Reports and Reviews on Outbreaks

 

 

Akey, B.L. (2003). Low-pathogenicity H7N2 avian influenza outbreak in Virginia during 2002. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 1099-1103.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  An outbreak of low-pathogenicity H7N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia during the spring and summer of 2002 affected 197 farms and resulted in the destruction of over 4.7 million birds. The outbreak affected primarily turkey farms (28 breeders, 125 grow out) with some spillover into chicken farms (29 breeders, 13 grow out, 2 table-egg layers). Although no direct link was established, the strain of H7N2 AIV in this outbreak had a molecular fingerprint that was essentially identical to the H7N2 AIV strain that has circulated in the live bird markets of the northeastern United States for the last 8 yr. After an initial delay caused by lack of viable disposal options, depopulation and disposal, primarily in sanitary landfills, was carried out within 24 hr of detection of a positive flock. Increased surveillance efforts included once-a-week testing of the daily mortality of all poultry farms in the region, testing of all breeder farms every 2 wk, and testing of all flocks prior to movement for any reason. A statistical sampling of backyard flocks and wild birds found no evidence of the virus. The successful eradication of this outbreak was the result of the efforts of a highly effective task force of industry, state, and federal personnel.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, avian influenza, infectious disease, respiratory system disease, viral disease, disease control measures, disease outbreak, poultry farms.

Akram, M. and M.S. Jaffery (1995). Avian influenza in Pakistan. Zootecnica International 18(6): 15.  ISSN: 0392-0593.

            NAL Call Number:  SF600.Z6

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, Gallus gallus, Pakistan.

Alexander, D.J. (2003). Report on avian influenza in the Eastern Hemisphere during 1997-2002. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 792-797.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Since the Fourth International Symposium on Avian Influenza (AI) there has been considerable AI activity in the Eastern Hemisphere. The higher profile of AI resulting from the human infections with H5N1 and H9N2 viruses in Hong Kong, in 1997 and 1999, respectively, resulted in increased reporting and active surveillance. There have been three reported incidents of high-pathogenicity (HP) AI: H5N2 in northeastern Italy in 1997 (eight outbreaks); H5N1 in Hong Kong in 1997 recurring in 2001 and 2002; H7N1 in northeastern Italy resulting in 413 outbreaks in 1999-00. The Italian HPAI outbreaks were preceded by 199 H7N1 low-pathogenicity (LP) AI outbreaks in 1999, and this virus continued to cause some problems after the eradication of HPAI. During the second half of the 1990s outbreaks of LPAI due to H9N2 subtype have been reported in Germany, Italy, Ireland, South Africa, Hungary, Korea, China, Hong Kong, countries of the Middle East, Iran, and Pakistan. The continued presence of virus of this subtype in the Middle and Far East may mean it is becoming an established endemic disease in those regions. Other more restricted outbreaks in poultry have resulted in the isolation of LPAI viruses of H5, H6, H7, and H10 subtypes.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, veterinary medicine, avian influenza, infectious disease, respiratory system disease, viral disease, Fourth International Symposium on Avian Influenza, disease outbreaks.

Alexander, D.J., S.A. Lister, M.J. Johnson, C.J. Randall, and P.J. Thomas (1993). An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in turkeys in Great Britain in 1991. Veterinary Record 132(21): 535-6.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks veterinary, fowl plague epidemiology, influenza A virus avian, poultry diseases epidemiology, turkeys, Great Britain epidemiology, incidence, poultry diseases microbiology.

American Association of Avian Pathologists ( 1983). 1981 summary of disease reports. Avian Diseases 27(3): 860-900.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Descriptors:  diseases, reports, surveys, statistics, summaries, poultry, Mexico, United States.

Andresen, M. (2004). Avian flu: WHO prepares for the worst. CMAJ Canadian Medical Association Journal; Journal De L'Association Medicale Canadienne 170(5): 777.  ISSN: 0820-3946.

            NAL Call Number:  R11.C3

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus, avian influenza A virus, human, influenza, avian virology, birds, Canada, disease outbreaks, health plan implementation, influenza vaccines therapeutic use, avian influenza drug therapy, avian influenza prevention and control, poultry, World Health Organization.

Anonymous (1995). Avian influenza action plan for the United States. Zootecnica International 18(9): 16-17.  ISSN: 0392-0593.

            NAL Call Number:  SF600.Z6

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, action plan, surveys,  disease control, United States.

Anonymous (1986). Avian influenza in Pennsylvania. Foreign Animal Disease Report 14(1): 1.  ISSN: 0091-8199.

            NAL Call Number:  aSF601.U5

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, Pennsylvania.

Anonymous (2004). Avian influenza should be ruffling our feathers. Lancet Infectious Diseases 4(10): 595.  ISSN: 1473-3099.

            Descriptors:  antiviral agents therapeutic use, bird diseases epidemiology, disease outbreaks veterinary, influenza veterinary, influenza vaccines therapeutic use, acetamides therapeutic use, amantadine therapeutic use, southeastern Asia epidemiology, Far East epidemiology, influenza drug therapy, influenza epidemiology, influenza prevention and control, international cooperation, neuraminidase antagonists and inhibitors, rimantadine therapeutic use, sialic acids therapeutic use, World Health Organization.


Anonymous (2004). Avian influenza, Thailand--update. Canada Communicable Disease Report; Releve Des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada 30(21): 181.  ISSN: 1188-4169.

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus, avian, influenza, avian transmission, chickens virology, child, cluster analysis, disease notification, fatal outcome, avian influenza diagnosis, avian influenza epidemiology, Thailand epidemiology.

Anonymous (1979). Avian influenza turkey losses in Minnesota. Foreign Animal Disease Report : 6-8.

            NAL Call Number:  aSF601.U5

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, turkeys, laying hens, outbreaks, Minnesota.

Anonymous (2005). Avian influenza, Vietnam. Canada Communicable Disease Report; Releve Des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada 31(5): 64.  ISSN: 1481-8531.

            Descriptors:  influenza, avian epidemiology, adolescent, disease outbreaks veterinary, influenza epidemiology, influenza transmission, influenza virology, influenza, avian transmission, poultry virology, Vietnam, zoonoses transmission, zoonoses virology.

Anonymous (2004). Flu: the fowl news. Harvard Health Letter From Harvard Medical School 29(6): 7.  ISSN: 1052-1577.

            NAL Call Number:  R11.H3

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks prevention and control, disease outbreaks veterinary, influenza epidemiology, influenza, avian prevention and control, child, influenza, avian epidemiology, poultry.

Anonymous (1995). Highly pathogenic avian influenza in Mexico. Foreign Animal Disease Report (22-4): 7-9.  ISSN: 0091-8199.

            NAL Call Number:  aSF601.U5

            Descriptors:  poultry, Mexico, avian influenza, control, United States, domestic animals, domesticated birds, influenza virus, Latin America, outbreaks.

Anonymous (2005). Influenza in Canada: 2003-2004 season. Canada Communicable Disease Report; Releve Des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada 31(1): 1-18.  ISSN: 1481-8531.

            Descriptors:  influenza epidemiology, adult, Canada, chickens virology, child, influenza A virus, human, influenza B virus, influenza, avian epidemiology.

Anonymous (2004). Lessons from the outbreak of avian influenza across Asia. Indian Veterinary Journal 81(3): A9.  ISSN: 0019-6479.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 In2

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus infection, quarantine, clinical techniques, Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations, World Health Organization, Office International des Epizooties, Asia.

Arzey, G. (2004). The role of wild aquatic birds in the epidemiology of avian influenza in Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal 82(6): 377-8.  ISSN: 0005-0423.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Au72

            Descriptors:  birds virology, disease reservoirs veterinary, influenza, avian epidemiology, avian influenza, transmission, wild animals, Australia epidemiology, etiology.

Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service  (1992). Avian influenza outbreak. AQIS Bulletin 5(8): 2-3.  ISSN: 1033-9280.

            NAL Call Number:  HD9000.9.A8A84

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, disease control, broilers, ducks, Australia.

Bankowski, R.A.ed. (1981 ). Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, April 22-24, 1981. 215 p.

            NAL Call Number: aSF995.6.I6I5 1981a

            Descriptors: poultry, avian influenza virus, symposium.

Bennejean, G. (1981). Current situations of avian influenza in France. In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, p. 28.

            NAL Call Number: aSF995.6.I6I5 1981a

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, surveys, wild birds, France.

Boibieux, A., D. Bouhour, F. Biron, C. Chidiac, and D. Peyramond (1998). Avian influenza in Hong Kong. Médecine Et Maladies Infectieuses 28(2): 193-194.  ISSN: 0399-077X.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza A, human diseases, animal diseases, clinical aspects, disease transmission, reviews, Hong Kong.

Brydak, L.B. and M. Machala (2004). Rola Europejskiej Naukowej Grupy Roboczej ds. Grypy w walce z grypa. [Role of the European Scientific Work Group on Influenza in the battle against influenza]. Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego 16(93): 265-70.  ISSN: 1426-9686.

            Abstract:  The European Scientific Working group on Influenza (ESWI) was established in 1992. Its main task is to reduce impact of influenza in Europe by increase of awareness about influenza, dangers, methods of its prevention among physicians and in the society, stimulation of scientific studies, organizing of conferences, including those on the preparedness plans for the next pandemic. Infections, and in some cases also deaths, caused in humans by avian influenza viruses A(H5N1) in 1997 and 2003, A(H9N2) in 1999 and A(H7N7) in 2003 show that the outbreak of the next pandemic is a matter of time. Considering the above facts ESWI prepared a pilot study to introduce in Poland, Germany and Sweden. The main aim of this project is to achieve a better and more effective control of influenza by an increase of knowledge about influenza, promoting of vaccinations and new antiinfluenza drugs--neuraminidase inhibitors. In Poland project is coordinated by the National Influenza Center located at the National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw. This is only one center in Poland and one of 112 similar centers in 83 countries of the world participating in the international program of influenza surveillance in cooperation with WHO, ESWI and European Influenza Surveillance Scheme.

            Descriptors:  health planning, influenza epidemiology, influenza prevention and control, respiratory tract infections prevention and control, world health, Europe epidemiology, Poland, practice guidelines, respiratory tract infections epidemiology, World Health Organization.

Buisch, W.W., A.E. Hall, and H.A. McDaniel (1984). 1983-1984 lethal avian influenza outbreak. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association 88: 430-446.

            NAL Call Number:  449.9 Un3r

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, outbreak, Maryland, Pennsylvania.

Bulaga, L.L., L. Garber, D. Senne, T.J. Myers, R. Good, S. Wainwright, and D.L. Suarez (2003). Descriptive and surveillance studies of suppliers to New York and New Jersey retail live-bird markets.  Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 1169-1176.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (AIV) H7N2 has been isolated since 1994 from retail live-bird markets (LBMs) in the northeastern United States. This study examines the suppliers to the LBMs in New York and New Jersey. In 2001, 185 supplier premises in nine states were surveyed for the presence of AIV by virus isolation (VI) in embryonating chicken eggs. No H7 or H5 virus was isolated. In addition, 104 producer premises in two states were serologically negative for H7 and H5 AIV. Information on management practices was obtained via questionnaire for 191 premises in 12 states. The survey results suggest that current biosecurity practices at supplier premises could be improved, especially regarding movement of birds. The study supports the hypothesis that H7N2 AIV is primarily maintained within the LBMs and, if reintroduction from suppliers is occurring, it is likely reintroduced at a very low level or from suppliers not included in this study.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, public health, avian influenza, infectious disease, respiratory system disease, viral disease, viral isolation, clinical techniques, diagnostic techniques, immunologic techniques, laboratory techniques, biosecurity, disease surveillance, food safety, retail, live bird markets.

Bulaga, L.L., L. Garber, D.A. Senne, T.J. Myers, R. Good, S. Wainwright, S. Trock, and D.L. Suarez (2003). Epidemiologic and surveillance studies on avian influenza in live-bird markets in New York and New Jersey, 2001. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 996-1001.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  In 2001, all 109 retail live-bird markets (LBMs) in New York and New Jersey were surveyed for the presence of avian influenza virus (AIV) by a real time reverse transcriptase/polymer chain reaction assay (RRT/PCR) and results compared to virus isolation (VI) in embryonating chicken eggs. The RRT/PCR had a 91.9% sensitivity and 97.9% specificity in detecting presence of AIV at the market level. However, the sensitivity at the sample level is 65.87%. The RRT/PCR is a reliable method to identify AIV at the market level. In addition, a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of the LBMs showed that, during the past 12 months, markets that were open 7 days per week and those that also sold rabbits had the highest risk for being positive for AIV. Markets that were closed one or more days per week and those that performed daily cleaning and disinfecting had the lowest risk for being AIV positive.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, avian influenza, infectious disease, respiratory system disease, viral disease, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, RT PCR, genetic techniques, laboratory techniques, viral isolation, immunologic techniques, disease surveillance data, epidemiological data, live bird markets, viral detection, efficacy.

Bunn, C.M. ( 2004). The role of wild aquatic birds in the epidemiology of avian influenza in Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal 82(10): 644.  ISSN: 0005-0423.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Au72

            Descriptors:  wild aquatic birds, avian influenza virus, disease distribution, disease prevalence, disease transmission, disease vectors, outbreaks, reservoir hosts.

Butterfield, W.K.C. (1974). Report of the subcommittee on avian influenza to the committee on transmissible diseases of poultry. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association 78: 278-282.  ISSN: 0082-8750.

            NAL Call Number:  449.9 Un3r

            Descriptors:  avian influenza, transmissible diseases, poultry, report.

Campitelli, L., E. Mogavero, M.A. De Marco, M. Delogu, S. Puzelli, F. Frezza, M. Facchini, C. Chiapponi, E. Foni, P. Cordioli, R. Webby, G. Barigazzi, R.G. Webster, and I. Donatelli (2004). Interspecies transmission of an H7N3 influenza virus from wild birds to intensively reared domestic poultry in Italy. Virology  323(1): 24-36.  ISSN: 0042-6822.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 V81

            Abstract:  Since the "bird flu" incident in Hong Kong SAR in 1997, several studies have highlighted the substantial role of domestic birds, such as turkeys and chickens, in the ecology of influenza A viruses. Even if recent evidence suggests that chickens can maintain several influenza serotypes, avian influenza viruses (AIVs) circulating in domestic species are believed to be introduced each time from the wild bird reservoir. However, so far the direct precursor of influenza viruses from domestic birds has never been identified. In this report, we describe the antigenic and genetic characterization of the surface proteins of H7N3 viruses isolated from wild ducks in Italy in 2001 in comparison to H7N3 strains that circulated in Italian turkeys in 2002-2003. The wild and domestic avian strains appeared strictly related at both phenotypic and genetic level: homology percentages in seven of their genes were comprised between 99.8% (for PB2) and 99.1% (for M), and their NA genes differed mainly because of a 23-aminoacid deletion in the NA stalk. Outside this region of the molecule, the NAs of the two virus groups showed 99% similarity. These findings indicate that turkey H7N3 viruses were derived "in toto" from avian influenza strains circulating in wild waterfowl 1 year earlier, and represent an important step towards the comprehension of the mechanisms leading to interspecies transmission and emergence of potentially pandemic influenza viruses.

            Descriptors:  bird diseases transmission, ducks virology, influenza A virus, avian isolation and purification, avian influenza transmission, poultry diseases transmission, turkeys virology, amino acid sequence, animals, wild virology, bird diseases virology, evolution, molecular, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus, avian influenza A virus genetics, avian influenza, virology, Italy, molecular sequence data, neuraminidase, phylogeny, poultry diseases virology, viral proteins.

Campos Lopez, H. (1995). Status of avian influenza in Mexico. Bulletin Office International Des Épizooties 107(8): 602.  ISSN: 0300-9823.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 OF2

            Descriptors:  avian influenza, status in Mexico, poultry,  control, immunization.

Capua, I. and D.J. Alexander (2004). Avian influenza: recent developments. Avian Pathology 33(4): 393-404.  ISSN: 0307-9457.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.A1A9

            Abstract:  This paper reviews the worldwide situation regarding avian influenza infections in poultry from 1997 to March 2004. The increase in the number of primary introductions and the scientific data available on the molecular basis of pathogenicity have generated concerns particularly for legislative purposes and for international trade. This has led to a new proposed definition of 'avian influenza' to extend all infections caused by H5 and H7 viruses regardless of their virulence as notifiable diseases, although this has encountered some difficulties in being approved. The paper also reviews the major outbreaks caused by viruses of the H5 or H7 subtype and the control measures applied. The zoonotic aspects of avian influenza, which until 1997 were considered to be of limited relevance in human medicine, are also discussed. The human health implications have now gained importance, both for illness and fatalities that have occurred following natural infection with avian viruses, and for the potential of generating a reassortant virus that could give rise to the next human influenza pandemic. Copyright 2004 Houghton Trust Ltd

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks veterinary, influenza A virus, avian pathogenicity, influenza, avian epidemiology, poultry diseases epidemiology, poultry diseases virology, disease outbreaks history, disease outbreaks legislation and jurisprudence, 20th century history, 21st century history, avian classification, poultry, zoonoses virology.

Capua, I. and F.M. Cancellotti (2000). Newcastle disease and avian influenza in Italy during 1999 and 2000. Selezione Veterinaria (Italy) (11): 971-972.  ISSN: 0037-1521.

            NAL Call Number:  241.71 B75

            Descriptors:  Newcastle disease, avian influenza virus, turkeys, Italy.

Capua, I., P.M. Dalla, F. Mutinelli, S. Marangon, and C. Terregino (2002). Newcastle disease outbreaks in Italy during 2000. Veterinary Record 150(18): 565-8.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Abstract:  Among the consequences of the epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza which affected Italy between 1999 and 2000 was an epidemic of Newcastle disease in northern and central Italy. It affected industrially reared poultry, dealer flocks and backyard flocks, with a total of 254 outbreaks notified up to December 31, 2000. Virological investigations yielded virulent isolates of Newcastle disease virus, which produced intracerebral pathogenicity indices ranging from 1.6 to 2.0 and which, on the basis of their monoclonal antibody binding patterns, could be classified as belonging to group C1. The clinical, gross and microscopical findings were typical of Newcastle disease, and different avian species were susceptible to different degrees. Chickens and guinea fowl appeared to be the most susceptible, followed by pheasants, turkeys and ostriches. The epidemiological inquiry highlighted the crucial role of a broiler hatchery in initiating the epidemic, and of dealers in perpetuating it. The control measures imposed by Directive 92/66/EEC are discussed with reference to the outbreaks in backyard flocks.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks, Newcastle disease epidemiology, animal husbandry, Italy epidemiology,  Newcastle disease virus classification, Newcastle disease virus isolation and purification, Newcastle disease virus pathogenicity, poultry, serotyping.

Capua, I., S. Marangon, and L. Bonfanti (2004). Eradication of low pathogenicity avian influenza of the H7N3 subtype from Italy. Veterinary Record 154(20): 639-40.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks veterinary, influenza A virus, avian immunology, influenza vaccines, avian influenza prevention and control, turkeys, disease notification, disease outbreaks prevention and control, avian pathogenicity, avian influenza epidemiology, avian influenza virology, Italy epidemiology, poultry diseases epidemiology, poultry diseases prevention and control, vaccination veterinary.

Capua, I., S. Marangon, and F.M. Cancellotti (2003). The 1999-2000 avian influenza (H7N1) epidemic in Italy. Veterinary Research Communications 27(Suppl.1): 123-127.  ISSN: 0165-7380.

            NAL Call Number:  SF601.V38

            Descriptors:  avian influenza A virus, disease control, disease distribution, outbreaks, mortality, vaccination, ducks, guineafowl, ostriches, pheasants, quails, turkeys, Italy.

Capua, I., S. Marangon, P. Cordioli, L. Bonfanti, and U. Santucci (2002). H7N3 avian influenza in Italy. Veterinary Record 151(24): 743-4.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  fowl plague virology, influenza A virus avian classification, turkeys, disease outbreaks veterinary, fowl plague epidemiology, fowl plague prevention and control, hemagglutination inhibition tests veterinary, avian pathogenicity, Italy epidemiology, phylogeny.

Capua, I., S. Marangon, P.M. Dalla, C. Terregino, and G. Cattoli (2003). Avian influenza in Italy 1997-2001. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 839-843.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  From 1997 to 2001, Italy has been affected by two epidemics of high-pathogenicity avian influenza. The first epidemic was caused by a virus of the H5N2 subtype and was limited to eight premises in backyard and semi-intensive flocks. The prompt identification of the disease was followed by the implementation of European Union (EU) directive 92/40/EEC and resulted in the eradication of infection without serious consequences to the poultry industry. The 1999-00 epidemic was caused by a virus of the H7N1 subtype that originated from the mutation of a low pathogenic virus and resulted instead in a devastating epidemic that affected industrially reared poultry, culminating in the infection of 413 flocks. The description of the epidemics and the result of the control policies are reported.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, avian influenza, infectious disease, respiratory system disease, viral disease, European Union Directive 92, 40, EEC, disease eradication, poultry flocks.

