks and domestic turkeys in Minnesota. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 49(4): 914-9.  ISSN: 0099-2240.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ap5

            Abstract:  Sentinel ducks and domestic turkey flocks were monitored for influenza infection during a 4-year period. The onset of infection among ducks was similar each year, occurring in late July or early August. Influenza in turkeys was also shown to be seasonal, but the usual onset was 6 to 8 weeks after the detection of influenza in sentinel ducks. Possible explanations for the delayed infection in turkeys are (i) increased waterfowl activity associated with fledging and congregating in late summer and early fall; (ii) vectors transmitting virus from the waterfowl habitat to poultry farms; (iii) cooler environmental temperature, allowing prolonged virus viability; (iv) cooler surface water temperature, allowing prolonged virus viability; (v) groundwater contamination from contaminated surface water; and (vi) virus adaptation in domestic turkeys before infection is detected. We conclude that ducks are not only a natural reservoir of influenza but also have a seasonal infection that appears to be related to seasonal influenza outbreaks in domestic turkeys in Minnesota. However, only some influenza A virus isolates circulating among waterfowl at any given time appear capable of causing detectable infection in turkeys. It is speculated that the seasonal infection in migratory waterfowl may also be related to seasonal influenza infections in other species including humans.

            Descriptors:  influenza veterinary, poultry diseases transmission, turkeys microbiology, antigens, viral analysis, disease reservoirs, ducks microbiology, influenza immunology, influenza transmission, influenza A virus avian growth and development, Minnesota, poultry diseases epidemiology, temperature, water microbiology.

Halvorson, D.A., V. Sivanandan, and D. Lauer (1992). Influenza in commercial broiler breeders. Avian Diseases 36(1): 177-9.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Influenza was detected in a flock of broiler breeders during routine serological monitoring. Although there were no clinical signs, egg production may have been affected in hens on one story of a two-story breeder house. Intensive measures were taken to avoid transmission to other farms. Two months after the flock was found to be serologically positive, sentinel hens were placed in the flock, and they became serologically positive 1 month later. In spite of this evidence for virus being present in the flock, no detectable transmission to any other farm occurred.

            Descriptors:  antibodies, viral blood, chickens, fowl plague diagnosis, influenza A virus avian immunology, fowl plague prevention and control, precipitin tests.

Hampton, T. (2004). Clues to the deadly 1918 flu revealed. JAMA the Journal of the American Medical Association 291(13): 1553.  ISSN: 1538-3598.

            NAL Call Number:  448.9 Am37

            Descriptors:  hemagglutinins, viral genetics, influenza history, influenza A virus, avian genetics, DNA, viral analysis, disease outbreaks history, history, 20th century, influenza epidemiology, influenza virology.

Hannoun, C. (1977). Isolation from birds of influenza viruses with human neuraminidase. Developments in Biological Standardization 39: 469-72.  ISSN: 0301-5149.

            NAL Call Number:  QR180.3.D4

            Abstract:  Attempts at virus isolation from cloacal swabs resulted in the recovery of 10 strains of hemagglutinating viruses from a total of 349 ducks, mainly shelducks (Tadorna tadorna) captured in the north of France. Four of these isolates were identified as influenza strains corresponding to the following antigenic composition: Hav6-N2, Hav6-Nav4 and Hav1-N2 (2 strains). Shelduck is known to be a partially migratory species, wintering in western Europe, some of them migrating northward to Scandinavia during the summer. The captures were made between November 1976 and February 1977: one of the birds was caught four times and was found to be negative for virus in November, positive in December (isolation of a strain Hav6-Nav4), negative again in January and February. Blood taken in February did not show the presence of HI antibodies to the homologous virus.

            Descriptors:  antigens, viral, ducks microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, neuraminidase immunology, antibodies, viral, cloaca microbiology, France, hemagglutination inhibition tests, hemagglutinins viral, avian enzymology, avian immunology, human enzymology, seasons.

Hannoun, C. and J.M. Devaux (1980). Circulation enzootique permanente de virus grippaux dans la baie de la Somme. [Circulation of influenza viruses in the bay of the Somme river (author's transl)]. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 3(1-2): 177-83.  ISSN: 0147-9571.

            NAL Call Number:  QR180.C62

            Descriptors:  ducks microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, human isolation and purification, cloaca microbiology, France, avian classification, human classification, recombination, genetic, serotyping.

Hanson, B.A., D.E. Stallknecht, D.E. Swayne, L.A. Lewis, and D.A. Senne (2003). Avian influenza viruses in Minnesota ducks during 1998-2000. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 867-871.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Although wild ducks are known to be a major reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIV), there are few recent published reports of surveillance directed at this group. Predominant AIV hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes reported in previous studies of ducks in North America include H3, H4, and H6, with the H5, H7, and H9 subtypes not well represented in these host populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether these subtype patterns have persisted. Each September from 1998 to 2000, cloacal swabs were collected from wild ducks banded in Roseau and Marshall counties, MN. Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were sampled all years, and northern pintails (A. acuta) were sampled only in 1999. Influenza viruses were isolated from 11%, 14%, and 8% of birds during 1998, 1999, and 2000, respectively. Prevalence, as expected, was highest in juveniles, ranging from 11% to 23% in mallards. Viruses representative of the HA subtypes 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, and 12 were isolated. Viruses in the H5, H7, and H9 subtypes, which are associated with high-pathogenicity influenza in poultry or recent infections in humans, were not uncommon, and each of these subtypes was isolated in 2 out of the 3 years of surveillance.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, avian influenza, infectious disease, respiratory system disease, viral disease, virus reservoir.

Hastings, M. and F. Guterl (2004). Bird-flu challenge. Newsweek  144(23): 67.  ISSN: 0028-9604.

            NAL Call Number:  280.8 N47

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks prevention and control, influenza, avian prevention and control, birds virology, disease reservoirs, influenza A virus, avian pathogenicity, influenza vaccines, United States.

Heckert, R.A., M. McIsacc, M. Chan, and E.M. Zhou (1999). Experimental infection of emus (Dromaiius novaehollandiae) with avian influenza viruses of varying virulence: clinical signs, virus shedding and serology. Avian Pathology 28(1):  13-16.  ISSN: 0307-9457.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.A1A9

            Abstract:  Two groups of emus were experimentally inoculated with a low and high pathogenic strain of avian influenza virus (AIV), type A to determine the virus susceptibility, pathogenicity, shedding and seroconversion. Emus were found susceptible to infection with AIV, with virus shedding detectable in tracheal and cloacal swabs between 3 and 10 days post-infection. Only the birds infected with the highly pathogenic viral isolate showed a brief period of mild clinical signs associated with infection. Virus recovered from the infected emus was found to be of similar pathogenicity to that of the virus inoculum. All the birds seroconverted by 10 days post-infection, as determined by haemagglutination inhibition, agar gel immunodiffusion and competitive ELISA assays. This study suggests that emus are similar to wild waterfowl in their response to AIV infection, in that they are susceptible and will replicate and shed the virus, but do not show any marked clinical signs of infection.

            Descriptors:  emus, avian influenza virus, experimental infection, virulence, clinical aspects, shedding, experimental infections, seroconversion, strain differences, susceptibility.

Heddurshetti, R.I., W.I. Pumpradit, and L.I. Lutwick (2001). Pulmonary manifestations of bioterrorism. Current Infectious Disease Reports 3(3): 249-257.  ISSN: 1523-3847.

            Descriptors:  biological warfare, human diseases, plague, avian influenza virus, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis.

Heijmans, J.F. (2000). Onrust in Nederland door dreiging hoogpathogene aviaire influenza vanuit Italie. [Unrest in the Netherlands due to the threat of highly pathogenic avian influenza from Italy]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 125(6): 188-9.  ISSN: 0040-7453.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 T431

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks veterinary, fowl plague epidemiology, influenza A virus avian pathogenicity, fowl plague prevention and control, fowl plague transmission, Italy epidemiology, Netherlands, poultry.

Heijmans, J.F. and R.E. Komijn (2000). Vervolg aviaire influenza. Stand van zaken en maatregelen. [Future of avian influenza. State of business and measures]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 125(8): 254-6.  ISSN: 0040-7453.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 T431

            Descriptors:  fowl plague epidemiology, fowl plague prevention and control, Italy, epidemiology, poultry.

Heijnen, M.L., J.W. Dorigo Zetsma, J.W. de Jong, and M.J. Sprenger (1998). Influenza A (H5N1): stand van zaken. [Influenza A (H5N1): current status]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 123(3): 86-7.  ISSN: 0040-7453.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 T431

            Descriptors:  influenza virology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, adolescent, child, preschool, Hong Kong, influenza transmission, avian classification, middle aged, serotyping.

Hernandez Magdaleno, A., H.T. Casaubon, S.M. Aspargilla, and G.J. Garcia (1996). Evaluacion de la virulencia de un virus de influenza aviar (H5N2) aislado de codornices (Coturnix coturnix japonica) con signos nerviosos y alta mortalidad. [Evaluation of the virulence of one avian influenza virus (H5N2) isolated from quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with nervous signs and high mortality]. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 45: 46-48.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  quails, avian influenza virus, mortality, birds, Galliformes, influenza virus, orthomyxoviridae, viruses.

Hernandez Magdaleno, A., M. Rico G, M. Hernandez R, J. Lopez P, and J. Garcia Garcia. (1998). Persistencia del virus de influenza aviar en canales de pollo. [Persistence of avian influenza virus in chicken carcasses]. In: 34 Reunion Nacional de Investigacion Pecuaria, Queretaro, Qro, Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico), p. 251.

            Abstract: Hasta la fecha, no existian estudios en donde haya sido evaluada la persistencia del virus de influenza aviar (IA) en la carne proveniente de aves infectadas, que son enviadas al rastro para su procesamiento y venta. Tampoco, se ha evaluado si la carne de pollo de importacion, puede ser un factor de riesgo para la introduccion al pais de nuevos subtipos de virus de IA. El objetivo de la presente investigacion, fue estudiar si la carne y visceras de pollos infectados con IA, mantienen al virus, cuando son conservadas en congelacion o en hielo. Se formaron dos grupos de 100 pollos de engorda de cuatro semanas de edad libres de IA. Uno de los grupos fue inoculado con 1 x 103 DLEP50 del virus A/Chicken/CPA-238/94 (H5N2) de baja patogenicidad (BP), por via intranasal. El segundo grupo, se inoculo con 1 x 103 DLEP50 del virus A/Chicken/Queretaro/14588-19/95 (H5N2) de alta patogenicidad (AP), por la misma via. Tres dias despues de la inoculacion, ambos grupos fueron sacrificados, simulando condiciones de rastro. A la mitad de las canales de ambos grupos, se les retiraron la totalidad de las visceras, incluyendo los pulmones y rinones (canales limpias). La mitad restante, conservo los pulmones y rinones dentro de la canal (canales completas). Posteriormente, las canales fueron conservadas bajo dos condiciones de almacenamiento, -20 C y en hielo. De una forma aleatoria, a las 0 horas, 48 horas, 7, 14, 21 y 28 dias post-sacrificio (PS), se procedio a la toma de muestras para el aislamiento viral. El aislamiento se intento a partir de una mezcla de carne de la pechuga, pierna y muslo, en las canales limpias. En las canales completas, adicionalmente, el aislamiento viral se intento de una mezcla de los pulmones y rinones. De un total de 108 muestras procesadas para el aislamiento del virus de BP, 65 fueron positivas (60.18%). En el caso del virus de AP, de 108 muestras solo se pudieron realizar 32 aislamientos (29.62%). En ambos casos el virus pudo ser aislado de la carne y de las visceras, independientemente del tipo de conservacion de las canales. El virus de BP, pudo ser aislado hasta los 28 dias PS; mientras que el aislamiento del virus de AP, fue consistente solo hasta los 14 dias PS. Los resultados obtenidos en la presente investigacion preliminar, muestran que la carne y visceras provenientes de pollos infectados con el virus de IA, tanto de BP como de AP, pueden ser un factor importante para la transmision e introduccion de la enfermedad, ya fue posible recuperar al virus, independientemente del tipo de conservacion de las canales hasta por 28 dias PS. Trabajo realizado con apoyo economico de la Direccion General de Salud Animal.

            Descriptors: chicken meat, avian influenza virus, diagnosis, animal products, influenza virus, meat, orthomyxoviridae, poultry meat, viruses.

Hess, W.R. and A.H. Dardiri (1968). Some properties of the virus od duck plague. Archiv Fur Die Gesamte Virusforschung 24(1): 148-53.  ISSN: 0003-9012.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ar23

            Descriptors:  ducks, influenza A virus avian drug effects, acridines, biometry, chick embryo, chloroform pharmacology, enzymes pharmacology, ethyl ethers pharmacology, filtration, heat, hydrogen-ion concentration, staining and labeling.

Hinshaw, V.S., V.F. Nettles, L.F. Schorr, J.M. Wood, and R.G. Webster (1986). Influenza virus surveillance in waterfowl in Pennsylvania after the H5N2 avian outbreak. Avian Diseases 30(1): 207-12.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  During the latter stages of the lethal H5N2 influenza eradication program in domestic poultry in Pennsylvania in 1983-84, surveillance of waterfowl was done to determine if these birds harbored influenza viruses that might subsequently appear in poultry. From late June to November 1984, 182 hemagglutinating viruses were isolated from 2043 wild birds, primarily ducks, in the same geographical area as the earlier lethal H5N2 avian influenza outbreak. The virus isolates from waterfowl included paramyxoviruses (PMV-1, -4, and -6) and influenza viruses of 13 antigenic combinations. There was only one H5N2 isolate from a duck. Although this virus was antigenically related to the lethal H5N2 virus, genetic and antigenic analysis indicated that it could be discriminated from the virulent family of H5N2 viruses, and it did not originate from chickens. Many of the influenza viruses obtained from wild ducks were capable of replicating in chickens after experimental inoculation but did not cause disease. These studies show that many influenza A virus strains circulating in waterfowl in the vicinity of domestic poultry in Pennsylvania did not originate from domestic poultry. These influenza viruses from wild ducks were capable of infecting poultry; however, transmission of these viruses to poultry apparently was avoided by good husbandry and control measures.

            Descriptors:  animal population groups microbiology, animals, wild microbiology, ducks microbiology, geese microbiology, orthomyxoviridae isolation and purification, paramyxoviridae isolation and purification, respirovirus isolation and purification, antigens, viral analysis, chickens, orthomyxoviridae immunology, paramyxoviridae immunology, Pennsylvania, respirovirus immunology.

Hinshaw, V.S., B. Pomeroy, J. Newmon, D. Halvorson, and D. Karunakaran. (1981). Epidemiological relationship of influenza A viruses in domestic and feral avian species. In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, p. 214-215.

            NAL Call Number: aSF995.6.I6I5 1981a

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, epidemiology, feral avian species, domestic avian species.

Hinshaw, V.S., R.G. Webster, W.J. Bean, and G. Sriram (1980). The ecology of influenza viruses in ducks and analysis of influenza viruses with monoclonal antibodies. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 3(1-2): 155-64.  ISSN: 0147-9571.

            NAL Call Number:  QR180.C62

            Descriptors:  antigens, viral analysis, ducks microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, influenza A virus isolation and purification, Canada, ecology, epitopes, avian growth and development, avian immunology, influenza A virus immunology, recombination, genetic, swine microbiology.

Hinshaw, V.S., R.G. Webster, and R.J. Rodriguez (1981). Influenza A viruses: combinations of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtypes isolated from animals and other sources. Archives of Virology 67(3): 191-201.  ISSN: 0304-8608.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ar23

            Descriptors:  antigens, viral classification, hemagglutinins viral classification, influenza A virus classification, neuraminidase immunology, birds microbiology, epitopes, horses microbiology, avian classification, human classification, influenza A virus immunology, swine microbiology, terminology.

Hinshaw, V.S., R.G. Webster, and B. Turner (1980). The perpetuation of orthomyxoviruses and paramyxoviruses in Canadian waterfowl. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 26(5): 622-9.  ISSN: 0008-4166.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 C162

            Descriptors:  ducks microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, paramyxoviridae isolation and purification, Alberta, antigens, viral, ducks classification, avian classification, avian immunology, paramyxoviridae classification, paramyxoviridae immunology.

Ho, M.S. and I.J. Su (2004). Preparing to prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome and other respiratory infections. Lancet Infectious Diseases 4(11): 684-9.  ISSN: 1473-3099.

            Abstract:  Globalisation and its effect on human development has rendered an environment that is conducive for the rapid international spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and other new infectious diseases yet to emerge. After the unprecedented multi-country outbreak of avian influenza with human cases in the winter of 2003-2004, an influenza pandemic is a current threat. A critical review of problems and solutions encountered during the 2003-2004 SARS epidemics will serve as the basis for considering national preparedness steps that can be taken to facilitate the early detection of avian influenza, and a rapid response to an influenza pandemic should it occur.

            Descriptors:  communicable disease control methods, disease outbreaks prevention and control, severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemiology, severe acute respiratory syndrome prevention and control, China epidemiology, influenza epidemiology, influenza prevention and control.

Hoey, J. (1998). Avian influenza. CMAJ Canadian Medical Association Journal; Journal De L'Association Medicale Canadienne 158(3): 369.  ISSN: 0820-3946.

            NAL Call Number:  R11.C3

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks, fowl plague transmission, influenza epidemiology, influenza A virus avian immunology, avian isolation and purification, avian pathogenicity, pneumonia, viral transmission, zoonoses, adolescent, adult, chickens virology, child, child, preschool, fowl plague epidemiology, fowl plague prevention and control, Hong Kong epidemiology, incidence, influenza prevention and control, middle aged, pneumonia, viral epidemiology, pneumonia, viral prevention and control, trachea virology.

Hollamby, S., J.G. Sikarskie, and J. Stuht (2003). Survey of peafowl (Pavo cristatus) for potential pathogens at three Michigan zoos. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians 34(4): 375-379.  ISSN: 1042-7260.

            NAL Call Number:  SF601.J6

            Descriptors:  peafowl, Pavo cristatus, Bordetella avium infection, Capillaria sp. infection, Clostridium perfringens type A infection, Escherichia coli infection, Goniodes gigas infestation, Mycoplasma meleagridis infection, Mycoplasma synoviae infection, diagnostic techniques, serum plate agglutination test, antibody titer, zoo, Michigan.

Holmes, E.C. (2004). Virology. 1918 and all that. Science 303(5665): 1787-8.  ISSN: 1095-9203.

            NAL Call Number:  470 Sci2

            Descriptors:  hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus chemistry, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus metabolism, influenza history, influenza virology, influenza A virus, human immunology, binding sites, birds, carbohydrate conformation, crystallography, x-ray, disease outbreaks history, history, 20th century, influenza epidemiology, avian immunology, avian metabolism, human metabolism, human pathogenicity, membrane glycoproteins chemistry, membrane glycoproteins metabolism, protein conformation, RNA, viral chemistry, viral genetics, viral isolation and purification, receptors, virus chemistry, receptors, virus metabolism, sialic acids metabolism, virulence.

Homme, P.J. and B.C. Easterday (1970). Avian influenza virus infections. 3. Antibody response by turkeys to influenza A-turkey-Wisconsin-1966 virus. Avian Diseases 14(2): 277-84.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Descriptors:  antibodies analysis, influenza veterinary, orthomyxoviridae immunology, turkeys, aerosols, cold, hemagglutination inhibition tests, hemagglutination tests, poultry diseases immunology, Wisconsin.

Homme, P.J. and B.C. Easterday (1970). Avian influenza virus infections. I. Characteristics of influenza A-turkey-Wisconsin-1966 virus. Avian Diseases 14(1): 66-74.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Descriptors:  orthomyxoviridae growth and development, orthomyxoviridae pathogenicity, chick embryo, hemagglutinins viral analysis, orthomyxoviridae infections, poultry diseases, temperature, tissue culture, turkeys, virus cultivation.

Homme, P.J. and B.C. Easterday (1970). Avian influenza virus infections. IV. Response of pheasants, ducks, and geese to influenza A-turkey-Wisconsin-1966 virus. Avian Diseases 14(2): 285-90.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Descriptors:  ducks, geese, influenza veterinary, orthomyxoviridae isolation and purification, poultry diseases microbiology, aerosols, antibodies analysis, disease outbreaks veterinary, hemagglutination inhibition tests, orthomyxoviridae immunology, orthomyxoviridae pathogenicity, turkeys.

Homme, P.J., B.C. Easterday, and D.P. Anderson ( 1970). Avian influenza virus infections. II. Experimental epizootiology of influenza A-turkey-Wisconsin-1966 virus in turkeys. Avian Diseases 14(2): 240-7.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Descriptors:  influenza veterinary, orthomyxoviridae isolation and purification, poultry diseases microbiology, turkeys, disease outbreaks veterinary, hemagglutination inhibition tests, influenza epidemiology, influenza immunology, influenza pathology, orthomyxoviridae pathogenicity, Wisconsin.

Hooper, P.T., G.W. Russell, P.W. Selleck, and W.L. Stanislawek (1995). Observations on the relationship in chickens between the virulence of some avian influenza viruses and their pathogenicity for various organs. Avian Diseases 39(3): 458-464.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Comparative histological and immunocytochemical studies were conducted on formalin-fixed tissues from chickens infected with avian influenza viruses of varying virulence. Results showed a distinct pattern of disease that depended on the virulence of the virus and the susceptibility of the birds. At 3 days post-intranasal inoculation with a highly virulent H7N7 virus, all 6-to-8-week-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) birds were affected, and all developed pancreatic necrosis and encephalitis associated with specific immunoperoxidase staining. Other same-aged SPF birds were only occasionally affected 6 to 8 days after intravenous inoculation with almost avirulent H4N4, H6N2, or H3N8 virus. Specific lesions and immunoperoxidase staining were noted in the kidneys only. The H7N7 virus in older commercial birds and an H7N3 virus in young SPF and older commercial birds caused intermediate mortality rates at 4 to 11 days postinoculation, and there was a broad range of lesions and specific immunoperoxidase staining in the pancreas, brain, kidney, heart, and skeletal muscle. Two exceptional birds had immunostaining of small blood vessels throughout their bodies with or without lesions or staining in the tissues, which may have represented a transitory pre-localizing phase occurring in many birds. There was necrosis without virus antigen detection in the bursae, thymuses, and cecal tonsils, possibly secondary to stress or only transitory infection of virus. These data indicate that rapid, retrospective diagnosis of avian influenza in fixed tissues is possible by using an immunoperoxidase test on pancreas, brain, and kidney.

            Descriptors:  chickens, avian influenza virus, pathogenicity, disease resistance, body parts, animal tissues, antigens, histopathology, immunology, biological properties, birds, body parts, domestic animals, domesticated birds, Galliformes, immunological factors, influenza virus, livestock, microbial properties, orthomyxoviridae, pathology, poultry, resistance to injurious factors, useful animals, viruses, susceptibility, viral antigens, immunocytochemistry.

Hopkins, B.A., J.K. Skeeles, G.E. Houghten, D. Slagle, and K. Gardner (1990). A survey of infectious diseases in wild turkeys (Meleagridis gallopavo silvestris) from Arkansas. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 26(4): 468-72.  ISSN: 0090-3558.

            NAL Call Number:  41.9 W64B

            Abstract:  Wild turkeys (Meleagridis gallopavo silvestris) trapped as part of a relocation program by the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission were tested for selected infectious diseases and parasites. The 45 birds were trapped at four locations in Pope, Scott, and Montgomery counties (Arkansas, USA). Forty-four blood samples for serology, 27 blood smears and 12 fecal samples were collected. Of the serum samples tested, 20 of 44 (45%) were positive for Pasteurella multocida by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 42 of 44 (95%) were positive for Bordetella avium by ELISA, and 15 of 44 (34%) were positive for Newcastle disease virus antibody by the hemagglutination inhibition test. All serum samples were negative for Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, avian paramyxovirus 3, avian influenza, hemorrhagic enteritis, Marek's disease, avian encephalomyelitis, laryngotracheitis, Salmonella pullorum and Salmonella gallinarum. Haemoproteus meleagridis was found in eight of 27 (30%) and  Leucocytozoon smithi in nine of 27 (33%) blood smears; all smears were negative for Plasmodium hermani. Enteric parasites included Ascaridia dissimilis, Heterakis gallinarum, Eimeria dispersa and Raillietina spp. This study was an attempt to document the health status and disease exposure of wild turkeys in Arkansas to aid in managing and preventing the spread of disease agents to wild turkeys and other species of birds.

            Descriptors:  bird diseases epidemiology, communicable diseases veterinary, turkeys, animals, wild,  antibodies, bacterial blood, antibodies, viral blood, Arkansas epidemiology, communicable disease control, communicable diseases epidemiology, disease outbreaks veterinary, feces parasitology, prevalence, protozoa isolation and purification.

Horimoto, T. and Y. Kawaoka (2001). Pandemic threat posed by avian influenza A viruses. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 14(1): 129-49.  ISSN: 0893-8512.

            NAL Call Number:  QR67.C54

            Abstract:  Influenza pandemics, defined as global outbreaks of the disease due to viruses with new antigenic subtypes, have exacted high death tolls from human populations. The last two pandemics were caused by hybrid viruses, or reassortants, that harbored a combination of avian and human viral genes. Avian influenza viruses are therefore key contributors to the emergence of human influenza pandemics. In 1997, an H5N1 influenza virus was directly transmitted from birds in live poultry markets in Hong Kong to humans. Eighteen people were infected in this outbreak, six of whom died. This avian virus exhibited high virulence in both avian and mammalian species, causing systemic infection in both chickens and mice. Subsequently, another avian virus with the H9N2 subtype was directly transmitted from birds to humans in Hong Kong. Interestingly, the genes encoding the internal proteins of the H9N2 virus are genetically highly related to those of the H5N1 virus, suggesting a unique property of these gene products. The identification of avian viruses in humans underscores the potential of these and similar strains to produce devastating influenza outbreaks in major population centers. Although highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses had been identified before the 1997 outbreak in Hong Kong, their devastating effects had been confined to poultry. With the Hong Kong outbreak, it became clear that the virulence potential of these viruses extended to humans.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks prevention and control, disease outbreaks veterinary, fowl plague epidemiology, influenza epidemiology, influenza A virus avian pathogenicity, adaptation, physiological, disease vectors, fowl plague transmission, Hong Kong epidemiology, influenza virology, avian classification, Mexico epidemiology, Pennsylvania epidemiology, poultry, viral proteins, virulence.

Huchzermeyer, F.W. (1997 ). Animal health risks associated with ostrich products. Revue Scientifique Et Technique Office International Des Epizooties 16(1): 111-6.  ISSN: 0253-1933.

            NAL Call Number:  SF781.R4

            Abstract:  Five diseases recorded in ostriches are regarded as posing a potential animal health threat to meat-importing countries. Newcastle disease causes an atypically low mortality in ostriches: infected birds display typical nervous symptoms but no pathognomonic lesions which could be detected during post-mortem inspection. The vaccination of feedlot birds and a thorough ante-mortem examination are regarded as necessary precautions to ensure virus carriers are not among those animals destined for slaughter and subsequent export. Avian influenza produces clinical depression and lesions can be detected at post-mortem examination. Borna disease appears to affect mainly younger birds, and the virus is probably not present in the meat of affected birds. Finally, there is little evidence to suggest that ostriches could play a role in the epidemiology of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Cases of anthrax are extremely rare. The importation of deboned ostrich meat reduces the risk of infected scraps being fed to susceptible animals.

            Descriptors:  bird diseases transmission, anthrax epidemiology, anthrax prevention and control, anthrax veterinary, bird diseases epidemiology, bird diseases prevention and control, birds, Borna disease epidemiology, Borna disease prevention and control, Borna disease transmission, eggs adverse effects, feathers virology, food microbiology, fowl plague epidemiology, fowl plague prevention and control, fowl plague transmission, meat adverse effects, Newcastle disease epidemiology, Newcastle disease prevention and control, Newcastle disease transmission, prion diseases epidemiology, prion diseases transmission, prion diseases veterinary, risk factors, skin virology.

Iamnikova, S.S., T.O. Kovtun, G.A. Dmitriev, V.A. Aristova, G.A. Krivonosov, G.M. Rusanov, A.G. Konechnyi, and D.K. L'vov (1989). Tsirkuliatsiia virusa grippa A seropodtipa H13 sredi chaikovykh ptits severnogo kaspiia (1979-1985 gg.). [Circulation of the influenza A virus of H13 serosubtype among seagulls in the Northern Caspian (1979-1985)]. Voprosy Virusologii 34(4):  426-30.  ISSN: 0507-4088.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 P942

            Abstract:  The results of seven-year ecologo-virological studies (1979-1985) of Laridae colonies on the island Zhemchuzhnyi, northern Kaspian Sea, showed annual isolation of influenza A viruses. Altogether, 95 hemagglutinating agent have been isolated. Strains with 4 different combinations of surface antigens were identified: H5N2, H13N2, H13N3, H13N6. The possibility of transovarial transmission is confirmed by the fact of isolation of an influenza virus strain A/black-headed herring gull/Astrakhan/458/85 (H13N6) from a nestling having no contacts with the environment. Simultaneous circulation of influenza A viruses (in 1983--H13N2 and H13N6, in 1985.--H13N3 and H13N6) and the presence in the virion of neuraminidase of human influenza virus (N2) allow to consider the isolates to be natural recombinants.

            Descriptors:  birds microbiology, fowl plague epidemiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, hemagglutinins viral isolation and purification, Russia.

Ibragimov, A.A. and V.S. Oskolkov (1972). [Avian influenza: a review]. Veterinariia (10): 77-80.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V6426

            Descriptors:  avian influenza, review, ducks, birds.