Capua, I., S. Marangon, L. Selli, D.J. Alexander, D.E. Swayne, M. Dalla Pozza, E. Parenti, and F.M. Cancellotti (1999). Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N2) in Italy during October 1997 to January 1998. Avian Pathology 28(5): 455-460.  ISSN: 0307-9457.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.A1A9

            Abstract:  Between the month of October 1997 and January 1998, eight outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza were diagnosed in the Veneto and Friuli-Venezia Giulia regions in north-eastern Italy. For each of the eight outbreaks, influenza A virus of subtype H5N2 was isolated and the inoculation of susceptible chickens confirmed these viruses to be extremely virulent with intravenous pathogenicity indices in 6-week-old chickens of 2.98 to 3.00. Although it was not possible to trace the origin of infection, the epidemiological investigation revealed connections between several outbreaks and emphasized the well-known risk factors for avian influenza such as bird movement, rearing of mixed populations and contact with migratory waterfowl. Control measures listed in European Union directive 92/40/EEC were implemented promptly and spread of the infection to intensively-reared domestic poultry was avoided.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, outbreaks, chickens, virulence, epidemiology, risk factors, disease control, diagnosis, viral antigens, antigen testing.

Capua, I., F. Mutinelli, G. Cattoli, and N. Pozzato (2001). An overview on the Avian influenza and Newcastle disease epidemics in Italy during 1999 and 2000. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 50: 8-11.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease, epidemics, pathogenicity, Italy.

Capua, I., F. Mutinelli, G. Ortali, M. Della Valentina, and A. Zanella (2000). The 1999 avian influenza (H7N1) epidemic in Italy. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 49: 20-24.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, epidemics, pathogenicity, poultry, Italy.

Capua, I., F. Mutinelli, M.C.L. Schiavo, M.D. Pozza, N. Ferré, and G. Manca (2000). Italian avian influenza epidemic. International Poultry Production 8(3): 15, 17.

            NAL Call Number:  SF481.I58

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, epidemics, pathogenicity, Italy.

Capua, I., R. Nardi de, M. Beato S, C. Terregino, M. Scremin, and V. Guberti (2004). Isolation of an avian paramyxovirus type 9 from migratory waterfowl in Italy. Veterinary Record 155(5): 156.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  avian paramyxovirus, disease prevalence, disease surveys, migratory waterfowl, Anas crecca, Anas platyrhynchos.

Capua, I. and D.J. Alexander (2004). An update on avian influenza in poultry. International Congress Series 1263: 741-744.

            Abstract:  The present paper reviews the worldwide situation regarding avian influenza (AI) infections caused by viruses of the H5 and H7 subtype in poultry from 1999 to date. The increase in the number of primary introductions and the scientific data available on the molecular basis of pathogenicity have generated concerns particularly for legislative purposes, for international trade and on novel control strategies, including vaccination. This has led to a new proposed definition of "avian influenza" to extend to all infections caused by H5 and H7 viruses regardless of their virulence as notifiable diseases, although this has encountered some difficulties in being approved. Reference is also made to the zoonotic aspects of avian influenza which until 1997 were considered to be of limited relevance in human medicine, and have now gained importance, both for illness and fatalities which have occurred following natural infection with avian viruses, and for the potential of generating a reassortant virus which could give rise to the next human influenza pandemic.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza, outbreaks, control, zoonosis, poultry, avian influenza A virus, definition.

Capua, I. and S. Marangon (2000). The avian influenza epidemic in Italy, 1999-2000: A review. Avian Pathology 29(4): 289-294.  ISSN: 0307-9457.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.A1A9

            Abstract:  During 1999, northern Italy has been affected by an epidemic of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) caused by a virus of the H7N1 subtype. Due to the characteristics of the poultry industry in the area and to the absence of specific legislative tools to eradicate infection, the virus continued to circulate for several months until a highly pathogenic virus of the same subtype emerged. The highly pathogenic virus had caused death, at the time of writing, of over 13 million birds in 3 months. The consequences of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epidemic appear to be devastating for the poultry industry and the social community. Several conditions generated the current situation, including the high density of susceptible animals and the structure of the poultry industry in the infected area. In addition, the circulation of LPAI virus for a number of months inevitably delayed the prompt identification of HPAI and complicated the interpretation of diagnostic results. A reconsideration of current European legislation and a reorganization of the poultry industry are suggested to prevent the occurrence of similar situations in countries of the European Union.

            Descriptors:  animal husbandry, infection, epidemiology, enrichment broth, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), viral disease, low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI ), H7N1 subtype, viral disease, epidemic.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC (2004). Cases of influenza A (H5N1)--Thailand, 2004. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 53(5): 100-3.  ISSN: 1545-861X.

            NAL Call Number:  RA407.3.M56

            Abstract:  Since mid-December 2003, eight Asian countries (Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, South Korea, Thailand, and Vietnam) have reported an epizootic of highly pathogenic avian influenza in poultry and various other birds caused by influenza A (H5N1). As of February 9, 2004, a total of 23 laboratory-confirmed human cases of influenza A (H5N1) had been reported in Thailand and Vietnam. In 18 (78%) of these cases, the patients died. Clinical experience with avian H5N1 disease in humans is limited. The human H5N1 viruses identified in Asia in 2004 are antigenically and genetically distinguishable from the 1997 and February 2003 viruses. To aid surveillance and clinical activities, this report provides a preliminary clinical description of the initial five confirmed cases in Thailand.

            Descriptors:  influenza virology, influenza A virus, avian, child, fatal outcome, influenza diagnosis, influenza epidemiology, middle aged, Thailand epidemiology.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC (2004). Outbreaks of avian influenza A (H5N1) in Asia and interim recommendations for evaluation and reporting of suspected cases--United States, 2004.  MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 53(5): 97-100.  ISSN: 1545-861X.

            NAL Call Number:  RA407.3.M56

            Abstract:  During December 2003-February 2004, outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) among poultry were reported in Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, South Korea, Thailand, and Vietnam. As of February 9, 2004, a total of 23 cases of laboratory-confirmed influenza A (H5N1) virus infections in humans, resulting in 18 deaths, had been reported in Thailand and Vietnam. In addition, approximately 100 suspected cases in humans are under investigation by national health authorities in Thailand and Vietnam. CDC, the World Health Organization (WHO), and national health authorities in Asian countries are working to assess and monitor the situation, provide epidemiologic and laboratory support, and assist with control efforts. This report summarizes information about the human infections and avian outbreaks in Asia and provides recommendations to guide influenza A (H5N1) surveillance, diagnosis, and testing in the United States.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks prevention and control, influenza virology, influenza A virus, avian influenza isolation and purification, avian influenza epidemiology, Asia epidemiology, influenza epidemiology, influenza prevention and control, avian influenza virology, poultry, poultry diseases epidemiology, poultry diseases virology, public health practice, United States epidemiology.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC (2004). Update: influenza activity--United States, 2003-04 season. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 53(13): 284-7.  ISSN: 1545-861X.

            NAL Call Number:  RA407.3.M56

            Abstract:  This report summarizes influenza activity in the United States during September 29, 2003-March 27, 2004, and updates the previous summary. This report also summarizes human infections with avian influenza viruses related to poultry outbreaks in North America. Preliminary data collected through CDC influenza surveillance indicate that national influenza activity peaked during late November-December. The most frequently isolated viruses were influenza A (H3N2), and approximately 87% of these were similar to the drift variant A/Fujian/411/2002.

            Descriptors:  influenza epidemiology, influenza A virus isolation and purification, adult, child, influenza mortality, influenza virology, influenza B virus isolation and purification, avian influenza epidemiology, poultry, seasons, United States epidemiology.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC (2004). Update: influenza activity--United States and worldwide, 2003-04 season, and composition of the 2004-05 influenza vaccine. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 53(25): 547-52.  ISSN: 1545-861X.

            NAL Call Number:  RA407.3.M56

            Abstract:  During the 2003-04 influenza season, influenza A (H1), A (H3N2), and B viruses co-circulated worldwide, and influenza A (H3N2) viruses predominated. Several Asian countries reported widespread outbreaks of avian influenza A (H5N1) among poultry. In Vietnam and Thailand, these outbreaks were associated with severe illnesses and deaths among humans. In the United States, the 2003-04 influenza season began earlier than most seasons, peaked in December, was moderately severe in terms of its impact on mortality, and was associated predominantly with influenza A (H3N2) viruses. This report 1) summarizes information collected by World Health Organization (WHO) and National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS) collaborating laboratories, state and local health departments, health-care providers, vital statistics registries, and CDC and 2) describes influenza activity in the United States and worldwide during the 2003-04 influenza season and the composition of the 2004-05 influenza vaccine.

            Descriptors:  influenza epidemiology, influenza vaccines, influenza prevention and control, influenza virology, influenza A virus, avian, influenza B virus, population surveillance, seasons, United States epidemiology, world health.

Chaisigh, A., B. Nuansrichay, W. Kalpravidh, O. Pasavorakul, T. Teekayuwat, T. Tiensin, and C. Buranathai. (2003). Laboratory surveillance on avian influenza in Thailand during 1997-2002. In: Proceedings 11th International Symposium of the World Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians and OIE Seminar on Biotechnology, Bangkok, Thailand, p. P6-P7.

            NAL Call Number: SF771.W67 2003

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, disease surveys, pets, aviary birds, wild birds, Thailand.

Cheng, M.C., C.H. Wang, and H. Kida (2004). Influenza A virological surveillance in feral waterfowl in Taiwan from 1998 to 2002. International Congress Series 1263: 745-748.

            Abstract:  Monitoring avian influenza in migrating birds from 1998 to 2002, we sampled 10,945 samples totally for virus isolation, and 232 AI virus isolates were obtained. Further subtyping the isolates, based on hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) and neuraminidase-inhibition (NI) tests, they were classified into 17 different subtypes, i.e., H1N1, H1N3, H2N3, H3N8, H3N6, H4N2, H4N6, H4N7, H4N8, H6N1, H6N2, H7N1, H8N4, H10N4, H10N7, H11N9, and H14N7, respectively. The results revealed that the winter migratory birds carried a lot of AI viruses and the subtype of the isolates had large antigenic variation, with 10 HA and 7 NA subtypes being recognized. On the other hand, H4N6 virus was the dominant subtype and being isolated more frequently among the isolates. These revealed again that a wide variety of AI subtypes might be found in a country with wild bird population, which were carried into an area each year and might impose a threat on the local poultry industry.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza, wild birds surveillance, subtyping, virus isolation.

Choi, Y.K., J.H. Lee, G. Erickson, S.M. Goyal, H.S. Joo, R.G. Webster, and R.J. Webby (2004). H3N2 influenza virus transmission from swine to turkeys, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases 10(12): 2156-60.  ISSN: 1080-6040.

            NAL Call Number:  RA648.5.E46

            Abstract:  In 1998, a novel H3N2 reassortant virus emerged in the United States swine population. We report the interspecies transmission of this virus to turkeys in two geographically distant farms in the United States in 2003. This event is of concern, considering the reassortment capacity of this virus and the susceptibility of turkey to infection by avian influenza viruses. Two H3N2 isolates, A/turkey/NC/16108/03 and A/turkey/MN/764/03, had 98.0% to 99.9% nucleotide sequence identity to each other in all eight gene segments. All protein components of the turkey isolates had 97% to 98% sequence identity to swine H3N2 viruses, thus demonstrating interspecies transmission from pigs to turkeys. The turkey isolates were better adapted to avian hosts than were their closest swine counterparts, which suggests that the viruses had already begun to evolve in the new host. The isolation of swine-like H3N2 influenza viruses from turkeys raises new concerns for the generation of novel viruses that could affect humans.

            Descriptors:  influenza veterinary, influenza A virus, porcine pathogenicity, poultry diseases transmission, swine diseases transmission, turkeys virology, antigenic variation, influenza transmission, porcine genetics, phylogeny, poultry diseases virology, swine, swine diseases virology, United States epidemiology.

Choi, Y.K., H. Ozaki, R.J. Webby, R.G. Webster, J.S. Peiris, L. Poon, C. Butt, Y.H. Leung, and Y. Guan (2004). Continuing evolution of H9N2 influenza viruses in Southeastern China. Journal of Virology 78(16): 8609-14.  ISSN: 0022-538X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR360.J6

            Abstract:  H9N2 influenza viruses are panzootic in domestic poultry in Eurasia and since 1999 have caused transient infections in humans and pigs. To investigate the zoonotic potential of H9N2 viruses, we studied the evolution of the viruses in live-poultry markets in Hong Kong in 2003. H9N2 was the most prevalent influenza virus subtype in the live-poultry markets between 2001 and 2003. Antigenic and phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin (HA) showed that all of the 19 isolates found except one belonged to the lineage represented by A/Duck/Hong Kong/Y280/97 (H9N2). The exception was A/Guinea fowl/NT184/03 (H9N2), whose HA is most closely related to that of the human isolate A/Guangzhou/333/99 (H9N2), a virus belonging to the A/Chicken/Beijing/1/94-like (H9N2) lineage. At least six different genotypes were recognized. The majority of the viruses had nonstructural (and HA) genes derived from the A/Duck/Hong Kong/Y280/97-like virus lineage but had other genes of mixed avian virus origin, including genes similar to those of H5N1 viruses isolated in 2001. Viruses of all six genotypes of H9N2 found were able to replicate in chickens and mice without adaptation. The infected chickens showed no signs of disease, but representatives of two viral genotypes were lethal to mice. Three genotypes of virus replicated in the respiratory tracts of swine, which shed virus for at least 5 days. These results show an increasing genetic and biologic diversity of H9N2 viruses in Hong Kong and support their potential role as pandemic influenza agents.

            Descriptors:  evolution, molecular, influenza A virus, avian classification, avian genetics, poultry virology, chickens virology, China, hemagglutination inhibition tests, avian growth and development, avian isolation and purification, lung virology, mice, mice, inbred balb c, phylogeny, swine virology, virus replication.

Choi, Y.K., S.H. Seo, J.A. Kim, R.J. Webby, and R.G. Webster (2005). Avian influenza viruses in Korean live poultry markets and their pathogenic potential. Virology 332(2): 529-37.  ISSN: 0042-6822.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 V81

            Abstract:  We surveyed live-poultry markets in Korea in 2003 and isolated 9 H9N2, 6 H3N2, and 1 H6N1 influenza viruses. Antigenic and phylogenetic analyses showed that all 9 H9N2 isolates were of A/Chicken/Korea/25232-96006/96-like lineage (which caused disease in chickens in Korea in 1996) but were different from H9N2 viruses of southeastern China. They had at least 4 genotypes and replicated in chickens but not in mice. The H3N2 and H6N1 viruses were new to Korea and were probably reassortants of avian influenza viruses from southeastern China and recent Korean H9N2 viruses. All 8 segments of the H3N2 viruses formed a single phylogenetic cluster with 99.1 to 100% homology. The H3N2 viruses replicated in chickens and mice without preadaptation, but the H6N1 virus did not. Our results show an increasingly diverse pool of avian influenza viruses in Korea that are potential pandemic influenza agents.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza A virus pathogenicity, poultry virology, amino acid sequence, chickens virology, conserved sequence, avian influenza A virus classification, avian influenza A virus isolation and purification, Korea, mice, molecular sequence data, phylogeny, poultry diseases virology, rodent diseases virology, sequence alignment, amino acid sequence homology, viral proteins chemistry.

Cornell University - Department of Population Medicine & Diagnostic Sciences - Animal Health Diagnostic Center - College of Veterinary Medicine (2005). Canine Influenza Virus - Detection and Sampling.

            Online:  http://www.diaglab.vet.cornell.edu/issues/civ-dect.asp

            Abstract:  Canine influenza virus is a relatively new pathogen of dogs. It was first identified in racing greyhounds in 2004 and this virus appears to have been involved with significant respiratory problems on the dog tracks throughout the US for the last 2-3 years. The Virology Lab at Cornell isolated the first influenza virus from an animal that died during one of these clinical episodes. Evidence of infection of non-greyhounds by influenza virus has been found in Florida within the past year as part of the ongoing research efforts by Dr Cynda Crawford at the University of Florida on respiratory disease in dogs.

Curran, R. (2004). Asian bird flu. Emergency Medical Services 33(5): 38-9.  ISSN: 0094-6575.

            Descriptors:  influenza virology, influenza A virus, avian pathogenicity, zoonoses virology, chickens virology, influenza epidemiology, influenza prevention and control, influenza transmission, isolation and purification, Japan epidemiology, respiratory protective devices, zoonoses epidemiology, zoonoses transmission.

Cyranokski, D. (2004). Lack of infrastructure hampers virus monitoring. Nature  427(6974): 472.  ISSN: 1476-4687.

            NAL Call Number:  472 N21

            Descriptors:  influenza diagnosis, influenza veterinary, influenza A virus, avian isolation and purification, adult, Cambodia epidemiology, chickens virology, child, developing countries economics, influenza epidemiology, influenza prevention and control, Laos epidemiology, public health economics, Thailand, Vietnam, zoonoses epidemiology, zoonoses transmission, zoonoses virology.

Cyranoski, D. (2004). Bird flu data languish in Chinese journals. Nature  430(7003): 955.  ISSN: 1476-4687.

            NAL Call Number:  472 N21

            Descriptors:  biomedical research, birds virology, influenza veterinary, influenza A virus, avian isolation and purification, language, periodicals, swine virology, southeastern Asia epidemiology, China epidemiology, communicable disease control, communication barriers, influenza epidemiology, influenza transmission, influenza virology, avian classification, publishing, time factors, zoonoses transmission, zoonoses virology.

Das, P. (2004). Infectious disease surveillance update. Lancet Infectious Diseases 4(8): 481.  ISSN: 1473-3099.

            Descriptors:  chickens, disease outbreaks veterinary, influenza A virus, avian growth and development, avian influenza epidemiology, poultry diseases epidemiology, West Nile fever epidemiology, West Nile virus growth and development, Arizona epidemiology, California epidemiology, China epidemiology, influenza, avian virology, middle aged, poultry diseases virology, Vietnam epidemiology, West Nile fever virology.

Davison, S., R.J. Eckroade, and A.F. Ziegler (2003). A review of the 1996-98 nonpathogenic HN2 avian influenza outbreak in Pennsylvania. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 823-827.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  The nonpathogenic avian influenza (Al) outbreak in Pennsylvania began in December 1996 when there was a trace back from a New York live bird market to a dealer's flock. A total of 18 commercial layer flocks, two commercial layer pullet flocks, and a commercial meat turkey flock were diagnosed with nonpathogenic AI (H7N2) viral infection with an economic loss estimated at between dollar sign3 and dollar sign4 million. Clinical histories of flocks infected with the disease included respiratory disease, elevated morbidity and mortality throughout the house, egg production drops, depression, and lethargy. A unique gross lesion in the commercial layers was a severe, transmural oviduct edema with white to gray flocculent purulent material in the lumen. Layer flocks on two separate premises were quarantined but permitted to remain in the facilities until cessation of virus shed was determined through virus isolation. Several months later, clinical AI appeared again in these flocks. It is not known whether the recurrence of disease in these cases is due to persistence of the organism in the birds or the environment. In addition to serologic testing and virologic testing by chicken embryo inoculation, an antigen capture enzyme immunoassay was evaluated as a diagnostic tool for AI. Research projects related to disinfection, burial pits, and geographical system technology were developed because of questions raised concerning transmission, diagnosis, and control of nonpathogenic Al (H7N2).

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, avian influenza, infectious disease, respiratory system disease, viral disease, serology, clinical techniques, diagnostic techniques, commercial layer flocks, disease outbreak, disease transmission, economic losses, live bird market.

Davison, S., D. Galligan, T.E. Eckert, A.F. Ziegler, and R.J. Eckroade (1999). Economic analysis of an outbreak of avian influenza, 1997-1998. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 214(8): 1164-1167.  ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Am3

            Descriptors:  economic losses, economic analysis, outbreaks, disease control, avian influenza virus, turkeys, United States, Pennsylvania.

De Marco, M.A., L. Campitelli, E. Foni, E. Raffini, G. Barigazzi, M. Delogu, V. Guberti, L. Di Trani, M. Tollis, and I. Donatelli (2004). Influenza surveillance in birds in Italian wetlands (1992-1998): is there a host restricted circulation of influenza viruses in sympatric ducks and coots? Veterinary Microbiology 98(3-4): 197-208.  ISSN: 0378-1135.

            NAL Call Number:  SF601.V44

            Abstract:  We report the results of a 6-year serological and virological monitoring performed in ducks and coots in Italy, in order to assess the degree of influenza A virus circulation in these birds during wintering. A total of 1039 sera collected from 1992 to 1998 was screened by a double antibody sandwich blocking ELISA (NP-ELISA): seroprevalence of antibodies to influenza A viruses was significantly higher in ducks compared to coots (52.2% vs. 7.1%, respectively). The hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay, performed on NP-ELISA positive sera, showed that 16.9% of these duck sera and 33.3% of these coot sera had antibodies to at least one influenza virus HA subtype: ducks showed HI antibodies against most of the HA subtypes, except for the H3, H4, H7, and H12; coots were seropositive to the H3 and H10 subtypes, only. From 1993 to 1998, 22 virus strains were obtained from 802 cloacal swabs, with an overall virus isolation frequency of 2.7%. Viruses belonging to the H1N1 subtype were by far the most commonly circulating strains (18/22) and were isolated mainly from ducks (17/18). The remaining viruses were representative of the H10N8, H5N2 and H3N8 subtypes. Our data indicate some differences between influenza A virus circulation in sympatric ducks and coots and a significant antigenic diversity between some reference strains and viruses recently isolated in Italy.

            Descriptors:  bird diseases virology, disease reservoirs veterinary, ducks, influenza veterinary, influenza A virus, avian isolation and purification, antibodies, viral blood, cloaca virology, ecosystem, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay veterinary, hemagglutination inhibition tests veterinary, influenza blood, influenza epidemiology, influenza virology, Italy epidemiology, seroepidemiologic studies.

de Marco, M.A., E. Foni, L. Campitelli, E. Raffini, M. Delogu, and I. Donatelli (2003). Long-term monitoring for avian influenza viruses in wild bird species in Italy.  Veterinary Research Communications 27(Suppl.1): 107-114.  ISSN: 0165-7380.

            NAL Call Number:  SF601.V38

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, disease distribution, disease prevalence, predatory birds, waterfowl, wild birds, Italy.

de Wit, J.J., J.H. van Eck, R.P. Crooijmans, and A. Pijpers (2004). A serological survey for pathogens in old fancy chicken breeds in central and eastern part of The Netherlands. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 129(10): 324-7.  ISSN: 0040-7453.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 T431

            Abstract:  To get an impression of the presence of pathogens in multi-aged flocks of old fancy chicken breeds in the Netherlands, plasma samples originating from 24 flocks were examined for antibodies against 17 chicken pathogens. These flocks were housed mainly in the centre and east of the Netherlands, regions with a high poultry density. The owners of the tested flocks showed their chicken at national and international poultry exhibitions. Antibodies against Avian Influenza, Egg Drop Syndrome '76 virus, Pox virus, Salmonella pullorum/gallinarum, Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Typhimurium were not detected. However, antibodies against other Salmonella species, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, infectious bursal disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, avian encephalomyelitis virus, chicken anaemia virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, and avian leukosis virus, subgroups A and B, and subgroup J were detected in a varying proportion of the flocks. This study shows that antibodies against many chicken pathogens are present among the flocks of old fancy chicken breeds that are exhibited at international poultry exhibitions.

            Descriptors:  bacterial infections veterinary, chickens, poultry diseases epidemiology, virus diseases veterinary, antibodies, bacterial blood, viral blood, bacterial infections epidemiology, Netherlands epidemiology, poultry diseases microbiology, prevalence, risk factors, seroepidemiologic studies, virus diseases epidemiology.

del Rey Calero, J. (2004 ). Aspectos epidemiologicos del SARS y de la influenza aviar [Epidemiological perspectives on SARS and avian influenza]. Anales De La Real Academia Nacional De Medicina 121(2): 289-304.  ISSN: 0034-0634.

            Abstract:  SARS is a respiratory infection caused by Coronavirus (Nidoviruses, RNA) from which 3 groups are known. Group 1 affects dogs, cats, pigs, and the human agent is 229 E. Group 2 affects bovines or rodents, and the human agent is OC43. And group 3 corresponds to the avian pathology.... The epidemics emerged on February 2003 in Guangdong, South China, due to consumption of exotic animals (Civeta, etc.), and it spread through interperson contagion to other regions in Asia, America and Europe. Incubation period is about 2-7 days. Transmission Of the virus is person-to person, but also by excretions and residual water. Basic reproductive rate is 2 to 4, and it is considered that 2.7 persons are infected from the initial case. In June 2003, SARS affected over 8,000 people and 774 were killed. Mortality approaches to 10%, and it is higher among older people rising up to 50% in those aged over 65 years. It is important to quickly establish action protocols regarding clinical, epidemiological and prevention aspects. Avian influenza is an infection caused by type A Influenza Orthomixovirus, in which migration birds and wild ducks are the main reservoir. Avian viruses correspond to H5, H7, H9. In 1997 it was observed that type AH5N1 jumped interspecies barrier and affected 18 humans, and 6 of them died. At the end of 2003 and in 2004 this type of poultry flu was described in Asia. FAO has emphasized that sacrifice of chicken in affected farms is the most effective measure to fight against the disease. It has also been established suppression of imports from these countries. There is no evidence on interperson contagion from chicken contagion, nor on food-borne contagion to humans.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza epidemiology, severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemiology, adult, age factors, aged, Asia epidemiology, chickens, China epidemiology, disease reservoirs, prevention and control, transmission, middle aged, risk factors, severe acute respiratory syndrome mortality, severe acute respiratory syndrome prevention and control, severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission.

Duee, J.P. and M. Fontaine (1980). Apparition d'influenza aviaire chez la poule dans le nord de la France. Isolement d'un virus Hav 9 N 2. [Outbreak of avian influenza among fowls in northern France. Isolation of type 'Hav 9 N 2' virus]. Bulletin De L'Academie Veterinaire De France 53(4): 491-500.  ISSN: 0001-4192.

            NAL Call Number:  41.9 R24

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, poultry, outbreaks, France.

Dunn, P.A., P.E.A. Wallner, H. Lu, D.P. Shaw, D. Kradel, D.J. Henzler, P. Miller, D.W. Key, M. Ruano, and S. Davison (2003). Summary of the 2001-02 Pennsylvania H7N2 low pathogenicity avian influenza outbreak in meat type chickens. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 812-816.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  H7N2 low-pathogenicity (LP) avian influenza (AI) virus was isolated from chickens submitted to the Pennsylvania Animal Diagnostic Laboratory System on December 4 and 5, 2001. The cases were from two broiler breeder flocks in central Pennsylvania that had clinical signs of an acute, rapidly spreading respiratory disease. Seroconversion to AI virus was detected on follow-up sampling. Subsequently, H7N2 LPAI virus was isolated in five different broiler flock cases submitted between December 14, 2001. and January 3, 2002. Clinical signs and lesions in broilers, when present, were compatible with multicausal respiratory disease. With the exception of one broiler flock that was processed, birds from all of the virus positive flocks were euthanatized in-house within 11 days of the original case submission date. Increased surveillance of poultry flocks within 10-mile radius zones centered at the foci of the positive farms continued until March 1, 2002. No additional cases were detected.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, avian influenza, infectious disease, respiratory system disease, viral disease, broiler breeder flocks, disease outbreak, seroconversion.

Ebrahim, G.J. (2004). Avian flu and influenza pandemics in human populations. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 50(4): 192-4.  ISSN: 0142-6338.

            NAL Call Number:  RJ1.J6

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks, influenza epidemiology, influenza A virus, classification, pathogenicity, human pathogenicity, species specificity, avian influenza A, avian genetics, human genetics, avian influenza epidemiology, birds.

Eckroade, R.J., L.A. Silverman, and H.M. Acland (1984). Avian influenza in Pennsylvania. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Conference 33: 1-2.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, report, poultry, Pennsylvania.

Ehlers, M., M. Moeller, S. Marangon, and N. Ferre (2003). The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) in the frame of the contingency plan implemented during the 1999-2001 avian influenza (AI) epidemic in Italy. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 1010-1014.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a very powerful and flexible software tool for effective management of spatially referenced data (e.g., geodata). Coupling database and GIS technology provides the tools for a detailed analysis of spatial patterns and distributions in veterinary applications. A specific veterinary GIS (VetGIS) toolbox was developed to perform the calculation of indices such as Lorenz curve, GINI index, and a kernel-based animal density estimation. This software was employed for the analysis and management of avian influenza in Italy during the 1999-2000 epidemic.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, avian influenza, epidemiology, infectious disease, respiratory system disease, viral disease, geographic information system (GIS) applied and field techniques, epidemic contingency plan, epidemiological data.

Elbers, A.R., T.H. Fabri, T.S. de Vries, J.J. de Wit, A. Pijpers, and G. Koch (2004). The highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H7N7) virus epidemic in The Netherlands in 2003--lessons learned from the first five outbreaks. Avian Diseases 48(3): 691-705.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Clinical signs and gross lesions observed in poultry submitted for postmortem examination (PME) from the first five infected poultry flocks preceding the detection of the primary outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of subtype H7N7 during the 2003 epidemic in the Netherlands are described. The absence of HPAI from the Netherlands for more than 75 yr created a situation in which poultry farmers and veterinary practitioners did not think of AI in the differential diagnosis as a possible cause of the clinical problems seen. Increased and progressive mortality was not reported to the governmental authorities by farmers or veterinary practitioners. It took 4 days from the first entry of postmortem material to notify the governmental authorities of a strong suspicion of an AI outbreak on the basis of a positive immunofluoresence test result. The gross lesions observed at PME did not comply with the descriptions in literature, especially the lack of hemorrhagic changes in tissues, and the lack of edema and cyanosis in comb and wattles is noted. The following lessons are learned from this epidemic: a) in the future, increased and progressive mortality should be a signal to exclude AI as cause of disease problems on poultry farms; b) intensive contact between the veterinary practitioner in the field and the veterinarian executing PME is necessary to have all relevant data and developments at one's disposal to come to a conclusive diagnosis; c) in an anamnesis, reporting of high or increased mortality should be quantified in the future (number of dead birds in relation to the number of birds brought to the farm to start production, together with the timing within the production cycle), or else this mortality cannot be interpreted properly; d) if clinical findings such as high mortality indicate the possibility of HPAI, the pathologist should submit clinical samples to the reference laboratory, even if PME gives no specific indications for HPAI; e) the best way to facilitate early detection of an HPAI outbreak is to have the poultry farmer and/or veterinary practitioner immediately report to the syndrome-reporting system currently in operation the occurrence of high mortality, a large decrease in feed or water intake, or a considerable drop in egg production; f) in order to detect low pathogenic avian influenza infections that could possibly change to HPAI, a continuous serologic monitoring system has been set up, in which commercial poultry flocks are screened for antibodies against AI virus of subtypes H5 and H7.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks veterinary, influenza A virus, avian influenza, avian epidemiology, poultry diseases epidemiology, disease outbreaks history, epidemiologic methods veterinary, fluorescent antibody technique, veterinary history, 21st century, avian mortality, avian pathology, Netherlands epidemiology, poultry, poultry diseases pathology, poultry diseases virology.

Ellis, T.M., R.B. Bousfield, L.A. Bissett, K.C. Dyrting, G.S. Luk, S.T. Tsim, K. Sturm Ramirez, R.G. Webster, Y. Guan, and J.S. Malik Peiris (2004). Investigation of outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in waterfowl and wild birds in Hong Kong in late 2002. Avian Pathology 33(5): 492-505.  ISSN: 0307-9457.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.A1A9

            Abstract:  Outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza have occurred in Hong Kong in chickens and other gallinaceous poultry in 1997, 2001, twice in 2002 and 2003. High mortality rates were seen in gallinaceous birds but not in domestic or wild waterfowl or other wild birds until late 2002 when highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza occurred in waterfowl (geese, ducks and swans), captive Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) and other wild birds (Little Egret Egretta garzetta) at two waterfowl parks and from two dead wild Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea) and a Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus) in Hong Kong. H5N1 avian influenza virus was also isolated from a dead feral pigeon (Columba livia) and a dead tree sparrow (Passer montanus) during the second outbreak. The first waterfowl outbreak was controlled by immediate strict quarantine and depopulation 1 week before the second outbreak commenced. Control measures implemented for the second outbreak included strict isolation, culling, increased sanitation and vaccination. Outbreaks in gallinaceous birds occurred in some live poultry markets concurrently with the second waterfowl outbreak, and infection on a chicken farm was detected 1 week after the second waterfowl park outbreak was detected, on the same day the second grey heron case was detected. Subsequent virus surveillance showed the outbreaks had been contained.

            Descriptors:  bird diseases epidemiology, bird diseases virology, communicable disease control, disease outbreaks veterinary, influenza A virus, avian pathogenicity, influenza, avian epidemiology, bird diseases transmission, birds, Hong Kong, immunoassay veterinary, immunoenzyme techniques veterinary, avian transmission, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction veterinary.

Enserink, M. (2004). Infectious diseases. Bird flu infected 1000, Dutch researchers say. Science 306(5696): 590.  ISSN: 1095-9203.

            NAL Call Number:  470 Sci2

            Descriptors:  antibodies, viral blood, conjunctivitis, viral virology, influenza A virus, avian immunology, occupational diseases epidemiology, orthomyxoviridae infections epidemiology, agricultural workers' diseases epidemiology, agricultural workers' diseases virology, viral epidemiology, disease outbreaks veterinary, hemagglutination inhibition tests, influenza, avian epidemiology, Netherlands epidemiology, occupational diseases virology, orthomyxoviridae infections transmission, orthomyxoviridae infections virology, poultry, zoonoses.

Enserink, M. and J. Kaiser (2004). Virology. Avian flu finds new mammal hosts. Science 305(5689): 1385.  ISSN: 1095-9203.

            NAL Call Number:  470 Sci2

            Descriptors:  Carnivora virology, cat diseases virology, influenza veterinary, influenza A virus, avian pathogenic, avian genetics, avian influenza transmission, avian influenza virology, poultry, swine, swine diseases virology.

Erasmus, B. (2004). Avian influenza. Poultry Bulletin South Africa Poultry Association : 245, 247.  ISSN: 0257-201X.

            NAL Call Number:  47.8 So89

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, genomes, pathogenicity,  hosts, disease control, monitoring, immunization, immunostimulation, immunotherapy, South Africa, poultry.

Ferguson, N.M., C. Fraser, C.A. Donnelly, A.C. Ghani, and R.M. Anderson (2004). Public health. Public health risk from the avian H5N1 influenza epidemic. Science 304(5673): 968-9.  ISSN: 1095-9203.

            NAL Call Number:  470 Sci2

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks veterinary, influenza epidemiology, influenza transmission, influenza A virus, avian genetics, avian pathogenicity, population surveillance, public health, animals, domestic, cluster analysis, influenza virology, human genetics, human pathogenicity, avian influenza epidemiology, avian influenza prevention and control, avian influenza transmission, avian influenza virology, mathematics, reassortant viruses genetics, reassortant viruses pathogenicity, recombination, genetic, risk assessment, world health, zoonoses.

Fichtner, G.J. (1984). Problems associated with lethal avian influenza eradication. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association 88: 415-420.

            NAL Call Number:  449.9 Un3r

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, disease control, eradication, problems.

Fioretti, A., V. Papparella, L.F. Menna, S. Scebba, and M. Milone (1988). Primi risultati sull'attivita dell'osservatorio epidemiologico contro l'influenza aviare presso il Centro Sperimentale Avicunicolo di Varcaturo. [First results of epidemic monitoring of influenza in wild birds by the Varcaturo Experimental Avian Centre]. Clinica Veterinaria  111(1-2): 73-78.  ISSN: 0009-9082.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 C61

            Descriptors:  wild birds, avian influenza virus, monitoring.

Fomsgaard, A., P.C. Grauballe, and S.O. Glismann (2004). Risiko for en ny influenzapandemi? [Risk of a new influenza pandemic?]. Ugeskrift for Laeger 166(10): 912-5.  ISSN: 0041-5782.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks prevention and control, influenza epidemiology, influenza A virus classification, influenza A virus genetics, influenza A virus pathogenicity, zoonoses virology, birds, communicable disease control, influenza prevention and control, influenza transmission, avian influenza transmission, poultry, world health, zoonoses transmission.

Gandolfi, P. (2004). Influenza aviaria ed epidemia nei Paesi del sud-est asiatico. [Avian influenza and the epidemic in the countries of South East Asia]. Rivista Di Avicoltura 73(3): 26-32.  ISSN: 1722-6945.

            NAL Call Number:  47.8 R523

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, disease control, epidemic, poultry, zoonoses, South East Asia.

Ghazikhanian, G.Y., B.J. Kelly, W.M. Dungan, R.A. Bankowski, B. Reynolds, and R.W. Wichman (1985). Avian influenza outbreaks in turkey breeder flocks form 1979 to 1981. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 34: 23-25.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  turkeys, avian influenza virus, diagnosis, disease transmission, disease distribution, economic impact, California.

Govorkova, E.A., J.E. Rehg, S. Krauss, H.L. Yen, Y. Guan, M. Peiris, T.D. Nguyen, T.H. Hanh, P. Puthavathana, H.T. Long, C. Buranathai, W. Lim, R.G. Webster, and E. Hoffmann ( 2005). Lethality to ferrets of H5N1 influenza viruses isolated from humans and poultry in 2004. Journal of Virology 79(4): 2191-8.  ISSN: 0022-538X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR360.J6

            Abstract:  The 2004 outbreaks of H5N1 influenza viruses in Vietnam and Thailand were highly lethal to humans and to poultry; therefore, newly emerging avian influenza A viruses pose a continued threat, not only to avian species but also to humans. We studied the pathogenicity of four human and nine avian H5N1/04 influenza viruses in ferrets (an excellent model for influenza studies). All four human isolates were fatal to intranasally inoculated ferrets. The human isolate A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) was the most pathogenic isolate; the severity of disease was associated with a broad tissue tropism and high virus titers in multiple organs, including the brain. High fever, weight loss, anorexia, extreme lethargy, and diarrhea were observed. Two avian H5N1/04 isolates were as pathogenic as the human viruses, causing lethal systemic infections in ferrets. Seven of nine H5N1/04 viruses isolated from avian species caused mild infections, with virus replication restricted to the upper respiratory tract. All chicken isolates were nonlethal to ferrets. A sequence analysis revealed polybasic amino acids in the hemagglutinin connecting peptides of all H5N1/04 viruses, indicating that multiple molecular differences in other genes are important for a high level of virulence. Interestingly, the human A/Vietnam/1203/04 isolate had a lysine substitution at position 627 of PB2 and had one to eight amino acid changes in all gene products except that of the M1 gene, unlike the A/chicken/Vietnam/C58/04 and A/quail/Vietnam/36/04 viruses. Our results indicate that viruses that are lethal to mammals are circulating among birds in Asia and suggest that pathogenicity in ferrets, and perhaps humans, reflects a complex combination of different residues rather than a single amino acid difference.

            Descriptors:  influenza virus infection, respiratory system disease, viral disease complications, etiology, mortality, pathology, transmission, Vietnam, Thailand, ferrets, chickens, humans.

Grose, C. and K. Chokephaibulkit (2004). Avian influenza virus infection of children in Vietnam and Thailand. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 23(8): 793-4.  ISSN: 0891-3668.

            Abstract:  Influenza viruses from chickens (H5N1) have caused outbreaks in children from both Vietnam and Thailand in 2004. All infected patients presented with fever and cough. Striking laboratory findings included leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. All children who developed progressive pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome died. However, very few children received antiviral therapy.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks, influenza A virus, avian influenza pathogenicity, avian influenza complications, influenza avian epidemiology, respiratory distress syndrome, adult etiology, adolescent, adult, aged, antiviral agents, child, preschool child, avian influenza pathology, leukopenia etiology, middle aged, prognosis, retrospective studies, risk factors, Thailand epidemiology, thrombocytopenia etiology, Vietnam epidemiology.

Gust, I.D., A.W. Hampson, and D. Lavanchy (2001). Planning for the next pandemic of influenza. Reviews in Medical Virology 11(1): 59-70.  ISSN: 1052-9276.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks prevention and control, influenza epidemiology, world health, antiviral agents therapeutic use, influenza drug therapy, influenza prevention and control, influenza virology, influenza vaccine administration and dosage, orthomyxoviridae genetics, orthomyxoviridae immunology, practice guidelines, vaccination, World Health Organization.

Hall, C. (2004). Impact of avian influenza on U.S. poultry trade relations-2002: H5 or H7 low pathogenic avian influenza. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1026: 47-53.  ISSN: 0077-8923.