Ibragimov, A.A. and V.S. Oskolkov (1972). Gripp ptits (Obzor literatury. [Avian influenza (a survey of the literature)]. Veterinariia (10): 77-80.  ISSN: 0042-4846.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V6426

            Descriptors:  influenza veterinary, poultry diseases microbiology, antigens, viral classification, fowl plague physiopathology, immunization veterinary, influenza pathology, influenza A virus avian immunology, orthomyxoviridae immunology, orthomyxoviridae infections pathology, orthomyxoviridae infections veterinary, virulence.

Iftimovici, R., V. Iacobescu, A. Petrescu, A. Mutiu, and M. Chelaru (1980). Isolation of influenza virus A/USSR 90/77 (H1N1) from wild birds. Virologie 31(3): 243.  ISSN: 0377-8177.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 R323

            Descriptors:  birds microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, disease vectors, influenza transmission, Romania.

Ignatenko, T.A., E.V. Sidorenko, L.A. Smogorzhevskii, T.O. Kovtun, S.S. Iamnikova, and D.K. L'vov (1989). Rasprostranenie virusov grippa sredi sinantropnykh i polusinantropnykhptits srednego dnepra po dannym serologicheskikh issledovanii. [Spread of influenza viruses among synanthropic and semisynanthropic birds of the middle Dnieper from the data of serologic studies]. Voprosy Virusologii 34(4): 480-2.  ISSN: 0507-4088.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 P942

            Descriptors:  birds microbiology, fowl plague epidemiology, fowl plague microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, influenza B virus isolation and purification, serologic tests, Ukraine.

Imada, T., S. Yamaguchi, H. Kawamura, and K. Nerome (1980). Isolation of an Influenza A virus from the budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus. National Institute of Animal Health Quarterly 20(1): 30-1.  ISSN: 0027-951X.

            NAL Call Number:  41.9 T5750

            Descriptors:  fowl plague microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, parakeets, Psittacines, antigens, viral analysis, avian immunology.

Imai, M., A. Takada, K. Okazaki, and H. Kida (1999). Antigenic and genetic analyses of H5 influenza viruses isolated from ducks in Asia. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research 46(4): 171-7.  ISSN: 0047-1917.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V6446

            Abstract:  The hemagglutinin (HA) of six H5 influenza virus strains isolated from ducks in Japan and China in 1976 to 1996 were analyzed antigenically and genetically. Antigenic analysis using a panel of monoclonal antibodies revealed that the HA of H5 influenza viruses isolated from ducks are antigenically closely related to each other. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the isolates from ducks in Hokkaido were derived from an ancestor common with the highly pathogenic isolates from chickens and humans in Hong Kong in 1997.

            Descriptors:  ducks virology, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus genetics, influenza A virus avian classification, avian genetics, phylogeny, antibodies, monoclonal, antigens, viral genetics, viral immunology, chickens virology, China, genes viral, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus immunology, Hong Kong, avian isolation and purification, Japan, RNA viral genetics, viral isolation and purification.

Isaacs, D., D.E. Dwyer, and A.W. Hampson (2004). Avian influenza and planning for pandemics. Medical Journal of Australia 181(2): 62-3.  ISSN: 0025-729X.

            Descriptors:  communicable disease control organization and administration, communicable diseases, emerging prevention and control, disease outbreaks prevention and control, influenza epidemiology, influenza A virus, avian, avian influenza prevention and control, antiviral agents therapeutic use, Australia epidemiology, birds, emerging epidemiology, immunization programs organization and administration, influenza diagnosis, influenza drug therapy.

Ito, T. (1999). Current status of avian influenza. Journal of the Japanese Society of Poultry Diseases (35): 1-4.  ISSN: 0285-709X.

            Descriptors:  birds, avian influenza virus, pathogenicity,  host pathogen relations, biological properties, influenza virus, microbial properties, orthomyxoviridae, pathology, viruses.

Ito, T., K. Okazaki, Y. Kawaoka, A. Takada, R.G. Webster, and H. Kida (1995). Perpetuation of influenza A viruses in Alaskan waterfowl reservoirs. Archives of Virology 140(7): 1163-1172.  ISSN: 0304-8608.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ar23

            Abstract:  To provide information on the mechanism of perpetuation of influenza viruses among waterfowl reservoirs in nature, virological surveillance was carried out in Alaska during their breeding season in summer from 1991 to 1994. Influenza viruses were isolated mainly from fecal samples of dabbling ducks in their nesting places in central Alaska. The numbers of subtypes of 108 influenza virus isolates were 1 H2N3, 37 H3N8, 55 H4N6, 1 H7N3, 1 H8N2, 1 H10N2, 11 H10N7, and H10 N9. Influenza viruses were also isolated from water samples of the lakes where they nest. Even in September of 1994 when the most ducks had left for migration to south, viruses were still isolated from the lake water. Phylogenetic analysis of the NP genes of the representative isolates showed that they belong to the North American lineage of avian influenza viruses, suggesting that the majority of the waterfowls breeding in central Alaska migrate to North America and not to Asia. The present results support the notion that influenza viruses have been maintained in waterfowl population by water-borne transmission and revealed the mechanism of year-by-year perpetuation of the viruses in the lakes where they breed.

            Descriptors:  ecology, freshwater ecology, infection, methods and techniques, microbiology, wildlife management, Central Alaska fecal sample, H10N2, H10N7, H2N3, H3N8, H4N6, H7N3, H8N2, lake water, water borne transmission.

Jemmi, T., J. Danuser, and C. Griot (2000). Zoonosen als Risiko im Umgang mit Tieren und tierischen Produkten. [Zoonoses as a risk when associating with livestock or animal products]. Schweizer Archiv Fur Tierheilkunde 142(12): 665-71.  ISSN: 0036-7281.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Sch9

            Abstract:  The risk of zoonotic disease transmission when handling livestock or animal products is substantial. In industrialized countries, the classical zoonotic diseases such as tuberculosis or brucellosis are no longer in the foreground. Latent zoonoses such as salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis can cause serious disease in humans and have become a major public health problem during the past years. Since animals infected with these pathogens show only mild transient disease or no clinical signs at all, new concepts in the entire production line ("stable to table") are necessary in order to avoid human infection. Two emerging viruses with zoonotic potential--avian influenza virus and Nipah virus--have been found in Asia in 1997 and 1999. Both diseases had a major impact on disease control and public health in the countries of origin. In order to cope threats from infectious diseases, in particular those of public health relevance, a combined effort among all institutions involved will be necessary. The proposed "European Center for Infectious Diseases" and the "Swiss Center for Zoonotic Diseases" could be a potential approach in order to achieve this goal.

            Descriptors:  public health, infection, veterinary medicine, Campylobacteriosis, bacterial disease, Salmonellosis, animal product handling, livestock handling, meat inspection, foodborne zoonosis, food contamination prevention and control, food microbiology, meat microbiology, meat products microbiology, zoonoses transmission, animal husbandry, European Union, food handling, risk factors.

Jimba, M., K. Nabae, and S. Wakai (2004). Avian influenza: a chance to strengthen agriculture-health links. Lancet  363(9414): 1078.  ISSN: 1474-547X.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 L22

            Descriptors:  government agencies organization and administration, health, influenza, avian influenza prevention and control, chickens, developing countries, disease outbreaks prevention and control, influenza, avian epidemiology, information dissemination methods, Japan epidemiology.

Joergensen, P.H. (1998). Aviaer influenza. [Avian influenza]. Dansk Veterinaertidsskrift 81(5): 167-168.  ISSN:  0106-6854.

            NAL Call Number:  41.9 D23

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, diagnosis, disease control, virology, influenza virus, microbiology, orthomyxoviridae, viruses.

John, T.J. (2004). Avian influenza: expect the best but prepare for the worst. Indian Journal of Medical Research 119(2): iii-iv.  ISSN: 0971-5916.

            Descriptors:  birds virology, disease outbreaks prevention and control, influenza A virus, avian genetics, avian influenza transmission, India, avian influenza pathogenicity, avian influenza diagnosis.

Johnson, D.C. and B.G. Maxfield (1976). An occurrence of avian influenza virus infection in laying chickens. Avian Diseases 20(2): 422-4.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  The isolation of avian influenza virus from chickens is reported for the first time in the United States since the fowl plague outbreak of 1929. The type-A virus was isolated from commercial Leghorn laying hens between 54 and 55 weeks old and involved three different farms in north-central Alabama. These flocks experienced up to 69% mortality and a severe decrease in egg production within a 14-day period.

            Descriptors:  chickens, fowl plague epidemiology, Alabama,  fowl plague microbiology, fowl plague pathology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification.

Jorgensen, P.H., O.L. Nielsen, H.C. Hansen, R.J. Manvell, J. Banks, and D.J. Alexander (1998). Isolation of influenza A virus, subtype H5N2, and avian paramyxovirus type 1 from a flock of ostrisches in Europe. Avian Pathology 27(1): 15-20.  ISSN: 0307-9457.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.A1A9

            Abstract:  A total of 146 of 506 ostriches (Struthio camelus) introduced into a quarantine in Denmark died within the first 23 days. The majority of deaths were in young birds up to 10 kg body weight. Avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) were isolated from 14 pools of organ tissues representing seven groups each of three or four ostriches, which died over the first 3 weeks. The AIVs were detected in respiratory tissues, kidneys and intestines. All were subtype H5N2. The intravenous pathogenicity index of each isolate for chickens was 0.0 and the four isolates examined each had the amino acid sequence -P-Q-R-E-T-R*G-L-F- at the cleavage site of the haemagglutinin protein, typical of non-pathogenic AIVs. In addition, an avirulent avian paramyxovirus type 1 virus was isolated from one pool of kidney tissues. Bacteriological examination gave no significant results. The most characteristic pathological findings were impaction of the proventriculus and gizzard, enteritis with stasis and multi-focal necrotic hepatitis.

            Descriptors:  ostriches, influenza virus A, avian paramyxovirus, flocks, quarantine, mortality, isolation, animal tissues, organs, pathogenicity, amino acid sequences, pathology, epidemiology, age differences, European Union countries, Denmark.

Jorgensen, P.H. (1998). Avian influenza. Dansk Veterinaertidsskrift 81(5): 167-168.  ISSN: 0106-6854.

            NAL Call Number:  41.9 D23

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, veterinary medicine, avian influenza, diagnosis, transmission, viral disease, global epidemic.

Kaiser, J. (2004). Influenza: girding for disaster. Facing down pandemic flu, the world's defenses are weak. Science 306(5695): 394-7.  ISSN: 1095-9203.

            NAL Call Number:  470 Sci2

            Descriptors:  antiviral agents therapeutic use, disease outbreaks prevention and control, influenza prevention and control, influenza vaccines supply and distribution, world health, adjuvants, immunologic, antiviral agents supply and distribution, clinical trials, developed countries, developing countries, influenza epidemiology, influenza A virus, avian immunology, avian pathogenicity, orthomyxoviridae immunology, orthomyxoviridae pathogenicity, patents, United States, vaccines, synthetic.

Kaleta, E.F. (1997). Epidemiology of avian diseases. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 45(3): 267-80.  ISSN: 0236-6290.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 AC83

            Abstract:  A large number of diseases occur in domestic, farm-raised poultry. Only two of the many different diseases are notifiable and subject to governmental control: highly pathogenic avian influenza and Newcastle disease. Diagnosis and treatment or prevention of all other conditions are left to the skills of farmers and their veterinarians. Poultry production is aimed at providing more and tastier food for the ever growing human community. Infectious diseases and technical errors during production and processing need to be minimised. The concept of hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) has already been introduced into food processing and quality assessment. The regulations laid down in ISO 9000 will soon become a powerful and practical tool for monitoring and improving the productivity of live poultry. Approved epidemiological concepts and tools will enable the poultry industry to achieve constant and safe production. Certification on the basis of ISO 9000 of all areas of poultry production is a new approach for maintaining the health of poultry, for tracing and subsequently eliminating breaks in productivity, and securing production without health hazards for the consumer.

            Descriptors:  chickens, communicable diseases veterinary, poultry diseases epidemiology, turkeys,  communicable diseases epidemiology, consumer product safety standards, disease outbreaks, food handling standards, guidelines, incidence, meat standards, poultry diseases diagnosis, poultry diseases etiology, poultry products standards, proportional hazards models.

Kaleta, E.F., H. Will, E. Bernius, W. Kruse, and A.L. Bolte (1998). Zum serologischen Nachweis virusbedingter Infektionen bei der Hausgans ( Anser anser dom.). [The serologic detection of virus-induced infections in the domestic goose (Anser anser dom.)]. Tierarztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere Nutztiere 26(4): 234-8.  ISSN: 1434-1220.

            NAL Call Number:  SF603.V43

            Abstract:  The most important virus-induced diseases associated with heavy losses in the domestic goose are Derzsy's disease which is caused by a goose parvovirus and duck plague (duck viral enteritis) which is caused by an avian herpesvirus. Both diseases still occur but can be prevented by timely vaccinations. Antibodies against Influenza A viruses of the subtypes H1, H5, and H7 as well as against avian paramyxoviruses of the serogroups 4, 6, and 8, respectively, were not detected in any of the examined sera. However, antibodies against paramyxovirus type 1 were detected in sera of one source. Haemagglutination inhibition or neutralizing antibodies against avian adenoviruses (EDS76 virus and goose adenovirus of the serotypes 1, 2, and 3) were quite often detected. Based on the present knowledge their pathogenic potential is minor. Neutralizing antibodies against a reovirus originating from Muscovy ducks and against a chicken reovirus (strain U Con S 1133) were quite frequently detected. In 35 of 564 examined geese sera hepatitis B virus was found.

            Descriptors:  antibodies, viral blood, geese, poultry diseases diagnosis, virus diseases veterinary, aviadenovirus immunology, avulavirus immunology, hepatitis B virus, duck immunology, hepatitis virus, duck immunology, influenza A virus avian immunology, parvovirus immunology, poultry diseases prevention and control, reoviridae immunology, virus diseases diagnosis, virus diseases prevention and control.

Kanegae, Y., S. Sugita, K.F. Shortridge, Y. Yoshioka, and K. Nerome (1994). Origin and evolutionary pathways of the H1 hemagglutinin gene of avian, swine and human influenza viruses: cocirculation of two distinct lineages of swine virus. Archives of Virology 134(1-2): 17-28.  ISSN: 0304-8608.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ar23

            Abstract:  The nucleotide sequences of the HA1 domain of the H1 hemagglutinin genes of A/duck/Hong Kong/36/76, A/duck/Hong Kong/196/77, A/sw/North Ireland/38, A/sw/Cambridge/39 and A/Yamagata/120/86 viruses were determined, and their evolutionary relationships were compared with those of previously sequenced hemagglutinin (H1) genes from avian, swine and human influenza viruses. A pairwise comparison of the nucleotide sequences revealed that the genes can be segregated into three groups, the avian, swine and human virus groups. With the exception of two swine strains isolated in the 1930s, a high degree of nucleotide sequence homology exists within the group. Two phylogenetic trees constructed from the substitutions at the synonymous site and the third codon position showed that the H1 hemagglutinin genes can be divided into three host-specific lineages. Examination of 21 hemagglutinin genes from the human and swine viruses revealed that two distinct lineages are present in the swine population. The swine strains, sw/North Ireland/38 and sw/Cambridge/39, are clearly on the human lineage, suggesting that they originate from a human A/WSN/33-like variant. However, the classic swine strain, sw/Iowa/15/30, and the contemporary human viruses are not direct descendants of the 1918 human pandemic strain, but did diverge from a common ancestral virus around 1905. Furthermore, previous to this the above mammalian viruses diverged from the lineage containing the avian viruses at about 1880.

            Descriptors:  evolution, hemagglutinins viral genetics, influenza A virus avian genetics, human genetics, porcine genetics, amino acid sequence, chick embryo, genes viral, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus, avian classification, human classification, porcine classification, molecular sequence data, phylogeny, sequence homology, amino acid.

Kaplan, M.M. (1980). Some epidemiological and virological relationships between human and animal influenza. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 3(1-2): 19-24.  ISSN: 0147-9571.

            NAL Call Number:  QR180.C62

            Descriptors:  disease reservoirs, influenza microbiology, influenza A virus genetics, orthomyxoviridae infections veterinary, genes viral, horses microbiology, influenza A virus avian, influenza A virus, porcine, orthomyxoviridae infections microbiology, orthomyxoviridae infections transmission, recombination, genetic.

Karasin, A.I., C.W. Olsen, I.H. Brown, S. Carman, M. Stalker, and G. Josephson (2000). H4N6 influenza virus isolated from pigs in Ontario. Canadian Veterinary Journal Revue Veterinaire Canadienne  41(12): 938-9.  ISSN: 0008-5286.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 R3224

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, swine diseases virology, antigens, viral analysis, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay veterinary, incidence, avian immunology, Ontario epidemiology, swine, swine diseases epidemiology, swine diseases immunology.

Karesh, W.B., A. del Campo, W.E. Braselton, H. Puche, and R.A. Cook (1997). Health evaluation of free-ranging and hand-reared macaws (Ara spp.) in Peru. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians 28(4): 368-77.  ISSN: 1042-7260.

            NAL Call Number:  SF601.J6

            Abstract:  As part of ongoing ecological studies and reproduction enhancement efforts for macaws in southwestern Peru, a health survey of parent- and hand-reared scarlet macaws (Ara macao) and blue and gold macaws (Ara ararauna) was conducted in 1994. Thirty-three birds were examined during handling procedures, and blood samples were collected from 27 (9 parent reared, 18 hand reared) for laboratory analysis. All but one bird appeared to be in good condition, with no abnormality noted during physical examination. Hematology, plasma chemistries, and plasma vitamin and mineral levels were studied and correlated with the results of bacterial and viral serology. Positive antibody titers for Salmonella and psittacine herpesvirus were found. These diseases have the potential to affect wildlife population dynamics, and Salmonella may have public health significance. Serological tests for avian influenza, infectious laryngotracheitis, paramyxovirus-1, -2, -3, polyoma virus, chlamydiosis, and aspergillosis were negative. Differences in disease prevalence were found between rearing situations.

            Descriptors:  bird diseases diagnosis, communicable diseases veterinary, health status, Psittacines blood, Psittacines parasitology, animals, domestic, animals, wild, antibodies, bacterial blood, antibodies, viral blood, bird diseases epidemiology, blood chemical analysis veterinary, cohort studies, communicable diseases diagnosis, communicable diseases epidemiology, enzymes blood, hematologic tests veterinary, leukocyte count veterinary, metals blood, parasitic diseases, animal diagnosis, parasitic diseases, animal epidemiology, Peru epidemiology, physical examination veterinary.

Karesh, W.B., M.M. Uhart, E. Frere, P. Gandini, E. Braselton, H. Puche, and R.A. Cook (1999). Health evaluation of free-ranging rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocomes) in Argentina. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians 30(1): 25-31.  ISSN: 1042-7260.

            NAL Call Number:  SF601.J6

            Abstract:  As part of annual colony counts in Santa Cruz Province, Argentina, a health survey of rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocomes) was conducted in 1994. Forty-five birds were examined during handling procedures, and blood and fecal samples were collected for laboratory analysis. All birds appeared to be in good condition. No ecto- or endoparasites were found. Hematology, plasma chemistry, and plasma mineral levels were measured and correlated with the results of bacterial and viral serology. Antibodies against Chlamydia sp., avian adenovirus, avian encephalomyelitis virus, infectious bronchitis virus, avian reovirus, and paramyxovirus-1, -2, and -3 were found. Mean plasma chemistry and mineral values differed between individuals testing positive and negative on serologic tests. There was no serologic evidence of exposure to avian influenza virus, duck viral enteritis, infectious bursal disease, infectious laryngotracheitis, Aspergillus sp., or Salmonella pullorum. Trace amounts ofendrin were found in the plasma of one bird, but all other chlorinated pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl levels were below detectable limits.

            Descriptors:  infection, wildlife management, aspergillosis, fungal disease, avian encephalomyelitis, nervous system disease, viral disease, avian influenza, viral disease, chlamydiosis, bacterial disease, duck viral enteritis, digestive system disease, viral disease, infectious bronchitis, respiratory system disease, viral disease, infectious bursal disease, viral disease, infectious laryngotracheitis, respiratory system disease, viral disease, bacterial serology, health evaluation, hematology, plasma chemistry, plasma mineral levels, viral serology.

Karunakaran, D., V. Hinshaw, P. Poss, J. Newman, and D. Halvorson (1983). Influenza A outbreaks in Minnesota turkeys due to subtype H10N7 and possible transmission by waterfowl. Avian Diseases 27(2): 357-66.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Avian influenza outbreaks in Minnesota involving the H10N7 subtype occurred on two turkey farms in 1979 and on a third in 1980. The H10N7 (Hav2 Neq1) subtype had not previously been detected in turkeys in Minnesota or reported in the United States. The clinical signs ranged from severe, with a mortality rate as high as 31%, to subclinical. Antigenically indistinguishable viruses were isolated from healthy mallards on a pond adjacent to the turkey farms, suggesting that the virus responsible for the outbreak may have been introduced by feral ducks.

            Descriptors:  fowl plague epidemiology, turkeys, disease outbreaks, ducks, fowl plague etiology, fowl plague transmission, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, Minnesota, time factors.

Karunakaran, D., J.A. Newman, D.A. Halvorson, and A. Abraham (1987). Evaluation of inactivated influenza vaccines in market turkeys. Avian Diseases 31(3): 498-503.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  The potency and efficacy of an inactivated oil-emulsion influenza vaccine against infection, illness, and virus shed was studied in market turkeys. No undesirable local or systemic reactions occurred following vaccination. The vaccine induced measurable antibody to nucleocapsid and hemagglutinin antigens of the virus. Challenged unvaccinated controls experienced airsacculitis, but none of the vaccinates were affected. The percent of the birds shedding virus following intranasal challenge was lower in the vaccinated groups than in the controls, and the quantity of virus shed was also smaller in vaccinated groups than in the controls.

            Descriptors:  antibodies, viral biosynthesis, fowl plague immunology, influenza A virus avian immunology, turkeys, viral vaccines immunology, antigens, viral immunology, capsid immunology, fowl plague prevention and control, hemagglutination inhibition tests veterinary, hemagglutinins viral immunology, immunodiffusion veterinary, vaccination veterinary, viral core proteins immunology.

Kawano, J., R. Yanagawa, and H. Kida (1979). Site of replication of influenza virus A/budgerigar/Hokkaido/1/77 (Hav 4 Nav 1) in budgerigars. Zentralblatt Fur Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten Und Hygiene. Erste Abteilung Originale. Reihe A Medizinische Mikrobiologie Und Parasitologie 245(1-2): 1-7.  ISSN: 0300-9688.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 C33 (1)

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus avian growth and development, parrots microbiology, Psittacines microbiology, virus replication, hemagglutination inhibition tests, avian isolation and purification, organ specificity, respiratory system microbiology.

Kawaoka, Y., E. Bordwell, and R.G. Webster (1987). Intestinal replication of influenza A viruses in two mammalian species. Brief report. Archives of Virology 93(3-4): 303-8.  ISSN: 0304-8608.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ar23

            Abstract:  The sites of replication of influenza A viruses in ferrets and pigs were studied. The majority of the swine, equine, and avian influenza A viruses tested were recovered from the intestinal tract of ferrets as well as from the respiratory tract; most of the human influenza viruses studied were recovered only from the respiratory tract. In contrast with ferrets, only Hong Kong/1/68 (H 3 N 2) influenza virus was recovered from the intestinal tract of pigs. Despite the large biological variability found in ferrets and in pigs, the results do establish that the majority of influenza viruses have the potential to replicate in the intestinal tissues of some mammals. Additionally, the study suggests that there are differences among the influenza A viruses in tissue tropism in different mammals. Both viral and host genetic factors determine the tissue tropism of influenza viruses in mammals.

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus physiology, intestines microbiology, virus replication, ferrets, avian physiology, human physiology, porcine physiology, swine.

Kawaoka, Y., T.M. Chambers, W.L. Sladen, and R.G. Webster (1988). Is the gene pool of influenza viruses in shorebirds and gulls different from that in wild ducks? Virology 163(1): 247-50.  ISSN: 0042-6822.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 V81

            Abstract:  Evidence is presented for a second major gene pool of influenza A viruses in nature. Shorebirds and gulls harbor influenza viruses when sampled in the spring and fall. Approximately half of the viruses isolated have the potential to infect ducks but the remainder do not. The hemagglutinin subtypes that are prevalent in wild ducks were rare or absent in shorebirds and gulls.

            Descriptors:  birds microbiology, ducks microbiology, fowl plague microbiology, genes viral, influenza A virus avian genetics, animals, wild microbiology, fowl plague transmission, avian classification, avian isolation and purification, species specificity.

Kawaoka, Y. and R.G. Webster (1985). Evolution of the A/Chicken/Pennsylvania/83 (H5N2) influenza virus. Virology 146(1): 130-7.  ISSN: 0042-6822.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 V81

            Abstract:  The epidemiological features of the H5N2 outbreak of influenza in poultry were studied by sequencing the HA genes of several viruses isolated during the epidemic. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of the HA genes indicated there was a single introduction of virulent virus. The variation rate (silent mutations) in the HA gene of the virulent Ck/Penn virus was 9.0 or 14.4% per 10 years depending on the viruses compared and was similar to that in H3 HA gene of human influenza A virus. The virulent and avirulent viruses isolated after October 1983 were derived from a common ancestoral virus and the virulent virus did not supersede the avirulent virus, instead, the virulent and avirulent viruses coexisted and evolved separately during the course of the epidemic. The evolutionary changes in the HA of H5N2 viruses that occurred during the epidemic permitted us to establish that a virus (A/Chick/Washington/84) that was isolated 8 months after the last H5N2 virus had been isolated from poultry in Pennsylvania belonged to the family of potentially dangerous H5N2 viruses and was a direct descendent of the virus that spread to Maryland and Virginia. All of the virulent Ck/Penn viruses retained the amino acid changes at residues 13 and 69 in the HA.

            Descriptors:  fowl plague microbiology, hemagglutinins viral genetics, influenza A virus avian genetics, amino acid sequence, base sequence,  disease outbreaks veterinary, District of Columbia, evolution, fowl plague epidemiology, genes viral, hemagglutinins viral analysis, avian isolation and purification, avian pathogenicity, Maryland, mutation, Pennsylvania, poultry, virulence.

Kaye, D. and C.R. Pringle (2005). Avian influenza viruses and their implication for human health. Clinical Infectious Diseases 40(1): 108-12.  ISSN: 1537-6591.

            NAL Call Number:  RC111.R4

            Abstract:  Widespread outbreaks of avian influenza in domestic fowl throughout eastern Asia have reawakened concern that avian influenza viruses may again cross species barriers to infect the human population and thereby initiate a new influenza pandemic. Simultaneous infection of humans (or swine) by avian influenza viruses in the presence of human influenza viruses could theoretically generate novel influenza viruses with pandemic potential as a result of reassortment of genome subunits between avian and mammalian influenza viruses. These hybrid viruses would have the potential to express surface antigens from avian viruses to which the human population has no preexisting immunity. This article reviews current knowledge of the routes of transmission of avian influenza A viruses to humans, places the risk of appearance of a new pandemic influenza virus in perspective, and describes the recently observed epidemiology and clinical syndromes of avian influenza in humans.

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus, viral diseases, zoonoses, birds, human, avian influenza virus.

Keawcharoen, J., K. Oraveerakul, T. Kuiken, R.A. Fouchier, A. Amonsin, S. Payungporn, S. Noppornpanth, S. Wattanodorn, A. Theambooniers, R. Tantilertcharoen, R. Pattanarangsan, N. Arya, P. Ratanakorn, D.M. Osterhaus, and Y. Poovorawan (2004). Avian influenza H5N1 in tigers and leopards. Emerging Infectious Diseases 10(12): 2189-91.  ISSN: 1080-6040.

            NAL Call Number:  RA648.5.E46

            Abstract:  Influenza virus is not known to affect wild felids. We demonstrate that avian influenza A (H5N1) virus caused severe pneumonia in tigers and leopards that fed on infected poultry carcasses. This finding extends the host range of influenza virus and has implications for influenza virus epidemiology and wildlife conservation.

            Descriptors:  zoo animals virology, influenza veterinary, influenza A virus, avian pathogenicity, Panthera virology, chickens virology, food microbiology, influenza virology, avian genetics, lung virology, meat virology, phylogeny, tigers virology, variation genetics.

Kelleher, C., D. Karunakaran, D. Halvorson, C. Bailey, S. Nivas, P. Powers, M. Peterson, C. Wick, and D. Senne (1983). Epizootiology of avian influenza-simultaneous monitoring of sentinel ducks and turkeys. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 32: 83-81.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  disease surveys, water microbiology, epizootiology, monitoring, turkeys, sentinel birds, avian influenza virus.

Kelly, D.C., R.J. Avery, and N.J. Dimmock (1974). Camptothecin: an inhibitor of influenza virus replication. Journal of General Virology 25(3): 427-32.  ISSN: 0022-1317.

            NAL Call Number:  QR360.A1J6

            Descriptors:  antiviral agents pharmacology, camptothecin pharmacology, influenza A virus avian growth and development, virus replication drug effects, antigens, viral analysis, autoradiography, cell line, dose response relationship, drug, hamsters, hemagglutination inhibition tests, hemagglutinins viral analysis, avian drug effects, kidney, methionine, neuraminidase analysis, nucleic acid hybridization, peptides analysis, RNA biosynthesis, sulfur radioisotopes, tritium, uridine.

Kemink, S.A., R.A. Fouchier, F.W. Rozendaal, J.M. Broekman, M. Koopmans, A.D. Osterhaus, and P.M. Schneeberger (2004 ). Een fatale infectie door aviair influenza-A (H7N7)-virus en aanpassing van het preventiebeleid. [A fatal infection due to avian influenza-A (H7N7) virus and adjustment of the preventive measures]. Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde 148(44): 2190-4.  ISSN: 0028-2162.