            NAL Call Number:  500 N484

            Abstract:  Avian influenza (AI) viruses are Type A influenza viruses of the Orthomyxoviridae family. There are 15 subtypes of the virus widespread in migratory waterfowl throughout the world. It has become increasingly evident that some low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H5 or H7 viruses have the capacity to mutate into the more virulent strains that cause extensive economic losses and high mortality. Recent AI disease outbreaks in several countries have increased attention and concern over low pathogenic H5 and H7 AI viruses. This heightened international concern increases the risk of unnecessary trade bans. For the US poultry industry, avian influenza continues to be a challenge to the flow of trade. On one hand, there is the increased focus of world attention on the H5 and H7 low pathogenic AI virus and the possibility of mutation. On the other hand, there are the factors contributing to our finding of infected flocks. Among these, perhaps the most important is the ever-present reservoir of virus in the migratory waterfowl population. With the discovery of exposed flocks comes the threat of trade bans.

            Descriptors:  commerce, disease outbreaks, influenza A virus, pathogenicity, prevention and control, transmission, poultry, wild animals, ducks, avian genetics, epidemiology, public policy, United States.

Heijmans, J.F. (2000). Alarm in the Netherlands due to the threat of highly pathogenic avian influenza occurring in Italy. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 125(6): 188-189.  ISSN: 0040-7453.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 T431

            Descriptors:  outbreaks, pathogenesis, avian influenza virus, Italy, Netherlands.

Hirst, M., C.R. Astell, M. Griffith, S.M. Coughlin, M. Moksa, T. Zeng, D.E. Smailus, R.A. Holt, S. Jones, M.A. Marra, M. Petric, M. Krajden, D. Lawrence, A. Mak, R. Chow, D.M. Skowronski, S.A. Tweed, S. Goh, R.C. Brunham, J. Robinson, V. Bowes, K. Sojonky, S.K. Byrne, Y. Li, D. Kobasa, T. Booth, and M. Paetzel (2004). Novel avian influenza H7N3 strain outbreak, British Columbia. Emerging Infectious Diseases 10(12): 2192-5.  ISSN: 1080-6040.

            NAL Call Number:  RA648.5.E46

            Abstract:  Genome sequences of chicken (low pathogenic avian influenza [LPAI] and highly pathogenic avian influenza [HPAI]) and human isolates from a 2004 outbreak of H7N3 avian influenza in Canada showed a novel insertion in the HA0 cleavage site of the human and HPAI isolate. This insertion likely occurred by recombination between the hemagglutination and matrix genes in the LPAI virus.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks veterinary, influenza A virus, avian genetics, avian influenza epidemiology, amino acid sequence, British Columbia epidemiology, chickens, avian influenza pathogenicity, avian influenza virology, models, molecular, molecular sequence data, mutagenesis, insertional, protein conformation, sequence alignment, viral proteins chemistry.

Hoffrogge, W., K.P. Linn, J.J. Arnold, J. Bachmeier, K.P. Behr, U. Lohren, M. Poppel, G. Reetz, and M. Voss (2003). Lessons and consequences of the highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak in the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany for the German Poultry Association [Erfahrungen und Konsequenzen aus dem HPAI-influenza-Geschehen in den Niederlanden, Belgien und Deutschland]. Archiv Fur Geflugelkunde 67(6): 264-283.  ISSN: 0003-9098.

            NAL Call Number:  47.8 Ar2

            Descriptors:  disease control, consequences, outbreaks, poultry, vaccination, avian influenza virus, Netherlands, Germany, Belgium.

Huang, P., H. Ni, G. Shen,  H. Zhou, G. Peng, and S. Liu (2001). Analysis of the 1991-2000 influenza epidemic in Guangdong Province, China. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 32(4):  787-90.  ISSN: 0125-1562.

            NAL Call Number:  RC960.S6

            Abstract:  Influenza surveillance networks in Guangdong were established to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of influenza and influenza epidemics. Influenza activity peaked annually from March to July in Guangdong in 1991-2000; influenza H3N2 predominated in the epidemic (7 years of 10); the outbreak of influenza in 1996 was the remarkable result of antigenic drift of H3N2 strain. Ten isolates of H9N2 strains were discovered from human subjects in 1998 and 1999: chicken strains isolated after the Hong Kong fowl influenza outbreak. It was found that there was just one influenza activity season per annum in Guangdong and that the influenza H3N2 subtype still predominates in Guangdong. Further research into the pathogenicity of influenza H9N2 in humans warranted.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks, influenza epidemiology, animals, domestic virology, chickens virology, China epidemiology, disease notification, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, avian pathogenicity, population surveillance.

Huntley, J.P. (1998). Avian influenza monitoring program in the Northeast [USA]. In: 33rd National Meeting on Poultry Health & Processing, Ocean City, Maryland, USA, p. 31-37.

            Descriptors: monitoring, disease surveys, control programs, disease transmission, prevalence, disinfection, hygiene, avian influenza virus, northeast, United States.

Hurd, H.S., K. Forsythe, and S.C. Trock (1998). Risk analysis of potential options for the 1997 nonpathogenic avian influenza outbreak in Pennsylvania. Foreign Animal Disease Report (Summer 1998): 32-40.  ISSN: 0091-8199.

            Online:  http://www.aphis.usda.gov/lpa/pubs/fadrep.pdf

            NAL Call Number:  aSF601.U5

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, outbreaks, disease control, risk assessment, Pennsylvania.

Inoue, K. (2004). Highly pathogenic avian flu, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases 10(7): 1327-8.  ISSN: 1080-6040.

            NAL Call Number:  RA648.5.E46

            Descriptors:  birds virology, carrier state transmission, carrier state virology, chickens virology, influenza A virus, avian pathogenicity, animal migration, influenza, avian influenza transmission, avian influenza virology, Japan, Korea, poultry diseases virology, virulence.

Itamura, S. (2004). [SARS, pandemic influenza, avian influenza: quest for missing link]. Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso; Protein, Nucleic Acid, Enzyme 49(6): 772-80.  ISSN: 0039-9450.

            NAL Call Number:  QD431.T3

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus, avian pathogenicity, SARS virus pathogenicity, severe acute respiratory syndrome virology, Asia epidemiology, disease outbreaks, avian influenza epidemiology, avian influenza transmission, avian influenza virology, poultry diseases epidemiology, poultry diseases transmission, poultry diseases virology, severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemiology, severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission, virulence, zoonoses epidemiology, zoonoses transmission.

Jennings, L. (2004). Avian influenza: a public health risk for New Zealand. New Zealand Medical Journal 117(1192): U843.  ISSN: 1175-8716.

            NAL Call Number:  R99.N4

            Descriptors:  influenza, avian epidemiology, public health, communicable disease control methods, disease outbreaks statistics and numerical data, influenza A virus isolation and purification, avian influenza transmission, avian influenza virology, New Zealand epidemiology, poultry, risk factors, world health, zoonoses epidemiology, zoonoses transmission, zoonoses virology.

Joffe, H. and N.Y. Lee (2004). Social representation of a food risk: the Hong Kong avian bird flu epidemic. Journal of Health Psychology 9(4): 517-33.  ISSN: 1359-1053.

            Abstract:  The paper explores the social representation of the 2001 Hong Kong avian bird flu epidemic from the perspective of local women. Fifty women were asked to describe their first thoughts about the flu, and these were subsequently explored. Thematic analysis of the semi-structured interviews revealed that the first thoughts were characterized by: (a) the origin of the epidemic, (b) anchors for it, (c) emotions about it, and (d) images of it. Aspersion concerning the lack of hygiene of Mainland Chinese chicken rearers and chicken sellers in Hong Kong dominated the interviews. Other environmental factors were also stressed, as was regulation leniency and a drive to profit. Comparisons between old traditions and newer practices formed a central feature. The findings are discussed in terms of their continuity with western risk findings as well as their specific cultural nuances.

            Descriptors:  bird diseases epidemiology, food, social behavior, adult, bird diseases virology, culture, disease outbreaks, health behavior, Hong Kong epidemiology, hygiene, influenza A virus, avian isolation and purification, middle aged, questionnaires.

Johnson, D.C., B.G. Maxfield, and J.I. Moulthrop (1977). Epidemiologic studies of the 1975 avian influenza outbreak in chickens in Alabama. Avian Diseases 21(2): 167-77.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  The epidemiology of the first reported non-fowl-plague avian influenza (AI) virus, A/Chicken/Alabama/75 (Hav4Neq2), isolated from chickens in the United States is discussed. The signs and pathologic changes have been described. The environment, nutrition, and stress factors are discussed as possible contributors to the disease syndrome observed in 3 commercial egg-laying flocks. Avian influenza antibody was demonstrated by agargel precipitation in convalescent chickens through 83 days postinfection. A serological survey of 321 additional poultry flocks was negative for antibodies against avian influenza. A survey was made by serology and virus isolation techniques on 387 wild free-flying birds that fed and roosted in the area. Wild waterfowl are discussed as a possible source of the AI virus.

            Descriptors:  chickens, disease outbreaks veterinary, influenza veterinary, poultry diseases epidemiology, Alabama, bird diseases immunology, birds, influenza epidemiology, influenza immunology, poultry diseases immunology.

Johnston, A.M. (2004). Avian influenza outbreak in south east Asia. Journal of the Royal Society of Health 124(2): 64-5.  ISSN: 0264-0325.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks prevention and control, influenza epidemiology, influenza A virus, avian pathogenicity, avian influenza epidemiology, southeastern Asia epidemiology, birds, influenza prevention and control, influenza transmission, avian influenza prevention and control, avian influenza transmission.

Kaleta, E.F. (1997). Epidemiology of avian diseases. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 45(3): 267-80.  ISSN: 0236-6290.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 AC83

            Abstract:  A large number of diseases occur in domestic, farm-raised poultry. Only two of the many different diseases are notifiable and subject to governmental control: highly pathogenic avian influenza and Newcastle disease. Diagnosis and treatment or prevention of all other conditions are left to the skills of farmers and their veterinarians. Poultry production is aimed at providing more and tastier food for the ever growing human community. Infectious diseases and technical errors during production and processing need to be minimised. The concept of hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) has already been introduced into food processing and quality assessment. The regulations laid down in ISO 9000 will soon become a powerful and practical tool for monitoring and improving the productivity of live poultry. Approved epidemiological concepts and tools will enable the poultry industry to achieve constant and safe production. Certification on the basis of ISO 9000 of all areas of poultry production is a new approach for maintaining the health of poultry, for tracing and subsequently eliminating breaks in productivity, and securing production without health hazards for the consumer.

            Descriptors:  chickens, communicable diseases veterinary, poultry diseases epidemiology, turkeys,  communicable diseases epidemiology, consumer product safety standards, disease outbreaks, food handling standards, guidelines, incidence, meat standards, poultry diseases diagnosis, poultry diseases etiology, poultry products standards, proportional hazards models.

Kaleta, E.F. and A. Honicke (2004). Review of the literature on avian influenza A viruses in pigeons and experimental studies on the susceptibility of domestic pigeons to influenza A viruses of the haemagglutinin subtype H7. DTW Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 111(12): 467-72.  ISSN: 0341-6593.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 D482

            Abstract:  The scientific literature of the past century is reviewed on fowl plague (presently termed highly pathogenic avian influenza, HPAI) in pigeons. HPAI viruses cause epidemic disease outbreaks with high rates of losses in many avian species, particularily in chickens and turkeys. Also susceptible to disease are quails, guinea fowl, ducks, geese, ostriches, passerine birds, and birds of prey whereas conflicting reports on the susceptibility of the domestic pigeon exist. Based on literature reports and on own experiments, and applying as criteria for judgements clinically overt forms of disease, virus multiplication plus shedding and seroconversion, it is concluded that domestic pigeons are only partially susceptible to influenza A viruses of the haemagglutinin subtype H7. Infection of pigeons with H7 viruses results only in some of them in signs, virus shedding and seroconversion. Using the same criteria, pigeons appear to be even less susceptible to infection with influenza A viruses of the H5 subtype. Only one of five publications describe in 1/19 pigeons exposed to H5 influenza A virus depression one day before death, and only 2/19 multiplied and excreted virus, and 1/19 developed circulating antibodies. Consequently, pigeons play only a minor role in the epidemiology of H5 influenza viruses. In contrast, following infection with influenza A virus of the subtype H7 clinical signs in pigeons consist of conjunctivitis, tremor, paresis of wings and legs, and wet droppings. H7-infected pigeons multiply and excrete H7 viruses and develop circulating antibodies. Albeit of the status of infection, free-flying domestic pigeons can act as mechanical vectors and vehicles for long-distance transmission of any influenza A virus if plumage or feet were contaminated.

            Descriptors:  Columbidae virology, influenza A virus, avian pathogenicity, avian influenza virology, chick embryo, chickens, disease susceptibility veterinary, ducks, avian classification, avian influenza pathology, avian influenza transmission, species specificity, virus shedding.

Kaman, S. (1993). Avian influenza in the northeastern United States: January 1992 through May 1993. Foreign Animal Disease Report 21(2-3): 7.  ISSN: 0091-8199.

            NAL Call Number:  aSF601.U5

            Descriptors:  poultry, north eastern states United States, avian influenza virus, epidemiology, America, domestic animals, domesticated birds, influenza virus, livestock, North America, United States, useful animals, viruses.

Karunakaran, D., J.A. Newman, D.A. Halvorson, A. Abraham, C. Bailey, and C. Kelleher (1981). Avian influenza in Minnesota--an update. Miscellaneous Report Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station (179): 85-91.

            NAL Call Number:  100 M66 1

            Descriptors:  turkeys, avian influenza virus, viral diseases, epidemiology, disease transmission, diagnosis, vaccination, Minnesota.

Kemink, S.A., R.A. Fouchier, F.W. Rozendaal, J.M. Broekman, M. Koopmans, A.D. Osterhaus, and P.M. Schneeberger (2004 ). Een fatale infectie door aviair influenza-A (H7N7)-virus en aanpassing van het preventiebeleid. [A fatal infection due to avian influenza-A (H7N7) virus and adjustment of the preventive measures]. Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde 148(44): 2190-4.  ISSN: 0028-2162.

            Abstract:  In February 2003, the highly pathogenic avian influenza-A virus, subtype H7N7, was the causative agent of a large outbreak of fowl plague in the Netherlands. Two days after visiting a poultry farm that was infected by fowl plague, a 57-year-old male veterinarian developed malaise, headache and fever. After 8 days he was admitted to hospital with signs of pneumonia. Five days later, his condition deteriorated alarmingly. Despite extensive pharmacotherapy he died 4 days later of acute pneumonia. Influenza-A virus, subtype H7N7, was identified by means of reverse transcriptase/PCR in broncho-alveolar washings that had been obtained earlier; routine virus culture yielded the isolate A/Nederland/219/03, which differs by 14 amino-acid substitutions from the first isolate in a chicken (A/kip/Nederland/1/03). Partly as a result of this case, the preventive measures were then adjusted; people who came into contact with infected poultry were given increased possibilities for vaccination and the administration of oseltamivir.

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus, avian isolation and purification, avian influenza transmission, occupational diseases prevention and control, poultry diseases transmission, zoonoses, disease outbreaks, fatal outcome, avian influenza pathogenicity, avian influenza epidemiology, avian influenza prevention and control, avian influenza virology, middle aged, Netherlands epidemiology, occupational diseases virology, poultry, poultry diseases epidemiology, veterinarians.

Kermode Scott, B. (2004). WHO confirms avian flu infections in Canada. BMJ Clinical Research 328(7445): 913.  ISSN: 1468-5833.

            Descriptors:  influenza, avian epidemiology, Canada epidemiology, poultry.

Kida, H. (2004). [Avian influenza virus]. Uirusu Journal of Virology 54(1): 93-6.  ISSN: 0042-6857.

            Abstract:  Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in chickens and ducks that occurred in 9 Asian countries including Japan alarmed to realize that there is no border for infections and gave a rise to great concern for human health as well as for agriculture. This H5N1 virus jumped the species barrier and caused severe disease with high mortality in humans in Viet Nam and Thailand; 15 deaths of 22 cases and 8 of 12, respectively. A second concern was the possibility that the situation could give rise to another influenza pandemic in humans since genetic reassortment may occur between avian and human influenza viruses when a person is concurrently infected with viruses from both species. This process of gene swapping inside the human body can give rise to a new subtype of the influenza virus to which humans would not have immunity. The outbreaks also emphasized the need to continue active surveillance on avian influenza throughout the year to undertake aggressive emergency control measures as soon as an infection is detected.

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus, avian genetics, avian pathogenicity, Asia epidemiology, disease outbreaks, Europe epidemiology, influenza epidemiology, influenza virology, avian influenza epidemiology, avian influenza virology, poultry, zoonoses epidemiology, zoonoses transmission, zoonoses virology.

Kinde, H., D.H. Read, B.M. Daft, M. Hammarlund, J. Moore, F. Uzal, J. Mukai, and P. Woolcock (2003). The occurrence of avian influenza A subtype H6N2 in commercial layer flocks in Southern California (2000-02): Clinicopathologic findings.  Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 1214-1218.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Between February 2000 and February 2002, the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System diagnosed 26 cases of low-pathogenic H6N2 avian influenza from 12 commercial egg-laying farms. The most common gross and histologic lesions observed in infected chickens were fibrinous yolk peritonitis, salpingitis, oophoritis, and nephritis. Edema of the mesentery of the oviduct and pale, swollen kidneys were also observed. Mortality in infected flocks ranged from 0.25% to 3%, and egg production dropped 7% to 40%.

            Descriptors:  infection, veterinary medicine, avian influenza, infectious disease, respiratory system disease, viral disease, fibrinous yolk peritonitis, digestive system disease, reproductive system disease, female, nephritis, urologic disease, oophoritis, endocrine disease, gonads, reproductive system disease, female, salpingitis, reproductive system disease, female, clinicopathology commercial egg laying farms commercial layer flocks.

Kohler, M. and W. Kohler (2001). Zentralblatt fur bakteriologie--100 years ago an outbreak of fowl plague in Tyrol in 1901. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 291(5): 319-21.  ISSN: 1438-4221.

            NAL Call Number:  QR1.Z443

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks history, disease outbreaks veterinary, fowl plague history, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, Austria epidemiology, filtration instrumentation, fowl plague diagnosis, fowl plague epidemiology, fowl plague etiology, Germany epidemiology, history of medicine, 19th century, history of medicine, 20th century, Italy epidemiology, poultry.

Krilov, L.R. (2004). Emerging infectious disease issues in international adoptions: severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), avian influenza and measles. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 17(5): 391-5.  ISSN: 0951-7375.

            Abstract:  PURPOSE OF REVIEW: New emerging infections over the last few years demonstrate the potential for the introduction of epidemic illness through global migration. The increasing number of children adopted internationally (>20,000 in 2003, from the United States State Department) provides a unique situation for the spread of emerging infections through the combination of international travel by parents through areas where such infections may be contracted and the nature of the living conditions for many of the orphans being placed by this process. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent literature on three emerging infections--avian influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and measles--describes clinical aspects of the illnesses and their epidemiology. For avian influenza aspects of the agrarian economy in southeast Asia enabled the virus to reach the human population. The potential for further adaptation to people could set the stage for a new pandemic. SARS evolved in rural China and spread worldwide in one season with an approximate 10% mortality. Attention to public-health measures led to control of this new illness. Most recently, outbreaks of measles in Chinese orphanages have been documented. These findings demonstrate the potential of such infections to be transmitted during the process of international adoption, and in the case of measles the realization of this potential in recent reported cases from Chinese orphanages brought to the United States on commercial airlines. SUMMARY: Clinicians involved in international adoption and public-health officials assessing emerging infections need to work together in monitoring these issues.

            Descriptors:  adoption, communicable diseases, emerging epidemiology, emigration and immigration, severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemiology, adolescent, adult, child, preschool child, communicable disease control, communicable diseases, emerging transmission, infant, influenza epidemiology, influenza transmission, influenza A virus, avian, SARS virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission.

Lang, G. (1981). A review of influenza in Canadian domestic and wild birds. In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, p. 21-27.

            NAL Call Number: aSF995.6.I6I5 1981a

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, ducks, turkeys, pheasants, wild birds, Canada, outbreaks.

Laver, W.G., R.G. Webster, and C.M. Chu (1984). From the National Institutes of Health. Summary of a meeting on the origin of pandemic influenza viruses. Journal of Infectious Diseases 149(1): 108-15.  ISSN: 0022-1899.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 J821

            Abstract:  Influenza type A virus periodically undergoes major antigenic shifts in which the hemagglutinin (HAG) and sometimes the neuraminidase (NA) antigens are replaced by HAG and NA antigens of another subtype. Three such shifts have taken place since the virus was first isolated, and all appear to have occurred in China. The way in which these "new" influenza type A viruses suddenly appear (or reappear) in the human population is not known. At a meeting held in Beijing, China, on November 10-12, 1982, participants discussed the latest findings on the molecular biology of influenza viruses and on aspects of their ecology that may offer insight into the factors responsible for the origin of pandemic influenza viruses. Information obtained in earlier studies has provided some clues about how the antigenic shifts may occur. For example, the H3N2 virus has been found to be a recombinant deriving seven of its eight genes from an H2N2 strain and gene 4 (which encodes for the HAG) from some other virus, possibly an avian influenza virus of the H3 subtype [1-3]. In addition, studies of the genome of the H1N1 virus that appeared in Anshan, China, in 1977 have shown that this virus almost certainly underwent no replication for 27 years. This finding suggests that the virus existed in an animal reservoir during this period [4, 5].