            Abstract:  In February 2003, the highly pathogenic avian influenza-A virus, subtype H7N7, was the causative agent of a large outbreak of fowl plague in the Netherlands. Two days after visiting a poultry farm that was infected by fowl plague, a 57-year-old male veterinarian developed malaise, headache and fever. After 8 days he was admitted to hospital with signs of pneumonia. Five days later, his condition deteriorated alarmingly. Despite extensive pharmacotherapy he died 4 days later of acute pneumonia. Influenza-A virus, subtype H7N7, was identified by means of reverse transcriptase/PCR in broncho-alveolar washings that had been obtained earlier; routine virus culture yielded the isolate A/Nederland/219/03, which differs by 14 amino-acid substitutions from the first isolate in a chicken (A/kip/Nederland/1/03). Partly as a result of this case, the preventive measures were then adjusted; people who came into contact with infected poultry were given increased possibilities for vaccination and the administration of oseltamivir.

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus, avian isolation and purification, avian influenza transmission, occupational diseases prevention and control, poultry diseases transmission, zoonoses, disease outbreaks, fatal outcome, avian influenza pathogenicity, avian influenza epidemiology, avian influenza prevention and control, avian influenza virology, middle aged, Netherlands epidemiology, occupational diseases virology, poultry, poultry diseases epidemiology, veterinarians.

Kendal, A.P., C.R. Madeley, and W.H. Allan (1971). Antigenic relationships in avian influenza A viruses: identification of two viruses isolated from turkeys in Great Britain during 1969-1970. Journal of General Virology 13(1): 95-100.  ISSN: 0022-1317.

            NAL Call Number:  QR360.A1J6

            Descriptors:  antigens analysis, influenza A virus avian classification, turkeys, antigens, viral analysis, chickens, cross reactions, England,  epitopes, hemagglutination inhibition tests, hemagglutinins viral analysis, immune sera, avian enzymology, avian immunology, avian isolation and purification, neuraminidase analysis, serotyping.

Khadzhiev, G. and S.B. Nezavisima Fondatsiya "Veterinarna Meditsina" (1995). Influentsa-A (grip) po ptitsite (obzor). [Avian influenza (A review)]. Veterinarna Meditsina (Bulgaria). Veterinary Medicine 1(1): 43 48.  ISSN:  1310-5825.

            NAL Call Number:  SF604.V473

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, epidemiology, pathogenicity, biological differences, ELISA, immunofluorescence, biological properties, immunoenzyme techniques, immunological techniques, influenza virus, microbial properties, viruses.

Kida, H. (2004). [Avian influenza virus]. Uirusu Journal of Virology 54(1): 93-6.  ISSN: 0042-6857.

            Abstract:  Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in chickens and ducks that occurred in 9 Asian countries including Japan alarmed to realize that there is no border for infections and gave a rise to great concern for human health as well as for agriculture. This H5N1 virus jumped the species barrier and caused severe disease with high mortality in humans in Viet Nam and Thailand; 15 deaths of 22 cases and 8 of 12, respectively. A second concern was the possibility that the situation could give rise to another influenza pandemic in humans since genetic reassortment may occur between avian and human influenza viruses when a person is concurrently infected with viruses from both species. This process of gene swapping inside the human body can give rise to a new subtype of the influenza virus to which humans would not have immunity. The outbreaks also emphasized the need to continue active surveillance on avian influenza throughout the year to undertake aggressive emergency control measures as soon as an infection is detected.

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus, avian genetics, avian pathogenicity, Asia epidemiology, disease outbreaks, Europe epidemiology, influenza epidemiology, influenza virology, avian influenza epidemiology, avian influenza virology, poultry, zoonoses epidemiology, zoonoses transmission, zoonoses virology.

Kida, H. (1984). [Avian influenza viruses]. Uirusu Journal of Virology 34(2): 109-19.  ISSN: 0042-6857.

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus avian pathogenicity, animals, domestic microbiology, animals, wild microbiology, birds microbiology, fowl plague microbiology, fowl plague transmission, hemagglutinins viral immunology, avian genetics, avian immunology.

Kida, H. (1997). [Ecology of influenza viruses in animals and the mechanism of emergence of new pandemic strains]. Nippon Rinsho Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine 55(10): 2521-6.  ISSN: 0047-1852.

            Abstract:  Ecological studies on influenza viruses revealed that the hemagglutinin genes are introduced into new pandemic strains from viruses circulating in migratory ducks through domestic ducks and pigs in southern China. Experimental infection of pigs with 38 avian influenza virus strains with H1-H13 hemagglutinins showed that at least one strain of each HA subtype replicated in the upper respiratory tract of pigs. Co-infection of pigs with a swine virus and with an avian virus generated reassortant viruses. The results indicate that avian viruses of any subtype can contribute genes in the generation of reassortants. Virological surveillance revealed that influenza viruses in waterfowl reservoir are perpetuated year-by-year in the frozen lake water while ducks are absent.

            Descriptors:  influenza veterinary, bird diseases transmission, birds, horse diseases transmission,  horses, influenza transmission, swine, swine diseases transmission, zoonoses.

Kida, H., K.F. Shortridge, and R.G. Webster (1988). Origin of the hemagglutinin gene of H3N2 influenza viruses from pigs in China. Virology 162(1): 160-6.  ISSN: 0042-6822.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 V81

            Abstract:  Influenza viruses of the H3N2 subtype similar to Aichi/2/68 and Victoria/3/75 persist in pigs many years after their antigenic counterparts have disappeared from humans (Shortridge et al. (1977). Science 19, 1454-1455). To provide information on the mechanism of conservation of these influenza viruses in pigs, the hemagglutinin (HA) of four isolates from swine derived from Taiwan and Southern China were analyzed antigenically and genetically. The reactivity pattern of these viruses with a panel of monoclonal antibodies indicates that the HAs of these swine viruses were antigenically closely related to duck H3 and early human H3 viruses. Sequence analysis of the H3 genes from three swine viruses revealed that the swine H3 genes are more closely related to the duck genes than to early human H3 virus (A/Aichi/2/68). The degree of sequence homology of these genes is extremely high (more than 96.5%). Furthermore, the deduced amino acid sequence of the three swine HAs at residues 226 to 228 in the proposed receptor-binding site is Gln-Ser-Gly and is common with the majority of avian influenza viruses. These findings indicate that these H3 viruses may have been introduced into pigs from ducks. The HA gene of the fourth swine influenza virus from Southern China was genetically equally related to avian and early human H3 strains although the sequence through the receptor-binding pocket (226-228) was typical of a human H3 virus, suggesting that either this swine HA gene was derived from ducks or an early human H3 virus was introduced into the pig population where the virus accumulated substantial mutations. The present strains revealed genetic heterogeneity of swine H3 influenza viruses in nature.

            Descriptors:  hemagglutinins viral genetics, influenza A virus, porcine genetics, influenza A virus genetics, amino acid sequence, antibodies, monoclonal diagnostic use, base sequence, China, genes viral, avian genetics, porcine immunology, molecular sequence data, sequence homology, nucleic acid.

Kida, H., R. Yanagawa, and Y. Matsuoka (1980). Duck influenza lacking evidence of disease signs and immune response. Infection and Immunity 30(2): 547-53.  ISSN: 0019-9567.

            NAL Call Number:  QR1.I57

            Abstract:  Influenza viruses A/duck/Hokkaido/5/77 (Hav7N2), A/budgerigar/Hokkaido/1/77 (Hav4Nav1), A/Kumamoto/22/76 (H3N2), A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2), and A/New Jersey/8/76 (Hsw1N1) were experimentally inoculated into Pekin ducks. Of these, the influenza viruses of duck and budgerigar origin replicated in the intestinal tract of the ducks. The infected ducks shed the virus in the feces to high titers, but did not show clinical signs of disease and scarcely produced detectable serum antibodies. Using immunofluorescent staining, we demonstrated that the target cells of the duck virus in ducks were the simple columnar epithelial cells which form crypts in the large intestines, especially in the colon. After primary infection, the birds resisted reinfection with the duck virus at least for 28 days, but from 46 days onward they were susceptible to reinfection. These infections were quickly restricted by a brisk secondary immune response, reflected in the rapid appearance of high titers of antibody after reinoculation. In contrat to the avian influenza viruses, the remaining three influenza viruses of human origin did not replicate in the intestinal tract but did cause a serum antibody response.

            Descriptors:  ducks microbiology, influenza veterinary, influenza A virus avian growth and development, antibody formation, digestive system microbiology, feces microbiology, influenza immunology, human growth and development, parakeets microbiology, virus replication.

Kimball, A.M. (2004). Human diseases - still emerging, still dangerous. Northwest Public Health  21(1): 6-7.

            Descriptors:  acquired immune deficiency syndrome, disease transmission, human immunodeficiency virus infections, international trade, travel, avian influenza virus.

King, A.P. and K.F. Shortridge (1982). Multiple avain influenza infection: selection of a non-avid virus by a heterologous avain host. Research in Veterinary Science 33(1): 127-9.  ISSN: 0034-5288.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 R312

            Abstract:  Experimental infection of domestic fowl, ducks and geese with an influenza A virus (H7N2) isolated from a domestic duck showed that this virus was apathogenic for these poultry. A second virus (H6N2), also apathogenic and more 'non-avid' than any such isolates previously recognised in surveillance of domestic poultry in Hong Kong, was isolated from one goose after H7N2 shedding had ceased. This goose, in effect, acted as a selective isolation system for the H6N2 virus whose presence in the field isolate could not be detected in spite of multiple passage in embryonated eggs.

            Descriptors:  chickens microbiology, ducks microbiology, fowl plague microbiology, geese microbiology,  influenza A virus avian pathogenicity, poultry diseases microbiology.

Kitching, R.P. (2004). Management of exotic disease outbreaks: learning by example. Medecin Veterinaire Du Quebec 34(1-2): 83-85.  ISSN: 0225-9591.

            NAL Call Number:  SF602.M8

            Descriptors:  Newcastle disease, avian influenza, classical swine fever, foot and mouth disease, vaccination, clinical techniques, slaughtered, transmission, outbreaks.

Klempner, M.S. and D.S. Shapiro (2004). Crossing the species barrier--one small step to man, one giant leap to mankind. New England Journal of Medicine 350(12): 1171-2.  ISSN: 1533-4406.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 N442

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks history, influenza transmission, severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission, zoonoses transmission, fowl plague transmission, history of medicine, 20th century, influenza epidemiology, influenza history, influenza A virus avian, poultry, severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemiology.

Kleven, S.H., R.C. Nelson, and D.R. Deshmukh (1970). Epidemiologic and field observations on avian influenza in Minnesota turkeys. Avian Diseases 14(1): 153-66.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Descriptors:  orthomyxoviridae infections epidemiology, orthomyxoviridae infections veterinary, poultry diseases epidemiology, agglutination tests, breeding, complement fixation tests, eggs, fertility, hemagglutination inhibition tests, Minnesota, mycoplasma, neutralization tests, ornithosis veterinary, orthomyxoviridae isolation and purification, turkeys.

Knöbl, T. and A.J.P. Ferreira (1999). Avian influenza: ostriches as a disease infection source. Revista De Educaēăo Continuada Do CRMV SP 2(3): 53-58.  ISSN: 1516-3326.

            Descriptors:  disease transmission, epidemiology, outbreaks, pathology, reviews, avian influenza virus, ostriches.

Kocan, A.A., V.S. Hinshaw, and G.A. Daubney (1980). Influenza A viruses isolated from migrating ducks in Oklahoma. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 16(2): 281-5.  ISSN: 0090-3558.

            NAL Call Number:  41.9 W64B

            Abstract:  Nine type A influenza viruses were isolated from migrating and wintering ducks in Oklahoma in 1976-77. Antigenic classification of the viruses isolated revealed three different subtypes: Hav1 Nav2, Hws N1, and Hav6 N2. Transmission of influenza viruses from the wild ducks to sentinel birds (McGraw mallards) on the same lakes was not detected.

            Descriptors:  ducks microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, antigens, viral analysis, avian immunology, Oklahoma.

Koch, G. and J.A. van der Goot (2000). Klassieke vogelpest of aviaire influenza. [Classic fowl plague or avian influenza]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 125(10): 322-6.  ISSN: 0040-7453.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 T431

            Descriptors:  fowl plague virology, influenza A virus avian pathogenicity, disease outbreaks veterinary, fowl plague diagnosis, fowl plague epidemiology, fowl plague therapy, avian genetics, avian isolation and purification, virulence.

Koch, G. and J.A. van der Goot (2000). Klassieke vogelpest of aviaire influenza: overzichtsartikel. [Avian influenza: a review article]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 125(10): 322-326.  ISSN: 0040-7453.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 T431

            Descriptors:  fowls, avian influenza virus, etiology, pathogenesis, symptoms, pathogenicity, diagnosis, epidemiology, drug therapy, disease control, poultry diseases, biological properties, influenza virus, microbial properties, orthomyxoviridae, therapy, viruses.

Kohler, M. and W. Kohler (2001). Zentralblatt fur bakteriologie--100 years ago an outbreak of fowl plague in Tyrol in 1901. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 291(5): 319-21.  ISSN: 1438-4221.

            NAL Call Number:  QR1.Z443

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks history, disease outbreaks veterinary, fowl plague history, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, Austria epidemiology, filtration instrumentation, fowl plague diagnosis, fowl plague epidemiology, fowl plague etiology, Germany epidemiology, history of medicine, 19th century, history of medicine, 20th century, Italy epidemiology, poultry.

Koopmans, M., B. Wilbrink, M. Conyn, G. Natrop, H. van der Nat, H. Vennema, A. Meijer, J. van Steenbergen, R. Fouchier, A. Osterhaus, and A. Bosman (2004). Transmission of H7N7 avian influenza A virus to human beings during a large outbreak in commercial poultry farms in the Netherlands. Lancet  363(9409): 587-93.  ISSN: 1474-547X.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 L22

            Abstract:  BACKGROUND: An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus subtype H7N7 started at the end of February, 2003, in commercial poultry farms in the Netherlands. Although the risk of transmission of these viruses to humans was initially thought to be low, an outbreak investigation was launched to assess the extent of transmission of influenza A virus subtype H7N7 from chickens to humans. METHODS: All workers in poultry farms, poultry farmers, and their families were asked to report signs of conjunctivitis or influenza-like illness. People with complaints were tested for influenza virus type A subtype H7 (A/H7) infection and completed a health questionnaire about type of symptoms, duration of illness, and possible exposures to infected poultry. FINDINGS: 453 people had health complaints--349 reported conjunctivitis, 90 had influenza-like illness, and 67 had other complaints. We detected A/H7 in conjunctival samples from 78 (26.4%) people with conjunctivitis only, in five (9.4%) with influenza-like illness and conjunctivitis, in two (5.4%) with influenza-like illness only, and in four (6%) who reported other symptoms. Most positive samples had been collected within 5 days of symptom onset. A/H7 infection was confirmed in three contacts (of 83 tested), one of whom developed influenza-like illness. Six people had influenza A/H3N2 infection. After 19 people had been diagnosed with the infection, all workers received mandatory influenza virus vaccination and prophylactic treatment with oseltamivir. More than half (56%) of A/H7 infections reported here arose before the vaccination and treatment programme. INTERPRETATION: We noted an unexpectedly high number of transmissions of avian influenza A virus subtype H7N7 to people directly involved in handling infected poultry, and we noted evidence for person-to-person transmission. Our data emphasise the importance of adequate surveillance, outbreak preparedness, and pandemic planning.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza A virus, transmission, humans, outbreak, poultry farms, sub type H7N7.

Koval' chuk Ivanyuk, T.V., E.G. Rogochii, and A.I. Urin (1975). Poiski ochagov grippa, assotsitrovannykh s dikimi i domashnimi ptitsami. [A study of foci of influenza among wild and domestic birds in the Ukraine]. Sbornik Trudov Institut Virusologii Imeni D.I. Ivanovskogo, "Ekologiya Virusov" (3): 77-79.

            Descriptors:  zoonoses, influenza, wild birds, chickens, Ukraine.

Krilov, L.R. (2004). Emerging infectious disease issues in international adoptions: severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), avian influenza and measles. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 17(5): 391-5.  ISSN: 0951-7375.

            Abstract:  PURPOSE OF REVIEW: New emerging infections over the last few years demonstrate the potential for the introduction of epidemic illness through global migration. The increasing number of children adopted internationally (>20,000 in 2003, from the United States State Department) provides a unique situation for the spread of emerging infections through the combination of international travel by parents through areas where such infections may be contracted and the nature of the living conditions for many of the orphans being placed by this process. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent literature on three emerging infections--avian influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and measles--describes clinical aspects of the illnesses and their epidemiology. For avian influenza aspects of the agrarian economy in southeast Asia enabled the virus to reach the human population. The potential for further adaptation to people could set the stage for a new pandemic. SARS evolved in rural China and spread worldwide in one season with an approximate 10% mortality. Attention to public-health measures led to control of this new illness. Most recently, outbreaks of measles in Chinese orphanages have been documented. These findings demonstrate the potential of such infections to be transmitted during the process of international adoption, and in the case of measles the realization of this potential in recent reported cases from Chinese orphanages brought to the United States on commercial airlines. SUMMARY: Clinicians involved in international adoption and public-health officials assessing emerging infections need to work together in monitoring these issues.

            Descriptors:  adoption, communicable diseases, emerging epidemiology, emigration and immigration, severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemiology, adolescent, adult, child, preschool child, communicable disease control, communicable diseases, emerging transmission, infant, influenza epidemiology, influenza transmission, influenza A virus, avian, SARS virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission.

Kroes, A.C., W.J. Spaan, and E.C. Claas (2004). Van vogelpest tot influenzapandemie; reden tot voorzorgen. [From fowl plague to influenza pandemic; a reason for taking precautions]. Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde 148(10): 458-63.  ISSN: 0028-2162.

            Abstract:  Throughout Eastern Asia, there is currently an epidemic of fowl plague or highly pathogenic avian influenza, on an unprecedented scale. The prospects for rapid containment are poor. The causative virus, influenza A of the H5N1 subtype, is of limited infectivity for humans. If infection occurs, however, then the consequences are serious and even fatal in a majority of cases. In view of the receptor specificity of avian influenza viruses, this may be related to individually increased susceptibility, which does not lead to further spread. However, it is known that influenza A viruses can readily adapt to replication in the human host by the acquisition of specific gene segments or even by mutations of the avian virus. The extreme scale of human contact with influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype at present engenders fear that there is a high risk of such adaptation and a subsequent pandemic spread. Adequate precautions are necessary, not only in terms of an acceleration of vaccine production but primarily in arranging for sufficient availability of the new antiviral drugs.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks, influenza A virus, avian pathogenicity, human pathogenicity, avian influenza transmission, zoonoses, chickens, avian genetics, human genetics.

Kronberger, H. (1978). Haltung Von Vogeln, Krankheiten Der Vogel. [Management and Diseases of Birds], 3rd edition, 384 p.

            NAL Call Number:  SF994.2.A1K76 1978

            Descriptors:  protozoal infections, aviary birds, helminths, symptoms, control, management.

L'vov, D.K., R.I.A. Podcherniaeva, R. Webster, M.V. Ronina, and T.V. Pysina (1979). Poluchenie rekombinantov, antigenno identichynykh tsirkuliruiushchim v prirode shtammam virusa grippa. [Production of recombinants antigenically identical to influenza virus strains circulating in nature]. Voprosy Virusologii (5): 493-7.  ISSN: 0507-4088.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 P942

            Abstract:  Recombination of a human influenza virus with an avian influenza virus produced a H2Nav2 recombinant with the antigenic properties analogous to those of avian influenza virus (H2Nav2) isolated from wild ducks in the Far East, USSR. Recombination of two avian influenza viruses yielded a recombinant H2N2, an antigenic analogues of influenza A/Singapore/1/57 (H2N2) virus which had started an epidemic of influenza in 1957.

            Descriptors:  antigens, viral genetics, influenza A virus genetics, recombination, genetic, animals, wild, crosses, genetic, ducks microbiology, hemagglutination inhibition tests, influenza A virus human genetics, neuraminidase antagonists and inhibitors.

L'vov, D.K., G.A. Sidorova, A.E. Eminov, E.A. Vladimirtseva, and N.A. Braude (1980). Svoistva virusov grippa Hav6Neq2 i Hswl(H0)Hav2, izolirovannykh ot ptits okolovodnogo kompleksa na iuge Turkmenii. [Properties of Hav6Neq2 and Hswl(H0)Hav2 influenza viruses isolated from waterfowl in southern Turkmenia]. Voprosy Virusologii (4): 415-9.  ISSN: 0507-4088.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 P942

            Abstract:  Three influenza A virus strains were isolated from shorebirds in October, 1977, in southern Turkmenia, in the vicinities of Tedzhen water reservoir. From a common tern, A/Sterna hirundo/Turkmenia/45/77 strain was isolated with the antigenic formula Hav6Neq2, from a teal and a black-headed gull influenza A/Anas crecca/Turkmenia/4/77 and A/Larus ridibundus/Turkmenia/13/77 strains with previously unknown combination of surface antigens Hswl(H0)Nav2 were recovered. By the molecular weight of the heavy (HA1 59,000 d) and light (HA2 24,000 d) chains of hemagglutinin, the Turkmenian viruses A/Larus ridibundus/Turkmenia/13/77 and A/Anas crecca/Turkmenia/4/77 are similar to each other and to the strains having H0 hemagglutinin: A/PR8/34 (H0N1) and A/Whale/PO/19/76 (H09Nav2). The Turkmenian viruses are characterized by a low content of the light hemagglutinin chain (HA2) which is typical of the viruses with Hsw1 hemagglutinin: A/New Jersey/8/76 (Hsw1N1) and A/SW/Wisk/68 (Hsw1N1).

            Descriptors:  birds microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, antigens, viral isolation and purification, chick embryo, avian classification, serotyping, Turkmenistan, viral proteins analysis.

L'vov, D.K., A.N. Slepushkin, S.S. Iamnikova, and E.I. Burtseva (1998). Gripp ostaetsia nepredskazuemoi infektsiei. [Influenza remains an unpredictable infection]. Voprosy Virusologii 43(3): 141-4.  ISSN: 0507-4088.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 P942

            Abstract:  Influenza virus A (H5N1) was isolated from the tracheal swab of a 3-year-old boy who died from influenza with the Raye syndrome in Hong Kong in May, 1997. Up to the present time, influenza viruses with hemagglutinin H5 were known to circulate only among birds. They caused a variety of diseases: from asymptomatic to epizootic with 100% mortality, particularly among chickens. The main difference between virulent and avirulent strains is as follows: virulent viruses are isolated from all tissues of an infected bird. A (H5) virus hemagglutinin, transformed into a virulent variant, becomes sensitive to cleavage by proteases of mammalian and avian cells. Intensive epidemiological surveillance of influenza in Hong Kong started by the WHO and Department of Public Health of Hong Kong in August-September, 1997, resulted in detection of 17 more cases with Influenza A (H5N1) in November-December 1997. all of the occurred before December 28, 1997 and were detected in hospitals and health centers of Hong Kong. Nine patients were children aged under 5 years. Six patients died as a result of complications (pneumonia) and exacerbations of concomitant chronic diseases. Virological and logical studies showed that the main route of infection transmission was from birds to humans. Human to human transmission is probable. Study of 7 influenza A (H5N1) viruses isolated from patients showed that they contained all 8 RNA gene segments of avian virus. There are no reports about new cases of influenza A (H5N1) in humans in January 1998, and we can hope that the outbreak of Influenza A (H5N1) in Hong Kong caused by avian virus will not develop into a new influenza pandemic, although an unfavorable course of events is probable.

            Descriptors:  influenza virology, influenza A virus avian pathogenicity, chickens virology, Hong Kong epidemiology, influenza epidemiology, influenza physiopathology, avian genetics, RNA, viral, virulence.

Lagutkin, N. (1997). Avian influenza. Ptitsevodstvo (1): 22-23.  ISSN: 0033-3239.

            NAL Call Number:  47.8 P95

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, strains, diagnosis, control, vaccination.

Lai, A.C. and A.M. McPhillips (1999). Isolation of avian influenza viruses in central Oklahoma. Journal Oklahoma State Medical Association 92(12): 565-7.  ISSN: 0030-1876.

            Abstract:  Aquatic birds are the natural hosts for influenza virus. It is established that avian influenza viruses provide the gene pool for the generation of new strains of human influenza virus, which can cause pandemic infections. The recent outbreak of an avian influenza virus (H5N1) in Hong Kong not only produced high mortality in chickens, but also resulted in six human fatalities. This outbreak indicates that avian influenza virus can be pathogenic for humans. We surveyed local waterfowl habitats by taking water and fecal samples for virus isolation and identification. We isolated avian influenza viruses from ponds and small lakes in Bartlesville, Lawton, Stillwater, and Tulsa. The density of birds in these sites is small. However, our virus isolation rate is comparable to that found in higher density habitats. The risk of human infection remains to be determined. We encourage primary care physicians to submit samples for virus surveillance.

            Descriptors:  birds virology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, influenza transmission, Oklahoma.

Lambers, J.H. and P.M. Cornelissen (2000). Discussie aviaire influenza bij vleeskuikens. [Discussion on avian influenza in chicks]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 125(23): 737.  ISSN: 0040-7453.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 T431

            Descriptors:  antibodies, viral blood, chickens, fowl plague epidemiology, influenza A virus avian pathogenicity, chick embryo, avian immunology, Netherlands epidemiology.

Lambers, J.H. and P.M. Cornelissen (2000). Een orienterend onderzoek naar het voorkomen van afweerstoffen tegen influenzavirussen in vleeskuikens in Nederland. Discussiestuk monitoring dierziekten aan slachtlijn. [Preliminary research on the occurrence of antibodies against influenza viruses in chicks in the Netherlands. Discussion about monitoring diseases at slaughter]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 125(14): 461-2.  ISSN: 0040-7453.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 T431

            Descriptors:  antibodies, viral blood, chickens, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay veterinary, fowl plague epidemiology, influenza A virus avian immunology, abattoirs, antibodies, viral immunology, chick embryo, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay methods, avian isolation and purification, Netherlands epidemiology.

Lancaster, J.E. (1981). International responsibility for control of avian influenza. In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, p. 184-197.

            NAL Call Number: aSF995.6.I6I5 1981a

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, disease control, international trade, responsibility.

Landman, W.J. (1996). Aviaire influenza een potentiele bedreiging voor de pluimveehouderij. [Avian influenza a potential threat for poultry farming]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 121(22): 651-2.  ISSN: 0040-7453.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 T431

            Descriptors:  fowl plague virology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, fowl plague epidemiology, fowl plague prevention and control, Netherlands epidemiology, poultry.

Landman, W.J.M. (1997). Aviaire influenza een potentiele bedreiging voor de pluimveehouderij: de ziekte is ook bekend onder de naam Klassieke Vogelpest. [Avian influenza a potential thread for poultry: the disease is also known as Newcastle disease]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 121(22): 651-652.  ISSN: 0040-7453.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 T431

            Descriptors:  poultry, influenza virus, domestic animals, livestock, orthomyxoviridae, useful animals, viruses.

Landman, W.J.M. (1996). Avian influenza: A potential threat to poultry. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 121(22): 651-652.  ISSN: 0040-7453.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 T431

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, pathology, veterinary medicine, avian influenza, avian influenza virus type A, epidemiology, host, infection, treatment, viral disease, zoo animal.

Landman, W.J.M. and C.C. Schrier (2004). Aviaire influenza: zicht op eradiacatie bij commercieel gehouden pluimvee steeds verder weg [Avian influenza: eradication from commercial poultry is still not in sight]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 129(23): 782-796.  ISSN: 0040-7453.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 T431

            Descriptors:  avian influenza, diagnosis, mortality, transmission, eradication, airborne transmission, outbreak rate, poultry farming, poultry industry.

Lang, G., A. Gagnon, and J.R. Geraci (1981). Isolation of an influenza A virus from seals. Archives of Virology 68(3-4): 189-95.  ISSN: 0304-8608.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ar23

            Abstract:  Influenza A virus of serotype Hav1 Neq1 (H7N7 by the 1980 revised influenza typing system proposed by WHO experts) was repeatedly isolated from lung and brain tissues taken from harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) found suffering from pneumonia on Cape Cod Peninsula (U.S.A.) in the winter of 1979-1980. The seal isolates, although of a serotype identical to some fowl plaque virus strains, were harmless to chickens and turkeys in transmission experiments. An earlier human infection by a Hav1 Neq1 influenza virus and the serologic relatedness of this avian serotype with the equine 1 serotype are cited in support of the view that influenza viruses with these antigenic characteristics seem to have a facility to pass from birds to mammals.

            Descriptors:  influenza microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, Pinnipedia microbiology, pneumonia, viral microbiology, seals microbiology, antigens, viral immunology, brain microbiology, epitopes, avian immunology, lung microbiology.

Lang, G., J. Howell, and A.E. Ferguson (1972). The occurrence of serotype 4 of avian influenza A virus in Canadian poultry. Canadian Veterinary Journal Revue Veterinaire Canadienne 13(1): 17-20.  ISSN: 0008-5286.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 R3224

            Descriptors:  ducks, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, turkeys, Canada, fowl plague epidemiology, fowl plague microbiology, avian classification.

Larson, E. (1998). The flu hunters [avian influenza]. Time 151(11): 46-56.  ISSN: 0040-781X.

            NAL Call Number:  280.8 T48

            Descriptors:  diagnosis, zoonoses, strains, disease transmission, outbreaks, avian influenza virus, Hong Kong.

Lashley, F.R. (2004). Emerging infectious diseases: vulnerabilities, contributing factors and approaches. Expert Review of Anti Infective Therapy 2(2): 299-316.  ISSN: 1478-7210.