            Descriptors:  influenza microbiology, influenza A virus human physiology, orthomyxoviridae physiology, antigens, viral immunology, China, disease reservoirs, ecology, epitopes immunology, genes viral, hemagglutinins viral immunology, influenza therapy, human genetics, influenza A virus physiology, influenza vaccine immunology, macromolecular systems, neuraminidase genetics, neuraminidase immunology, orthomyxoviridae genetics, orthomyxoviridae immunology,  recombination, genetic, T lymphocytes, cytotoxic immunology, virus replication.

Lee, C.W., D.A. Senne, J.A. Linares, P.R. Woolcock, D.E. Stallknecht, E. Spackman, D.E. Swayne, and D.L. Suarez (2004). Characterization of recent H5 subtype avian influenza viruses from US poultry. Avian Pathology 33(3): 288-97.  ISSN: 0307-9457.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.A1A9

            Abstract:  In the US, the isolation of H5 subtype avian influenza (AI) viruses has been uncommon in commercial chickens and turkeys, although sporadic isolations have been made from the live bird markets or its supply chain since 1986. In 2002, two different outbreaks of H5 AI occurred in commercial chicken or turkey operations. The first occurred in Texas and was identified as a H5N3 subtype AI virus. The second outbreak was caused by a H5N2 virus isolated from a turkey farm in California. In this study we analyzed recent H5 subtype AI viruses from different avian species and different sources in the US. Most recent H5 subtype isolates shared a high sequence identity and phylogenetically assorted into a separate clade from the Pennsylvania/83 lineage isolates. However, no established lineage was found within this clade and the recent H5 subtype isolates seemed to be the result of separate introductions from the wild bird reservoir. The Texas H5N3 isolate shared the lowest homology with the other recent isolates in the haemagglutinin gene and had a unique haemagglutinin cleavage site sequence of REKR/G (other recent isolates have the typical avirulent motif, RETR/G). Furthermore, this isolate had a 28 amino acid deletion in the stalk region of the neuraminidase protein, a common characteristic of chicken adapted influenza viruses, and may indicate that this virus had actually been circulating in poultry for an extended period of time before it was isolated. In agreement with genetic evidence, the Texas H5N3 isolate replicated better than other H5 isolates in experimentally infected chickens. The outbreak in Texas with a more chicken-adapted H5N3 virus underscores the importance of ongoing surveillance and control efforts regarding the H5 subtype AI virus in the US.

            Descriptors:  chickens virology, disease outbreaks veterinary, influenza A virus, avian genetics, avian epidemiology, poultry diseases epidemiology, turkeys virology, amino acid sequence, base sequence, geography, hemagglutinins genetics, avian pathogenicity, avian virology, molecular sequence data, phylogeny, poultry diseases virology, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, sequence alignment, sequence analysis, DNA, sequence homology, species specificity, United States epidemiology.

Li, C.H., X.Z. Zhou, and M.X. Li (2004). [Discoveries of avian influenza A(H9N2) virus in chickens and men infected by H9N2 virus in Guangzhou area]. Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi 18(3): 213-4.  ISSN: 1003-9279.

            Abstract:  OBJECTIVE: To understand the epidemic status of avian influenza A virus in chickens and men in Guangzhou area and to prevent men suffering from avian influenza A (H5N1) virus. METHODS: Etiologic and serological surveys were conducted in chickens and men who were working in the poultry farms and slaughter house. Viruses were isolated with both MDCK cells and embryonated chicken eggs. Hemagglutination inhibition tests were performed by routine method. RESULTS: Anti-H9N2 antibody was found in 12.8% of the chickens and 5.1% of the workers. CONCLUSIONS: Avian influenza virus H9N2 subtype existed in chickens and this subtype of influenza A virus might infect men.

            Descriptors:  antibodies, influenza A virus, blood serum, epidemics, fowl diseases, human diseases, poultry, serological surveys, viral diseases, zoonoses, Asia, Gallus gallus, avian influenza virus, developing countries, China, birds.

Li, K.S., Y. Guan, J. Wang,  G.J. Smith, K.M. Xu, L. Duan, A.P. Rahardjo, P. Puthavathana, C. Buranathai, T.D. Nguyen, A.T. Estoepangestie, A. Chaisingh, P. Auewarakul, H.T. Long, N.T. Hanh, R.J. Webby, L.L. Poon, H. Chen, K.F. Shortridge, K.Y. Yuen, R.G. Webster, and J.S. Peiris (2004). Genesis of a highly pathogenic and potentially pandemic H5N1 influenza virus in eastern Asia. Nature  430(6996): 209-13.  ISSN: 1476-4687.

            NAL Call Number:  472 N21

            Abstract:  A highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, H5N1, caused disease outbreaks in poultry in China and seven other east Asian countries between late 2003 and early 2004; the same virus was fatal to humans in Thailand and Vietnam. Here we demonstrate a series of genetic reassortment events traceable to the precursor of the H5N1 viruses that caused the initial human outbreak in Hong Kong in 1997 (refs 2-4) and subsequent avian outbreaks in 2001 and 2002 (refs 5, 6). These events gave rise to a dominant H5N1 genotype (Z) in chickens and ducks that was responsible for the regional outbreak in 2003-04. Our findings indicate that domestic ducks in southern China had a central role in the generation and maintenance of this virus, and that wild birds may have contributed to the increasingly wide spread of the virus in Asia. Our results suggest that H5N1 viruses with pandemic potential have become endemic in the region and are not easily eradicable. These developments pose a threat to public and veterinary health in the region and potentially the world, and suggest that long-term control measures are required.

            Descriptors:  evolution, molecular, influenza epidemiology, influenza virology, orthomyxoviridae genetics, orthomyxoviridae pathogenicity, birds virology, far east epidemiology, genes, viral genetics, genotype, influenza transmission, molecular sequence data, mutation genetics, orthomyxoviridae isolation and purification, phylogeny, reassortant viruses genetics, reassortant viruses isolation and purification, reassortant viruses pathogenicity, time factors.

Lipkind, M., Y. Weisman, E. Shihmanter, and D. Shoham. (1981). Review of the three-year studies on the ecology of avian influenza viruses in Israel. In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, p. 69-78.

            NAL Call Number: aSF995.6.I6I5 1981a

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, cloacal swabs, poultry, wild birds, Israel, ecological studies.

Lopez, H.C., E.R. Cruz, and M.I. Enrich (1996). Situacion y perspectivas del programa de erradicacion de la influenza aviar en Mexico. [Status and perspective of the avian influenza eradication program in Mexico]. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 45: 13-16.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, Mexico, America, influenza virus, Latin America, North America, orthomyxoviridae, viruses.

Lu, H., P.A. Dunn, E.A. Wallner Pendleton, D.J. Henzler, D.C. Kradel, J. Liu, D.P. Shaw, and P. Miller (2004). Investigation of H7N2 avian influenza outbreaks in two broiler breeder flocks in Pennsylvania, 2001-02. Avian Diseases 48(1): 26-33.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  An avian influenza (AI) outbreak occurred in meat-type chickens in central Pennsylvania from December 2001 to January 2002. Two broiler breeder flocks were initially infected almost simultaneously in early December. Avian influenza virus (AIV), H7N2 subtype, was isolated from the two premises in our laboratory. The H7N2 isolates were characterized as a low pathogenic strain at the National Veterinary Services Laboratories based on molecular sequencing of the virus hemagglutinin cleavage site and virus challenge studies in specific-pathogen-free leghorn chickens. However, clinical observations and pathologic findings indicated that this H7N2 virus appeared to be significantly pathogenic in meat-type chickens under field conditions. Follow-up investigation indicated that this H7N2 virus spread rapidly within each flock. Within 7 days of the recognized start of the outbreak, over 90% seroconversion was observed in the birds by the hemagglutination inhibition test. A diagnosis of AI was made within 24 hr of bird submission during this outbreak using a combination of virus detection by a same-day dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus isolation in embryonating chicken eggs. Follow-up investigation revealed that heavy virus shedding (90%-100% of birds shedding AIV) occurred between 4 and 7 days after disease onset, and a few birds (15%) continued to shed virus at 13 days post-disease onset, as detected by virus isolation on tracheal and cloacal swabs. AIV was not detected in or on eggs laid by the breeders during the testing phase of the outbreak. The two flocks were depopulated at 14 days after disease onset, and AIV was not detected on the two premises 23 days after depopulation.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks veterinary, avian influenza epidemiology, poultry diseases epidemiology, antibodies, viral blood, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay veterinary, influenza A virus, avian classification, avian immunology, avian isolation and purification, avian diagnosis, avian virology, Pennsylvania epidemiology, poultry diseases diagnosis, poultry diseases virology, quarantine veterinary.

Mannelli, A., N. Ferre, S. Marangon, and M. Drigo. (2004). Spatio-temporal analysis of the 1999-2000 avian influenza epidemic in the main poultry production area in Northern Italy. In: Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Proceedings of a meeting, Martigny, Switzerland, p. 13-20.

            NAL Call Number: SF780.9.S63

            Descriptors: disease distribution, disease surveys, disease transmission, epidemiological surveys, epidemics, outbreaks, logistic regression analysis, risk factors, survival analysis, susceptibility, temporal variation, avian influenza virus, turkeys,  poultry, fowl, Italy.

Manuel Arriola, J. (2000 ). The Mexican experience. World Poultry (Special): 23-24.  ISSN: 1388-3119.

            NAL Call Number:  SF481.M54

            Descriptors:  poultry, vaccines, immunization, disease prevention, disease control, avian influenza virus, Mexico, developing countries.

Marabelli, R. (2000). Highly pathogenic avian influenza in Italy. Summary of the outbreaks that occurred in January and February 2000. Disease Information Office International Des Epizooties 13(10): 2.  ISSN: 1012-5329.

            NAL Call Number:  SF781.D57

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, pathogenicity, poultry,  turkeys, quails, guineafowls, Italy.

Marangon, S. and M. dalla Pozzo (1998). Avian influenza in Veneto and Friuli-Veneto Giulia: description of the outbreaks. Selezione Veterinaria (Italy) (12): 930-934.  ISSN: 0037-1521.

            NAL Call Number:  241.71 B75

            Descriptors:  outbreaks, poultry, avian influenza virus, turkeys, guineafowl, Italy.

Martins, N.R. da S. (2001). Avian influenza: a review of the last ten years. Revista Brasileira De Cięncia Avícola 3(2): 97-140.  ISSN: 1516-635X.

            NAL Call Number:  SF481.R485

            Descriptors:  diagnosis, disease control, prevention, disease surveys, poultry, reviews, avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, Brazil, South America.

Marwick, C. (1998). Investigators present latest findings on Hong Kong 'bird flu' to the FDA. JAMA the Journal of the American Medical Association 279(9): 643-4.  ISSN: 0098-7484.

            NAL Call Number:  448.9 Am37

            Descriptors:  influenza virology, influenza A virus avian genetics, disease outbreaks, Hong Kong epidemiology, influenza epidemiology, poultry virology.

Meede, S.L., R.M. Ceniceros, I.G. Tellez, and M.L. Paasch (1996). Influeunza aviar en Mexico: estudio recapitulativo. [Avian influenza in Mexico: a recapitulative study]. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 45: 301-304.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, Mexico, America, influenza virus, Latin America, North America, orthomyxoviridae, viruses.

Meijer, A., B. Wilbrink, M. du Ry van Beest Holle, R.A.M. Fouchier, G. Natrop, A. Bosman, A.D.M.E. Osterhaus, J.E. van Steenbergen, M.A.E. Conyn van Spaendonck, and M. Koopmans (2004). Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A(H7N7) infection of humans and human-to-human transmission during avian influenza outbreak in the Netherlands. International Congress Series 1263: 65-68.

            Abstract:  During the outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H7N7) in the Netherlands in 2003, human infection occurred in unexpectedly high numbers. Initially, all those involved in the culling of poultry were advised to wear protective clothing, goggles, and nose-mouth masks, and to wash their hands after work. In a later stage, vaccination and antiviral prophylaxis of all poultry workers and antiviral treatment of all cases was initiated. Case finding was implemented immediately. Conjunctival and nose/throat swabs were collected from 453 persons. Eighty-nine persons were A(H7) positive, 78 with conjunctivitis only, 5 with conjunctivitis and influenza-like illness (ILI), 2 with ILI only and 4 did not fit the case definitions. Nine A(H7) cases had both positive conjunctival and nose/throat swabs. One A(H7) case had an A(H7) positive nose/throat swab only. Of the two A(H7) cases presenting with ILI only, a veterinarian who developed a respiratory distress syndrome died. Three contacts of two A(H7) positive poultry workers developed A(H7) conjunctivitis. One of these, the 12-year-old daughter of a poultry worker, additionally developed ILI. Since they had no direct exposure to infected poultry, these observations strongly suggest human-to-human transmission. No simultaneous infection with A(H7) and human influenza virus in one patient was detected.

            Descriptors:  highly pathogenic avian influenza A, H7N7, poultry, epizootic, poultry to human transmission, conjunctivitis, Netherlands, human to human transmission.

Meulemans, G. (1981). Avian influenza in Belgium. In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, p. 19-20.

            NAL Call Number: aSF995.6.I6I5 1981a

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, ducks, laying hens, poultry, Belgium.

Meza, G.G. (1990). Virginia 1989 H7-N3 avian influenza outbreak: an interesting experience. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 39: 87-89.  ISSN: 0094-8780.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  broilers, avian influenza virus, outbreaks, Virginia.

Mixson, M.A. (1988). Avian influenza [and Newcastle disease] survey update. Foreign Animal Disease Report 16(2): 2-3.  ISSN: 0091-8199.

            NAL Call Number:  aSF601.U5

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, disease surveys, poultry, turkey, duck, guineafowl, New York, New Jersey.

Mixson, M.A. and J.L. Williams (1989). Avian influenza antibodies in Virginia and Florida chickens. Foreign Animal Disease Report 17(4): 3-4.  ISSN: 0091-8199.

            NAL Call Number:  aSF601.U5

            Descriptors:  antibodies, avian influenza virus, poultry,  Virginia, Florida.

Miyamoto, H., K. Sahara, and M. Sugieda (2004). Seroepidemiological analysis of influenza pandemics in Shizuoka Prefecture and all Japan. International Congress Series 1263: 413-416.

            Abstract:  (1) Seroepidemiological analysis of influenza pandemics (1986-2003) in Shizuoka Prefecture and all Japan revealed differences in geographical, annual, seasonal, and age distributions. (2) For 17 years, the pandemics generally began at the 50th week every year showing over 1.0 patient/clinic, reached the peak at 5th week the following year, and ended over 10-15th week. Two big A/H3N2 pandemics were seen in 1989/1990 and 1997/1998 seasons, claiming over 1 million patients in Japan. (3) As herald strains, A/H3N2 strains (A/Sydney-like) were found in October 1999, and B strains (B/Victoria- and B/Yamagata-like) were detected in July and November 1998 and, in August and December 2000 in Shizuoka. B/Shizuoka/1/98 strain was registered internationally as a vaccine-recommended strain. (4) A/H3N2 and B viruses were detected in 55-78% of flu patients (almost under 10 years) with encephalopathy in 1999/2000 and 78-91% in 2000/2001 by MDCK and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods. (5) High hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers over 40 in 250 persons were shown against A/Sydney/5/97 (H3N2), A/Yokohama/8/98 (H3N2), A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2) and A/Moscow/10/99 (H1N1) strains, while low titers showed against A/Beijing/262/95 (H1N1) and A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), and B/Beijing/243/97, B/Shangdong/7/97 and B/Yamanashi/106/98 strains in 1998-2000. (6) In anti-HA titers against A/H3N2, A/H1N1 and B subtypes, clear generation gaps were observed between children (0-19 years), adults (20-59 years) and old men (over 60 years). (7) The pandemics are dependent on host immunity (acquired and vaccinated) and climatic conditions (low temperature, low humidity and limited rainfall), considering highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses (A/H5N1, A/H7N7) like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) corona virus in 2002-2003.

            Descriptors:  active dynamic surveillance, Herald strain, vaccine recommended strain, influenza associated encephalopathy, highly pathogenic avian influenza, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, hemagglutination inhibition, SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome, coronavirus, Japan.

Morgan, I.R. and A.P. Kelly (1990). Epidemiology of an avian influenza outbreak in Victoria in 1985 [broiler chickens]. Australian Veterinary Journal 67(4): 125-128.  ISSN: 0005-0423.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Au72

            Abstract:  In May 1985 an outbreak of avian influenza, a disease exotic to the Australian poultry industry, occurred on a farm in central Victoria. The outbreak was contained on that farm by immediate depopulation and disinfection measures. Although the origin of the infection was not established, it is considered most likely that wild birds introduced the virus. The infection status of wild bird populations in the area has not been ascertained but sampling surveys of the poultry industry indicated that there were no other infected flocks in the state. The infection may have entered the affected flock as long as 2 weeks prior to the clinical outbreak although the exact timing could not be ascertained. The spread of disease on the farm appeared to be largely due to humans acting as mechanical vectors.

            Descriptors:  poultry, broiler chickens, viroses, avian influenza virus, epidemiology, Victoria, Australia, birds, chickens, domestic animals, domesticated birds, Galliformes, infectious diseases, influenza virus, livestock, meat animals, Oceania, poultry, useful animals, viruses.

Moulthrop, J.I. and A. Langston (1980). Report on avian influenza outbreak in Minnesota turkeys--1978. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 3(1-2): 193-200.  ISSN: 0147-9571.

            NAL Call Number:  QR180.C62

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks veterinary, fowl plague epidemiology, fowl plague economics, fowl plague prevention and control, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, Minnesota, turkeys microbiology.

Mubiru, J.N. (1998). Contributing factors to the avian influenza outbreak in Hong Kong. World Poultry 14(6): 53-54.

            NAL Call Number:  SF481.M54

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, Hong Kong, birds, primates, mammals, humans, poultry, contributing factors, outbreaks, zoonoses, disease control.

Mueller, H. (2003). Praxisrelevante Hinweise zur Klassischen Gefluegelpest (Hoch pathogene Aviaere Influenza).  [Practical information on highly pathogenic avian influenza (Klassische Gefluegelpest).]. DTW Deutsche Tieraerztliche Wochenschrift 110(8): 330-332.  ISSN: 0341-6593.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 D482

            Abstract:  This brief review summarises some structural and biological properties of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus and its biological significance for animal and man. Sources of actual information in case of an acute disease outbreak are also given.

            Descriptors:  infection, veterinary medicine, avian influenza virus infection, viral disease.

Muhammad, I., M. Rashid, and A.W. Qazi (2003). Isolation and identification of avian influenza virus in layer flocks in Karachi, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Veterinary Research 1(2): 37-39.  ISSN: 1684-002x.

            Descriptors:  clinical aspects, disease distribution, disease prevalence, epidemiology, avian influenza virus, outbreaks, poultry, hens, fowl, Pakistan.

Mullaney, R. (2003). Live-bird market closure activities in the northeastern United States. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 1096-1098.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Over the last 10 years, low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses have been isolated from the live-bird markets (LBMs) of the Northeast. Despite educational efforts, surveillance, and increased state regulatory efforts, the number of positive markets has persisted and increased. In an effort to address the continued levels of LPAI in the retail LBM and address the question of persistence and circulation of the virus within the LBM system itself, these markets were closed for a continuous 3-day period. This effort was a cooperative effort between the State Departments of Agriculture and coordinated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and led to the first successful system-wide closure of the retail LBMs in the Northeast.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, public health, avian influenza, infectious disease, respiratory system disease, viral disease, disease surveillance live bird markets market closure.

Mustakimov, R.G., Z.V. Popova, A.E. Bakaev, A.I. Kir' yanova, and L.S. Smorzhevskaya (1973). Ob enzootii grippa sredi kur. [An outbreak of influenza among fowls (in Tadzhikstan)] . Doklady Vsesoyuznoi Akademii Sel'Skokhozyaistvennykh Nauk (12): 19-21.

            Descriptors:  fowl diseases, avian influenza, outbreaks, symptoms, mortality, egg production, Tadzhikstan.

Mutinelli, F., I. Capua, C. Terregino, and G. Cattoli (2003). Clinical, gross, and microscopic findings in different avian species naturally infected during the H7N1 low- and high-pathogenicity avian influenza epidemics in Italy during 1999 and 2000. Avian Diseases 47(Special issue): 844-848.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Descriptors:  chicken, turkey, guinea fowl, quail, ostrich,  water fowl, pheasant, poultry, avian influenza epidemic, clinical aspects, diagnostic techniques, epidemiology, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, pathogenicity, postmortem examinations, Italy.