            Abstract:  We live in an ever more connected global village linked through international travel, politics, economics, culture and human-human and human-animal interactions. The realization that the concept of globalization includes global exposure to disease-causing agents that were formerly confined to small, remote areas and that infectious disease outbreaks can have political, economic and social roots and effects is becoming more apparent. Novel infectious disease microbes continue to be discovered because they are new or newly recognized, have expanded their geographic range, have been shown to cause a new disease spectrum, have jumped the species barrier from animals to humans, have become resistant to antimicrobial agents, have increased in incidence or have become more virulent. These emerging infectious disease microbes may have the potential for use as agents of bioterrorism. Factors involved in the emergence of infectious diseases are complex and interrelated and involve all classifications of organisms transmitted in a variety of ways. In 2003, outbreaks of interest included severe acute respiratory syndrome, monkeypox and avian influenza. Information from the human genome project applied to microbial organisms and their hosts will provide new opportunities for detection, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, control and prognosis. New technology related not only to genetics but also to satellite and monitoring systems will play a role in weather, climate and the approach to environmental manipulations that influence factors contributing to infectious disease emergence and control. Approaches to combating emerging infectious diseases include many disciplines, such as animal studies, epidemiology, immunology, ecology, environmental studies, microbiology, pharmacology, other sciences, health, medicine, public health, nursing, cultural, political and social studies, all of which must work together. Appropriate financial support of the public health infrastructure including surveillance, prevention, communication, adherence techniques and the like will be needed to support efforts to address emerging infectious disease threats.

            Descriptors:  communicable diseases, emerging economics, prevention and control, emerging transmission, climate, demography, disease susceptibility, disease transmission prevention and control, industry, politics, social conditions, economics, technology, travel, weather.

Laudert, E.A., V. Sivanandan, and D.A. Halvorson (1993). Effect of intravenous inoculation of avian influenza virus on reproduction and growth in mallard ducks. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 29(4): 523-6.  ISSN: 0090-3558.

            NAL Call Number:  41.9 W64B

            Abstract:  An avian influenza virus isolate, A/Mallard/Ohio/184/86 (H5N1), was evaluated for its effects on reproduction in isolation-reared adult mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and growth rate in juvenile mallards after intravenous inoculation. There was a significant decrease in egg production in the experimental group during the first week after inoculation, but it returned to the normal production level during the second week. No effect was seen on egg weight, shape, or fertility. Ducklings receiving this influenza virus isolate did not differ from controls in their rate of growth.

            Descriptors:  body weight, ducks physiology, fowl plague physiopathology, influenza A virus avian pathogenicity, reproduction, antibodies, viral blood, ducks growth and development, fertility, influenza A virus avian immunology, oviposition, random allocation.

Laver, G. and E. Garman (2002). Pandemic influenza: its origin and control. Microbes and Infection Institut Pasteur 4(13): 1309-16.  ISSN: 1286-4579.

            NAL Call Number:  QR180.M53

            Abstract:  A "new" influenza virus will appear at some time in the future. This virus will arise by natural processes, which we do not fully understand, or it might be created by some bioterrorist. The world's population will have no immunity to the new virus, which will spread like wild-fire, causing much misery, economic disruption and many deaths. Vaccines will take time to develop and the only means of control, at least in the early stages of the epidemic, are anti-viral drugs, of which the neuraminidase inhibitors currently seem the most effective.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks prevention and control, influenza epidemiology, influenza prevention and control, antiviral agents therapeutic use, birds, chickens, China epidemiology, drug resistance, viral, influenza drug therapy, influenza virology, influenza A virus avian classification, avian physiology, models, molecular, neuraminidase physiology, orthomyxoviridae genetics, orthomyxoviridae immunology.

Laver, G. and E. Garman (2001). Virology. The origin and control of pandemic influenza. Science 293(5536): 1776-7.  ISSN: 0036-8075.

            NAL Call Number:  470 Sci2

            Descriptors:  chickens virology, influenza epidemiology, influenza prevention and control, influenza A virus enzymology, influenza A virus pathogenicity, antiviral agents therapeutic use, drug industry methods, drug resistance, microbial, enzyme inhibitors therapeutic use, hn protein chemistry, hn protein genetics, hn protein metabolism, Hong Kong epidemiology, influenza diagnosis, influenza drug therapy, influenza A virus avian enzymology, avian genetics, avian immunology, avian pathogenicity, human enzymology, human genetics, human immunology, human pathogenicity, influenza A virus genetics, influenza A virus immunology, influenza vaccine biosynthesis, influenza vaccine economics, influenza vaccine immunology, models, molecular, mutation genetics, neuraminidase antagonists and inhibitors, neuraminidase chemistry, neuraminidase genetics, neuraminidase metabolism, protein conformation, RNA viral analysis, viral genetics, reassortant viruses enzymology, reassortant viruses genetics, reassortant viruses immunology, reassortant viruses pathogenicity, sialic acids therapeutic use.

Laver, G. (2004). From the great barrier reef to a "cure" for the flu - tall tales, but true. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47(4): 590-596.  ISSN: 0031-5982.

            NAL Call Number:  442.8 P43

            Descriptors:  infection, prevention and control, sea birds, drug development.

Laver, W.G., R.G. Webster, and C.M. Chu (1984). From the National Institutes of Health. Summary of a meeting on the origin of pandemic influenza viruses. Journal of Infectious Diseases 149(1): 108-15.  ISSN: 0022-1899.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 J821

            Abstract:  Influenza type A virus periodically undergoes major antigenic shifts in which the hemagglutinin (HAG) and sometimes the neuraminidase (NA) antigens are replaced by HAG and NA antigens of another subtype. Three such shifts have taken place since the virus was first isolated, and all appear to have occurred in China. The way in which these "new" influenza type A viruses suddenly appear (or reappear) in the human population is not known. At a meeting held in Beijing, China, on November 10-12, 1982, participants discussed the latest findings on the molecular biology of influenza viruses and on aspects of their ecology that may offer insight into the factors responsible for the origin of pandemic influenza viruses. Information obtained in earlier studies has provided some clues about how the antigenic shifts may occur. For example, the H3N2 virus has been found to be a recombinant deriving seven of its eight genes from an H2N2 strain and gene 4 (which encodes for the HAG) from some other virus, possibly an avian influenza virus of the H3 subtype [1-3]. In addition, studies of the genome of the H1N1 virus that appeared in Anshan, China, in 1977 have shown that this virus almost certainly underwent no replication for 27 years. This finding suggests that the virus existed in an animal reservoir during this period [4, 5].

            Descriptors:  influenza microbiology, influenza A virus human physiology, orthomyxoviridae physiology, antigens, viral immunology, China, disease reservoirs, ecology, epitopes immunology, genes viral, hemagglutinins viral immunology, influenza therapy, human genetics, influenza A virus physiology, influenza vaccine immunology, macromolecular systems, neuraminidase genetics, neuraminidase immunology, orthomyxoviridae genetics, orthomyxoviridae immunology,  recombination, genetic, T lymphocytes, cytotoxic immunology, virus replication.

Lawrie, M. (2004). Animal welfare gains from avian influenza? Australian Veterinary Journal 82(3): 135.  ISSN: 0005-0423.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Au72

            Descriptors:  animal welfare, chickens, avian influenza, epidemiology, cats, China epidemiology, dogs, influenza A virus, Korea.

Lazzari, S. and K. Stohr (2004). Avian influenza and influenza pandemics. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 82(4): 242.  ISSN: 0042-9686.

            NAL Call Number:  449.9 W892B

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks prevention and control, influenza epidemiology, influenza A virus, avian pathogenicity, influenza prevention and control, influenza transmission, influenza virology, avian influenza epidemiology, avian influenza transmission, avian influenza virology, sentinel surveillance, world health, zoonoses virology.

Le Roux, C. (1998). Avian influenza. Poultry Bulletin South Africa Poultry Association 10: 473, 475-476.  ISSN: 0257-201X.

            NAL Call Number:  47.8 So89

            Descriptors:  poultry, avian influenza virus, diagnosis, disease transmission, disease control, vaccination, South Africa, Africa, Africa South of Sahara, domestic animals, immunization, immunostimulation, immunotherapy, influenza virus, livestock, orthomyxoviridae, pathogenesis, Southern Africa, therapy, useful animals, viruses.

Lee, L.A., C. Johnstone, and D. Cohen (1988). Poultry health surveillance using routinely collected production data [avian influenza-virus case control study]. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica (Suppl. 84): 268-270.  ISSN: 0044-605X.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 AC87

            Descriptors:  disease control, avian influenza virus, United States, poultry, production data collection.

Lee, P.J. and L.R. Krilov (2005). When animal viruses attack: SARS and avian influenza. Pediatric Annals 34(1): 42-52.  ISSN: 0090-4481.

            NAL Call Number:  RJ1.P35

            Abstract:  SARS and avian influenza have many common features. They both arose in Asia and originated from animal viruses. They both have the potential to become pandemics because human beings lack antibodies to the animal-derived antigens present on the viral surface and rapid dissemination can occur from the relative ease and availability of high speed and far-reaching transportation methods. Pediatricians, in particular, should remain alert about the possibility of pandemic illnesses in their patients. Annual rates of influenza in children may be 1.5 to 3 times those in the adult population, and infection rates during a community epidemic may exceed 40% in preschool-aged children and 30% in school-aged children. Infected children also play a central role in disseminating influenza, as they are the major point of entry for the virus into the household, from which adults spread disease into the community. Of course, children younger than 24 months also are at high risk for complications from influenza. A 1999 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention projection of an influenza pandemic in the US paints a grim picture: 89,000 to 207,000 deaths, 314,000 to 734,000 hospitalizations, 18 million to 42 million outpatient visits, and 20 million to 47 million additional illnesses, at a cost to society of at least dollars 71.3 billion to dollars 166.5 billion. High-risk patients (15% of the population) would account for approximately 84% of all deaths. Although SARS has been kind to the pediatric population so far, there are no guarantees that future outbreaks would be as sparing. To aid readers in remaining up-to-date with SARS and avian influenza, some useful websites are listed in the Sidebar. Two masters of suspense, Alfred Hitchcock and Stephen King, may have been closer to the truth than they ever would have believed. Both birds and a super flu could bring about the end of civilization as we know it. But all is not lost--to paraphrase Thomas Jefferson, the price of health is eternal vigilance. Although we may not be able to prevent future pandemics, mankind has the ability to recognize new diseases and outbreaks as they occur, to study these infections and find ways to contain and treat them, and to implement the necessary measures to defeat them.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza prevention and control, severe acute respiratory syndrome prevention and control, adult, child, antiviral agents therapeutic use, disease outbreaks prevention and control, disease vectors, avian influenza diagnosis, avian influenza epidemiology, avian influenza transmission, pediatrics methods, population surverillance methods, severe acute respiratory syndrome diagnosis, severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemiology, severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission, world health, SARS.

Lelonturier, P. (2004). Les virus de l'hiver. [Winter viruses]. Presse Medicale Paris, France 1983 33(7): 499.  ISSN: 0755-4982.

            Descriptors:  gastroenteritis virology, influenza virology, influenza A virus, avian pathogenicity, human pathogenicity, norovirus pathogenicity, SARS virus pathogenicity, seasons, severe acute respiratory syndrome virology, adolescent, adult, astrovirus isolation and purification, astrovirus pathogenicity, cause of death, child, cross sectional studies, France, gastroenteritis mortality, influenza mortality, influenza transmission, avian isolation and purification, human isolation and purification, influenza vaccines administration and dosage, norovirus isolation and purification, rotavirus isolation and purification, rotavirus pathogenicity, SARS virus isolation and purification, severe acute respiratory syndrome mortality, severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission, virulence, world health.

Lesnķk, F., N. Ucekaj, O. Ondrasovicovį, and V. Bajovį (2003). A highly virulent avian influenza virus in Europe. Slovenskż Veterinįrsky Casopis 28(3): 31-32.  ISSN: 1335-0099.

            Descriptors:  disease control, mutations, virulence, avian influenza virus, ducks, Europe.

Letonturier, P. (2004). Quand les virus attaquent. [When viruses attack]. Presse Medicale Paris, France 1983 33(6): 428.  ISSN: 0755-4982.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks, influenza A virus, avian influenza, avian influenza epidemiology, avian influenza transmission, zoonoses, poultry, risk factors.

Ley, E.C., T.Y. Morishita, B.S. Harr, R. Mohan, and T. Brisker (2000). Serologic survey of slaughter-age ostriches (Struthio camelus) for antibodies to selected avian pathogens.  Avian Diseases 44(4): 989-92.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Serum samples from 163 slaughter-age ostriches (Struthio camelus) in Ohio and Indiana were tested for antibodies to avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), paramyxovirus (PMV) 2, PMV3, PMV7, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), Bordetella avium, Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella gallinarum, and Salmonella typhimurium. One ostrich had antibodies to AIV H5N9, 57% of the ostriches had antibodies to NDV, four ostriches had antibodies to both NDV and PMV2, and one ostrich had antibodies to NDV, PMV2, PMV3, and PMV7. None of the ostriches had antibodies to IBDV, B. avium, M. synoviae, M. gallisepticum, O. rhinotracheale, S. pullorum, S. gallinarum, and S. typhimurium. This is the first report of antibodies to avian influenza and PMV7 in ostriches in the United States.

            Descriptors:  antibodies, bacterial analysis, antibodies, viral analysis, ostriches immunology, aging, bird diseases immunology, bird diseases microbiology, bird diseases virology, Indiana, Ohio, ostriches microbiology, ostriches virology, seroepidemiologic studies.

Liem, N.T. (2005). Lack of H5N1 avian influenza transmission to hospital employees, Hanoi, 2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases 11(2): 210-5.  ISSN: 1080-6040.

            NAL Call Number:  RA648.5.E46

            Abstract:  To establish whether human-to-human transmission of influenza A H5N1 occurred in the healthcare setting in Vietnam, we conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence survey among hospital employees exposed to 4 confirmed and 1 probable H5N1 case-patients or their clinical specimens. Eighty-three (95.4%) of 87 eligible employees completed a questionnaire and provided a serum sample, which was tested for antibodies to influenza A H5N1. Ninety-five percent reported exposure to >1 H5N1 case-patients; 59 (72.0%) reported symptoms, and 2 (2.4%) fulfilled the definition for a possible H5N1 secondary case-patient. No study participants had detectable antibodies to influenza A H5N1. The data suggest that the H5N1 viruses responsible for human cases in Vietnam in January 2004 are not readily transmitted from person to person. However, influenza viruses are genetically variable, and transmissibility is difficult to predict. Therefore, persons providing care for H5N1 patients should continue to take measures to protect themselves.

            Descriptors:  patient to professional disease transmission, health personnel, influenza transmission, avian influenza A virus growth and development, Western blotting, child, preschool child, adolescent, adult, viral blood antibodies, cross sectional studies, influenza immunology, influenza virology, avian influenza A virus immunology, middle-aged, neutralization tests, questionnaires, seroepidemiologic studies, Vietnam epidemiology.

Lin, J.T. (2004). [Strategies in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with avian influenza]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 84(5): 355-6.  ISSN: 0376-2491.

            Descriptors:  influenza, avian influenza diagnosis, avian influenza drug therapy, acetamides therapeutic use, antiviral agents therapeutic use, birds virology, avian influenza A virus drug effects, avian influenza virology, sialic acids therapeutic use.

Lina, B. (2004). A gripe das aves desperta o terror de uma pandemia. [Avian influenza causes fear about a pandemic.]. Servir Lisbon, Portugal 52(2): 93-5.  ISSN: 0871-2379.

            Descriptors:  influenza, avian epidemiology, influenza, avian transmission.

Lipatov, A.S., A.K. Gitel'man, E.A. Govorkova, and I.U.A. Smirnov (1995). Izmeneniia biologicheskikh i fiziko-khimicheskikh svoistv gemaggliutinina H2 ptich'ego virusa grippa A v protsesse adaptatsii k novomu khozainu. [Changes in biological and physico-chemical properties of avian influenza virus A hemagglutinin H2 during adaptation to a new host]. Voprosy Virusologii 40(5): 208-11.  ISSN: 0507-4088.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 P942

            Abstract:  Avian influenza A virus with H2 hemagglutinin has been adapted to mice for the first time. Alterations in the hemagglutinin of adapted variants of the virus as a result of adaptation to a new host are described. Hemagglutinin of a highly virulent adapted variant differed from the parental avirulent strain by antigenic structure, electrophoretic mobility, and receptor activity during interactions with murine red cells.

            Descriptors:  adaptation, physiological, hemagglutinins viral metabolism, influenza A virus avian physiology, cultured cells, chick embryo, dogs, erythrocytes virology, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus, hemagglutinins viral chemistry, avian metabolism, avian pathogenicity, lethal dose 50, mice.

Lipkind, M., H. Burger, R. Rott, and C. Scholtissek (1984). Genetic characterization of influenza A viruses isolated from birds in Israel. A contribution to the ecology of avian influenza viruses. Zentralblatt Fur Veterinarmedizin. Reihe B Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B 31(10): 721-8.  ISSN: 0514-7166.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Z52

            Descriptors:  birds microbiology, influenza A virus avian genetics, hemagglutinins viral genetics, porcine genetics, Israel, neuraminidase genetics, RNA viral genetics.

Lipkind, M., K. Hornstein, E. Shihmanter, K. Davidov, and D. Shoham (1983). Retrospective identification as influenza virus of a hemagglutinating agent isolated from turkeys in Israel in 1973. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 6(2): 135-9.  ISSN: 0147-9571.

            NAL Call Number:  QR180.C62

            Descriptors:  hemagglutinins viral isolation and purification, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, turkeys microbiology, hemagglutinins viral immunology, avian immunology, Israel.

Lipkind, M., E. Shihmanter, and D. Shoham (1982). Further characterization of H7N7 avian influenza virus isolated from migrating starlings wintering in Israel. Zentralblatt Fur Veterinarmedizin. Reihe B Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B 29(7): 566-72.  ISSN: 0514-7166.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Z52

            Descriptors:  antigens, viral analysis, birds microbiology, influenza A virus avian classification, neuraminidase immunology, cloaca microbiology, hemagglutination inhibition tests veterinary, immunodiffusion veterinary, Israel, trachea microbiology.

Lipkind, M., D. Shoham, and E. Shihmanter (1981). Isolation of influenza viruses from rock partridges in Israel. Veterinary Record 109(24): 540.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  birds microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, antigens, viral analysis, cloaca microbiology, hemagglutination inhibition tests, avian classification, Israel, neuraminidase immunology, seasons, species specificity, trachea microbiology.

Lipkind, M.A., Y. Weisman, E. Shihmanter, and D. Shoham (1979). The first isolation of animal influenza virus in Israel. Veterinary Record 105(22): 510-511.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, birds microbiology, hemagglutination inhibition tests, avian immunology, Israel, poultry microbiology.

Lipkind, M.A., Y. Weisman, E. Shihmanter, and D. Shoham (1979). Identification of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild mallard ducks in Israel. Veterinary Record 105(24): 558.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  bird diseases microbiology, ducks microbiology, orthomyxoviridae isolation and purification, virus diseases veterinary, bird diseases epidemiology, Israel.

Lipkind, M.A., Y. Weisman, E. Shihmanter, D. Shoham, C. Yuval, and A. Aronovici (1979). Identification of avian influenza virus isolated from a turkey farm in Israel. Veterinary Record 105(23): 534-5.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, turkeys microbiology, virus diseases veterinary, antibodies, viral analysis, bird diseases immunology, bird diseases microbiology, hemagglutination inhibition tests, avian immunology, Israel, turkeys immunology.

Liu, J.H., K. Okazaki, G.R. Bai, W.M. Shi, A. Mweene, and H. Kida (2004). Interregional transmission of the internal protein genes of H2 influenza virus in migratory ducks from North America to Eurasia. Virus Genes  29(1): 81-6.  ISSN: 0920-8569.

            NAL Call Number:  QH434.V57

            Abstract:  H2 influenza virus caused a pandemic in 1957 and has the possibility to cause outbreaks in the future. To assess the evolutionary characteristics of H2 influenza viruses isolated from migratory ducks that congregate in Hokkaido, Japan, on their flyway of migration from Siberia in 2001, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships among these viruses and avian and human viruses described previously. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the PB2 gene of Dk/Hokkaido/107/01 (H2N3) and the PA gene of Dk/Hokkaido/95/01 (H2N2) belonged to the American lineage of avian virus and that the other genes of the isolates belonged to the Eurasian lineage. These results indicate that the internal protein genes might be transmitted from American to Eurasian avian host. Thus, it is further confirmed that interregional transmission of influenza viruses occurred between the North American and Eurasian birds. The fact that reassortants could be generated in the migratory ducks between North American and Eurasian avian virus lineage further stresses the importance of global surveillance among the migratory ducks.

            Descriptors:  ducks virology, emigration and immigration, influenza A virus, avian genetics, influenza, avian virology, viral proteins genetics, Asia, Europe, avian influenza A virus classification, molecular sequence data, North America, phylogeny, sequence analysis, DNA.

Liu, J.H., K. Okazaki, W.M. Shi, and H. Kida (2003). Phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of H9N2 viruses isolated from migratory ducks. Virus Genes 27(3): 291-6.  ISSN: 0920-8569.

            NAL Call Number:  QH434.V57

            Abstract:  Genetic analysis indicated that the pandemic influenza strains derived from wild aquatic birds harbor viruses of 15 hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 neuraminidase (NA) antigenic subtypes. Surveillance studies have shown that H9N2 subtype viruses are worldwide in domestic poultry and could infect mammalian species, including humans. Here, we genetically analyzed the HA and NA genes of five H9N2 viruses isolated from the migratory ducks in Hokkaido, Japan, the flyway of migration from Siberia during 1997-2000. The results showed that HA and NA genes of these viruses belong to the same lineages, respectively. Compared with those of A/quail/Hong Kong/G1/97-like and A/duck/Hong Kong/Y280/97-like viruses, HA and NA of the migratory duck isolates had a close relationship with those of H9N2 viruses isolated from the chicken in Korea, indicating that the Korea H9N2 viruses might be derived from the migratory ducks. The NA genes of the five isolates were located in the same cluster as those of N2 viruses, which had caused a human pandemic in 1968, indicating that the NA genes of the previous pandemic strains are still circulating in waterfowl reservoirs. The present results further emphasize the importance of carrying out molecular epidemiological surveillance of H9N2 viruses in wild ducks to obtain more information for the future human influenza pandemics preparedness.

            Descriptors:  ducks virology, influenza A virus avian genetics, amino acid sequence, base sequence,  binding sites genetics, DNA, viral genetics, disease reservoirs, epidemiology, molecular, genes viral, hemagglutinins viral genetics, avian enzymology, avian immunology, avian isolation and purification, Japan, neuraminidase genetics, phylogeny.

Loeb, M.B. (2004). Severe acute respiratory syndrome: preparedness, management, and impact. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology the Official Journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America 25(12): 1017-9.  ISSN: 0899-823X.

            Descriptors:  disaster planning, disease outbreaks, health facilities, severe acute respiratory syndrome prevention and control, severe acute respiratory syndrome therapy, cross infection, avian influenza prevention and control, avian influenza therapy, organizational policy, patient isolation, severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemiology.

Lohmann, W. (1976). A possible mechanism for the action of some myxoviruses. Radiation and Environmental Biophysics 13(4): 273-80.  ISSN: 0301-634X.

            NAL Call Number:  442.8 B5242

            Abstract:  The redox properties of some myxoviruses [Fowl plaque virus strain Rostock (FPV), New Castle Disease virus strain Italy (NDV), B/Hong Kong, A/Port Chalmers, A/Victoria, A/Scotland, and A/Fort Dir) and electron microscopic studies as well as by the determination of the hemagglutination (HA) titer (antigen efficiency). The results have shown that viruses decrease the spin concentration of Cu2+ by acting as a reducing species (electron donor) which will result in the inactivation (oxidation) of the virus. Addition of an oxidizing substance, such as H2O2, to a virus suspension also leads to an oxidation of the viruses, and, thus, to their inability to reduce Cu2+. This result is confirmed by the decrease of the HA titer of viruses with increasing Cu2+ concentrations. H2O2 could not be applied for the HA titer test since it interacts with the erythrocytes of the chicken blood used for this determination. Therefore, another oxidizing substance (oxidized glutathione, GSS) was selected which exhibited a slightly less pronounced effect than Cu2+. Since reduced glutathione (GSH) exerts a similar but less pronounced effect than GSS, it might be concluded that viruses have a redox system of their own and act as reducing or oxidizing substance depending on the biological receptor system. Electron microscopic studies confirm this hypothesis. As can be seen by the electron micrographs, increasing concentrations of either Cu2+, GSS, H2O2, KMnO4, or GSH will, finally, result in a complete destruction of the virus. Because of structural similarities it might be assumed that other types of viruses behave very similarly.

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus metabolism, Newcastle disease virus metabolism, copper, electron spin resonance spectroscopy, glutathione, hemagglutination, viral, avian metabolism, avian ultrastructure, human metabolism, human ultrastructure, Newcastle disease virus ultrastructure, oxidation reduction, peroxides, potassium permanganate, time factors.

Lomniczi, B. (2004). Avian influenza and Newcastle disease: pathogenicity, epidemiology and evolution - comments on the definition of the diseases [A madarinfluenza es a baromfipestis (Newcastle-betegseg): patogenitas, epidemiologia es evolucio - megjegyzesek a betegsegek definiciojahoz]. Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 126(2): 87-100.  ISSN: 0025-004X.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V644

            Descriptors:  disease prevalence, epidemiology, evolution, pathogenicity, Newcastle disease, avian influenza virus.

Lopez, C.R. (1996). Efecto de un virus de I.A. de baja patogenicidad (VIABP) sobre parametros productivos de aves reporductoras pesadas. [The effects of a low pathogenicity avian influenza virus on productive parameters in broiler breeders]. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 45: 44-46.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  broiler chickens, pathogenicity, avian influenza virus, biological properties, birds, chickens, domestic animals, domesticated birds, Galliformes, influenza virus, livestock, meat animals, microbial properties, orthomyxoviridae, poultry, useful animals, viruses.

Lu, H., A.E. Castro, K. Pennick, J. Liu, Q. Yang, P. Dunn, D. Weinstock, and D. Henzler ( 2003). Survival of avian influenza virus H7N2 in SPF chickens and their environments. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 1015-1021.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  The survival or clearance of the avian influenza virus (AIV) of subtype H7N2 in its chicken host was evaluated using experimentally infected specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens of different age groups. Birds of different ages were successfully infected with infectious doses ranging between 104.7 and 105.7 ELD50 per bird. In infected birds, the infective virus was undetectable usually by the third week following exposure. The infectivity or inactivation time of the H7N2 AIV in various environmental conditions was studied using chicken manure, heat, ethanol, pH, and disinfectants. The H7N2 AIV was effectively inactivated by field chicken manure in less than a week at an ambient temperature of 15-20degreeC. At a pH 2, heating at 56degreeC, and exposure to 70% ethanol or a specific disinfectant, the AIV infectivity was destroyed in less than 30 min.

            Descriptors:  infection, viral clearance, viral infectivity, viral survival.

Lu, Y.S., Y.L. Lee, M.H. Jong, and H.K. Shieh. (1981). Studies on avian influenza of duck in Republic of China. In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, p. 52-53.

            NAL Call Number: aSF995.6.I6I5 1981a

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, serological survey, ducks, China.

Luchsinger, D. (1996). USDA national policy on avian influenza. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 45: 16-17.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, influenza virus, orthomyxoviridae, viruses.

Luescher, M.M. (2003). Algae, a possible source for new drugs in the treatment of HIV and other viral diseases. Current Medicinal Chemistry Anti Infective Agents 2(3): 219-225.  ISSN: 1568-0126.

            Descriptors:  immune system, infection, pharmacognosy, HIV infection, human immunodeficiency virus infection, blood and lymphatic disease, drug therapy, immune system disease, viral disease, avian influenza, viral disease, viral diseases, drug therapy, viral disease, HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) clinical techniques, therapeutic and prophylactic techniques, drug resistance, drug sources, phagocytic activity synergism, viral replication cycle.

Magnino, S., M. Fabbi, A. Moreno, G. Sala, A. Lavazza, E. Ghelfi, L. Gandolfi, G. Pirovano, and E. Gasperi (2000). Avian influenza virus (H7 serotype) in a saker falcon in Italy. Veterinary Record 146(25): 740.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  bird diseases virology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, raptors virology, anorexia etiology, anorexia veterinary, behavior, animal, avian pathogenicity, Italy.

Makarova, K.S., Y.U.I. Wulf, E.P. Tereza, and V.A. Ratner (1998). Razlichie rezhimov molekuliarnoi evoliutsii virusov grippa A v populiatsiiakh ptits i cheloveka. [Different patterns of molecular evolution of influenza A viruses in avian and human population]. Genetika  34(7): 890-6.  ISSN: 0016-6758.

            NAL Call Number:  QH431.A1G4

            Abstract:  Patterns of molecular evolution of the influenza virus proteins and genes are discussed. The subsets of all viral genes corresponding to statistically significant clusters on dendrogram were shown to fall into two distinct groups. The first group was characterized by the presence of an exact linear relationship between the year of the strain isolation and the evolutionary distance. The subsets of human influenza virus genes belong to this group. A method for eliminating the "frozen" strains from the subsets and for calculating the evolutionary rates without construction of phylogenetic trees has been elaborated. The substitution rates calculated according to this technique agreed with the data obtained previously. A linear relationship was not observed in the second group. This group was predominantly composed of avian influenza virus genes. The lack of linear correlation pointed to the cocirculation of a large amount of different influenza virus genomic segments in the avian population. An approach for an examination of the role of intragenic recombination in the development of the antigenic subtypes of hemagglutinin is suggested. Our results suggest that recombination did not play a considerable role in this process, and that all modern subtypes of this protein were probably formed before the introduction of the influenza viruses into the human population. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that influenza viruses penetrated into human population from their pools in avian populations.

            Descriptors:  birds genetics, evolution, molecular, genes viral, influenza A virus avian genetics, human genetics, viral proteins genetics.