Mânzat, R.M. and M. Decun (1998). Epidemiological considerations on avian influenza. Revista Româna De Medicina Veterinara 8(2): 22-28.

            NAL Call Number:  SF604.R48

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, avian influenza virus, disease transmission, reviews, zoonoses, poultry,  fowl.

Naeem, K. and M. Hussain (1995). An outbreak of avian influenza in poultry in Pakistan. Veterinary Record 137(17): 439.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks veterinary, fowl plague epidemiology, influenza A virus avian classification, fowl plague complications, fowl plague prevention and control, fowl plague virology, avian isolation and purification, Pakistan epidemiology, poultry.

Nili, H. and K. Asasi (2003). Avian influenza (H9N2) outbreak in Iran. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 828-831.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  An epidemic of avian influenza (AI) (H9N2) occurred in broiler chicken farms in Iran during 1998-01. Mortality between 20% and 60% was commonly observed on the affected farms. Mixed infections of the influenza virus with other respiratory pathogens, particularly infectious bronchitis virus and Mycoplasma gallisepticum, were thought to be responsible for such high mortality, which resulted in great economic losses. Clinical signs included swelling of the periorbital tissues and sinuses, typical respiratory discharge, and severe respiratory distress. Gross lesions included extensive hyperemia of the respiratory system followed by exudation and cast formation in the tracheal biforcation extending into the secondary bronchi. Light microscopy lesions were characterized by severe necrotizing tracheatis. Serological examination using H9N2 AI viral antigen produced inconsistent results. Ultrastructural findings showed typical viral replication through budding processes on cell membranes of the tracheal epithelium.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, respiratory system, avian influenza, infectious disease, mortality, respiratory system disease, viral disease, mixed respiratory infection, light microscopy imaging and microscopy techniques, laboratory techniques, serology, clinical techniques, diagnostic techniques, broiler chicken farm, disease mortality, economic losses, viral replication.

Nili, H. and K. Asasi (2002). Natural cases and an experimental study of H9N2 avian influenza in commercial broiler chickens of Iran. Avian Pathology 31(3): 247-252.  ISSN: 0307-9457.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.A1A9

            Abstract:  Since 1998, an epidemic of avian influenza has occurred in the Iranian poultry industry. The agent was pathotyped as non-highly pathogenic and subtyped as an H9N2 avian influenza virus. Therefore it did not require eradication. However, frequent incidences of high mortality were observed commonly on broiler farms. No other species of bird were affected. The circulation of the virus and mixed infection with other respiratory pathogens, particularly infectious bronchitis virus and Mycoplasma gallisepticum, were incriminated in the high mortality on poultry farms and resulting great economic losses. Clinical signs in both field and experimental studies included swelling of the periorbital tissues and sinuses, nasal and ocular discharge, and severe respiratory distress. However, in the experimental study, the mortality rate was much lower than in the natural outbreak. Gross lesions identified included extensive congestion of the respiratory tissues, and exudation with cast formation in the tracheal bifurcation, which extended to the secondary bronchi. Severe necrotizing tracheatis was the predominate histological lesion. Ultrastructurally, orthomyxovirus-like particles were identified in the inoculum used for the experimental study. An inactivated H9N2 avian influenza vaccine prevented mortality in experimentally challenged chickens.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, respiratory system, veterinary medicine, Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection, bacterial disease, avian influenza virus infection, prevention and control, viral disease, infectious bronchitis virus infection, respiratory system disease, viral disease, mortality ultrastructure.

Normile, D. (2005). Avian flu. First human case in Cambodia highlights surveillance shortcomings. Science 307(5712): 1027.  ISSN: 1095-9203.

            NAL Call Number:  470 Sci2

            Descriptors:  influenza epidemiology, influenza virology, influenza A virus, avian, influenza, avian epidemiology, population surveillance, adult, southeastern Asia epidemiology, Cambodia epidemiology, disease outbreaks veterinary, influenza transmission, poultry.

Normile, D. (2004). Infectious diseases. Ducks may magnify threat of avian flu virus. Science 306(5698): 953.  ISSN: 1095-9203.

            NAL Call Number:  470 Sci2

            Descriptors:  ducks, influenza transmission, influenza A virus, avian pathogenicity, avian physiology, influenza, avian virology, Asia, chickens, influenza prevention and control, influenza virology, avian influenza prevention and control, poultry diseases prevention and control, poultry diseases virology, virus replication, virus shedding, World Health Organization.

Office International des Epizooties (2000). World Animal Health. 732 p.   

            Abstract:  This report contains two parts: part one provides reports on the animal health status and disease control methods and tables on incidence of list "A" diseases and part two contains tables on animal health status and diseases control methods and number of veterinarians and animal health auxiliary personnel. The reports on animal health and disease control methods covers disease status worldwide in the year 2000, wildlife diseases, and country reports. The list "A" diseases are foot and mouth disease, vesicular stomatitis, swine vesicular disease, rinderpest, peste des petits ruminants, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, lumpy skin disease, Rift Valley fever, bluetongue, sheep pox and goat pox, African horse sickness, African swine fever, classical swine fever, highly pathogenic avian influenza, and Newcastle disease. The country reports includes reports from most of the countries in the world and they contain sections on new activities of the veterinary services, list "A" diseases, comments on selected list "B" diseases, and other diseases. The reports are presented in English, French, Spanish, or Russian.

            Descriptors:  animal husbandry, infection, public health, veterinary medicine, transmissible disease, infectious disease, animal health status, animal products, aquaculture, epizootiology, international trade, veterinary disease control.

Office International des Épizooties  (2001). Avian influenza in Honduras; Classical swine fever in Spain; Foot and mouth disease in Argentina and Uruguay; Newcastle disease in Turkey; Rabies in France. Disease Information Office International Des Épizooties 14(25): 153.  ISSN: 1012-5329.

            NAL Call Number:  SF781.D57

            Descriptors:  case reports, diagnostic techniques, disease control, epidemiology, avian influenza, Honduras, swine fever, Spain, foot and mouth disease, Argentina, Uruguay, Newcastle disease, Turkey, rabies, France, outbreaks, seroprevalence, surveys, immunity, mortality, vaccination, livestock, poultry.

Oliveira, J.J.G., M.S.P. Belluci, J.S.M. Vianna, C. Mazur, C.M. Andrade, L.P.L. Fedullo, C. Portz, and B.O. Loureiro (2001). Avaliacao soroepidemiologica do virus influenza em aves domesticas e silvestres no Estado do Rio de Janeiro.  [Serological survey on influenza virus in domestic and wild birds from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.]. Arquivo Brasileiro De Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia 53(3): 299-302.  ISSN: 0102-0935.

            NAL Call Number:  SF604.A76

            Abstract:  The presence of antibodies to the avian influenza virus subtypes H1N1 and H3N2, was studied through the technique of hemagglutination inhibition in the plasma of 225 birds of RIO-ZOO Foundation, Bwana Park and of small flocks of the Rio de Janeiro State. Among the studied birds, 60 (26.6%) were seropositives, being 22 (9.8%) for the subtype H1N1, 28 (12.4%)for the subtype H3N2 and 10 (4.4%) for both subtypes. These results indicate the occurrence of these avian influenza virus subtypes in Rio de Janeiro and point out the potential risk of their transmission for the industrial poultry and humans.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, veterinary medicine, hemagglutination inhibition technique detection method, serological survey survey method.

Ortiz, A.M., L.S. Rodriguez, A.F. Garcia, and J.F. Aguirre (1995). First outbreaks of avian influenza in Mexico. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 44: 12-13.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, Mexico, America, influenza virus, Latin America, North America, orthomyxoviridae, viruses.

Ortiz, M.A. (1996). Experiencias internacionales para la erradicacion de influenza aviar. [International experiences in the eradication of avian influenza]. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 45: 305-307.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, influenza virus, orthomyxoviridae, viruses.

Osidze, N.G. and V.N. Syurin. (1974). Izuchenie grippa ptits. [Study on avian influenza (in USSR)]. In: Proceedings & Abstracts. XV World's Poultry Congress & Exposition, New Orleans, Louisiana, p. 283-285.

            Descriptors: avian influenza, study, diagnosis, economics, USSR, congress, exposition.

Oxford, J.S. (2000). Influenza A pandemics of the 20th century with special reference to 1918: virology, pathology and epidemiology. Reviews in Medical Virology 10(2): 119-33.  ISSN: 1052-9276.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks, influenza epidemiology, influenza history, Alaska epidemiology, France epidemiology, Great Britain epidemiology, history of medicine, 20th century, Hong Kong epidemiology, influenza pathology, influenza virology, Norway epidemiology, United States epidemiology.

Panigrahy, B., D.A. Senne, and J.C. Pedersen (2002). Avian influenza virus subtypes inside and outside the live bird markets, 1993-2000: a spatial and temporal relationship. Avian Diseases 46(2): 298-307.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Between 1993 and 2000, gallinaceous birds, waterfowl, and environmental specimens from the live bird markets (LBMs) of the northeastern United States and non-LBM premises were tested for the presence of avian influenza virus (AIV), pathogenic properties of AIV subtypes, especially of hemagglutinin (H) subtypes H5 and H7, and a possible association between LBM and non-LBM infections. Ten H subtypes of AIV were isolated from the LBM specimens: H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, H6, H7, H9, H10, and H11. During this period, the 10 subtypes also were isolated from birds in non-LBM premises. In the LBMs, subtypes H2, H3, H4, H6, H7, and H11 were present for 5-8 yr despite efforts to clean and disinfect the premises. The H5 or H7 subtypes present during the same year in both LBMs and non-LBMs within a state or in contiguous states were (subtype/year): H5N2/1993, 1999, and H7N2/1994-99. The AIV subtypes including the H5 and H7 that were evaluated for pathogenicity in chickens were low pathogenic. The deduced amino acid sequence at the H cleavage site of H5 and H7 subtypes was consistent with those of low pathogenic AIV. Although the H5N2 and H7N2 subtypes remained low pathogenic, they did undergo mutations and acquired an additional basic amino acid at the H cleavage site; however, the minimum number of basic amino acids in correct sequence (B-X-B-R, where B = basic amino acid, X = need not be basic amino acid, and R = arginine) required for high pathogenicity was lacking. A low pathogenic H5 or H7 subtype may become highly pathogenic by acquiring additional basic amino acids at the H cleavage site. The LBMs have been and will likely continue to be a source of AIV for commercial poultry.

            Descriptors:  chickens, fowl plague virology, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus genetics, influenza A virus avian classification, amino acid sequence, birds, cloaca pathology, cloaca virology, fowl plague epidemiology, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus chemistry, influenza A virus avian genetics, influenza A virus avian pathogenicity, New England epidemiology, polymerase chain reaction methods, polymerase chain reaction veterinary, specific pathogen free organisms, trachea pathology, trachea virology, virulence.

Papanikolaou, J. and M. Koumbati-Artopiou (2002). Epidemiological investigation of avian influenza in regions of Northern Greece. Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society 53(2): 132-137.  ISSN: 0257-2354.

            NAL Call Number:  41.9 So18

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, avian influenza virus, disease prevalence, chickens, turkeys, Greece, wild birds.

Parker, D., M. Alcorn, and A. Johnston (2003). Outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in the Netherlands. Veterinary Record 152(11): 338.  ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V641

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, Netherlands, mortality, poultry, outbreak, highly pathogenic.

Parry, J. (2005). Officials report first Cambodian case of avian flu. BMJ Clinical Research 330(7486): 273.  ISSN: 1468-5833.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks, influenza epidemiology, influenza A virus, avian, Cambodia epidemiology, influenza virology.

Parry, J. (2004). South East Asia sets up task force to tackle avian flu. BMJ Clinical Research 329(7471): 876.  ISSN: 1468-5833.

            Descriptors:  influenza prevention and control, southeastern Asia epidemiology, disease outbreaks, influenza mortality, influenza veterinary, influenza A virus, avian, avian influenza epidemiology, poultry.

Parry, J. (2004). WHO confirms avian flu outbreak in Hanoi.  BMJ Clinical RRearch 328(7432): 123.  ISSN: 1468-5833.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks, influenza epidemiology, birds, influenza A virus, avian, human, influenza, avian epidemiology, poultry, Vietnam epidemiology.

Pascucci, S. (2000). On the subject of avian influenza. Professione Veterinaria 10(1): 10-11.  ISSN: 1121-1547.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, disease prevalence, disease control, vaccination, epidemiology, poultry, turkeys, guinea fowl, Italy.

Peiris, J.S., W.C. Yu, C.W. Leung, C.Y. Cheung, W.F. Ng, J.M. Nicholls, T.K. Ng, K.H. Chan, S.T. Lai, W.L. Lim, K.Y. Yuen, and Y. Guan (2004). Re-emergence of fatal human influenza A subtype H5N1 disease. Lancet  363(9409): 617-9.  ISSN: 1474-547X.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 L22

            Abstract:  Human disease associated with influenza A subtype H5N1 re-emerged in January, 2003, for the first time since an outbreak in Hong Kong in 1997. Patients with H5N1 disease had unusually high serum concentrations of chemokines (eg, interferon induced protein-10 [IP-10] and monokine induced by interferon gamma [MIG]). Taken together with a previous report that H5N1 influenza viruses induce large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines from macrophage cultures in vitro, our findings suggest that cytokine dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of H5N1 disease. Development of vaccines against influenza A (H5N1) virus should be made a priority.

            Descriptors:  influenza epidemiology, influenza transmission, influenza, avian epidemiology, zoonoses epidemiology, China epidemiology, disease outbreaks statistics and numerical data, Hong Kong epidemiology, influenza virology, influenza A virus, avian isolation and purification, human isolation and purification, influenza, avian influenza transmission, avian influenza virology, poultry, poultry diseases epidemiology, poultry diseases transmission.

Perdue, M.L., D.L. Suarez, and D.E. Swayne (2000). Avian influenza in the 1990s. Avian and Poultry Biology Reviews 11(1): 1-20.  ISSN: 1470-2061.

            NAL Call Number:  QL698.C7

            Abstract:  Avian influenza (AI) viruses comprise the vast majority of the type A Orthomyxoviridae. Evolution has produced an enormous array of viral antigenic subtypes and variants based upon the structure of the two surface glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin (HA) and the neuraminidase (NA). These viruses appear to be perpetuated in nature in a select few wild avian species, but some strains are capable of sporadic and unpredictable entry into other animal populations, including humans. The fate of these occasional entries is likewise unpredictable, and investigators are left only with retrospective analysis. It is clear, however, that AI viruses (or some of their genes) have fixed themselves into circulating lineages in some mammalian hosts. In birds, particularly commercial poultry, AI can undergo a dramatic shift and take the unique form of a highly lethal and systemic disease. This has happened at least eight times in this decade on four different continents. In this review we explore these outbreaks and what we have learned from them regarding virulence acquisition and interspecies transmission. We further attempt to explore the implications of these outbreaks for the future of both avian and non-avian species and discuss current methods of diagnosis and control of AI.

            Descriptors:  infection, veterinary medicine, avian influenza, clinical pathology, control, diagnosis, epidemiology, interspecies transmission, outbreak, viral disease, epizootiology phylogenetic tahara vaccination.

Perez Brena, P. and I. Casas (2004). Infecciones producidas por los virus de la gripe aviar A (H5N1) en las poblaciones de aves del sudeste asiatico y en la especie humana. [Avian influenza A (H5N1) infectious in both birds and humans in South-Eastern Asian countries]. Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica 22(7): 412-8.  ISSN: 0213-005X.

            Abstract:  Avian influenza affects most types of birds and occurs in epidemics on poultry farms. The fatal disease is named "highly pathogenic avian influenza" and is caused by influenza A virus subtypes H5 and H7. The natural reservoir is the migratory waterfowl that occasionally infects domestic poultry. In 1997 in Hong Kong, 18 persons were infected and 6 of them died. At the end of 2003 and the beginning of 2004, avian influenza H5N1 infected numerous farms in several South-Eastern Asian countries. The virus was transmitted to humans in close contact with infected birds. A total of 34 persons were infected and 23 of them died. There is currently a considerable concern about the H5N1 avian influenza that has infected humans: the high virulence, evolution rate, the possibility of recombination with other influenza viruses, how H5N1 variants that infect humans or different approaches to the development of influenza vaccines.

            Descriptors:  influenza epidemiology, influenza A virus, avian isolation and purification, avian influenza pathogenicity, avian influenza epidemiology, southeastern Asia epidemiology, birds, influenza prevention and control, influenza virology, virulence, world health.

Peroulis, I. and K. O'Riley (2004). Detection of avian paramyxoviruses and influenza viruses amongst wild bird populations in Victoria. Australian Veterinary Journal 82(1-2): 79-82.  ISSN: 0005-0423.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Au72

            Descriptors:  Australia, avian paramyxoviruses, avian influenza viruses, isolation and characterization, Aves, wild birds, wild duck, pigeon, quail.

Petek, M. (1981). Current situation in Italy. In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, p. 31-34.

            NAL Call Number: aSF995.6.I6I5 1981a

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, turkeys, outbreaks, control measures, hygiene, Italy, symposium.

Pollack, C.V.J., C.W. Kam, and Y.K. Mak (1998). Update on emerging infections from the centers of disease control and prevention. Annals of Emergency Medicine 31(5): 647-648.  ISSN: 0196-0644.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, infectious disease, emerging, infectious disease, influenza, complications, respiratory system disease, viral disease, neutralization assay detection method.

Pomeroy, B.S. (1981). Avian influenza in the United States (1964-1981). In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, p. 13-17.

            NAL Call Number: aSF995.6.I6I5 1981a

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, poultry, turkeys, history, United States,  symposium.

Pomeroy, B.S. (1995). Report of the subcommittee on avian influenza. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association 99: 569-584.

            NAL Call Number:  449.9 Un3r

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, poultry, turkeys, United States.

Rainat, J. (2004). Avian influenza in Thailand: learning the hard way. World Poultry 20(3): 32-33.  ISSN: 1388-3119.

            NAL Call Number:  SF481.M54

            Descriptors:  control methods, culling, disease control, disease prevention, disease surveys, economic impact, influenza, losses, outbreaks, zoonoses, avian influenza virus, poultry, fowl, Thailand.

Reid, A.H., J.K. Taubenberger, and T.G. Fanning (2004). Evidence of an absence: the genetic origins of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus. Nature Reviews Microbiology 2(11): 909-14.  ISSN: 1740-1526.

            Abstract:  Annual outbreaks of influenza A infection are an ongoing public health threat and novel influenza strains can periodically emerge to which humans have little immunity, resulting in devastating pandemics. The 1918 pandemic killed at least 40 million people worldwide and pandemics in 1957 and 1968 caused hundreds of thousands of deaths. The influenza A virus is capable of enormous genetic variation, both by continuous, gradual mutation and by reassortment of genome segments between viruses. Both the 1957 and 1968 pandemic strains are thought to have originated as reassortants in which one or both human-adapted viral surface proteins were replaced by proteins from avian influenza strains. Analyses of the genes of the 1918 pandemic virus, however, indicate that this strain might have had a different origin. The haemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genome segments in particular are unlikely to have come directly from an avian source that is similar to those that are currently being sequenced. Determining whether a pandemic influenza virus can emerge by different mechanisms will affect the scope and focus of surveillance and prevention efforts.

            Descriptors:  influenza history, influenza virology, influenza A virus, human genetics, variation genetics, viral proteins genetics, disease outbreaks, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus genetics, history, 20th century, influenza epidemiology, mutation, neuraminidase genetics, nucleoproteins genetics, reassortant viruses genetics, viral matrix proteins genetics, viral nonstructural proteins genetics.

Reid, A.H. and J.K. Taubenberger (2003). The origin of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus: A continuing enigma. Journal of General Virology 84(9): 2285-2292.  ISSN: 0022-1317.

            NAL Call Number:  QR360.A1J6

            Abstract:  Influenza A virus is a major public health threat, killing more than 30 000 per year in the USA alone, sickening millions and inflicting substantial economic costs. Novel influenza virus strains emerge periodically to which humans have little immunity, resulting in devastating pandemics. The 1918 pandemic killed nearly 700 000 Americans and 40 million people worldwide. Pandemics in 1957 and 1968, while much less devastating than 1918, also caused tens of thousands of deaths in the USA. The influenza A virus is capable of enormous genetic variability, both by continuous, gradual mutation and by reassortment of gene segments between viruses. Both the 1957 and 1968 pandemic strains are thought to have originated as reassortants, in which one or both human-adapted viral surface proteins were replaced by proteins from avian influenza virus strains. Analyses of the surface proteins of the 1918 pandemic strain, however, suggest that this strain may have had a different origin. The haemagglutinin gene segment of the virus may have come directly from an avian source different from those currently circulating. Alternatively, the virus, or some of its gene segments, may have evolved in an intermediate host before emerging as a human pathogen. Determining whether pandemic influenza virus strains can emerge via different pathways will affect the scope and focus of surveillance and prevention efforts.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, molecular genetics, influenza, respiratory system disease, viral disease.