Makarova, N.V., N.V. Kaverin, S. Krauss, D. Senne, and R.G. Webster (1999). Transmission of Eurasian avian H2 influenza virus to shorebirds in North America. Journal of General Virology 80(Pt. 12): 3167-71.  ISSN: 0022-1317.

            NAL Call Number:  QR360.A1J6

            Abstract:  Influenza A virus of the H2 subtype caused a serious pandemic in 1957 and may cause similar outbreaks in the future. To assess the evolution and the antigenic relationships of avian influenza H2 viruses, we sequenced the haemagglutinin (HA) genes of H2 isolates from shorebirds, ducks and poultry in North America and derived a phylogenetic tree to establish their interrelationships. This analysis confirmed the divergence of H2 HA into two geographical lineages, American and Eurasian. One group of viruses isolated from shorebirds in North America had HA belonging to the Eurasian lineage, indicating an interregional transmission of the H2 gene. Characterization of HA with a monoclonal antibody panel revealed that the antigenicity of the Delaware strains differed from the other avian strains analysed. The data emphasizes the importance of avian influenza surveillance.

            Descriptors:  fowl plague transmission, fowl plague virology, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus genetics, influenza A virus avian genetics, Asia, birds virology, Europe, genes viral, hemagglutination inhibition tests, avian isolation and purification, North America, phylogeny, poultry virology.

Makarova, N.V., H. Ozaki, H. Kida, R.G. Webster, and D.R. Perez (2003). Replication and transmission of influenza viruses in Japanese quail. Virology 310(1): 8-15.  ISSN: 0042-6822.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 V81

            Abstract:  Quail have emerged as a potential intermediate host in the spread of avian influenza A viruses in poultry in Hong Kong. To better understand this possible role, we tested the replication and transmission in quail of influenza A viruses of all 15 HA subtypes. Quail supported the replication of at least 14 subtypes. Influenza A viruses replicated predominantly in the respiratory tract. Transmission experiments suggested that perpetuation of avian influenza viruses in quail requires adaptation. Swine influenza viruses were isolated from the respiratory tract of quail at low levels. There was no evidence of human influenza A or B virus replication. Interestingly, a human-avian recombinant containing the surface glycoprotein genes of a quail virus and the internal genes of a human virus replicated and transmitted readily in quail; therefore, quail could function as amplifiers of influenza virus reassortants that have the potential to infect humans and/or other mammalian species.

            Descriptors:  infection, molecular genetics, respiratory system, adaptation.

Mamchur, B.A. and V.V. German (1975). Vivchennya infektsiinogo bronkhitu to gripu kurei. [Antibodies to fowl influenza virus serotype G6N2 and to infectious bronchitis virus serotypes Massachusetts and Connecticut among hens in the Ukraine].  Veterinariya, Kiev, USSR (41): 30-33, 114.

            Descriptors:  antibodies, disease surveys, serum samples,  infectious bronchitis virus serotypes, viral diseases, poultry, Ukraine.

Manvell, R.J., P.H. Jorgensen, O.L. Nielsen, and D.J. Alexander (1998). Experimental assessment of the pathogenicity of two avian influenza A H5 viruses in ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus) and chickens. Avian Pathology 27(4): 400-404.  ISSN: 0307-9457.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.A1A9

            Abstract:  Virus excretion, immune response, and, for chickens, deaths were recorded in 3-week-old ostriches and chickens inoculated by either the intramuscular or intranasal route with one of two influenza A viruses of subtype H5. One of the viruses, A/turkey/England/50-92/91 (H5N1) (50/92), was highly pathogenic for chickens causing 5/5 deaths by each route of inoculation. The other virus, A/ostrich/Denmark-Q/72420/96 (H5N2) (72420/96), isolated from ostriches in quarantine in Denmark during 1996, was of low pathogenicity for chickens, causing no clinical signs by either route of inoculation. No significant clinical signs were seen in any of the ostriches infected with either of the viruses by either route of infection. Both viruses were recoverable from both species up to 12 days post-infection, and low serological responses were detected in surviving infected ostriches and chickens at 21 days after inoculation.

            Descriptors:  ostriches, chickens, chicks, avian influenza virus, susceptibility, experimental infections, pathogenicity, clinical aspects, antibody formation, mortality, application methods, intramuscular injection, virus shedding, intranasal administration.

Marandi, M.V. and M.H.B. Fard (2002). Isolation of H9N2 subtype of avian influenza viruses during an outbreak in chickens in Iran. Iranian Biomedical Journal 6(1): 13-17.  ISSN: 1028-852X.

            Descriptors:  broilers, chickens, eggs, epidemiology, outbreaks, pathogenicity, poultry, avian influenza virus, Iran.

Marangon, S., I. Capua, G. Pozza, and U. Santucci (2004). Field experiences in the control of avian influenza outbreaks in densely populated poultry areas. Developmental Biology (Basel) 119: 155-64.  ISSN: 1424-6074.

            Abstract:  From 1997 to 2003, Italy has been affected by two epidemics of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and by several outbreaks of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI). In 1999-2000 a severe HPAI epidemic affected the country, causing 413 outbreaks: a total of about 16 million birds died or were stamped out. From August 2000 to March 2001, a H7N1 LPAI strain infected 78 poultry farms. The last affected flock was stamped out on the 26th of March 2001. In October 2002, another LPAI virus of the H7N3 subtype emerged and infected a total of 388 poultry holdings. Eradication measures were based on stamping out or controlled marketing of slaughtered birds on infected farms and on the prohibition of restocking. Restriction measures on the movement of live poultry, vehicles and staff were also imposed. To supplement these disease control measures, two emergency vaccination programmes, based on the "DIVA" (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) strategy were implemented. The two vaccination campaigns (2000-2002 and 2002-2003) both resulted in the eradication of infection. However, the first campaign appeared to be more successful that the second and possible explanations are discussed.

            Descriptors:  animals, disease outbreaks prevention and control, veterinary disease outbreaks, avian influenza A virus immunology, avian influenza epidemiology, avian influenza prevention and control, Italy epidemiology, population density, poultry, veterinary vaccination, viral vaccines.

Marois, P., A. Boudreault, E. DiFranco, and V. Pavilanis (1971). Response of ferrets and monkeys to intranasal infection with human, equine and avian influenza viruses. Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine Revue Canadienne De Medecine Comparee 35(1): 71-6.  ISSN: 0008-4050.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 C162

            Descriptors:  Carnivora, influenza veterinary, monkey diseases microbiology, nose microbiology, orthomyxoviridae pathogenicity, respiratory tract infections microbiology, antigen antibody reactions, birds, cross reactions, haplorhini, hemagglutination inhibition tests, horses, immune sera, influenza immunology, orthomyxoviridae isolation and purification, respiratory tract infections immunology, turkeys, virus replication.

Marwick, C. (1998). Could virulent virus be harbinger of 'new flu'? JAMA the Journal of the American Medical Association 279(4): 259-60.  ISSN: 0098-7484.

            NAL Call Number:  448.9 Am37

            Descriptors:  birds virology, influenza virology, influenza A virus avian, disease outbreaks prevention and control, Hong Kong epidemiology, influenza epidemiology, influenza prevention and control, influenza transmission.

Mase, M., T. Imada, Y. Sanada, M. Etoh, N. Sanada, K. Tsukamoto, Y. Kawaoka, and S. Yamaguchi (2001). Imported parakeets harbor H9N2 influenza A viruses that are genetically closely related to those transmitted to humans in Hong Kong. Journal of Virology 75(7): 3490-4.  ISSN: 0022-538X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR360.J6

            Abstract:  In 1997 and 1998, H9N2 influenza A viruses were isolated from the respiratory organs of Indian ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula Krameri manillensis) that had been imported from Pakistan to Japan. The two isolates were closely related to each other (>99% as determined by nucleotide analysis of eight RNA segments), indicating that H9N2 viruses of the same lineage were maintained in these birds for at least 1 year. The hemagglutinins and neuraminidases of both isolates showed >97% nucleotide identity with those of H9N2 viruses isolated from humans in Hong Kong in 1999, while the six genes encoding internal proteins were >99% identical to the corresponding genes of H5N1 viruses recovered during the 1997 outbreak in Hong Kong. These results suggest that the H9N2 parakeet viruses originating in Pakistan share an immediate ancestor with the H9N2 human viruses. Thus, influenza A viruses with the potential to be transmitted directly to humans may be circulating in captive birds worldwide.

            Descriptors:  influenza transmission, influenza A virus avian classification, nucleoproteins, parakeets virology, amino acid sequence, Hong Kong, avian genetics, mice, inbred BALB c, molecular sequence data, phylogeny, RNA viral analysis, viral core proteins genetics.

Matsuda, K., C.H. Park, Y. Sunden, T. Kimura, K. Ochiai, H. Kida, and T. Umemura (2004). The vagus nerve is one route of transneural invasion for intranasally inoculated influenza A virus in mice. Veterinary Pathology 41(2): 101-7.  ISSN: 0300-9858.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 P27

            Abstract:  Intranasally inoculated neurotropic influenza viruses in mice infect not only the respiratory tract but also the central nervous system (CNS), mainly the brain stem. Previous studies suggested that the route of invasion of virus into the CNS was via the peripheral nervous system, especially the vagus nerve. To evaluate the transvagal transmission of the virus, we intranasally inoculated unilaterally vagectomized mice with a virulent influenza virus (strain 24a5b) and examined the distribution of the viral protein and genome by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization over time. An asymmetric distribution of viral antigens was observed between vagal (nodose) ganglia: viral antigen was detected in the vagal ganglion of the vagectomized side 2 days later than in the vagal ganglion of the intact side. The virus was apparently transported from the respiratory mucosa to the CNS directly and decussately via the vagus nerve and centrifugally to the vagal ganglion of the vagectomized side. The results of this study, thus, demonstrate that neurotropic influenza virus travels to the CNS mainly via the vagus nerve.

            Descriptors:  brain stem virology, influenza A virus, avian, orthomyxoviridae infections virology, vagus nerve virology, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, lung virology, mice, nodose ganglion virology, respiratory mucosa virology.

Matsuura, Y., R. Yanagawa, and H. Noda (1979). Experimental infection of mink with influenza A viruses. Brief report. Archives of Virology 62(1): 71-6.  ISSN: 0304-8608.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ar23

            Abstract:  Mink were found to be susceptible to the intranasal inoculation of human, swine, equine and avian influenza A viruses. The viruses were recovered until the 7th post inoculation (p.i.) day from the respiratory tract. The inoculated mink showed antibody response against these viruses. Contact infection in mink with A/Kumamoto/22/77 (H3N2) was possible.

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus pathogenicity, orthomyxoviridae infections microbiology, antibodies, viral biosynthesis, disease models, animal, hemagglutination inhibition tests, influenza A virus immunology, influenza A virus isolation and purification, orthomyxoviridae infections immunology, orthomyxoviridae infections transmission, respiratory system microbiology.

McFerran, J.B., T.J. Connor, D.S. Collins, and G.M. Allan (1974). Isolation of an avirulent influenza virus from a parrot. Veterinary Record 95(20): 466-7.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  bird diseases microbiology, influenza veterinary, orthomyxoviridae isolation and purification, parrots, Psittacines, hemagglutinins viral, influenza microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, lung microbiology, orthomyxoviridae immunology, orthomyxoviridae pathogenicity, trachea microbiology, virulence.

McFerran, J.B. and M.S. McNulty. (1986). Acute virus infections of poultry. In: A seminar in the CEC Agricultural Research Programme, Brussels,  p. 242.

            Descriptors: poultry, viral diseases, seminar, Brussels.

McIlroy, S.G. (1994). The epidemiology and control of economically important diseases of broiler and broiler breeder production. In: Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine. Proceedings, Belfast, p. 114-127.

            NAL Call Number: SF780.9.S63

            Descriptors: disease control, viral diseases, bacterial diseases, infectious diseases, broilers, poultry, epidemiology, United Kingdom.

McManus, K. (2004). Asian avian influenza--a call to action. Australian Veterinary Journal 82(3): 135.  ISSN: 0005-0423.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Au72

            Descriptors:  chickens, disease outbreaks veterinary, avian influenza, prevention and control, southeastern Asia, epidemiology, disease outbreaks prevention and control, influenza A virus.

Melville, D.S. and K.F. Shortridge (2004). Influenza: time to come to grips with the avian dimension. Lancet Infectious Diseases 4(5): 261-2.  ISSN: 1473-3099.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks prevention and control, avian influenza epidemiology, avian influenza prevention and control, zoonoses epidemiology, animal husbandry methods, southeastern Asia epidemiology, chickens, ducks.

Merritt, S.N. and H.F. Maassab (1977). Characteristics of a live avian influenza virus. Health Laboratory Science 14(2): 122-5.  ISSN: 0017-9035.

            NAL Call Number:  449.8 H343

            Abstract:  Two avian influenza viruses were employed; a virulent wild-type (WT) parent and the cold variant (CV) which was an attenuated virus derived by genetic recombination at 25 C. The attenuated virus grows in embryonated eggs and chicken tracheal organ cultures. Infectious virus could be recovered from lung and turbinate. Infection with attenuated virus provided protection against infection with wild virus.

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus avian, chick embryo, hemagglutination inhibition tests, hemagglutination, viral, recombination, genetic, virulence.

Meulemans, G., M. Mammerickx, R. Froyman, and P. Halen (1980). Isolement du virus influenza Hav6 N2 chez des poules pondeuses atteintes de monocytose aviaire. [Isolation of Hav6 N2 influenza virus from diseased laying chickens (author's transl)]. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 3(1-2): 171-6.  ISSN: 0147-9571.

            NAL Call Number:  QR180.C62

            Descriptors:  chickens microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, leukocytosis veterinary, poultry diseases microbiology, feces microbiology, avian classification,  avian pathogenicity, lung microbiology, monocytes.

Mikami, T., H. Izawa, H. Kodama, M. Onuma, A. Sato, S. Kobayashi, M. Ishida, and K. Nerome (1982). Isolation of ortho- and paramyxoviruses from migrating feral ducks in Hokkaido. Brief Report. Archives of Virology 74(2-3): 211-7.  ISSN: 0304-8608.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ar23

            Abstract:  A total of 18 hemagglutinating agents were isolated from 14 of 278 migrating feral ducks In Hokkaido during the surveillance studies conducted from 1978 to 1981. Seven of the 18 isolates belonged to paramyxovirus and the rest to influenza A virus. Five isolates of paramyxovirus reacted specifically with antiserum to duck/HK/199/77 and 7 isolates of influenza A virus possessed the antigenic configuration of H10N3. Three of the isolates possessed an hemagglutinin that has no antigenic relation to any of the 26 known strains of avain, swine, equine and human influenza A viruses.

            Descriptors:  ducks microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, influenza A virus isolation and purification, paramyxoviridae isolation and purification, animals, wild microbiology, hemagglutinins viral immunology, avian immunology, influenza A virus immunology, Japan, orthomyxoviridae classification, paramyxoviridae classification, paramyxoviridae immunology.

Mikami, T., M. Kawamura, T. Kondo, T. Murai, M. Horiuchi, H. Kodama, H. Izawa, and H. Kida (1987). Isolation of ortho- and paramyxoviruses from migrating feral ducks in Japan. Veterinary Record 120(17):  417-8.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  ducks microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, paramyxoviridae isolation and purification, chick embryo, cloaca microbiology, Japan.

Mitka, M. (2004). Health officials brace for flu season. JAMA the Journal of the American Medical Association 292(14): 1670-1.  ISSN: 1538-3598.

            NAL Call Number:  448.9 Am37

            Descriptors:  influenza prevention and control, influenza vaccines supply and distribution, influenza epidemiology, influenza A virus, avian, influenza vaccines administration and dosage, seasons, United States epidemiology.

Mohammad Yousaf (2004). Avian influenza outbreak hits the industry again. World Poultry 20(3): 22-25.  ISSN: 1388-3119.

            NAL Call Number:  SF481.M54

            Descriptors:  disease control, disease prevention, disease surveys, disease transmission, epidemiology, clinical aspects, diagnostic techniques, outbreaks, pathogenicity, poultry industry, public health, World Health Organization, zoonoses, human diseases, avian influenza virus.

Mohan, R., Y.M. Saif, G.A. Erickson, G.A. Gustafson, and B.C. Easterday (1981). Serologic and epidemiologic evidence of infection in turkeys with an agent related to the swine influenza virus. Avian Diseases 25(1): 11-6.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Descriptors:  influenza veterinary, influenza A virus, porcine immunology, influenza A virus immunology, poultry diseases epidemiology, turkeys,  antibodies, viral analysis, hemagglutination tests veterinary, immunodiffusion veterinary, influenza diagnosis, influenza epidemiology, avian immunology, poultry diseases diagnosis.

Molibog, E.V., I. Konstantinov Zibelist, G. Starke, and L.I.A. Zakstel'skaia (1979). Shtammovaia spetsifichnost' antineiraminidaznykh antitel serotipa N2 shtammov virusa grippa u perebolevshikh. [Strain specificity of the antineuraminidase antibodies of influenza virus serotype N2 strains in convalescents]. Voprosy Virusologii (6): 631-4.  ISSN: 0507-4088.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 P942

            Abstract:  Antineuraminidase antibody was determined in the subjects who had suffered influenza during the epidemics of 1970-1975 in the GDR. As early as 1970 the highest titers of antibody (greater than or equal to 1:60) were found not only to the prototype A/Hong Kong/1/68 strain but also to its subsequent drift variants A/England/42/72, A/Port Chalmers/1/73. Some subjects had antineuraminidase antibody to avian influenza virus.

            Descriptors:  antibodies, viral analysis, influenza immunology, influenza A virus human immunology, neuraminidase immunology, adult, child, child, preschool, convalescence, disease outbreaks epidemiology, Germany, East, influenza epidemiology, human enzymology, neuraminidase antagonists and inhibitors.

Monti, D.J. (1998). Veterinarians integral in resolving avian influenza incidents, developing vaccine. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 212(11): 1686-7.  ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Am3

            Descriptors:  influenza prevention and control, influenza A virus avian physiology, influenza vaccine, avian immunology, poultry, swine.

Monto, A.S. (2005). The threat of an avian influenza pandemic. New England Journal of Medicine 352(4): 323-5.  ISSN: 1533-4406.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 N442

            Descriptors:  acetamides therapeutic use, antiviral agents therapeutic use, disease outbreaks prevention and control, influenza epidemiology, influenza transmission, influenza A virus, avian influenza classification, avian influenza genetics, avian influenza pathogenicity, birds, disease transmission prevention and control, genome, viral, influenza drug therapy, avian influenza transmission, avian influenza virology, neuraminidase antagonists and inhibitors, neuraminidase metabolism, virulence, zoonoses transmission, zoonoses virology.

Moore, D.A., M. Sharland, and J.S. Friedland (1999). Upper respiratory tract infections. Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine 5(3): 157-63.  ISSN: 1070-5287.

            Abstract:  In reviewing recent advances in upper respiratory tract infections, we focus on five key topics. First, the use of ribavirin in the treatment of respiratory syncytial virus infection has been limited to the immunosuppressed. Prophylaxis in high-risk patients with specific immunoglobulin is effective and a new monoclonal antibody shows promise. Second, the efficacy of neuraminidase inhibitors in the treatment of influenza has become established. There are unresolved concerns about early implementation of therapy without a firm diagnosis; resource implications are enormous. Third, an outbreak of influenza due to avian influenza virus (H5N1) raised the possibility of a new pandemic. However, there was minimal person-to-person spread although much was learned about pathogenesis of infection. Fourth, evidence favoring the use of ciprofloxacin rather than rifampicin for meningococcal chemoprophylaxis is reviewed. Efficacy in eradicating nasopharyngeal carriage is excellent. Finally, the management of sore throat has been considered. This remains controversial but evidence supporting antibiotic therapy in adults is lacking. If treatment is indicated in childhood, shorter courses of antibiotics may be effective.

            Descriptors:  bacterial infections drug therapy, respiratory tract infections drug therapy, respiratory tract infections microbiology, virus diseases drug therapy, adult, bacterial infections epidemiology, bacterial infections microbiology, child, preschool, clinical trials, Great Britain epidemiology, incidence, respiratory tract infections prevention and control, risk factors, virus diseases epidemiology, virus diseases virology.

Morgan, I.R. and H.A. Westbury (1981). Virological studies of Adelie Penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) in Antarctica. Avian Diseases 25(4): 1019-26.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Serum antibodies to influenza virus hemagglutinin 7, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and avian paramyxoviruses were detected in Adelie penguin colonies in Antarctica. Infection with NDV and avian influenza virus was confined to particular colonies, whereas antibodies to the paramyxoviruses were detected in all seven colonies samples. Two avian paramyxoviruses were also isolated fromcloacal swabs. Results of serological tests must be interpreted with caution, as little as known about the persistence of specific antibodies in Adelie penguins.

            Descriptors:  birds microbiology, antarctic regions, antibodies, viral analysis, birds immunology, cloaca microbiology, fluorescent antibody technique, hemagglutination inhibition tests veterinary, hemagglutination tests veterinary, influenza A virus avian immunology, Newcastle disease virus immunology, paramyxoviridae immunology, paramyxoviridae isolation and purification.

Morishita, T.Y., P.P. Aye, E.C. Ley, and B.S. Harr (1999). Survey of pathogens and blood parasites in free-living passerines. Avian Diseases 43(3): 549-52.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  To determine the disease prevalence of free-living passerines, 1709 passerines were sampled from 38 different field sites in Ohio. Choanal and cloacal swabs were collected from each bird and cultured for the presence of Pasteurella multocida, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli by standard microbiologic techniques. In addition, the serum from each bird was analyzed for the presence of antibodies to Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, Newcastle disease virus, and avian influenza virus. A blood smear was also made to examine for the presence of blood parasites. Results indicated that the isolation of E. coli varied with bird species, with the European starling having a higher (21.4%) isolation of E. coli. Salmonella spp. were also isolated from these free-living passerines. Pasteurella multocida was not isolated from any of the sampled passerines. These birds did not have antibodies to M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, Newcastle disease virus, or avian influenza virus. Blood parasites were not detected in any of the birds sampled.

            Descriptors:  songbirds microbiology, animals, wild, anus microbiology, anus virology, cloaca microbiology, cloaca virology, Escherichia coli isolation and purification, geography, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, Mycoplasma isolation and purification, Newcastle disease virus isolation and purification, Ohio, Pasteurella multocida isolation and purification, salmonella isolation and purification, songbirds blood.

Morishita, T.Y., M.E. McFadzen, R. Mohan, P.P. Aye, and D.L. Brooks (1998). Serologic survey of free-living nestling prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus) for selected pathogens. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians 29(1): 18-20.  ISSN: 1042-7260.

            NAL Call Number:  SF601.J6

            Abstract:  Serum samples from 34 free-living nestling prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus) in southwestern Idaho were negative for antibodies to avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, and three Aspergillus species. Serum from a single bird had hemagglutinating inhibition activity in response to Mycoplasma synoviae, and another bird's serum had slight activity in response to M. gallisepticum.

            Descriptors:  antibodies, bacterial blood, antibodies, fungal blood, antibodies, viral blood, bird diseases epidemiology, aspergillosis epidemiology, aspergillosis immunology, aspergillosis veterinary, Aspergillus immunology, bird diseases immunology, birds, fowl plague epidemiology, fowl plague immunology, hemagglutination inhibition tests veterinary, immunodiffusion veterinary, influenza A virus avian immunology, Mycoplasma immunology, Mycoplasma infections epidemiology, Mycoplasma infections immunology, Mycoplasma infections veterinary, Newcastle disease epidemiology, Newcastle disease immunology, Newcastle disease virus immunology, precipitin tests veterinary, prevalence.

Morner, T., W.D. Gavier, and T. Jagas. (1995). Health problems in wetlands in Europe. In: Proceedings of a Joint Conference - American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, Wildlife Disease Association, and American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians, East Lansing, Michigan, p. 36.

            NAL Call Number: SF605.A4

            Descriptors: ecology, infection, veterinary medicine, wildlife management, avian influenza, duck plague, meeting abstract.

Morse, S.S. (2004). Factors and determinants of disease emergence. Revue Scientifique Et Technique Office International Des Epizooties 23(2): 443-51.  ISSN: 0253-1933.

            NAL Call Number:  SF781.R4

            Abstract:  Emerging infectious diseases can be defined as infections that have newly appeared in a population or are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range. Many of these diseases are zoonoses, including such recent examples as avian influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, haemolytic uraemic syndrome (a food-borne infection caused by certain strains of Escherichia coli) and probably human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Specific factors precipitating the emergence of a disease can often be identified. These include ecological, environmental or demographic factors that place people in increased contact with the natural host for a previously unfamiliar zoonotic agent or that promote the spread of the pathogen. These factors are becoming increasingly prevalent, suggesting that infections will continue to emerge and probably increase. Strategies for dealing with the problem include focusing special attention on situations that promote disease emergence, especially those in which animals and humans come into contact, and implementing effective disease surveillance and control.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, public health, vector biology, veterinary medicine, SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome, haemolytic uraemic syndrome, Escherichia coli, control, demographic factors, disease emergence, disease surveillance, ecological factors, environmental factors, geographic range, zoonosis.

Moutou, F. (1984). Grippe aviaire aux Etats-Unis. [Avian influenza in the USA]. Epidemiologie Et Sante Animale (5): 81.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, United States, Virginia, Pennsylvania, disease prevalence, outbreaks.

Muhammad, K., M.A. Muneer, and T. Yaqub (1997). Isolation and characterization of avian influenza virus from an outbreak in commercial poultry in Pakistan. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 17(1): 6-8.  ISSN: 0253-8318.

            NAL Call Number:  SF604.P32

            Descriptors:  isolation, characterization, outbreaks, diagnosis, diseases, avian influenza virus, poultry, mortality, Pakistan.

Muhmmad, K., P. Das, T. Yaqoob, A. Riaz, and R. Manzoor (2001). Effect of physico-chemical factors on survival of avian influenza virus (H7N3 type). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 3(4): 416-418.  ISSN: 1560-8530.

            Descriptors:  disease control, disinfectants, formaldehyde, pH, phenol, evaluation, chemical treatment, ultraviolet radiation, efficacy, avian influenza virus, poultry.

Muneer, M.A., A.M.B.Z. Munir, I. Hussain, K. Muhammad, Masood Rabbani, S. Akhtar, M. Aleem, Bakht Sultan, M.A. Tariq, and K. Naeem (2001). Isolation and characterization of avian influenza (H9N2) virus from an outbreak at poultry farms in Karachi. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 21(2): 87-91.  ISSN: 0253-8318.

            NAL Call Number:  SF604.P32

            Descriptors:  broilers, poultry farms, isolation, clinical aspects, mortality, outbreaks, avian influenza virus, characterization, Pakistan.

Mungall, B.A., X. Xu, and A. Klimov (2003). Assaying susceptibility of avian and other influenza A viruses to zanamivir: Comparison of fluorescent and chemiluminescent neuraminidase assays. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 1141-1144.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Zanamivir has been shown to inhibit both human and avian influenza viral neuraminidases (NAs) and has been approved in several countries for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza infection. Reliable monitoring of drug resistance is important for assessment of the impact of drug therapy on circulating virus populations. This study compares the current fluorometric (FL) method for evaluating zanamivir susceptibility with a recently developed chemiluminescent (CL) NA activity assay using viruses representative of all nine NA subtypes. The CL assay displayed signal/noise ratios that are 50-100 times greater than those associated with the FL assay. Human H3N2 strains appeared to exhibit greater NA activity relative to avian subtypes with the FL substrate but not with the CL substrate. Additionally, the CL assay remained linear over three orders of magnitude compared to only one order of magnitude for the FL assay. Four of the nine NA subtypes tested in this study displayed slightly higher inhibitor concentration that inhibits 50% of neuraminidase activity values by CL than by FL, while four displayed the opposite effect. Implications for the routine determination of resistance to NA inhibitors are discussed.

            Descriptors:  infection, avian influenza, infectious disease, respiratory system disease, viral disease, chemiluminescent neuraminidase assay bioassay techniques, clinical techniques, diagnostic techniques, laboratory techniques, antiviral susceptibility, drug resistance.

Mutinelli, F., I. Capua, C. Terregino, and G. Cattoli (2003). Clinical, gross, and microscopic findings in different avian species naturally infected during the H7N1 low- and high-pathogenicity avian influenza epidemics in Italy during 1999 and 2000. Avian Diseases 47(Special issue): 844-848.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Descriptors:  chicken, turkey, guinea fowl, quail, ostrich,  water fowl, pheasant, poultry, avian influenza epidemic, clinical aspects, diagnostic techniques, epidemiology, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, pathogenicity, postmortem examinations, Italy.

Naeem, K., M. Naurin, S. Rashid, and S. Bano (2003). Seroprevalence of avian influenza virus and its relationship with increased mortality and decreased egg production. Avian Pathology 32(3): 285-289.  ISSN: 0307-9457.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.A1A9

            Descriptors:  antibody testing, disease prevalence, disease surveys, seroprevalence, ELISA, egg production, poultry, mortality, avian influenza virus, Pakistan.

Naeem, K., A. Ullah, R.J. Manvell, and D.J. Alexander (1999). Avian influenza A subtype H9N2 in poultry in Pakistan. Veterinary Record 145(19): 560.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks veterinary, fowl plague epidemiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, poultry diseases epidemiology, avian classification, Pakistan, epidemiology, poultry.

Nagai, Y., K. Otsuki, N. Abe, Y. Kawaoka, H. Kida, T. Kurata, T. Sata, M. Tashiro, N. Yamaguchi, and H. Yoshikura (2004). [Round table discussion on highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza]. Uirusu Journal of Virology 54(1): 123-41.  ISSN: 0042-6857.

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus, avian pathogenicity, virulence, Asia epidemiology, disease outbreaks prevention and control, influenza epidemiology, influenza prevention and control, influenza transmission, influenza virology, avian influenza A virus classification, avian influenza A virus genetics, avian influenza A virus immunology, avian influenza epidemiology, avian influenza prevention and control, avian influenza transmission, avian influenza virology, poultry, receptors, virus physiology, viral vaccines, zoonoses epidemiology, zoonoses transmission, zoonoses virology.