Resanovic, R. (2003). The incidence of avian influenza in various countries. Zivinarstvo 38(8/9): 23-33.  ISSN: 0354-4036.

            Descriptors:  clinical aspects, diagnosis, incidence, disease prevention, treatment, avian influenza virus, poultry.

Romvary, J., J. Meszaros, J. Tanyi, J. Rozsa, and L. Fabian (1976). Influenza infectedness of captured and shot wild birds on north-eastern and south-eastern parts of Hungary. Acta Veterinaria Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 26(3): 363-368.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, epidemiology, carrier state, Cairina, Aanas, Phasianus, Fulica, Gallinula, Anseriformes, wild birds, Hungary.

Roth, A.J. (1984). Avian influenza task force depopulation concern in Virginia. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association 88: 421-429.

            NAL Call Number:  449.9 Un3r

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, quarantine, outbreaks, poultry, carcass disposal, disease control.

Samaan, G. (2005). Rumor surveillance and avian influenza H5N1. Emerging Infectious Diseases 11(3): 463-6.  ISSN: 1080-6040.

            NAL Call Number:  RA648.5.E46

            Abstract:  We describe the enhanced rumor surveillance during the avian influenza H5N1 outbreak in 2004. The World Health Organization's Western Pacific Regional Office identified 40 rumors; 9 were verified to be true. Rumor surveillance informed immediate public health action and prevented unnecessary and costly responses.

            Descriptors:  influenza prevention and control, avian influenza A virus, population surveillance methods, communication, disease outbreaks, influenza epidemiology, avian influenza epidemiology, World Health Organization.

Samberg, Y., K. Davidov, F. Basel, and I. Meir (1982). Epizootological and clinical aspects of an outbreak of avian influenza in turkey breeding flocks [Israel]. Refuah Veterinarith 39(3): 116-119.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 R25

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, avian influenza virus, outbreaks, egg production, turkeys, Israel.

Schafer, J.R., Y. Kawaoka, W.J. Bean, J. Suss, D. Senne, and R.G. Webster (1993). Origin of the pandemic 1957 H2 influenza A virus and the persistence of its possible progenitors in the avian reservoir. Virology 194(2): 781-8.  ISSN: 0042-6822.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 V81

            Abstract:  H2N2 influenza A viruses caused the Asian pandemic of 1957 and then disappeared from the human population 10 years later. To assess the potential for similar outbreaks in the future, we determined the antigenicity of H2 hemagglutinins (HAs) from representative human and avian H2 viruses and then analyzed the nucleotide and amino acid sequences to determine their evolutionary characteristics in different hosts. The results of longitudinal virus surveillance studies were also examined to estimate the prevalence of avian H2 isolates among samples collected from wild ducks and domestic poultry. Reactivity patterns obtained with a large panel of monoclonal antibodies indicated antigenic drift in the HA of human H2 influenza viruses, beginning in 1962. Amino acid changes were clustered in two regions of HA1 that correspond to antigenic sites A and D of the H3 HA. By contrast, the antigenic profiles of the majority of avian H2 HAs were remarkably conserved through 1991, resembling the prototype Japan 57 (H2N2) strain. Amino acid changes were distributed throughout HA1, indicating that antibodies do not play a major role in the selection of avian H2 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two geographic site-specific lineages of avian H2 HAs: North American and Eurasian. Evidence is presented to support interregion transmission of gull H2 viruses. The human H2 HAs that circulated in 1957-1968 form a separate phylogenetic lineage, most closely related to the Eurasian avian H2 HAs. There was an increased prevalence of H2 influenza viruses among wild ducks in 1988 in North America, preceding the appearance of H2N2 viruses in domestic fowl. As the prevalence of avian H2N2 influenza viruses increased on turkey farms and in live bird markets in New York City and elsewhere, greater numbers of these viruses have come into direct contact with susceptible humans. We conclude that antigenically conserved counterparts of the human Asian pandemic strain of 1957 continue to circulate in the avian reservoir and are coming into closer proximity to susceptible human populations.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks, disease reservoirs, hemagglutinins viral genetics, influenza epidemiology, influenza A virus genetics, orthomyxoviridae infections epidemiology, Americas epidemiology, antibodies, monoclonal, antibodies, viral immunology, Asia epidemiology, birds microbiology, Europe epidemiology, evolution, fowl plague epidemiology, fowl plague genetics, genes viral genetics, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus, influenza genetics, influenza A virus avian genetics, avian immunology, human genetics, human immunology, influenza A virus immunology, molecular sequence data,  orthomyxoviridae infections genetics, phylogeny, population surveillance, time factors.

Senne, D.A. (2003). Avian influenza in the Western Hemisphere including the Pacific Islands and Australia. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 798-805.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Between 1997 and 2001, there was one report of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the Western Hemisphere and Pacific Basin. In 1997, in New South Wales, Australia, an outbreak caused by avian influenza (AI) virus subtype H7N4 involved both chickens and emus. All other reports of infections in poultry and isolations from wild bird species in the region pertained to low pathogenicity (LP) AI virus. Animal Health Officials in Canada reported isolations of subtypes HI, H6, H7, and H10 from domestic poultry and subtypes H3 and H13 from imported and wild bird species. In Mexico, the H5N2 LPAI virus, the precursor of the HPAI outbreak in 1994-95, was isolated from poultry in each year from 1997 to 2001. Since 1997, Mexico has used approximately 708 million doses of a killed H5N2 vaccine and an additional 459 million doses of a recombinant fowlpox-H5 vaccine in their H5N2 control program. In Central America, avian influenza was diagnosed for the first time when H5N2 LPAI virus was isolated from chickens in Guatemala and El Salvador in 2000 and 2001, respectively. The H5N2 virus was genetically similar to the H5N2 virus found in Mexico. Surveillance activities in the United States resulted in the detection of AI virus or specific antibodies in domestic poultry from 24 states. Eleven of the fifteen hemagglutinin (HI, H2, H3, H4, H5, H6, H7, H9, H10, HI 11, and H13) and eight of the nine neuraminidase (N1, N2, N3, N4, N6, N7, N8, and N9) subtypes were identified. Two outbreaks of LPAI virus were reported in commercial table-egg producing chickens; one caused by H7N2 virus in Pennsylvania in 1996-98 and the other caused by H6N2 virus in California in 2000-01. In addition, isolations of H5 and H7 LPAI virus were recovered from the live-bird markets (LBMs) in the northeast United States.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, avian influenza, infectious disease, respiratory system disease, viral disease, animal health, live bird markets.

Seo, S.H. and H.S. Kim (2004). Epidemiology of influenza virus in Korean poultry.  International Congress Series 1263: 758-761.

            Abstract:  Epidemiological information on currently circulating influenza viruses in poultry in Korea has not been available. We performed the surveillance of avian influenza viruses in the live poultry markets where chickens, ducks, geese, and doves are sold. H9N2, H3N2, and H6N1 influenza viruses were isolated from poultry in the Korean live bird markets. H9N2 influenza viruses were mainly isolated from chickens; H3N2 influenza viruses were isolated from ducks and a dove, and an H6N1 influenza virus was isolated from a duck. Serological surveillance in chickens showed that chickens were infected over 50% with H9N2 viruses.

            Descriptors:  poultry market, surveillance, H9N2, epidemiology, avian influenza virus, poultry, Korea, chickens, ducks, geese, doves, live bird markets.

Shalala, D.E. (1998). Collaboration in the fight against infectious diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases 4(3): 354-357.  ISSN: 1080-6040.

            NAL Call Number:  RA648.5.E46

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, pharmacology, infectious diseases, global strategy, response, infectious disease, surveillance, influenza, avian, pandemic, respiratory system disease, viral disease, antibiotic resistance, behavioral problem, medical problem,bioterrorism, pandemic, 1918 influenza pandemic.

Shane, S.M. (1995). Avian influenza: the current world situation. Zootecnica International 18(10): 14-20.  ISSN: 0392-0593.

            NAL Call Number:  SF600.Z6

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, control, prevention, poultry.

Shane, S.M. (1997). Update on avian influenza in Mexico. Zootecnica International 20(6): 19.  ISSN: 0392-0593.

            NAL Call Number:  SF600.Z6

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, outbreaks, diagnosis, poultry, epidemiology, control, Mexico.

Shane, S.M. (1994). Update on avian influenza in the U.S.A. Zootecnica International 17(9): 60-61.  ISSN: 0392-0593.

            NAL Call Number:  SF600.Z6

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, poultry, epidemiology, control, United States.

Shieh, H.K., W.C. Huang, J.H. Shien, L.F. Lee, Y.S. Lu, and Y.L. Lee. (1992). Surveillance on avian influenza of chicken in Taiwan, R.O.C. In: Proceedings 19th World's Poultry Congress Amsterdam. Volume 2, Amsterdam, p. 156.  ISBN: 90-71463-57-5

            NAL Call Number: SF481.2.W6 1992

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, surveillance, chickens, Taiwan.

Shieh, H.K., W.J. Huang, J.H. Shien, S.Y. Chiu, L.F. Lee, and Y.S. Lu (1992). Studies of avian influenza in Taiwan, R.O.C. III. Isolation, identification, and pathogenicity tests on the viruses isolated from breeding chickens. Taiwan Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry (59): 45-55.  ISSN: 0253-9128.

            NAL Call Number:  49 J822

            Descriptors:  serotypes, disease surveys, avian influenza virus, pathogenicity, identification, chickens, Taiwan.

Shimshony, A. (1988). Avian influenza in Israel. Disease Information, Office International Des Épizooties 1(2): 7.

            NAL Call Number:  SF781.D57

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, disease prevalence, poultry, turkeys, Israel.

Shimshony, A. (1988). Status of avian influenza in Israel. Disease Information, Office International Des Épizooties 1(3): 9-10.

            NAL Call Number:  SF781.D57

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, Israel.

Shortridge, K.F. (1981). Avian influenza in Hong Kong. In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, p. 29.

            NAL Call Number: aSF995.6.I6I5 1981a

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, poultry, ducks, geese, chickens, Hong Kong, market surveillance, symposium.

Shortridge, K.F. (1981). Epidemiology of avian influenza and sources of infection in domestic species. In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, p. 54-68.

            NAL Call Number: aSF995.6.I6I5 1981a

            Descriptors: avian influenza virus, epidemiology, infection sources, domestic species, poultry, dressing plant, China, Hong Kong.

Shortridge, K.F. (1999). Poultry and the influenza H5N1 outbreak in Hong Kong, 1997: abridged chronology and virus isolation. Vaccine 17(Suppl. 1): S26-9.  ISSN: 0264-410X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR189.V32

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks, influenza epidemiology, chickens, Hong Kong epidemiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification.

Simmerman, J.M., P. Thawatsupha, D. Kingnate, K. Fukuda, A. Chaising, and S.F. Dowell (2004). Influenza in Thailand: a case study for middle income countries. Vaccine 23(2): 182-7.  ISSN: 0264-410X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR189.V32

            Abstract:  Recent studies in Hong Kong and Singapore suggest that the annual impact of influenza in these wealthy tropical cities may be substantial, but little is known about the burden in middle-income tropical countries. We reviewed the status of influenza surveillance, vaccination, research, and policy in Thailand as of January 2004. From 1993 to 2002, 64-91 cases of clinically diagnosed influenza were reported per 100,000 persons per year. Influenza viruses were isolated in 34% of 4305 specimens submitted to the national influenza laboratory. Vaccine distribution figures suggest that less than 1% of the population is immunized against influenza each year. In January 2004, Thailand reported its first documented outbreak of influenza A H5N1 infection in poultry and the country's first human cases of avian influenza. Thailand's growing economy, well-developed public health infrastructure, and effective national immunization program could enable the country to take more active steps towards influenza control.

            Descriptors:  disease prevalence, epidemiology, human diseases, immunization, influenza, middle classes, outbreaks, poultry, surveillance, vaccination, viral diseases, avian influenza A virus, Thailand.

Sims, L. (1998). Avian influenza in Hong Kong. Singapore Veterinary Journal 21-22: 75-79.

            NAL Call Number:  SF604.S56

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, outbreaks, disease control, disease transmission, zoonoses, poultry, human, Hong Kong.

Sims, L.D., T.M. Ellis, K.K. Liu, K. Dyrting, H. Wong, M. Peiris, Y. Guan, and K.F. Shortridge (2003). Avian influenza in Hong Kong 1997-2002. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 832-838.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  In 1997, a high-pathogenicity H5N1 avian influenza virus caused serious disease in both man and poultry in Hong Kong, China. Eighteen human cases of disease were recorded, six of which were fatal. This unique virus was eliminated through total depopulation of all poultry markets and chicken farms in December 1997. Other outbreaks of high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) caused by H5N1 viruses occurred in poultry in 2001 and 2002. These H5N1 viruses isolated had different internal gene constellations to those isolated in 1997. No new cases of infection or disease in man due to these or other H5N1 viruses have been reported. This paper provides an overview and chronology of the events in Hong Kong relating to avian influenza, covering the period from March 1997 to March 2002.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, avian influenza, infectious disease, respiratory system disease, viral disease, chicken farms, epidemic chronology, inteRNAl gene constellations, poultry markets.

Skowronski, D., A. King, T. Tam, T. Wong, L. Brammer , K. Teates, S. Harper, A. Klimov, N. Cox, and N. Bhat (2004). Update: influenza activity - United States, 2003-04 season. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 53(13): 284 287.  ISSN: 0149-2195.

            NAL Call Number:  RA407.3.M56

            Descriptors:  human diseases, influenza, poultry, avian influenza virus.

Stech, J., H. Garn, M. Wegmann, R. Wagner, and H.D. Klenk (2005). A new approach to an influenza live vaccine: modification of the cleavage site of hemagglutinin. Nature Medicine 11(6): 683-689.  ISSN: 1078-8956.

            Abstract:  A reverse genetics approach provides a new mutant strain where a modified cleavage site within its hemagglutinin depends on proteolytic activation strictly by elastase.  The new strain grows well in cell culture and is entirely attenuated to mice.  It induced complete protection against a lethal challenge at a dose of 105 plaque-forming units.  This provides an approach that allows conversion of any epidemic strain into a genetically homologous attenuated virus.

            Descriptors:  mutant strain A, WSN, 33, elastase, cell culture, attenuated virus, strain conversion

Stegeman, A., A. Bouma, A.R. Elbers, M.C. de Jong, G. Nodelijk, F. de Klerk, G. Koch, and M. van Boven (2004). Avian influenza A virus (H7N7) epidemic in The Netherlands in 2003: course of the epidemic and effectiveness of control measures. Journal of Infectious Diseases 190(12): 2088-95.  ISSN: 0022-1899.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 J821

            Abstract:  An epidemic of high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) A virus subtype H7N7 occurred in The Netherlands in 2003 that affected 255 flocks and led to the culling of 30 million birds. To evaluate the effectiveness of the control measures, we quantified between-flock transmission characteristics of the virus in 2 affected areas, using the reproduction ratio Rh. The control measures markedly reduced the transmission of HPAI virus: Rh before detection of the outbreak in the first infected flock was 6.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1-9.9) in one area and 3.1 in another area, and it decreased to 1.2 (95% CI, 0.6-1.9) after detection of the first outbreak in both areas. The observation that Rh remained >1 suggests that the containment of the epidemic was probably due to the reduction in the number of susceptible flocks by complete depopulation of the infected areas rather than to the reduction of the transmission by the other control measures.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks veterinary, influenza A virus, avian influenza isolation and purification, avian influenza epidemiology, disease outbreaks prevention and control, avian influenza prevention and control, avian influenza transmission, models, statistical, Netherlands epidemiology, poultry.

Stires, D. (2004). By the numbers. The bird flu that's sweeping across Asia. Fortune  149(4): 34.  ISSN: 0015-8259.

            NAL Call Number:  110 F772

            Descriptors:  influenza A virus, avian pathogenicity, avian influenza epidemiology, birds, China epidemiology, Creutzfeldt Jakob syndrome epidemiology, Creutzfeldt Jakob syndrome mortality, hemorrhagic fever, Ebola epidemiology, hemorrhagic fever, Ebola mortality, influenza, avian mortality, severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemiology, severe acute respiratory syndrome mortality, West Nile fever epidemiology, West Nile fever mortality.

Sturm Ramirez, K.M., T. Ellis, B. Bousfield, L. Bissett, K. Dyrting, J.E. Rehg, L. Poon, Y. Guan, M. Peiris, and  R.G. Webster (2004). Reemerging H5N1 influenza viruses in Hong Kong in 2002 are highly pathogenic to ducks. Journal of Virology 78(9): 4892-901.  ISSN: 0022-538X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR360.J6

            Abstract:  Waterfowl are the natural reservoir of all influenza A viruses, which are usually nonpathogenic in wild aquatic birds. However, in late 2002, outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus caused deaths among wild migratory birds and resident waterfowl, including ducks, in two Hong Kong parks. In February 2003, an avian H5N1 virus closely related to one of these viruses was isolated from two humans with acute respiratory distress, one of whom died. Antigenic analysis of the new avian isolates showed a reactivity pattern different from that of H5N1 viruses isolated in 1997 and 2001. This finding suggests that significant antigenic variation has recently occurred among H5N1 viruses. We inoculated mallards with antigenically different H5N1 influenza viruses isolated between 1997 and 2003. The new 2002 avian isolates caused systemic infection in the ducks, with high virus titers and pathology in multiple organs, particularly the brain. Ducks developed acute disease, including severe neurological dysfunction and death. Virus was also isolated at high titers from the birds' drinking water and from contact birds, demonstrating efficient transmission. In contrast, H5N1 isolates from 1997 and 2001 were not consistently transmitted efficiently among ducks and did not cause significant disease. Despite a high level of genomic homology, the human isolate showed striking biological differences from its avian homologue in a duck model. This is the first reported case of lethal influenza virus infection in wild aquatic birds since 1961.

            Descriptors:  bird diseases virology, communicable diseases, emerging virology, ducks virology, influenza A virus, avian pathogenicity, avian classification, avian isolation and purification, avian physiopathology, avian transmission, virus replication, influenza, avian virology, bird diseases physiopathology, bird diseases transmission, communicable diseases, emerging mortality, emerging transmission, hemagglutination inhibition tests, Hong Kong.

Suarez, D.L., M. Garcia, J. Latimer, D. Senne, and M. Perdue (1999). Phylogenetic analysis of H7 avian influenza viruses isolated from the live bird markets of the Northeast United States. Journal of Virology 73(5): 3567-73.  ISSN: 0022-538X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR360.J6

            Abstract:  The presence of low-pathogenic H7 avian influenza virus (AIV), which is associated with live-bird markets (LBM) in the Northeast United States, was first detected in 1994 and, despite efforts to eradicate the virus, surveillance of these markets has resulted in numerous isolations of H7 AIVs from several states from 1994 through 1998. The hemagglutinin, nonstructural, and matrix genes from representative H7 isolates from the LBM and elsewhere were sequenced, and the sequences were compared phylogenetically. The hemagglutinin gene of most LBM isolates examined appeared to have been the result of a single introduction of the hemagglutinin gene. Evidence for evolutionary changes were observed with three definable steps. The first isolate from 1994 had the amino acid threonine at the -2 position of the hemagglutinin cleavage site, which is the most commonly observed amino acid at this site for North American H7 AIVs. In January 1995 a new genotype with a proline at the -2 position was detected, and this genotype eventually became the predominant virus isolate. A third viral genotype, detected in November 1996, had an eight-amino-acid deletion within the putative receptor binding site. This viral genotype appeared to be the predominant isolate, although isolates with proline at the -2 position without the deletion were still observed in viruses from the last sampling date. Evidence for reassortment of multiple viral genes was evident. The combination of possible adaptive evolution of the virus and reassortment with different influenza virus genes makes it difficult to determine the risk of pathogenesis of this group of H7 AIVs.

            Descriptors:  fowl plague virology, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus genetics, influenza A virus avian genetics, viral matrix proteins genetics, viral nonstructural proteins genetics, amino acid sequence, base sequence, birds virology, DNA, viral, fowl plague epidemiology, avian classification, avian isolation and purification, molecular sequence data, New England epidemiology, phylogeny, sequence homology, amino acid.