Nakajima, K., E. Nobusawa, and S. Nakajima (1986). [Molecular evolution of influenza A virus]. Uirusu Journal of Virology 36(2): 253-62.  ISSN: 0042-6857.

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus human genetics, viral proteins genetics, base sequence, evolution, genes, structural, genes viral, influenza A virus avian genetics, influenza A virus, porcine genetics.

Nakamura, K., M. Yamada, S. Yamaguchi, M. Mase, M. Narita, T. Ohyama, and M. Yamada (2001). Proliferation of lung macrophages in acute fatal viral infections in chickens. Avian Diseases 45(4): 813-818.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Marked proliferation of macrophages engulfing yellow pigments and fragmented erythrocytes were seen in the air capillaries and blood capillaries of the lungs of chickens affected with acute fatal viral hydropericardium syndrome, highly pathogenic infectious bursal disease, and highly pathogenic avian influenza. Proliferation of lung macrophages was associated with systemic proliferation of macrophages. Acute destruction of erythrocytes in these infections may have induced systemic hyperplasia of macrophages. The acute and severe proliferation of lung macrophages may cause acute respiratory dysfunction and be one of the factors inducing mortality in infected chickens. This syndrome may be categorized as "virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome."

            Descriptors:  immune system, infection, respiratory system, veterinary medicine, acute fatal viral hydropericardium syndrome, heart disease, viral disease, highly pathogenic avian influenza, viral disease, highly pathogenic infectious bursal disease, viral disease, virus associated hemophagocytic syndrome, blood and lymphatic disease, immune system disease, viral disease.

Nerome, K., Y. Yoshioka, C.A. Torres, A. Oya, P. Bachmann, K. Ottis, and R.G. Webster (1984). Persistence of Q strain of H2N2 influenza virus in avian species: antigenic, biological and genetic analysis of avian and human H2N2 viruses. Archives of Virology 81(3-4): 239-50.  ISSN: 0304-8608.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ar23

            Abstract:  The characteristics of an avian influenza virus were compared in detail with those of human Asian (H2N2) influenza viruses. Antigenic analysis by different antisera against H2N2 viruses and monoclonal antibodies to both the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase antigens showed that an avian isolate, A/duck/Munchen/9/79 contained hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subunits closely related to those of the early human H2N2 viruses which had been prevalent in 1957. However, this avian virus gave low HI titers with absorbed and non-absorbed antisera to different human H2N2 viruses isolated in 1957. Like human Q phase variant, such as A/RI/5-/57 (H2N2), hemagglutination of the above avian strain was not inhibited by the purified non-specific gamma-inhibitor from guinea pig serum. Growth behavior at restrictive temperature (42 degrees C) clearly differentiate the avian H2N2 virus from human influenza viruses, showing that the former virus grew well in MDCK cells at 42 degrees C but not the latters. Genomic analysis of these viruses revealed that the oligonucleotide map of H2N2 virus isolated from a duck was quite different from those of human H2N2 viruses from 1957 to 1967. The oligonucleotide mapping also indicated that different H2N2 influenza virus variants had co-circulated in humans in 1957.

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus avian immunology, influenza A virus human immunology, hemagglutinins viral immunology, influenza A virus avian genetics, influenza A virus human genetics, influenza A virus growth and development, neuraminidase immunology, RNA viral genetics.

Nestorowicz, A., Y. Kawaoka, W.J. Bean, and R.G. Webster (1987). Molecular analysis of the hemagglutinin genes of Australian H7N7 influenza viruses: role of passerine birds in maintenance or transmission? Virology 160(2): 411-8.  ISSN: 0042-6822.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 V81

            Abstract:  In 1985 a fowl plague-like disease occurred in chickens in Lockwood, Victoria, Australia and caused high mortality. An H7N7 influenza virus was isolated from the chickens (A/Chicken/Victoria/1/85); additionally, an antigenically similar virus was isolated from starlings (A/Starling/Victoria/5156/85) and serological evidence of H7N7 virus infection was found in sparrows. Antigenic analysis with monoclonal antibodies to H7, oligonucleotide mapping of total vRNA, and sequence analysis of the HA genes established that the chicken and starling influenza viruses were closely related and probably came from the same source. There was high nucleotide sequence homology (95.3%) between the HA genes of A/Chick/Vic/85 and a fowl plague-like virus isolated from chickens in Victoria 9 years earlier [A/Fowl/Vic/76 (H7N7)]. The sequence homologies indicated that the A/Chick/Vic/85 and A/Fowl/Vic/76 were derived from a common recent ancestor, while another recent H7N7 virus, Seal/Mass/1/80 originated from a different evolutionary lineage. Experimental infection of chickens and starlings with A/Chick/Vic/1/85 (H7N7) was associated with high mortality (100%), transmission to contact birds of the same species, and virus in all organs. In sparrows one-third of the birds died after infection and virus was isolated from most organs; transmission to contact sparrows did not occur. In contrast, the H7N7 virus replicated in ducks and spread to contact ducks but caused no mortality. These studies establish that the host species plays a role in determining the virulence of avian influenza viruses, and provide the first evidence for transmission of virulent influenza viruses between domestic poultry and passerine birds. They support the hypothesis that potentially virulent H7N7 influenza viruses could be maintained in ducks where they cause no apparent disease and may sometimes spread to other wild birds and domestic poultry.

            Descriptors:  birds microbiology, hemagglutinins viral genetics, influenza A virus avian genetics, amino acid sequence, animals, wild microbiology, Australia, base sequence, chickens microbiology, disease reservoirs, genes viral, molecular sequence data, nucleotide mapping, RNA viral genetics, species specificity, virus replication.

Nettles, V.F., J. Wood, and R.G. Webster (1984). Wildlife studies on avian influenza. Foreign Animal Disease Report 12(2): 2-4.  ISSN: 0091-8199.

            NAL Call Number:  aSF601.U5

            Descriptors:  epidemiological surveys, wildlife, avian influenza virus, wild ducks, domestic ducks, geese, seagulls, poultry, mice, rats, chuckar, pheasants, Chesapeake Bay, serological survey, Pennsylvania.

Nettles, V.F., J.M. Wood, and R.G. Webster (1985). Wildlife surveillance associated with an outbreak of lethal H5N2 avian influenza in domestic poultry. Avian Diseases 29(3): 733-41.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Wildlife surveillance was conducted for influenza viruses in conjunction with the 1983-84 lethal H5N2 avian influenza epizootic in domestic poultry in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, and Virginia. Virus-isolation attempts made on cloacal and tracheal swabs from 4,466 birds and small rodents within the quarantined areas and 1,511 waterfowl in nearby Maryland yielded only a single H5N2 isolate from a pen-raised chukar in Pennsylvania. Antibodies against hemagglutinin type 5 and/or neuraminidase type 2 were found in 33% of the aquatic birds tested; however, this finding could not be used to confirm previous H5N2 avian influenza virus activity because of the possibility of prior infections with multiple influenza subtypes. The low prevalence of lethal H5N2 avian influenza virus in wild birds and small rodents strongly indicated that these animals were not responsible for dissemination of the disease among poultry farms during the outbreak.

            Descriptors:  birds microbiology, disease outbreaks veterinary, fowl plague transmission, disease reservoirs microbiology, hemagglutinins viral analysis, neuraminidase analysis, orthomyxoviridae isolation and purification, paramyxoviridae isolation and purification, Pennsylvania.

Newman, J., D. Halvorson, D. Karunakaran, P. Poss, and J. Johnson. (1981). Complications associated with avian influenza infections. In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, p. 8-12.

            NAL Call Number: aSF995.6.I6I5 1981a

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, complications, Newcastle disease, Escherichia infections, symposium.

Nicholson, K.G., J.M. Wood, and M. Zambon (2003). Influenza. Lancet 362(9397): 1733-1745.  ISSN: 0099-5355.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 L22

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, humans, infection, influenza, vaccination, clinical techniques, pandemic prevention.

Niculescu, I.T., E. Zilisteanu, L. Cretescu, M. Matepiuc, and V. Roman (1972). Relationship between human and animal infections with A2 /Hong Kong/68 - like strains of influenza virus. Archives Roumaines De Pathologie Experimentales Et De Microbiologie 31(4 Suppl): 545-52.  ISSN: 0004-0037.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ar22

            Descriptors:  influenza epidemiology, orthomyxoviridae immunology, birds, cross reactions, influenza A virus avian immunology, influenza A virus human immunology, influenza A virus, porcine immunology, Romania, swine.

Nolen, R.S. (2002). Avian influenza S T R I K E S Virginia poultry farms. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 221(1): 9-10.  ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Am3

            Descriptors:  chickens, disease outbreaks veterinary, fowl plague epidemiology, influenza A virus avian pathogenicity, turkeys, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, Virginia epidemiology.

Normile, D. (2005). Avian flu. Mild illnesses confound researchers. Science 307(5706): 27.  ISSN: 1095-9203.

            NAL Call Number:  470 Sci2

            Descriptors:  agricultural workers' diseases virology, antibodies, viral blood, influenza virology, influenza A virus, avian immunology, acetamides therapeutic use, agricultural workers' diseases immunology, agricultural workers' diseases prevention and control, antiviral agents therapeutic use, disease outbreaks, influenza epidemiology, influenza immunology, influenza prevention and control, Japan epidemiology, protective clothing.

Normile, D. (2004). Infectious diseases. Stopping Asia's avian flu: a worrisome third outbreak. Science 303(5657): 447.  ISSN: 1095-9203.

            NAL Call Number:  470 Sci2

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks veterinary, influenza virology, influenza A virus, avian classification, avian influenza pathogenicity, avian influenza epidemiology, avian virology, birds, chickens, China epidemiology, disease reservoirs, influenza epidemiology, influenza prevention and control, influenza transmission, avian influenza prevention and control, avian influenza transmission, Japan epidemiology, Korea epidemiology, Vietnam epidemiology.

Normile, D. (2004). Influenza: girding for disaster. Vaccinating birds may help to curtail virus's spread. Science 306(5695): 398-9.  ISSN: 1095-9203.

            NAL Call Number:  470 Sci2

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks veterinary, influenza A virus, avian immunology, influenza vaccines immunology, avian influenza prevention and control, poultry, vaccination veterinary, Asia epidemiology, chickens, disease outbreaks prevention and control, immunization programs, influenza prevention and control, influenza transmission, influenza virology, avian influenza, epidemiology, avian influenza, transmission, risk assessment.

Normile, D. and M. Enserink (2004). Infectious diseases. Avian influenza makes a comeback, reviving pandemic worries. Science 305(5682): 321.  ISSN: 1095-9203.

            NAL Call Number:  470 Sci2

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks veterinary, influenza epidemiology, influenza virology, influenza A virus, avian pathogenicity, avian influenza epidemiology, Asia epidemiology, birds, evolution, molecular, avian genetics, avian influenza virology, poultry, recombination, genetic.

Obrosova Serova, N.P., L.M. Kupryasjina, V.A. Isachenko, R.M. Vorontsova, and V.G. Utkin (1976). Opyt profilaktiki grippa kura amantadinom. [Amantadine prophylaxis in avian influenza]. Veterinariia (11): 62-63.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V6426

            Descriptors:  chemoprophylaxis, antiviral agents, amantadine, avian influenza, mortality rate, drinking water, chicks, poultry.

Ogawa, T. and M. Ueda (1981). Genes involved in the virulence of an avian influenza virus. Virology 113(1): 304-13.  ISSN: 0042-6822.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 V81

            Descriptors:  genes viral, influenza A virus genetics, brain, chick embryo, chickens, electrophoresis, genotype, influenza A virus growth and development, influenza A virus pathogenicity, RNA viral genetics, recombination, genetic.

Olsen, C.W. (2002). The emergence of novel swine influenza viruses in North America. Virus Research  85(2): 199-210.  ISSN: 0168-1702.

            NAL Call Number:  QR375.V6

            Abstract:  Since 1997, novel viruses of three different subtypes and five different genotypes have emerged as agents of influenza among pigs in North America. The appearance of these viruses is remarkable because there were no substantial changes in the overall epidemiology of swine influenza in the United States and Canada for over 60 years prior to this time. Viruses of the classical H1N1 lineage were virtually the exclusive cause of swine influenza from the time of their initial isolation in 1930 through 1998. Antigenic drift variants of these H1N1 viruses were isolated in 1991-1998, but a much more dramatic antigenic shift occurred with the emergence of H3N2 viruses in 1997-1998. In particular, H3N2 viruses with genes derived from human, swine and avian viruses have become a major cause of swine influenza in North America. In addition, H1N2 viruses that resulted from reassortment between the triple reassortant H3N2 viruses and classical H1N1 swine viruses have been isolated subsequently from pigs in at least six states. Finally, avian H4N6 viruses crossed the species barrier to infect pigs in Canada in 1999. Fortunately, these H4N6 viruses have not been isolated beyond their initial farm of origin. If these viruses spread more widely, they will represent another antigenic shift for our swine population, and could pose a threat to the world's human population. Research on these novel viruses may offer important clues to the genetic basis for interspecies transmission of influenza viruses.

            Descriptors:  influenza virology, influenza A virus, porcine physiology, Canada epidemiology, fowl plague transmission, influenza A virus avian,  influenza A virus, porcine classification, influenza A virus, porcine genetics,  influenza A virus, porcine immunology, North America epidemiology, species specificity, swine, United States, variation genetics.

Olsen, C.W., S. Carey, L. Hinshaw, and A.I. Karasin (2000). Virologic and serologic surveillance for human, swine and avian influenza virus infections among pigs in the north-central United States. Archives of Virology 145(7): 1399-419.  ISSN: 0304-8608.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ar23

            Abstract:  Influenza virus infection in pigs is both an animal health problem and a public health concern. As such, surveillance and characterization of influenza viruses in swine is important to the veterinary community and should be a part of human pandemic preparedness planning. Studies in 1976/1977 and 1988/1989 demonstrated that pigs in the U.S. were commonly infected with classical swine H1N1 viruses, whereas human H3 and avian influenza virus infections were very rare. In contrast, human H3 and avian H1 viruses have been isolated frequently from pigs in Europe and Asia over the last two decades. From September 1997 through August 1998, we isolated 26 influenza viruses from pigs in the north central United States at the point of slaughter. All 26 isolates were H1N1 viruses, and phylogenetic analyses of the hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes from 11 representative viruses demonstrated that these were classical swine H1 viruses. However, monoclonal antibody analyses revealed antigenic heterogeneity among the HA proteins of the 26 viruses. Serologically, 27.7% of 2,375 pigs tested had hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies against classical swine H1 influenza virus. Of particular significance, however, the rates of seropositivity to avian H1 (7.6%) and human H3 (8.0%) viruses were substantially higher than in previous studies.

            Descriptors:  influenza veterinary, influenza virology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, influenza A virus human isolation and purification, influenza A virus, porcine isolation and purification, swine diseases virology, amino acid sequence, influenza epidemiology, molecular sequence data,  seroepidemiologic studies, swine, swine diseases epidemiology, United States epidemiology.

Ormiston, R.R. (1986). Avian influenza 1986. Foreign Animal Disease Report 14(3): 1-4.  ISSN: 0091-8199.

            NAL Call Number:  aSF601.U5

            Descriptors:  poultry, disease prevalence, epidemiological surveys, avian influenza virus, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Massachusetts, New York, Florida, United States, live poultry markets.

Osidze, N.G. (1980). Results of using inactivated avian influenza vaccine in chicks possessing passively acquired antibody. Sbornik Nauchnykh Trudov Moskovskaya Veterinarnaya Akademiya  113: 54-56.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, maternal immunity, immune response, inactivated vaccines, results, acquired antibody, chicks.

Osidze, N.G., D.K. L'vov, V.N. Siurin, L.S. Smorzhevskaia, and E.V. Lenchenko (1979). Novaia raznovidnost' virusa grippa kur. [New variety of fowl plague virus]. Veterinariia (9): 29-31.  ISSN: 0042-4846.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V6426

            Descriptors:  chickens microbiology, fowl plague microbiology, influenza A virus, isolation and purification, serotyping.

Oskolkov, V.S., I. Kreimer, and A.A. Ibragimov ( 1974). Nekotorye voprosy epizootologii i diagnostiki grippa ptits [Certain problems of epizootiology and diagnosis of avian influenza]. Veterinariya, Moscow 50(4): 63-5.  ISSN: 0042-4846.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V6426

            Descriptors:  chickens, influenza veterinary, poultry diseases diagnosis, influenza diagnosis, influenza microbiology, orthomyxoviridae isolation and purification, poultry diseases microbiology.

Oskolkov, V.S., K.h. Kreimer Yu, and A.A. Ibragimov (1974). [Some problems of epidemiology and diagnosis of avian influenza]. Veterinariia (4): 63-65.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V6426

            Descriptors:  avian influenza, epidemiology, diagnosis, problems, poultry.

Osterhaus, A.D., R.A. Fouchier, and T. Kuiken (2004). The aetiology of SARS: Koch's postulates fulfilled. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B Biological Sciences 359(1447): 1081-2.  ISSN: 0962-8436.

            NAL Call Number:  501 L84Pb

            Abstract:  Proof that a newly identified coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is the primary cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) came from a series of studies on experimentally infected cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). SARS-CoV-infected macaques developed a disease comparable to SARS in humans; the virus was re-isolated from these animals and they developed SARS-CoV-specific antibodies. This completed the fulfilment of Koch's postulates, as modified by Rivers for viral diseases, for SARS-CoV as the aetiological agent of SARS. Besides the macaque model, a ferret and a cat model for SARS-CoV were also developed. These animal models allow comparative pathogenesis studies for SARS-CoV infections and testing of different intervention strategies. The first of these studies has shown that pegylated interferon-alpha, a drug approved for human use, limits SARS-CoV replication and lung damage in experimentally infected macaques. Finally, we argue that, given the worldwide nature of the socio-economic changes that have predisposed for the emergence of SARS and avian influenza in Southeast Asia, such changes herald the beginning of a global trend for which we are ill prepared.

            Descriptors:  disease models, animal, ferrets, Macaca fascicularis, SARS virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome etiology, zoonoses transmission, cats, severe acute respiratory syndrome physiopathology, severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission.

Otsuki, K. (2004). Avian influenza. Japanese Poultry Science 41(2): 68-72.  ISSN: 0029-0254.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V6446

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, poultry.

Otsuki, K., H. Kariya, K. Matsuo, S. Sugiyama, K. Hoshina, T. Yoshikane, A. Matsumoto, and M. Tsubokura (1987). Isolation of influenza A viruses from migratory waterfowls in San-In District Japan in the winter of 1984-1985. Nippon Juigaku Zasshi Japanese Journal of Veterinary Science 49(4): 721-3.  ISSN: 0021-5295.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 J27

            Descriptors:  animals, wild microbiology, birds microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, Japan.

Otsuki, K., O. Takemoto, R. Fujimoto, Y. Kawaoka, and M. Tsubokura (1987). Isolation of influenza A viruses from migratory waterfowls in San-in District, Western Japan in winters of 1980-1982. Zentralblatt Fur Bakteriologie, Mikrobiologie, Und Hygiene. Series A, Medical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases, Virology, Parasitology 265(1-2): 235-42.  ISSN: 0176-6724.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 C33 (1)

            Abstract:  In the two winters of 1980-1982, we surveyed migratory waterfowl of some species staying in San-in District, Western Japan for influenza virus at a few stations. From November 1980 to April 1981, only two strains of influenza virus, H13N1 and H11N6 subtypes, were isolated from 465 fecal samples from pintails but none from 255 samples from whistling swans nor from 625 black-tailed gulls. From November 1981 to March 1982, 17 viruses were isolated from 1156 fecal samples. Fourteen viruses, 10 H7N3, 2 H1N6 and 2 H3N8, were isolated from 459 feces samples from whistling swans. Two viruses, H13N3 and H13N6 subtypes, were isolated from 425 fecal samples from black-tailed gulls. A strain belonging to H1N3 subtype was isolated from 30 feces samples from mallards but no virus was isolated from 242 samples from pintails.

            Descriptors:  birds microbiology, ducks microbiology, fowl plague epidemiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, influenza A virus isolation and purification, feces microbiology, fowl plague microbiology, influenza A virus avian classification, influenza A virus classification, Japan, seasons, serotyping.

Otsuki, K., O. Takemoto, R. Fujimoto, K. Yamazaki, N. Kubota, H. Hosaki, Y. Kawaoka, and M. Tsubokura (1987). Isolation of influenza A viruses from migratory waterfowls in San-in District, Western Japan, in the winter of 1982-1983. Acta Virologica 31(5): 439-42.  ISSN: 0001-723X.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 AC85

            Abstract:  From November 1982 to March 1983, winter migratory waterfowls of some species staying in San-in District, Western Japan, were surveyed for influenza virus at five stations. A total of eight influenza A viruses were isolated from 354 faeces samples of whistling swans; in contrast, no virus was isolated from any sample of 261 black-tailed gulls, of 113 pintails and of 10 mallards. Five of eight isolates belonged to human pandemic subtype H2N2, two isolates belonged to fowl plague subtype H7N7, and the remaining one to subtype H4N6.

            Descriptors:  animals, wild microbiology, birds microbiology, disease reservoirs, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, influenza A virus human isolation and purification, feces microbiology, influenza A virus human classification, Japan, mice, species specificity.

Otsuki, K., O. Takemoto, R. Fujimoto, K. Yamazaki, N. Kubota, H. Hosaki, T. Mitani, and M. Tsubokura (1987). Isolation of influenza A viruses from migratory waterfowl in San-in District, western Japan in the winter of 1983-1984. Research in Veterinary Science 43(2): 177-9.  ISSN: 0034-5288.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 R312

            Abstract:  Certain species of winter migratory waterfowl in San-in District, western Japan, were surveyed for influenza virus from November 1983 to March 1984. Faeces of the waterfowl were collected regularly at five stations. Eleven influenza A viruses including H5N3 and H10N4 subtypes were isolated from 450 faecal samples from whistling swans, 28 viruses including H2N2 and H10N4 subtypes were isolated from 362 faecal samples from pintails; and subtype H13N6 was isolated from 240 faecal samples of black-tailed gulls.

            Descriptors:  birds microbiology, feces microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, Japan.

Otsuki, K., O. Takemoto, R. Fujimoto, K. Yamazaki, T. Kubota, H. Hosaki, T. Mitani, Y. Kawaoka, and M. Tsubokura (1984). Isolation of H5 influenza viruses from whistling swans in western Japan in November 1983. Acta Virologica 28(6): 524.  ISSN: 0001-723X.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 AC85

            Descriptors:  birds microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, Japan.

Otsuki, K., H. Yoneda, and Y. Iritani (1995). Distribution of antibodies to influenza A virus in chickens in Japan. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science the Japanese Society of Veterinary Science 57(6): 1063-6.  ISSN: 0916-7250.

            NAL Call Number:  SF604.J342

            Abstract:  A serological surveillance was carried out to detect antibody against influenza A virus in chicken sera. A total of 8,850 field samples were collected from 47 prefectures in Japan. Initially, all the sera were screened by agar gel immunodiffusion and those sera showing positive reaction were investigated for haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) and neuraminidase-inhibition antibodies against influenza viruses. Only 6 samples had antibodies; 4 sera had antibodies against human subtype H1N1 virus; with HI activity against strain A/PR/34; three sera had strong HI activity to strain A/Tottori/4/87, which by haemagglutination test is closely related to A/Yamagata/120/86. The remaining two chicken sera had antibodies against avian subtypes H10N4 and H3N6 viruses respectively.

            Descriptors:  antibodies, viral blood, chickens immunology, fowl plague epidemiology, fowl plague immunology, influenza A virus avian immunology, chickens virology, demography, fowl plague blood, influenza A virus avian classification, Japan epidemiology, precipitin tests.

Ottis, K. and P.A. Bachmann (1983). Isolation and characterization of ortho- and paramyxoviruses from feral birds in Europe. Zentralblatt Fur Veterinarmedizin. Reihe B Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B 30(1): 22-35.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Z52

            Descriptors:  wild birds, epidemiological surveys, avian influenza virus, avian paramyxovirus, poultry, Germany, Netherlands, Kenya.

Ottis, K. and P.A. Bachmann. (1981). Occurrence of avian influenza virus type A in Germany. In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, p. 46-51.

            NAL Call Number: aSF995.6.I6I5 1981a

            Descriptors: avian influenza A virus, wild birds, ducks, isolation of strains, Germany, symposium.

Ottis, K. and P.A. Bachmann (1981). Occurrence of avian influenza viruses type A in Germany. Feedstuffs 53(29): 14.  ISSN: 0014-9624.

            NAL Call Number:  286.81 F322

            Descriptors:  avian influenza A virus, isolation, ducks, coots, Germany.

Owoade, A.A., J.A. Adeniji, and M.O. Olatunji (2002). Serological evidence of influenza A virus serotypes (H1N1 and H5N1) in chicken in Nigeria. Tropical Veterinarian 20(3): 159-161.  ISSN: 0794-4845.

            NAL Call Number:  SF724.T72

            Abstract:  One hundred sera samples from chicken flocks showing respiratory distress but failed to respond to treatment against chronic respiratory disease (CRD) were tested for avian influenza virus antibodies. The sera samples were collected from 5, 32, and 21 weeks old broilers, broiler breeders and pullets respectively. All the 100 sera samples from the three flocks were positive for influenza virus serotype H1N1 antibodies. In addition 35.3%, 57.14% and 93.42% were positive for H5N1 serotype in the broilers, broiler breeder and point of lay pullets respectively. The clinical and public health implications of the presence of antibodies to these influenza A virus serotypes in chicken flocks are discussed.

            Descriptors:  animal husbandry, infection, public health, respiratory system, chronic respiratory disease, respiratory system disease, respiratory distress, respiratory system disease, clinical implications public health implications serological evidence.

Oxford, J.S., R. Lambkin, A. Sefton, R. Daniels, A. Elliot, R. Brown, and D. Gill (2005). A hypothesis: the conjunction of soldiers, gas, pigs, ducks, geese and horses in northern France during the Great War provided the conditions for the emergence of the "Spanish" influenza pandemic of 1918-1919. Vaccine  23(7): 940-5.  ISSN: 0264-410X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR189.V32

            Abstract:  The Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919 was a cataclysmic outbreak of infection wherein over 50 million people died worldwide within 18 months. The question of the origin is important because most influenza surveillance at present is focussed on S.E. Asia. Two later pandemic viruses in 1957 and 1968 arose in this region. However we present evidence that early outbreaks of a new disease with rapid onset and spreadability, high mortality in young soldiers in the British base camp at Etaples in Northern France in the winter of 1917 is, at least to date, the most likely focus of origin of the pandemic. Pathologists working at Etaples and Aldershot barracks later agreed that these early outbreaks in army camps were the same disease as the infection wave of influenza in 1918. The Etaples camp had the necessary mixture of factors for emergence of pandemic influenza including overcrowding (with 100,000 soldiers daily changing), live pigs, and nearby live geese, duck and chicken markets, horses and an additional factor 24 gases (some of them mutagenic) used in large 100 ton quantities to contaminate soldiers and the landscape. The final trigger for the ensuing pandemic was the return of millions of soldiers to their homelands around the entire world in the autumn of 1918.

            Descriptors:  communicable diseases, emerging history, disease outbreaks, influenza history, military personnel history, world war I, ducks, France, geese, history, 20th century, horses, influenza A virus, avian pathogenicity, swine.

Padilla, L.R., K.P. Huyvaert, J. Merkel, R.E. Miller, and P.G. Parker (2003). Hematology, plasma chemistry, serology, and Chlamydophila status of the waved albatross (Phoebastria irrorata) on the Galapagos Islands. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians 34(3): 278-283.  ISSN: 1042-7260.

            NAL Call Number:  SF601.J6

            Descriptors:  Phoebastria irrorata, Punta cevallos, biochemistry, blood, hematological parameters, records, prevalence, Galapagos Islands.

Panigrahy, B. (1994). Isolation of avian influenza virus in Mexico. Foreign Animal Disease Report 22(3): 9.  ISSN: 0091-8199.

            NAL Call Number:  aSF601.U5

            Descriptors:  poultry, Mexico, avian influenza virus, disease surveys, America, domestic animals, domesticated birds, influenza virus, Latin America,  livestock, North America, orthomyxoviridae, surveys, useful animals, viruses, incidence.

Panigrahy, B., D.A. Senne, and J.E. Pearson (1995). Presence of avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5N2 and H7N1 in emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) and rheas (Rhea americana): virus isolation and serologic findings. Avian Diseases 39(1): 64-67.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5N2 and H7N1 were isolated from emus (Dromaius novaebollandiae) and rheas (Rhea americana) in Texas and North Carolina. All the rheas and emus had a history of respiratory disease except one emus which was clinically normal. The isolates were not pathogenic for chickens and turkeys under the conditions of the experiment. Humoral antibodies to all known hemagglutinin (H) subtypes except H10, H13, and H14 and to all nine neuraminidase (N) subtypes were found in emus and rheas in 11 states. Therefore, emus and rheas are susceptible to infection with several AIV subtypes.

            Descriptors:  Texas, North Carolina, emus, rheas, avian influenza virus, pathogenicity, antibodies, America, appalachian states United States, biological properties, birds, casuariiformes, immunological factors, influenza virus, microbial properties, North America, orthomyxoviridae, rheiformes, southern plains states United States, southern states United States, United States, viruses, susceptibility.

Panigraphy, B., D.A. Senne, J.C. Pedersen, A.L. Shafer, and J.E. Pearson (1996). Susceptibity of pigeons to avian influenza. Avian Diseases 40(3): 600-604.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Susceptibility to infection with avian influenza virus (AIV) was studied in pigeons inoculated via oculonasal (Experiment 1 ) or intravenous (Experiment 2) route. Chickens were included as susceptible hosts in both experiments. Two subtypes each of the highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV; HP CK/PA H5N2 and HP CK/Australia H7N7) and nonpathogenic AIV (NPAIV; NP CK/PA H5N2 and NP emu/TX H7N1) at a dose of 10(5) embryo infective dose per bird were used as inoculum. The pigeons inoculated with HP CK/PA H5N2 or HP CK/Australia H7N7 remained apparently healthy throughout the 21-day observation period, did not shed viruses on 3, 7, 14, and 21 days postinoculation (DPI), and had no demonstrable levels of antibodies on 21 DPI. On the other hand, 9 of 12 chickens inoculated with the HPAIV died of highly pathogenic avian influenza; the viruses were recovered from their respiratory and intestinal tissues, and the surviving chickens had antibodies to AIV. Regarding responses of pigeons to inoculation with NP CK/PA H5N2 or NP emu/TX H7N1, the pigeons remained clinically healthy throughout the 21-day observation period and did not have detectable levels of antibodies on 21 DPI; only one pigeon yielded the NP emu/TX H7N1 on 3 DPI. The virus was isolated from a tracheal swab and was believed to be the residual inoculum virus. Based on the responses of pigeons to NPAIV and HPAIV, it was concluded that the pigeons were resistant or minimally susceptible to infection with HPAIV or NPAIV.

            Descriptors:  pigeons, avian influenza virus, disease resistance, experimental infection, injection, application methods, disease transmission, chickens, application methods, birds, Columbiformes, disease transmission, domestic animals, domesticated birds, Galliformes, infection, influenza virus, livestock, orthomyxoviridae, pathogenesis, poultry, resistance to injurious factors, useful animals, viruses, oculanasal innoculation, susceptibility, intravenous injection.

Papparella, V., A. Fioretti, L.F. Menna, JM Bruce (ed.), and S. M. (1987). On the danger of certain avian respiratory diseases to human health. In: Environmental aspects of respiratory disease in intensive pig and poultry houses, including the implications for human health. Report Eur 10820 EN, Aberdeen, UK, Commission of he European Communities: Luxembourg, p. 127-132.

            Descriptors: zoonoses, public health,  humans, Newcastle disease virus, avian influenza virus.

Park, C.H., K. Matsuda, Y. Sunden, A. Ninomiya, A. Takada, H. Ito, T. Kimura, K. Ochiai, H. Kida, and T. Umemura (2003). Persistence of viral RNA segments in the central nervous system of mice after recovery from acute influenza A virus infection. Veterinary Microbiology 97(3-4): 259-68.  ISSN: 0378-1135.

            NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44

            Abstract:  One-hundred thirty-seven BALB/c mice were intranasally inoculated with neurotropic avian influenza A virus (H5N3). Thirty-nine of these mice died within 16 days post-inoculation (PID) and 98 of the mice recovered from the infection. To investigate whether viral antigens and genomes persist in the central nervous system (CNS) of recovered mice, immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods were performed. Histopathologically, mild interstitial pneumonia and non-suppurative encephalomyelitis restricted to the basal part of the frontal lobe of the cerebrum, brain stem and thoracic spinal cord were observed in BALB/c mice until 40 PID. Small amounts of viral antigens were detected in the brain and spinal cord and some viral RNA segments (NA, NP, M, PA, HA, NS, PB1) were intermittently detected in the CNS until 48 PID. Immunosuppression of these mice by dexamethazone (DEX) treatment did not increase the frequency of detection of the lesions, viral antigens or genomes. These findings suggest that viral genomes of neurovirulent influenza virus persist with restricted transcriptive activity in the CNS of the mice even after clinical recovery from the infection.

            Descriptors:  central nervous system virology, fowl plague virology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, RNA viral analysis, brain pathology, brain virology, central nervous system pathology, disease models, animal, fowl plague mortality, fowl plague pathology, immunohistochemistry veterinary, influenza A virus avian genetics, mice, mice inbred BALB c, random allocation, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction veterinary, specific pathogen free organisms.

Parry, J. (2004). Death toll mounts in avian flu outbreak. BMJ Clinical Research 328(7434): 243.  ISSN: 1468-5833.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks, fowl plague virology, influenza mortality, Asia, southeastern epidemiology, birds, influenza A virus avian, influenza A virus human.

Parry, J. (2004). WHO investigates possible human to human transmission of avian flu. BMJ Clinical Research 328(7435): 308.  ISSN: 1468-5833.

            Descriptors:  influenza, avian transmission, zoonoses transmission, influenza, avian epidemiology, poultry, Vietnam epidemiology.

Parry, J. (2004). WHO warns that avian flu could still be in the environment. BMJ Clinical Research 328(7437): 426.  ISSN: 1468-5833.

            Descriptors:  influenza, avian epidemiology, birds, Carnivora, cat diseases epidemiology, cats, poultry, world health, World Health Organization.

Patterson, P.H., D.C. Kradel, R.M. Hulet, and J.H. Schwartz (2001). Outreach video: Avian Influenza: Preventing the spread of disease. Journal of Dairy Science 84(Suppl. 1): 73.  ISSN: 0022-0302.

            Online:  www.ADSA.org/jds

            NAL Call Number:  44.8 J822

            Descriptors:  animal husbandry, infection, public health, avian influenza, prevention and control, respiratory system disease, viral disease, outreach, video, meeting abstract.

Pearson, J.E. (2003). International standards for the control of avian influenza. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 972-975.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  The Office International des Epizooties (OIE) has developed international standards to reduce the risk of the spread of high-pathogenicity avian influenza though international trade. These standards include providing a definition of high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI), procedures for prompt reporting of HPAI outbreaks, requirements that must be met for a country or zone to be defined as free of HPAI, requirements that should be met to import live birds and avian products into a HPAI-free country or zone, and the general provisions that countries should meet to reduce the risk of spread of HPAI through trade. The goal of these standards is to facilitate trade while minimizing the risk of the introduction of HPAI.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, avian influenza, epidemiology, infectious disease, prevention and control, respiratory system disease, viral disease, disease spread international, influenza control standards.

Pereira, H.G., G. Lang, O.M. Olesiuk, G.H. Snoeyenbos, D.H. Roberts, and B.C. Easterday (1966). New antigenic variants of avian influenza A viruses. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 35(5): 799-802.  ISSN: 0042-9686.

            NAL Call Number:  449.9 W892B

            Descriptors:  antigens, birds, orthomyxoviridae classification, orthomyxoviridae immunology, influenza A virus avian immunology.

Pereira, H.G., B. Tumova, and V.G. Law (1965). Avian influenza A viruses. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 32(6): 855-60.  ISSN: 0042-9686.

            NAL Call Number:  449.9 W892B

            Descriptors:  orthomyxoviridae classification, orthomyxoviridae immunology, serology, virus cultivation.

Perkins, L.E.L. and D.E. Swayne (2002). Susceptibility of laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) to H5N1 and H5N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Avian Diseases 46(4): 877-885.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  This investigation detailed the clinical disease, gross and histologic lesions, and distribution of viral antigen in juvenile laughing gulls ( Larus atricilla) intranasally inoculated with either the A/tern/South Africa/61 (H5N3) (tern/SA) influenza virus or the A/chicken/Hong Kong/220/97 (H5N1) (chicken/HK) influenza virus, which are both highly pathogenic for chickens. Neither morbidity nor mortality was observed in gulls inoculated with either virus within the 14-day investigative period. Gross lesions resultant from infection with either virus were only mild, with the tern/SA virus causing decreased lucency of the air sacs (2/6), splenomegaly (2/6), and pancreatic mottling (1/6) and the chicken/HK virus causing only decreased lucency of the air sacs (2/8) and conjunctival edema (2/8). Histologic lesions in the tern/SA-inoculated gulls included a mild to moderate heterophilic to lymphoplasmacytic airsacculitis (6/6), mild to moderate interstitial pneumonia (3/6), and moderate necrotizing pancreatitis and hepatitis at 14 days postinoculation (DPI) (2/6). Immunohistochemical demonstration of viral antigen occurred only in association with lesions in the liver and pancreas. In contrast, viral antigen was not demonstrated in any tissues from the chicken/HK-inoculated gulls, and inflammatory lesions were confined to the air sac (3/8) and lungs (3/8). Both viruses were isolated at low titers (<101.68 mean embryo lethal dose) from oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs up to 7 days postinoculation (DPI), from the lung and kidney of one of two tern/SA-inoculated gulls at 14 DPI, and from the lung of one of two chicken/HK-inoculated gulls at 7 DPI. Antibodies to influenza viruses as determined with the agar gel precipitin test at 14 DPI were detected only in the two tern/SA-inoculated gulls and not in the two chicken/HK-inoculated gulls.

            Descriptors:  infection, pharmacology, veterinary medicine, avian influenza virus infection, infectious disease, respiratory system disease, viral disease, agar gel precipitin test, immunologic techniques, laboratory techniques, cloacal swab, diagnostic techniques, immunohistochemistry, intranasal influenza virus inoculation, oropharyngeal swab.

Permin, A. (2004). Avian influenza is spreading. Now avian influenza is also in pigs [Aviaer influenza breder sig nu ogsa aviaer influenza hos svin]. Dansk Veterinaertidsskrift 87(19): 10-11.  ISSN: 0106-6854.

            NAL Call Number:  41.9 D23

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, pigs, poultry.

Peroulis, I. and K. O'Riley (2004). Detection of avian paramyxoviruses and influenza viruses amongst wild bird populations in Victoria. Australian Veterinary Journal 82(1-2): 79-82.  ISSN: 0005-0423.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Au72

            Descriptors:  Australia, avian paramyxoviruses, avian influenza viruses, isolation and characterization, Aves, wild birds, wild duck, pigeon, quail.

Peterson, M.J., R. Aguirre, P.J. Ferro, D.A. Jones, T.A. Lawyer, M.N. Peterson, and N.J. Silvy (2002). Infectious disease survey of Rio Grande wild turkeys in the Edwards Plateau of Texas. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 38(4): 826-833.  ISSN: 0090-3558.

            NAL Call Number:  41.9 W64B

            Abstract:  State wildlife agencies have translocated thousands of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) since the 1930s to reestablish this species. Because of threats to the domestic poultry industry and wild birds, screening for selected infectious agents has become routine since the early 1980s. One of the principal sources for Rio Grande wild turkeys (M. gallopavo intermedia) for translocation purposes was the Edwards Plateau of Texas (USA). Unfortunately, turkey abundance has declined in the southern Edwards Plateau since the late 1970s. Surprisingly few studies have addressed wild turkeys in this region, perhaps reflecting its status as the heart of Rio Grande turkey range. We surveyed 70 free-living Rio Grande wild turkeys from Bandera and Kerr counties, Texas, for evidence of exposure to Salmonella typhimurium, S. pullorum, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, M. meleagridis, M. synoviae, Chlamydophila psittaci, and the avian influenza, Newcastle disease, turkey corona, and reticuloendotheliosis viruses. Of these, 80% (56) were seropositive for both M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae on the serum plate antigen test. Ten of these individuals (14% of total) were positive for M. synoviae by hemagglutination inhibition testing. All other serologic tests were negative. Two adult females sampled in Kerr County, whose body mass was significantly less than that of other adult females trapped in the area, tested positive for reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) proviral DNA on polymerase chain reaction. Reticuloendotheliosis virus was isolated from one of these individuals. The pathogenesis, transmission, and/or population-level influences of M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, and REV in Rio Grande wild turkeys deserves further study.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, veterinary medicine, wildlife management, avian influenza virus infection, epidemiology, viral disease, Chlamydophila psittaci infection, bacterial disease, epidemiology, Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection, bacterial disease, epidemiology, Mycoplasma meleagridis infection, bacterial disease, epidemiology,  Mycoplasma synoviae infection, bacterial disease, epidemiology, Newcastle disease virus infection, epidemiology, viral disease, reticuloendotheliosis virus infection, epidemiology, viral disease, Salmonella pullorum infection, bacterial disease, Salmonella typhimurium infection, bacterial disease, turkey coronavirus infection, epidemiology, viral disease, hemagglutination inhibition testing clinical techniques, diagnostic techniques, polymerase chain reaction clinical techniques, diagnostic techniques, genetic techniques, laboratory techniques, serology clinical techniques, diagnostic techniques, serum plate antigen test clinical techniques, diagnostic techniques, species translocation applied and field techniques, abundance population decline.

Peterson, M.J., P.J. Ferro, M.N. Peterson, R.M. Sullivan, B.E. Toole, and N.J. Silvy (2002). Infectious disease survey of lesser prairie chickens in North Texas. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 38(4): 834-839.  ISSN: 0090-3558.

            NAL Call Number:  41.9 W64B

            Abstract:  Lesser prairie chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) abundance, like that of most grassland birds, has declined rangewide for decades. Although habitat loss and degradation are likely ultimate causes for this decline, infectious agents, particularly microparasites, could be proximate contributors. No surveys of pathogenic bacteria or viruses have been published for this species. We surveyed 24 free-living lesser prairie chickens from Hemphill County, Texas (USA), for evidence of exposure to  Salmonella typhimurium, S. pullorum, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, M. synoviae, Chlamydophila psittaci, and the avian influenza, Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, and reticuloendotheliosis viruses. Two of 18, and eight of 17 samples were seropositive for the Massachusetts and Arkansas serotypes of infectious bronchitis virus, respectively. Five of the eight positive individuals were juveniles, two of which were seropositive for both serotypes. All other serologic and genetic tests were negative. Because the ecological significance of these results is unknown, the pathogenesis, transmission, and/or population-level influences of infectious bronchitis and related avian coronaviruses for lesser prairie chickens deserves further study.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, veterinary medicine, wildlife management, avian influenza virus infection, epidemiology, viral disease, Chlamydophila psittaci infection, bacterial disease, epidemiology, infectious bronchitis virus infection, epidemiology, viral disease, Mycoplasma infection, bacterial disease, epidemiology, Newcastle disease virus infection, epidemiology, viral disease, reticuloendotheliosis virus infection, epidemiology, viral disease, salmonellosis, bacterial disease, epidemiology, serology clinical techniques, diagnostic techniques, abundance habitat degradation, habitat loss, population decline.

Pfitzer, S., D.J. Verwoerd, G.H. Gerdes, A.E. Labuschagne, A. Erasmus, R.J. Manvell, and C. Grund (2000). Newcastle disease and avian influenza A virus in wild waterfowl in South Africa. Avian Diseases 44(3): 655-660.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  In an intensive ostrich farming area in South Africa with a history of ostrich influenza outbreaks, we conducted a survey of avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in wild aquatic birds. During late autumn and winter 1998, the time of year when outbreaks in ostriches typically start to occur, 262 aquatic birds comprising 14 species were sampled and tested for both virus infections. From eight samples, AIV, serotype H10N9, could be isolated. All isolates were apathogenic as determined by the intravenous pathogenicity index (0.00). Conversely, none of 33 sera of these wild birds showed antibodies against H10. However, one bird was found serologically positive for H6 AIV. This AIV serotype was later isolated from ostriches during an avian influenza outbreak in this area. No NDV was isolated although 34 of 46 serum samples contained NDV-specific antibodies. This is the first H10N9 isolate to be reported from Africa. In addition, our data support the notion that wild aquatic birds may function as a reservoir for AIV and NDV in South Africa.

            Descriptors:  infection, virology, Newcastle disease, viral disease, avian influenza A infection, viral disease, ostrich influenza infection, viral disease, intravenous pathogenicity index.

Pharo, H.J. (2003). The impact of new epidemiological information on a risk analysis for the introduction of avian influenza viruses in imported poultry meat. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 988-995.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  New Zealand has never experienced an outbreak of avian influenza, and the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry has long been wary of the possibility of introducing high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) viruses in imported goods. Besides the potential threat posed to poultry, there are concerns that introduced viruses might have negative effects on already endangered native avian species. Under the framework of the World Trade Organization, the sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) agreement requires member countries to base their sanitary measures for imported animal products on the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) standard or on a scientific assessment of risk. This paper presents the New Zealand experience with assessing the risk of avian influenza viruses in imported chicken meat and considers how the assessment of risk has changed in recent years as a result of the advances in understanding of the disease. The currently accepted view that low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses are widespread and that they mutate to virulence after introduction into poultry has important implications concerning the appropriate definition for avian influenza viruses of regulatory concern and has possible implications concerning the significance of viruses present in this country.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, foods, infection, disease risk analysis, clinical techniques, imported poultry meat, poultry product, viral contamination phytosanitary agreement, SPS agreement, viral introduction.

Philpott, M.S., B.C. Easterday, and V.S. Hinshaw (1989). Antigenic and phenotypic variants of a virulent avian influenza virus selected during replication in ducks. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 25(4): 507-13.  ISSN: 0090-3558.

            NAL Call Number:  41.9 W64B

            Abstract:  To evaluate the replication of a highly virulent avian influenza A virus in a potential reservoir host, mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were inoculated with the virulent strain A/Ty/Ont/7732/66 (H5N9). Viruses recovered from the ducks were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and found to possess antigenically altered viral hemagglutinins. Plaque formation on the Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line and on primary chicken embryo cells was investigated, and isolates recovered from the ducks differed from the wild type by being unable to form plaques on MDCK cells without trypsin. This phenotype did not appear to be due to inefficient cleavage of the hemagglutinin by host cell proteases since hemagglutinin immunoprecipitated from cell lysates was cleaved. Although the plaquing phenotype suggested attenuation of the isolates from the ducks, they were not significantly altered in their virulence for chickens shown by infectivity studies in vivo. These results indicate that replication of influenza A/Ty/Ont/7732/66 virus in ducks can produce antigenic and phenotypic variants which are still highly virulent for domestic poultry.

            Descriptors:  ducks microbiology, fowl plague microbiology, influenza A virus avian pathogenicity, antibodies, monoclonal immunology, antigenic variation, cell line, chickens, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, fowl plague mortality, hemagglutination inhibition tests, hemagglutinins viral analysis, hemagglutinins viral metabolism, influenza A virus avian growth and development, influenza A virus avian immunology, influenza A virus avian physiology, phenotype, plaque assay, virulence, virus replication.

Piccirillo, A., M. Calabria, A. Baiano, G. Marotta, and A. Fioretti (1999). Avian influenza viruses in pheasants reared under intensive condition. A virological investigation. Selezione Veterinaria (Italy) (8/9): 663-668.  ISSN: 0037-1521.

            NAL Call Number:  241.71 B75

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, disease surveys, avian influenza virus, Italy, game birds, pheasants.

Pilet, C. (1980). Proceedings of an International Symposium, held on September 13 and 14, 1979 at the Ecole Nationale Veterinaire d'Alfort, France. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Special Issue on Animal and Human Influenzas 3(1/2): xvi + 246.  ISSN: 0147-9571.

            NAL Call Number:  QR180.C62

            Descriptors:  influenza virus, humans, zoonoses, equine, porcine, avian, symposium.

Pilet, C., G. Dauphin, and S. Zientara (2004). Actualites en pathologie comparee: sur quelques maladies animales menacantes pour l'homme. [Advances in comparative pathology: some zoonoses threatening man]. Bulletin De L'Academie Nationale De Medecine 188(5): 823-36.  ISSN: 0001-4079.

            Abstract:  The last major human epidemics of infectious diseases have arisen from animals. Some of them are especially threatening. The authors call attention to the danger of spread of avian influenza, either directly or indirectly through genetic rearrangements. They underline the role of animals in the epidemiology of SARS, West Nile virus, hepatitis E, NIPA and Hendra virus, ehrlichiosis and Lyme disease. The authors recommend health surveillance not only in humans but also in animals; the teaching of zoonoses, and research on animal diseases transmissible to humans.

            Descriptors:  virus diseases transmission, zoonoses.

Pint, L.H. and R.A. Lamb (2004). Viral ion channels as models for ion transport and targets for antiviral drug action. FEBS Letters 560(1-3): 1-2.  ISSN: 0014-5793.

            NAL Call Number:  QD415.F4

            Descriptors:  influenza infection, solid state NMR, laboratory techniques, antiviral drug action targets, immune system, membranes, immune surveillance, ion transport models, proton transfer reaction model, viral life cycle.

Podcherniaeva, R.I.A., I.A. Miasnikova, V.K. Blinova, R.V. Belousova, and V.P. Andreev (1979). Izuchenie svoistv virusov grippa, vydelennykh v 1976 g. ot chaikovykh ptits v Astrakhanskoi oblasti. [Properties of the influenza viruses isolated in 1976 from gulls in Astrakhan Province]. Voprosy Virusologii (3): 227-32.  ISSN: 0507-4088.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 P942

            Abstract:  Investigation of a number of properties of influenza viruses isolated from Laridae birds in the Astrakhan region showed that in one epizootic focus avian influenza viruses with different hemagglutinins and identical neuraminidase may circulate among Laridae birds. Among viruses with the antigenic formula Hav5Nav2 clear-cut differences in virulence and plaque-forming capacity were demonstrated.

            Descriptors:  birds microbiology, influenza A virus isolation and purification, antigens, viral analysis, chick embryo, chickens, cytopathogenic effect, viral, hemagglutination, viral, hemagglutinins viral analysis, influenza A virus immunology, influenza A virus pathogenicity, mice, neuraminidase analysis, plaque assay, Russia, virulence, virus replication.

Poli, G. and L. Bonizzi (2004). Avian influenza: not a danger [Influenza aviare: nessun pericolo]. Informatore Agrario 60(11): 33-34.  ISSN: 0020-0689.

            NAL Call Number:  281.8 In32

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, disease prevention, disease transmission, hygiene, occupational transmission, poultry, poultry farming.

Pollack, C.V.J., C.W. Kam, and Y.K. Mak (1998). Update: isolation of avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses from human beings--Hong Kong, 1997-1998. Annals of Emergency Medicine 31(5): 647-9.  ISSN: 0196-0644.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks, influenza transmission, influenza virology, influenza A virus human,  poultry diseases transmission, poultry diseases virology, adolescent, adult, case control studies, chickens, child, child, preschool, ducks, Hong Kong epidemiology, infant, influenza epidemiology, influenza veterinary, middle aged, neutralization tests, population surveillance, poultry diseases epidemiology.

Portnoy, J., K. Bloom, and T.C. Merigan (1973). The effect of bursectomy and thymectomy on the course of avian influenza virus infection. Cellular Immunology 9(2): 251-62.  ISSN: 0008-8749.

            NAL Call Number:  QR180.C4

            Descriptors:  bird diseases immunology, bursa of fabricius immunology, influenza immunology, thymus gland immunology, antigens, bursa of fabricius drug effects, chickens, erythrocytes immunology, hemagglutination tests, immunoelectrophoresis, lectins pharmacology, lymphocyte activation, orthomyxoviridae immunology, radiation chimera, sheep immunology, testosterone pharmacology, thymectomy.

Poss, P.E., D.A. Halvorson, and D. Karunakaran ( 1981). Economic impact of avian influenza in domestic fowl in the U.S. Feedstuffs 53(32): 15.  ISSN: 0014-9624.

            NAL Call Number:  286.81 F322

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, economics, disease control, poultry, impact, United States.

Poss, P.E., D.A. Halvorson, and D. Karunakaran. (1981). Economic impact of avian influenza in domestic fowl in the United States. In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, p. 100-111.

            NAL Call Number: aSF995.6.I6I5 1981a

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, Minnesota, economic impact, chickens, turkeys, outbreaks, symposium.

Potter, P. (2004). "One medicine" for animal and human health. Emerging Infectious Diseases 10(12): 2269-2270.  ISSN: 1080-6040.

            NAL Call Number:  RA648.5.E46

            Descriptors:  AIDS, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, Ebola virus disease, SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome, West Nile fever, avian influenza, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, prion disease, Edward Hicks artist, zoonosis, biography, history, epidemiology.

Pourbakhsh, S.A., M. Khodashenas, M. Kianizadeh, and H. Goodarzi (2000 ). Isolation and identification of avian influenza virus H9N2 subtype. Archives of Razi Institute (51): 27-38.  ISSN: 0365-3439.

            NAL Call Number:  QR189.A73

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, antibodies, epidemiology, identification, immune response, virulence, Iran.

Powell, W. (2004). Policy development for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI). In: Learning and Playing in a Winter Wonderland, Ontario Veterinary Medical Association Conference Proceedings, Ottawa, Canada, p. 297-300.

            Descriptors: disease control, legislation, mutations, outbreaks, policy, amino acids, poultry, sentinel surveillance, waterfowl, zoonoses, avian influenza virus, fowl.

Profeta, M.L. and G. Palladino (1986). Serological evidence of human infections with avian influenza viruses. Brief report. Archives of Virology 90(3-4): 355-60.  ISSN: 0304-8608.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ar23

            Abstract:  Two hundred ninety-four subjects from Milan were tested for serum hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) and neuraminidase-inhibiting (NI) antibodies to five avian influenza viruses. No HI antibodies were found in all the serum samples. On the contrary, NI antibodies to each strain were detected depending on the year of birth of the subjects.

            Descriptors:  influenza immunology, influenza A virus avian immunology, hemagglutination inhibition tests, hemagglutinins viral immunology, influenza microbiology, influenza A virus avian pathogenicity, neuraminidase antagonists and inhibitors, neuraminidase immunology.

Pysina, T.V. and A.S. Gorbunova (1970). Sootnosheniia mezhdu patogennost'iu virusov grippa ptits dlia laboratornykh zhivotnykh i infitsirovaniem avifauny. [Relation between the pathogenicity of avian influenza viruses for laboratory animals and infection of avifauna]. Voprosy Virusologii 15(3): 298-301.  ISSN: 0507-4088.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 P942

            Descriptors:  bird diseases microbiology, orthomyxoviridae pathogenicity, bird diseases epidemiology, chickens, Czechoslovakia, ducks, England,  influenza epidemiology, influenza microbiology, mice, Scotland, Siberia, South Africa, tissue culture, virus cultivation.

Quirk, M. (2004). USA to manufacture two million doses of pandemic flu vaccine. Lancet Infectious Diseases 4(11): 654.  ISSN: 1473-3099.

            Descriptors:  influenza prevention and control, influenza A virus, avian immunology, influenza vaccines supply and distribution, drug industry, United States, vaccination.

Raleigh, P.J. (2004). Avian influenza. Irish Veterinary Journal 57(3): 154-156.  ISSN: 0368-0762.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Ir4

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, diagnosis, disease control, disease prevention, disease transmission, fowl diseases, lesions, poultry, viral replication, zoonoses, fowl, reviews.

Ranck, F.M.J., L.C. Grumbles, C.F. Hall, and J.E. Grimes (1970). Serology and gross lesions of turkeys inoculated with an avian influenza A virus, a paramyxovirus, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Avian Diseases 14(1): 54-65.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Descriptors:  Mycoplasma infections pathology, orthomyxoviridae infections pathology, poultry diseases, antibody formation, hemagglutination inhibition tests, immune sera analysis, lung diseases pathology, lung diseases veterinary, mycoplasma pathogenicity, Mycoplasma infections immunology, orthomyxoviridae pathogenicity, orthomyxoviridae infections immunology, pulmonary alveoli immunology, pulmonary alveoli microbiology, pulmonary alveoli pathology, turkeys.

Rao, B.L., N.P. Gupta, and P.K. Deshmukh (1979). Isolation of duck influenza virus from Tirunelveli town in Tamil Nadu. Indian Journal of Medical Research 70: 687-90.  ISSN: 0971-5916.

            Descriptors:  ducks, fowl plague microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, antigens, viral isolation and purification, fowl plague immunology, hemagglutination tests, India.

Rao, V.S.R. (1990). Diseases of the chickens. 1. Viral diseases. (xiv) Avian influenza. Poultry Adviser 23(3): 75-76.  ISSN: 0970-1958.

            NAL Call Number:  SF481.P622

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, poultry, chickens.

Rassool, G.H. (2004). Unprecedented spread of avian influenza requires broad collaboration. Journal of Advanced Nursing 46(5): 567.  ISSN: 0309-2402.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks prevention and control, influenza A virus, avian influenza, avian influenza prevention and control, avian influenza transmission, international cooperation, zoonoses transmission.

Ready, T. (2004). Race for pandemic flu vaccine rife with hurdles. Nature Medicine 10(3): 214.  ISSN: 1078-8956.

            Descriptors:  influenza prevention and control, influenza A virus, avian immunology, influenza vaccines, chickens, clinical trials, influenza virology.

Reeves, K. (1998). New strain of influenza type A in Hong Kong. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology the Official Journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America 19(2): 141.  ISSN: 0899-823X.

            Descriptors:  influenza epidemiology, influenza virology, influenza A virus avian, Hong Kong epidemiology, influenza prevention and control, population surveillance.

Reid, A.H., T.G. Fanning, R.D. Slemons, T.A. Janczewski, J. Dean, and J.K. Taubenberger (2003). Relationship of pre-1918 avian influenza HA and NP sequences to subsequent avian influenza strains. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 921-925.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Wild waterfowl that were captured between 1915 and 1919 and preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol were tested for influenza A virus RNA. Most of the HA1 domain of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene segment was sequenced from one bird, captured in 1917, that was infected with a virus of the same HA subtype as the 1918 human pandemic virus. The 1917 HA sequence is closely related to modern avian HA sequences, suggesting little drift in avian sequences in 80 years and that the 1918 pandemic virus probably did not acquire its hemagglutinin directly from a bird. A 151-bp fragment of the nucleoprotein gene segment was sequenced from two pre-1918 birds and compared to avian and mammalian influenza strains. The 1917 avian NP sequences are also closely related to modern avian sequences and distinct from the mammalian clade in which the 1918 NP sequence is found.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, molecular genetics, pandemic.

Reid, S.W.J. (ed.), F.D. Menzies (ed.), and A.M. Russell (ed.). (2004). Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Proceedings of a meeting, Martigny, Switzerland, p. 225.

            NAL Call Number: SF780.9.S63

            Descriptors: epidemiology, antibiotics, diagnosis, disease control, disease prevalence, disease transmission, domestic animals, drug resistance, milk production, milk quality, models, risk factors, animal trade, zoonoses, cattle, dogs, horses, pigs, sheep, poultry, proceedings.

Reina, J. (2004). Gripe aviar. Una amenaza constante para el ser humano. [Avian influenza. A continual threat to human beings]. Medicina Clinica 122(9): 339-41.  ISSN: 0025-7753.

            NAL Call Number:  R21.M43

            Descriptors:  avian influenza, humans, continual threat, birds, pigs.

Renegar, K.B. (1992). Influenza virus infections and immunity: a review of human and animal models. Laboratory Animal Science 42(3): 222-32.  ISSN: 0023-6764.

            NAL Call Number:  410.9 P94

            Abstract:  Studies of the pathogenesis of influenza infection have involved the extensive use of animal models. The development of the current concepts of immunity to influenza and of the contribution the secretory immune system makes toward the protection of mucosal surfaces against influenza infection would have been impossible without this use of animals. The pathology and clinical signs of influenza infection in both natural and experimental hosts, the advantages and disadvantages of the most common experimental influenza infection models, and the contribution of animal models to the understanding of local and systemic immunity to influenza infection are discussed.

            Descriptors:  influenza immunology, influenza veterinary, antibody formation, disease models, animal, ferrets, fowl plague immunology, hamsters, haplorhini, horse diseases immunology, horses, influenza A virus avian, influenza A virus human, influenza A virus, porcine, influenza A virus, influenza vaccine administration and dosage, mice.

Resanovic, R. (1998). Avian influenza. Zivinarstvo 33(6): 125-129.

            Descriptors:  poultry, epidemiology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatment, avian influenza virus.

Rezza, G. (2004). Avian influenza: a human pandemic threat?  Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 58(10): 807-8.  ISSN: 0143-005X.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks, influenza epidemiology, influenza, avian transmission, zoonoses epidemiology, communicable diseases, emerging epidemiology, communicable diseases, emerging prevention and control, influenza prevention and control.

Robinson, H.L., L.A. Hunt, and R.G. Webster (1993). Protection against a lethal influenza virus challenge by immunization with a haemagglutinin-expressing plasmid DNA. Vaccine 11(9): 957-60.  ISSN: 0264-410X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR189.V32

            Abstract:  Direct DNA inoculations have been used to demonstrate that in vivo transfections can be used to elicit protective immune responses. The direct inoculation of an H7 haemagglutinin-expressing DNA protected chickens against lethal challenge with an H7N7 influenza virus. Three-week-old chickens were vaccinated by inoculating 100 micrograms of plasma DNA by each of three routes (intravenous, intraperitoneal and subcutaneous). One month later, chickens were boosted with 100 micrograms of DNA by each of the three routes. At 1-2 weeks postboost, chickens were challenged via the nares with 100 lethal doses of an H7N7 virus. Low to undetectable levels of H7-specific antibodies were present postvaccination and boost. High titres of H7-specific antibodies appeared within 1 week of challenge. In a series of four experiments, 50% (28/56) of the DNA-vaccinated and < 2% (1/67) of the control chickens survived the challenge. This exceptionally simple method of immunization holds high promise for the development of subunit vaccines.

            Descriptors:  DNA, viral genetics, defective viruses immunology, genetic vectors, hemagglutinins viral immunology, influenza prevention and control, influenza A virus avian immunology, influenza vaccine immunology, leukosis virus, avian genetics, plasmids, recombinant fusion proteins immunology, amantadine pharmacology, chickens immunology, defective viruses drug effects, defective viruses genetics, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus, hemagglutinins viral biosynthesis, hemagglutinins viral genetics, immunity, active, immunization, influenza A virus avian drug effects, influenza A virus avian genetics, recombinant fusion proteins biosynthesis, recombinant fusion proteins genetics, specific pathogen free organisms, transfection.

Robinson, J.H. and B.C. Easterday (1979). Avian influenza virus infection of the immunosuppressed turkey. American Journal of Veterinary Research 40(9): 1219-22.  ISSN: 0002-9645.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Am3A

            Descriptors:  immunosuppression, orthomyxoviridae infections veterinary, poultry diseases immunology, turkeys immunology, bursa of fabricius immunology, bursa of fabricius surgery, hemagglutination inhibition tests, hemagglutinins viral immunology, immunity, cellular, orthomyxoviridae immunology, orthomyxoviridae infections immunology.

Robinson, J.H., B.C. Easterday, and B. Tumova (1979). Influence of environmental stress on avian influenza virus infection.  Avian Diseases 23(2): 346-353.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, environmental stress, environmental temperature, heat, cold, transportation, food deprivation, carrier state, poultry, turkeys.

Rogers, G.N. and B.L. D'Souza (1989). Receptor binding properties of human and animal H1 influenza virus isolates. Virology 173(1): 317-22.  ISSN: 0042-6822.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 V81

            Abstract:  It has been previously reported that several human H1 influenza viruses isolated prior to 1956, in contrast to human H3 isolates which are quite specific for SA alpha 2,6Gal sequences, apparently recognize both SA alpha 2,3Gal and SA alpha 2,6Gal sequences (Rogers, G.N., and Paulson, J.C., Virology 127, 361-373, 1983). In this report human H1 isolates representative of two epidemic periods, from 1934 to 1957 and from 1977 to 1986, and H1 influenza isolated from pigs, ducks, and turkeys were compared for their ability to utilize sialyloligosaccharide structures containing terminal SA alpha 2,3Gal or SA alpha 2,6Gal sequences as receptor determinants. Five of the eight human isolates from the first epidemic period recognize both SA alpha 2,3Gal and SA alpha 2,6Gal linkages, in agreement with our previous results. Of the remaining three strains, all isolated towards the end of the first epidemic, two appear to prefer SA alpha 2,6Gal sequences while the third preferentially binds SA alpha 2,3Gal sequences. In contrast to the early isolates, 11 of 13 human strains isolated during the second epidemic period preferentially bind SA alpha 2,6Gal containing oligosaccharides. On the basis of changes in receptor binding associated with continued passage in the laboratory for some of these later strains, it seems likely that human H1 isolates preferentially bind SA alpha 2,6Gal sequences in nature, and that acquisition of SA alpha 2,3Gal-binding is associated with laboratory passage. Influenza H1 viruses isolated from pigs were predominantly SA alpha 2,6Gal-specific while those isolated from ducks were primarily SA alpha 2,3Gal-specific. Thus, as has been previously reported for H3 influenza isolates, receptor specificity for influenza H1 viruses appears to be influenced by the species from which they were isolated, human isolates binding preferentially to SA alpha 2,6Gal-containing oligosaccharides while those isolated from ducks prefer SA alpha 2,3Gal-containing oligosaccharides. However, unlike the SA alpha 2,6Gal-specific H3 isolates, binding to cell surface receptors by the H1 influenza viruses is not sensitive to inhibition by horse serum glycoproteins, regardless of their receptor specificity. These results suggest that, while the H1 and H3 hemagglutinins appear to be subject to similar host-derived selective pressures, there appear to be certain fundamental differences in the detailed molecular interaction of the two hemagglutinins with their sialyloligosaccharide receptor determinants.

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus avian metabolism, influenza A virus human metabolism, influenza A virus, porcine metabolism, influenza A virus metabolism, orthomyxoviridae metabolism, receptors, virus metabolism, ducks, hemagglutination inhibition tests, hemagglutination tests, species specificity, swine, turkeys.

Rojas, H., R. Moreira, P. Avalos, I. Capua, and S. Marangon (2002). Avian influenza in poultry in Chile. Veterinary Record 151(6): 188.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks veterinary, fowl plague epidemiology, influenza A virus avian pathogenicity, Chile epidemiology, avian isolation and purification, poultry.

Romvary, J., J. Meszaros, K. Barb, and I. Matskasi (1980). The role of wild birds in the spread of influenza viruses. Acta Microbiologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 27(4): 269-77.  ISSN: 0001-6187.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 AC84

            Abstract:  Eggs deposited by different migrating wild bird species in pond farm areas in Hungary were examined for yolk antibodies to different variants of human A/H3N2 influenza virus. Antibodies to Victoria/75 and Texas/77 occurred in 17.9 and 32.0% of gull eggs, and 5.6 and 16.4% of common tern eggs, respectively, while antibodies to A/H1N1/77 occurred in roughly similar proportions (10.2 and 13.4%) in the eggs of both species. Infection of the gull and tern populations of given areas by human and avian influenza A viruses differed greatly in two consecutive hatching periods. While in 1978 7.6 and 1.1% of the gull and tern eggs, respectively, contained antibodies to the avian subtype Havl, no such antibodies were found in 1977. Subtype A/H3N2/Texas/77 virus was isolated from adult gulls and 1-3 weeks old gull chicks, and subtype H1N1 virus from mallard ducks. Three months before the onset of the Texas/77 epidemic, 95% of SPF chickens, and 71-81% of chickens hatched 3 months after termination of the A/H1N1/77 epidemic, had had HI, VN and SRH antibodies to the Texas/77 strain and A/H1N1/77 strains, respectively.

            Descriptors:  birds microbiology, influenza A virus human isolation and purification, orthomyxoviridae infections veterinary, antibodies, viral analysis, Hungary, avian immunology, avian isolation and purification, human immunology, orthomyxoviridae infections microbiology.

Romvary, J., J. Meszaros, J. Tanyi, J.F.L. Rozsa, Rippen (ed.), and H. D. Schroder (ed.). (1977). Zur Bedeutung des Vorkommens aviarer Influenzavirusstamme des Subtyps Hav5. [Importance of avian influenza virus strains of subtype Hav5 (first report of its isolation in Europe)]. In: Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Verhandlungsbericht des XIX. Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zootiere vom 18. Mai bis 27, Poznan, Poland, p. 181-182.

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, Hav 5, epidemiology, Anseriformes, Europe.

Ronda, E., A. Garcia Gancedo, L. Alonso, P. Vilas, and L. Lucas (1966). Killed fowl plague virus vaccine obtained from chick embryo cells. Microbiologia Espanola 19(3): 257-80.  ISSN: 0026-2595.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 M583

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus avian, viral vaccines, virus cultivation, chick embryo, chickens, HeLa cells, orthomyxoviridae infections immunology, tissue culture, vaccination.

Roslaia, I.G., D.K. L'vov, and S.S. Iamnikova (1984). Infitsirovannost' ozernykh chaek virusami grippa. [Incidence of influenza virus infection in black-headed gulls]. Voprosy Virusologii 29(2): 155-7.  ISSN: 0507-4088.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 P942

            Abstract:  Two strains of influenza A viruses were isolated in 1978 from tracheal washings of 18 nestlings of black-headed gulls examined for influenza. Three strains of influenza A viruses were isolated in 1979 from 55 gull embryos collected in the same colony, the isolates being similar in their antigenic characteristics with the influenza virus isolated from a gull nestling in 1978. This confirms the possibility of simultaneous circulation of antigenically different variants of influenza A virus among birds in the same colony and transoviral transmission of virus to the offsprings.

            Descriptors:  bird diseases epidemiology, fowl plague epidemiology, bird diseases microbiology, bird diseases transmission, birds, cloaca microbiology, embryo, nonmammalian microbiology, fowl plague microbiology, fowl plague transmission, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, Siberia, trachea microbiology.

Roth, J.A. and A.R. Spickler (2003). A survey of vaccines produced for OIE List A diseases in OIE member countries. Developmental Biology 114: 5-58.  ISSN: 1424-6074.

            Descriptors:  pharmacology, pathology, prevention, control, African horse sickness, Newcastle disease, bluetongue, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, foot and mouth disease, goat pox, highly pathogenic avian influenza, lumpy skin disease, peste des petits ruminants, Rift Valley fever, rinderpest, sheep pox, swine fever, vesicular stomatitis, Office International des Epizooties, OIE, List A diseases, member countries, symposium.

Rott, R. (1997). Influenza, eine besondere Form einer Zoonose. [Influenza, a special form of zoonosis]. Berliner Und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 110(7-8): 241-6.  ISSN: 0005-9366.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 B45

            Abstract:  Findings based on molecular genetics and phylogeny indicate that avian species represent an important reservoir for influenza viruses and that virus strains of man and different mammals originated from avian influenza virus ancestors. In contrast to infectious agents causing classical zoonoses, influenza viruses have to alter their genetic make up in order to change their host range. The special, segmented structure of the viral RNA allows an exchange of gene(s) between two different influenza viruses (reassortment) resulting in viruses with different combinations of genome segments and thereby creating new biological properties. Under the selective pressure of the new host the most adapted virus variants will succeed which arose from a genetically heterogeneous virus population with additional mutations. In particular mutations of the genes encoding the polymerase complex (mutator mutations) would be advantageous for rapid adaptation in a hostile environment. The generation of influenza viruses capable of overcoming the species barrier is a rare event since only virus variants will succeed which are genetically stable and transmissible and which replicate efficiently in the new host. It is considered likely that pigs act as intermediate hosts for adaptation of avian viruses to man.

            Descriptors:  influenza transmission, influenza veterinary, orthomyxoviridae genetics, zoonoses, birds, mammals, mutation, orthomyxoviridae pathogenicity, species specificity, swine, variation genetics.

Rott, R. (1984). Zur Epidemiologie der aviaren Influenza. [Epidemiology of avian influenza]. In: Tagung der Fachgruppe Tierseuchenrecht, Deutsche Veterinarmedizinische Gesellschaft,  p. 156-163.

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, epidemiology.

Rott, R., H. Becht, and M. Orlich (1974). The significance of influenza virus neuraminidase in immunity. Journal of General Virology 22(1): 35-41.  ISSN: 0022-1317.

            NAL Call Number:  QR360.A1J6

            Descriptors:  antibody formation, antigens, viral, fowl plague immunology, influenza A virus avian immunology, neuraminidase analysis, orthomyxoviridae immunology, chickens immunology, hemagglutination inhibition tests, hemagglutinins viral analysis, immune sera, immunization, influenza veterinary, avian enzymology, neutralization tests, orthomyxoviridae enzymology, rabbits immunology, swine, swine diseases microbiology.

Rott, R., H.D. Klenk, Y. Nagai, and M. Tashiro (1995). Influenza viruses, cell enzymes, and pathogenicity. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 152(4, Pt. 2): S16-9.  ISSN: 1073-449X.

            Abstract:  Proteolytic cleavage of the influenza virus hemagglutinin glycoprotein (HA) by cellular proteases is a prerequisite for virus infectivity, spread of the virus in the infected organism, tissue tropism, and viral pathogenicity. Production of infectious virus depends upon the structure at the HA cleavage site as well as the substrate specificity and the distribution of appropriate enzymes. Differences exist in the specificities of the endoproteases that recognize the different sequence motifs at the cleavage site. With avian influenza viruses that cause lethal systemic infections, the cleavage site consists of multibasic amino acids. Furin, which activates this type of HA, is a member of the subtilisin family and represents the prototype of ubiquitously occurring membrane-bound proteases. On the other hand, serine proteases secreted from a restricted number of cell types and some bacterial enzymes recognize a monobasic cleavage signal at HA of the mammalian and the apathogenic avian influenza viruses. The limited occurrence of these proteases results in only localized infection. Implementation of these defined conditions for virus activation may represent a novel type of disease control.

            Descriptors:  hemagglutinins viral physiology, orthomyxoviridae enzymology, orthomyxoviridae pathogenicity, serine endopeptidases physiology, subtilisins physiology, furin, hemagglutinins viral chemistry, substrate specificity.

Roy, G., J. Burton, J. Lecomte, and A. Boudreault (1983). Role des passeriformes dans l'ecologie du virus grippal. [Role of passerine birds in the ecology of influenza viruses]. Revue Canadienne De Biologie Experimentale 42(1): 73-81.  ISSN: 0714-6140.

            NAL Call Number:  QH316.5.E9

            Abstract:  A total of 267 passerine birds distributed among 37 species were netted during spring 1980 and summer 1981 in the Laurentian and Montreal areas. All the cloacal swabs collected at that time wer free of influenza viruses. Three and five days after oral administration of avian or human influenza A virus strains, 108 isolates were obtained from 42 of 134 passerine birds. Positive samples were recovered mainly from the respiratory and the digestive tract and also from liver. Spleen and kidneys. Viral replication is cells from trachea, lungs, gizzard and caecum was detected by indirect immunofluorescence using a monoclonal antibody to influenza A virus nucleoprotein. Viral transmission from inoculated to non inoculated birds placed in the same cages was not observed. On the other hand a similar experimental inoculation of young mallard ducks showed that extensive viral transmission occurred from inoculated to non inoculated ducklings and that infection was found exclusively in the digestive tract. Furthermore viruses were detected in samples of drinking water from all cages containing infected ducks. Passerine birds do not represent an important reservoir of influenza viruses but might contribute to the formation and spreading of recombinants potentially pathogenic for man and animals.

            Descriptors:  birds microbiology, ecology, fowl plague microbiology, influenza microbiology, influenza A virus avian pathogenicity, human pathogenicity, fowl plague transmission, influenza transmission, Quebec.

Saiatov, M.K.H., R.U. Beisembaeva, D.K. L'vov, K.D. Daulbaeva, and I.A. Miasnikova (1981). Izuchenie virusov grippa, vydelennykh ot dikikh ptits. [Influenza viruses isolated from wild birds]. Voprosy Virusologii (4): 466-71.  ISSN: 0507-4088.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 P942

            Abstract:  Ninety-eight hemagglutinating agents were isolated from washings of cloaca and organs of 750 birds collected in southern and southeastern regions of the Kazakh SSR. Determinations of their type appurtenance allowed 36 agents to be classified into influenza A virus. Among them 4 strains had H1N1 surface antigens, 29 strains were Hav2 Nav5 and 3 strains had unidentified neuraminidase and Hav2. The data on the biological properties of influenza virus strains of both subtypes are presented.

            Descriptors:  birds microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, animals, wild, antigens, viral analysis, hemagglutination inhibition tests, hemagglutination, viral, avian classification, Kazakhstan, neuraminidase analysis.

Saito, T., T. Horimoto, Y. Kawaoka, D.A. Senne, and R.G. Webster (1994). Emergence of a potentially pathogenic H5N2 influenza virus in chickens. Virology 201(2): 277-84.  ISSN: 0042-6822.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 V81

            Abstract:  Highly pathogenic influenza A viruses periodically infect both humans and nonhuman animals, including chickens. To gain insight into the origin of influenza outbreaks in poultry, we investigated two H5N2 viruses, A/chicken/Pennsylvania/13609/93 (Ck/PA/93) and A/chicken/Florida/25717/93 (Ck/FLA/93), that had been isolated in live-bird markets in Pennsylvania and Florida during surveillance studies in 1993. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA genes of these isolates, as well as H5N2 viruses isolated from ruddy turnstone surfbirds in 1991 (A/ruddy turnstone/Delaware/244/91 [RT/DE/91]) and other known H5 strains, indicated that Ck/PA/93 and Ck/FLA/93 share a common ancestor with RT/DE/91 and did not originate from A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/83 (Ck/PA/1370/83), which devastated chicken populations in 1983-1984. Both isolates were nonpathogenic in chickens by experimental infection and their HA protein (HA0) could not be cleaved into HA1 and HA2 without trypsin. The sequences at the HA cleavage sites of Ck/PA/93 and Ck/FLA/93 (R-K-T-R) appear to be intermediate between those of virulent and avirulent viruses, raising the possibility that a single mutation could promote virulence in chickens. We therefore recommend eradication of such viruses as soon as they appear.

            Descriptors:  chickens microbiology, fowl plague microbiology, influenza A virus avian pathogenicity, amino acid sequence, antibodies, monoclonal immunology, antigens, viral immunology, base sequence, birds microbiology, DNA, viral, ducks microbiology, avian genetics, avian immunology, avian isolation and purification, molecular sequence data, phylogeny, virulence.

Saito, T., Y. Kawaoka, and R.G. Webster (1993). Phylogenetic analysis of the N8 neuraminidase gene of influenza A viruses. Virology 193(2): 868-76.  ISSN: 0042-6822.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 V81

            Abstract:  Phylogenetic analysis of the N8 neuraminidase (NA) genes from 18 influenza A viruses, representing equine and avian hosts in different geographic locations, revealed three major lineages: (i) currently circulating equine 2 viruses; (ii) avian viruses isolated in the Eurasian region, including A/Equine/Jilin/1/89, a recent avian-like N8 isolate found in horses in China; and (iii) avian viruses isolated in North America. Comparison of mutation rates indicated that avian N8 genes have evolved more slowly than their equine counterparts. That is, in both avian lineages, 72% of the nucleotide changes were silent in the terminal branches of the phylogenetic tree, whereas in equine 2 viruses, 59% of the nucleotide changes were silent. This suggests greater selective pressure on the NA gene from the mammalian immune system, leading to progressive evolution. Alternatively, the slower mutation rate for avian N8 genes could reflect a selective advantage gained from a longer, continuous span of evolution. The shape of the phylogenetic tree, the evolutionary rate, and the calculated date of origin for the N8 equine 2 virus lineage were comparable to findings for the equine 2 virus hemagglutinin (HA) gene (Bean et al., J. Virol. 66, 1129-1138, 1992). This suggests that both viral membrane glycoproteins of equine 2 viruses have evolved together and have been subjected to similar levels of selective pressure. Several amino acid residues were found to differ among the three host-specific lineages, but they may not be involved in host restriction of the NA, as they are shared by EQ/Jilin/1/89 and viruses of avian origin. The present findings complement detailed structural information on the N2 and N9 subtypes and should prove valuable in understanding future X-ray diffraction studies of N8 crystals.

            Descriptors:  genes, structural, viral, influenza A virus genetics, neuraminidase genetics, phylogeny, amino acid sequence, base sequence, cloning, molecular, ducks, Escherichia coli genetics, horses, influenza A virus avian classification, avian enzymology, avian genetics, influenza A virus classification, influenza A virus enzymology, models, molecular, molecular sequence data, mutation, neuraminidase chemistry, protein structure, secondary, RNA viral genetics, RNA viral isolation and purification, sequence homology, amino acid, sequence homology, nucleic acid.

Samaan, G. (2005). Rumor surveillance and avian influenza H5N1. Emerging Infectious Diseases 11(3): 463-6.  ISSN: 1080-6040.

            NAL Call Number:  RA648.5.E46

            Abstract:  We describe the enhanced rumor surveillance during the avian influenza H5N1 outbreak in 2004. The World Health Organization's Western Pacific Regional Office identified 40 rumors; 9 were verified to be true. Rumor surveillance informed immediate public health action and prevented unnecessary and costly responses.

            Descriptors:  influenza prevention and control, avian influenza A virus, population surveillance methods, communication, disease outbreaks, influenza epidemiology, avian influenza epidemiology, World Health Organization.

Samadieh, B. (1971). Pathogenicity, transmissibility and diagnosis of two strains of avian influenza-A viruses in turkeys. Dissertation Abstracts International, B 31(9): 5440.

            NAL Call Number:  Z5055.U49D53

            Descriptors:  avian influenza A virus, diagnosis, pathogenicity, transmissibility, turkeys.

Samadieh, B. and R.A. Bankowski (1970). Effect of avian influenza-A viruses upon egg production and fertility of turkeys. Avian Diseases 14(4): 715-22.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Descriptors:  eggs, fertility, influenza veterinary, poultry diseases physiopathology, turkeys, antibodies analysis, hemagglutination inhibition tests, influenza physiopathology, insemination, artificial, orthomyxoviridae, semen microbiology.

Samadieh, B. and R.A. Bankowski (1971). Transmissibility of avian influenza-A viruses. American Journal of Veterinary Research 32(6): 939-45.  ISSN: 0002-9645.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Am3A

            Descriptors:  bird diseases microbiology, influenza veterinary, orthomyxoviridae pathogenicity, poultry diseases microbiology, turkeys, antibodies analysis, bird diseases immunology, birds, carrier state veterinary, chick embryo immunology, hemagglutination inhibition tests, immune sera analysis, influenza immunology, injections, intramuscular, injections, intravenous, nose microbiology, ovum immunology, poultry diseases immunology,  trachea microbiology.

Savic, V. (2001). Avian influenza: a continuous threat to poultry production. Praxis Veterinaria (Zagreb) 49(1/2): 31-37.  ISSN: 0350-4441.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, diagnosis, prevention, losses, poultry.

Schafer, J.R., Y. Kawaoka, W.J. Bean, J. Suss, D. Senne, and R.G. Webster (1993). Origin of the pandemic 1957 H2 influenza A virus and the persistence of its possible progenitors in the avian reservoir. Virology 194(2): 781-8.  ISSN: 0042-6822.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 V81

            Abstract:  H2N2 influenza A viruses caused the Asian pandemic of 1957 and then disappeared from the human population 10 years later. To assess the potential for similar outbreaks in the future, we determined the antigenicity of H2 hemagglutinins (HAs) from representative human and avian H2 viruses and then analyzed the nucleotide and amino acid sequences to determine their evolutionary characteristics in different hosts. The results of longitudinal virus surveillance studies were also examined to estimate the prevalence of avian H2 isolates among samples collected from wild ducks and domestic poultry. Reactivity patterns obtained with a large panel of monoclonal antibodies indicated antigenic drift in the HA of human H2 influenza viruses, beginning in 1962. Amino acid changes were clustered in two regions of HA1 that correspond to antigenic sites A and D of the H3 HA. By contrast, the antigenic profiles of the majority of avian H2 HAs were remarkably conserved through 1991, resembling the prototype Japan 57 (H2N2) strain. Amino acid changes were distributed throughout HA1, indicating that antibodies do not play a major role in the selection of avian H2 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two geographic site-specific lineages of avian H2 HAs: North American and Eurasian. Evidence is presented to support interregion transmission of gull H2 viruses. The human H2 HAs that circulated in 1957-1968 form a separate phylogenetic lineage, most closely related to the Eurasian avian H2 HAs. There was an increased prevalence of H2 influenza viruses among wild ducks in 1988 in North America, preceding the appearance of H2N2 viruses in domestic fowl. As the prevalence of avian H2N2 influenza viruses increased on turkey farms and in live bird markets in New York City and elsewhere, greater numbers of these viruses have come into direct contact with susceptible humans. We conclude that antigenically conserved counterparts of the human Asian pandemic strain of 1957 continue to circulate in the avian reservoir and are coming into closer proximity to susceptible human populations.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks, disease reservoirs, hemagglutinins viral genetics, influenza epidemiology, influenza A virus genetics, orthomyxoviridae infections epidemiology, Americas epidemiology, antibodies, monoclonal, antibodies, viral immunology, Asia epidemiology, birds microbiology, Europe epidemiology, evolution, fowl plague epidemiology, fowl plague genetics, genes viral genetics, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus, influenza genetics, influenza A virus avian genetics, avian immunology, human genetics, human immunology, influenza A virus immunology, molecular sequence data,  orthomyxoviridae infections genetics, phylogeny, population surveillance, time factors.

Schild, G.C., E. Kurstak (ed.) and  C. Kurstak (ed.) (1981). Influenza infections in lower mammals and birds. In: Comparative Diagnosis of Viral Diseases, Vol. IV, Chapter B, p. 151-183.

            NAL Call Number:  RC114.5.C6

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, equine influenza virus, swine influenza virus, comparative diagnosis, mammals, birds.

Schild, G.C., R.W. Newman, R.G. Webster, D. Major, and V.S. Hinshaw (1980). Antigenic analysis of influenza A virus surface antigens: considerations for the nomenclature of influenza virus. Brief review. Archives of Virology 63(3-4): 171-84.  ISSN: 0304-8608.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ar23

            Descriptors:  antigens, surface analysis, antigens, viral analysis, hemagglutinins viral analysis, influenza A virus immunology, antigens, viral classification, hemagglutinins viral classification, influenza A virus avian immunology, human immunology, porcine immunology, neuraminidase immunology, terminology.

Schmitt, B. (2003). International standards for vaccines for List A diseases. Developmental Biology 114: 27-29.  ISSN: 1424-6074.

            Descriptors:  pharmacology, prevention, control, foot and mouth disease, Newcastle disease, avian influenza, Office International des Epizooties, OIE, World Trade Organization, WTO, international standards, international animal health code, List A diseases.

Schneeberger, P.M., R.A.M. Fouchier, J.M. Broekman, S.A.G. Kemink,  F.W. Rozendaal, M.P.G. Koopmans, and A.D.M. Osterhaus (2003). A fatal case of infection with avian influenza A virus (H7N7) of a veterinarian during a highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak in the Netherlands. Abstracts of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Chicago, IL, USA, September 14-17, 2003 43: 492.

            Descriptors:  infection, occupational health, avian influenza A virus, viral pneumonia, veterinarian, human death, Netherlands.

Scholtissek, C. (1987). Molecular aspects of the epidemiology of virus disease. Experientia 43(11-12): 1197-201.  ISSN: 0014-4754.

            NAL Call Number:  475 Ex7

            Abstract:  With regard to molecular epidemiology, influenza A viruses belong to the best-studied virus systems. At least two large reservoirs of influenza A viruses have been built up in nature, one in humans and another one in water fowls. The latter one is very heterogenous, consisting of viruses belonging to 13 hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 neuraminidase (NA) subtypes in almost all possible combinations. The segmented structure of the influenza virus genome allows the creation of new influenza strains by reassortment. By replacement of the HA gene of human strains new pandemic viruses can be generated (antigenic shift). The particular structure of the HA enables the human influenza A-viruses to create variants which can escape the immune response of the host (antigenic drift). The nucleoprotein is responsible for keeping those two large reservoirs apart. Mixing of genes of viruses from these two reservoirs seems to happen predominantly by double infection of pigs, which apparently are tolerant for infection by either human or avian influenza viruses. The molecular mechanisms described for influenza viruses can be explained by the particular structure of their genome and their components and cannot be generalized. Each virus has developed its own strategy to multiply and to spread.