Suarez, D.L. and D.A. Senne (2000). Sequence analysis of related low-pathogenic and highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza isolates from United States live bird markets and poultry farms from 1983-1989. Avian Diseases 44(2): 356-364.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  The last highly pathogenic outbreak of avian influenza in the United States was caused by an H5N2 influenza virus in Pennsylvania and New Jersey in 1983-84. Through a combined federal and state eradication effort, the outbreak was controlled. However, in 1986-89, multiple H5N2 viruses were isolated from poultry farms and the live bird markets (LBMs) in the United States. To determine the epidemiologic relationships of these viruses, the complete coding sequence of the nonstructural gene and the hemagglutinin protein subunit I of the hemagglutinin gene was determined for 11 H5N2 viruses and compared with previously available influenza sequences. The H5N2 isolates from 1986-89 were all closely related to the isolates from the 1983-84 Pennsylvania outbreak by nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis for both genes, providing additional evidence that the Pennsylvania/83 (PA/83) virus lineage was not completely eradicated. The PA/83 lineage also had a large number of unique amino acid changes not found in other avian influenza viruses, which was suggestive that this lineage of virus had been circulating in poultry for an extended period of time before the first isolation of virus in 1983. High substitution and evolutionary rates were measured by examining the number of nucleotide or amino acid substitutions over time as compared with the index case, CK/PA/21525/83. These rates, however, were similar to other outbreaks of avian influenza in poultry. This study provides another example of the long-term maintenance and evolution of influenza viruses in the U.S. LBMs and provides further evidence of the connection of the LBMs and the Pennsylvania 1983 H5N2 outbreak.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, poultry, outbreaks, phylogenetics, DNA sequencing, nucleotide sequences, amino acid sequences, pathogenicity, evolution, hemagglutinins, genes, United States, nonstructural genes.

Suarez, D.L., D.A. Senne, J. Banks, I.H. Brown, S.C. Essen, C.W. Lee, R.J. Manvell, C. Mathieu Benson, V. Moreno, J.C. Pedersen, B. Panigrahy, H. Rojas, E. Spackman, and D.J. Alexander (2004). Recombination resulting in virulence shift in avian influenza outbreak, Chile. Emerging Infectious Diseases 10(4): 693-9.  ISSN: 1080-6040.

            NAL Call Number:  RA648.5.E46

            Abstract:  Influenza A viruses occur worldwide in wild birds and are occasionally associated with outbreaks in commercial chickens and turkeys. However, avian influenza viruses have not been isolated from wild birds or poultry in South America. A recent outbreak in chickens of H7N3 low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) occurred in Chile. One month later, after a sudden increase in deaths, H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was isolated. Sequence analysis of all eight genes of the LPAI virus and the HPAI viruses showed minor differences between the viruses except at the hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site. The LPAI virus had a cleavage site similar to other low pathogenic H7 viruses, but the HPAI isolates had a 30-nucleotide insert. The insertion likely occurred by recombination between the HA and nucleoprotein genes of the LPAI virus, resulting in a virulence shift. Sequence comparison of all eight gene segments showed the Chilean viruses were also distinct from all other avian influenza viruses and represent a distinct South American clade.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks, influenza A virus, avian influenza genetics, avian influenza epidemiology, recombination, genetic, amino acid sequence, Chile epidemiology, avian influenza classification, avian influenza pathogenicity, avian influenza virology, molecular sequence data, phylogeny, virulence.

Suss, J., J. Schafer, H. Sinnecker, and R.G. Webster (1994). Influenza virus subtypes in aquatic birds of eastern Germany. Archives of Virology  135(1/2): 101-114.  ISSN: 0304-8608.

            NAL Call Number:  448.3 Ar23

            Abstract:  We report the findings of a 12-year surveillance study (1977-89) of avian influenza A viruses in eastern Germany. Viruses were isolated directly from feral ducks (n = 236) and other wild birds (n = 89); from domestic ducks (n = 735) living on a single farm; and from white Pekin ducks (n = 193) used as sentinels for populations of wild aquatic birds; mainly sea birds. The efficiency of virus isolation was 9.9% overall, with considerable variability noted among species: 8.7% in wild ducks, 0.9% in other feral birds and 38% in Pekin ducks. Use of sentinel ducks in wild pelagic bird colonies improved virus detection rates fivefold, suggesting that this approach is advantageous in ecological studies. Among the 40 different combinations of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) subtypes we identified, H6N1 predominated (23.6% for all avian species), followed by H4N6 (11%). Among individual species, the frequency profiles favored H2N3 (20.8%) and H4N6 (20.3%) in feral ducks; H7N7 (22.3%), H4N6 (24.4%) and H2N3 (10.4%) in Pekin ducks used as sentinels; and H6N1 (34.8%) and H6N6 (15.1%) in domestic ducks maintained on a single farm. By relying on sentinel birds for serological assays, it was possible to trace an "influenza season" in feral swan populations, beginning in August and continuing through the winter months. Comparison of subtype distribution of influenza viruses for Europe and North America showed significant differences. This supports the fact of two geographically distinct gene pools of influenza viruses in birds connected with their distinct flyways of each hemisphere. The high frequency of isolation of H2 influenza viruses is of considerable interest to those interested in.  the recycling of this subtype in humans. Similarly the frequent isolation of H7N7 influenza viruses raises concern about reservoirs of potentially pathogenic influenze virus for domestic poultry. Out results confirm the existence of a vast reservoir of influenze A viruses in European aquatic birds, which possesses sufficient diversity to account for strains that infect lower animals and humans.

            Descriptors:  ducks, avian influenza virus, Anas platyrhynchos, sentinel animals, waterfowl, disease prevalence, geographical distribution, species differences, epizootiology, reservoir hosts, seasonal variation, Germany, North America, virus subtypes.

Swayne, D.E., M.L. Perdue, and D.L. Suarez. (1998). Avian influenza - global and United States perspectives. In: 33rd National Meeting on Poultry Health & Processing, Ocean City, Maryland, USA, p. 1-6.

            Descriptors: virus strains, strain differences, zoonoses, outbreaks, avian influenza virus, poultry, pigs, human, horses, United States, Italy, Australia, Hong Kong.

Swayne, D.E. and D.L. Suarez (2003). Transcript of the question and answer sessions from the Fifth International Symposium on Avian Influenza. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 1219-1255.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Descriptors:  diagnosis, disease control, disease distribution, disease prevalence, disinfection, drug therapy, epidemiology, outbreaks, pathogenesis, pathogenicity, public health, quarantine, regulations, risk assessment, strains, trade, vaccination, vaccines, avian influenza virus, ducks, fowl, quails, turkeys, China, Hong Kong, Italy, symposium.

Swayne, D.E., D.L. Suarez, T.M. Bestebroer, S. Herfst, L. van der Kemp, G.F. Rimmelzwaan, and A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (2003). Influenza A virus surveillance in wild birds in Northern Europe in 1999 and 2000. Avian Diseases 47(Special issue): 857-860.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Descriptors:  disease surveys, disease transmission, viral proteins, wild birds, avian influenza virus A.

Swayne, D.E. and R.D. Slemons. (1998). Avian influenza: a global problem. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Avian Influenza, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA, Kennett Square, Penn.: American Association of Avian Pathologists, xix, 401 p.

            NAL Call Number: SF995.6.I6I58 1997

            Descriptors: avian influenza congresses, proceedings, symposium, avian influenza.

Tacken, G.M.L., M.G.A. van Leeuwen, B. Koole, P.L.M. van Horne, J.J. de Vlieger, and C.J.A.M. de Bont (2003). Chain consequences of the outbreak of avian influenza. Rapport Landbouw Economisch Instituut (LEI) (6.03.02): 53.  ISSN: 90-5242-807-7.

            NAL Call Number:  280.9 L23

            Descriptors:  broilers, hens, outbreaks, poultry farming, avian influenza virus, fowl plague virus, Netherlands.

Talan, D.A., G.J. Moran, and R. Pinner (2005). Update on emerging infections: News from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:  Outbreaks of avian influenza A (H5N1) in Asia and interim recommendations for evaluation and reporting of suspected cases--United States, 2004. Annals of Emergency Medicine 45(1): 88-90.

            Descriptors:  public health, emerging infections, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, avian influenza virus, Asia, United States, reporting.

 

Tam, J.S. (2002). Influenza A (H5N1) in Hong Kong: an overview. Vaccine 20(Suppl 2): S77-81.  ISSN: 0264-410X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR189.V32

            Abstract:  Worldwide pandemics of human influenza virus caused extensive morbidity and mortality around the world had been documented in the 20th century. However, the mechanisms involved in the emergence of novel influenza virus and the epidemiological factors leading to pandemics are unpredictable. Southern China is postulated as the epicentre of influenza epidemics due to its agricultural-based communities and high population density. Pandemic influenza viruses are through to arise from avian viruses through genetic reassortment among influenza viruses.An influenza virus (H5N1) known to infect only birds previously was found to infect human causing disease and death in Hong Kong in 1997 and the outbreak involved 18 patients with six deaths. Prior to the human outbreak, the H5N1 virus was found to cause extensive death in chickens in three farms in Hong Kong. The significance of this outbreak raised worldwide concern on the possibilities that such an influenza virus may become the next influenza pandemic strain. Investigations were initiated to find the source of the virus. In addition the extend of spread in individuals in contact with the index case and infected poultry was studied by H5-specific serology. Results demonstrated that individuals in close contact with the index case or with exposure to poultry were at risk of being infected. Out of the 18 cases of human infection, eleven had severe infection with symptoms of pneumonia and multi-organ failure. All severe cases presented with lower respiratory infection and lymphopenia and six eventually died. Case-fatality ratio was high among patients over 12 years of age (five out of nine).Control measures aimed at reducing exposure of human to potential H5-positive poultry were instituted which included culling of all poultry in Hong Kong, the segregation of water fowls and chicken, and the introduction of import control measures for chickens. Such measures had successfully controlled the outbreak and continuous surveillance of the poultry in Hong Kong of H5N1 infection is maintained to minimize future human exposure.

            Descriptors:  chickens virology, disease outbreaks, fowl plague transmission, influenza epidemiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, zoonoses epidemiology, adult, child, preschool, Hong Kong epidemiology, influenza diagnosis, influenza etiology.

Tamba, M., E. Finelli, P. Massi, and G. Tosi (2000). Sorveglianza dell' influenza aviare in Emilia-Romagna. Risultati del monitoraggio sierologico gennaio-maggio 2000. [Surveillance on avian influenza in Emilia-Romagna region. Results of a survey carried out from January to May 2000]. 39. Meeting of Italian Society of Poultry Pathology on Campylobacter infections in poultry]. Forli (Italy). 5-6 Oct 2000. Selezione Veterinaria (Italy) (11): 1028-1031.

            NAL Call Number:  241.71 B75

            Abstract:  From January to May 2000 a serological survey on AI virus subtype H7N1 was carried out in the flocks of Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. 153 out of the 51,997 samples examined by HI resulted positive. One LPAI outbreak in turkeys was detected. Most of the positive sera samples was collected from ducks and geese, pheasants and partridges. A flock of one day-old chickens showing transitory seropositivity was recorded. Survey results seem to indicate a limited spread of AI in Emilia-Romagna region during the HPAI epidemics involving the other regions of Northern Italy.

            Descriptors:  broiler chickens, layer chickens, turkeys,  pigeons, guinea fowl, game birds, geese, ducks, ostriches, pathogenicity, identification, serotypes, disease surveys, epidemiology, avian influenza virus, monitoring, Emilia Romagna, Anseriformes, biological differences, biological properties, birds, chickens, Columbiformes, domestic animals, Europe, Galliformes, game, influenza virus, Italy, livestock, meat animals, microbial properties, orthomyxoviridae, poultry, Struthioniformes, surveys, useful animals, viruses, western Europe, wild animals, wildlife.

Tanyi, J. and I. Gyorvari (1983). Madarinfluenza pulykaban. [Avian influenza in turkeys in Hungary]. Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 38(7): 409-413.  ISSN: 0025-004X.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 V644

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, turkeys, eggs, hatchability, outbreak.s, Hungary.

Tarbell, R.W. (1985). Avian influenza epidemic in Central, California, 1984. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 34: 26-27.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  turkeys, avian influenza virus, disease distribution, disease transmission, epidemics, egg production, economic impact, California.

Taubenberger, J.K., A.H. Reid, T.A. Janczewski, and T.G. Fanning (2001 ). Integrating historical, clinical and molecular genetic data in order to explain the origin and virulence of the 1918 Spanish influenza virus. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B Biological Sciences 356(1416): 1829-1839.  ISSN: 0962-8436.

            NAL Call Number:  501 L84Pb

            Abstract:  The Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 caused acute illness in 25-30% of the world's population and resulted in the death of 40 million people. The complete genomic sequence of the 1918 influenza virus will be deduced using fixed and frozen tissues of 1918 influenza victims. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the complete 1918 haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes show them to be the most avian-like of mammalian sequences and support the hypothesis that the pandemic virus contained surface protein-encoding genes derived from an avian influenza strain and that the 1918 virus is very similar to the common ancestor of human and classical swine H1N1 influenza strains. Neither the 1918 HA genes nor the NA genes possessed mutations that are known to increase tissue tropicity, which accounts for the virulence of other influenza strains such as A/WSN/33 or fowl plague viruses. The complete sequence of the non-structural (NS) gene segment of the 1918 virus was deduced and tested for the hypothesis that the enhanced virulence in 1918 could have been due to type I interferon inhibition by the NS1 protein. The results from these experiments were inconclusive. Sequence analysis of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus is allowing us to test hypotheses as to the origin and virulence of this strain. This information should help to elucidate how pandemic influenza strains emerge and what genetic features contribute to their virulence.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, history, infection, molecular genetics, pandemic influenza, epidemiology, respiratory system disease, viral disease, 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic, tissue tropicity, virulence.

Teates, K., L. Brammer, A. Balish, T. Wallis, H. Hall, A. Klimov, K. Fukuda, N. Cox, and M. Katz (2004). Update: influenza activity - United States and worldwide, May-October 2004. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 53(42): 993-995.  ISSN: 0149-2195.

            NAL Call Number:  RA407.3.M56

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, public health, etiology, mortality, pathology, disease outbreaks, sporadic disease activity, viral characterization, Collaborating Center for Surveillance, National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System, NREVSS, WHO, World Health Organization.

Turner, A.J. (1981). Current world-wide situation of avian influenza in Australia. In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, p. 18.

            NAL Call Number: aSF995.6.I6I5 1981a

            Descriptors: chickens, avian influenza virus, virus isolation, Australia.

Turner, A.J. (1981). Economic impact of avian influenza in domestic fowl [Victoria, Australia]. Feedstuffs 53(32): 15.  ISSN: 0014-9624.

            NAL Call Number:  286.81 F322

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, domestic fowl, economic impact, Australia.

Tuszynski, C. (1995). Economic impact of 1983-84 outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in the United States--comparison with 1995 dollars. Foreign Animal Disease Report 22(4): 9-10.  ISSN:  0091-8199.

            NAL Call Number:  aSF601.U5

            Descriptors:  poultry, avian influenza virus, outbreaks, economic impact, United States.

Tweed, S.A., D.M. Skowroski, S.T. David, A. Larder, M. Petric, W. Lees,  Y. Li, J. Katz, M. Krajden, R. Tellier, C. Halpert, M. Hirst, C. Astell, D. Lawrence, and A. Mak (2004). Human illness from avian influenza H7N3, British Columbia. Emerging Infectious Diseases 10(12): 2196-9.  ISSN: 1080-6040.

            NAL Call Number:  RA648.5.E46

            Abstract:  Avian influenza that infects poultry in close proximity to humans is a concern because of its pandemic potential. In 2004, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N3 occurred in poultry in British Columbia, Canada. Surveillance identified two persons with confirmed avian influenza infection. Symptoms included conjunctivitis and mild influenzalike illness.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks veterinary, influenza transmission, influenza A virus, avian pathogenicity, adolescent, adult, aged, British Columbia epidemiology, chickens, child, preschool child, infant, influenza virology, avian influenza epidemiology, avian influenza transmission, middle aged, mutagenesis, insertional, population surveillance.

Underwood, A. and J. Adler (2004). Scary strains. Newsweek  144(18): 46-8.  ISSN: 0028-9604.

            NAL Call Number:  280.8 N47

            Descriptors:  influenza, avian epidemiology, disease outbreaks, Hong Kong epidemiology, influenza, avian virology.

United States. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Veterinary Services. Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health. (1995). U.S. Risk for Avian Influenza Due to an Outbreak in Mexico: Executive Summary, USDA, APHIS, VS, Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health: Fort Collins, Colo,

            NAL Call Number:  aSF995.6.I6U8 1995

            Descriptors:  avian influenza United States, poultry virus diseases United States, avian influenza Mexico, poultry virus diseases Mexico, food safety.

Urrutia, S. (1998). Hong Kong's outbreak of avian influenza disrupts market. World Poultry 14(2): 18-19.

            NAL Call Number:  SF481.M54

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, outbreaks, economics, public health, Hong Kong.

Utterback, W. (1984). Update on avian influenza through February 21, 1984 in Pennsylvania and Virginia. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Conference 33: 4-7.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, slaughter, losses, disinfection, turkeys, guineafowls, Pennsylvania, Virginia, United States.

van der Sluis, W. (2000). AI in southern Asia and the middle east. World Poultry (Special): 25.  ISSN: 1388-3119.

            NAL Call Number:  SF481.M54

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, outbreaks, disease control, disease prevention, _vaccination, Asia, Pakistan.

van Tongeren, H.A. and K.H. Voous (1987). Influenzavirus epidemiologie en oecologie, in het bijzonder met betrekking tot aan water gebonden vogelsoorten. Literatuuroverzicht en beschouwing. [Influenza virus epidemiology and ecology, with special reference to bird species associated with water. Literature review and observations]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 112(23): 1337-54.  ISSN: 0040-7453.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 T431

            Abstract:  Only a limited number of A-subtypes of influenza virus so far caused disease in human subjects, pigs and horses; this occurred in more or less defined areas which occasionally showed epidemic aggravations, becoming apparent as rapidly spreading epidemics or otherwise in even the form of pandemics. However this number of antigenic subtypes was found to be fairly constant and host-specific. Earlier studies were done in domesticated fowl and birds, though particularly in water birds in recent years, and numerous subtypes were detected, only a small number of these subtypes also being found to occur in man, pigs and horses. It became increasingly apparent that particularly mallards, but also other water birds play an extremely important role in the maintenance as well as in the distribution and circulation of these orthomyxoviruses in nature. These infections in water birds were not merely caused by a single subtype but occasionally by two or more antigenically different subtypes. This could be conducive to the appearance of recombinants as a result of genetic rearrangement in the cells lining the alimentary tracts of birds. Occasionally, subtypes observed in man were also found to occur in birds, which gave rise to the question of the extent to which birds are the origin or sources of infections of human epidemics caused by these subtypes. This also holds good for the subtypes in pigs. In addition to a number of oecological and ornithological considerations, reference was also made to systematic facts and routes along which further investigations on the presence of influenza viruses in the world of birds could be taken up, particular attention being paid to migratory birds. As birds of passage pass over and find their way into isolated areas as well as human population centres, these birds play a role which is yet unknown both in the distribution and in the overwintering of influenza viruses. Conditions in which wild and domesticated (water) birds, pigs, horses and man form a chain of close contact, and the areas in which new influenza viruses pathogenic for man are most likely to appear. Studies on the transgression of these barriers of species by subtypes of influenza virus still are entirely separate matter. The fact that a multidisciplinary approach is essential admits of no discussion.

            Descriptors:  bird diseases microbiology, ducks microbiology, influenza veterinary, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, birds microbiology, disease reservoirs, influenza transmission, avian classification, avian pathogenicity, porcine isolation and purification, serotyping, swine microbiology.

Vanmarcke, J. (2003). Experiences with AI [Avian Influenza] in Europe and the Middle East. Poultry Bulletin South Africa Poultry Association : 160-161.  ISSN: 0257-201X.

            NAL Call Number:  47.8 So89

            Descriptors:  poultry, avian influenza virus, diagnosis, disease control, vaccination, case studies, Europe, Middle East, domestic animals, immunization, immunostimulation, immunotherapy, livestock, therapy, useful animals.

Villarreal, C.C. and C.E. Rivera (2003). An update on avian influenza in Mexico. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 1002-1005.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  The avian influenza high-pathogenicity virus was eradicated in poultry of Mexico in a relatively short period by the use of inactivated emulsified vaccine, enforcing biosecurity, and controlling movement of poultry and poultry products. Mexico maintains a permanent and reliable monitoring program for AI. H5N2 is the only avian influenza subtype identified. It is possible to control and eradicate the avian influenza low-pathogenicity virus mainly by controlled depopulation of positive poultry, reinforcing biosecurity, and the use of vaccines.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, avian influenza, epidemiology, infectious disease, prevention and control, respiratory system disease, transmission, viral disease.

Viseshakul, N., R. Thanawongnuwech, A. Amonsin, S. Suradhat, S. Payungporn, J. Keawchareon, K. Oraveerakul, P. Wongyanin, S. Plitkul, A. Theamboonlers, and Y. Poovorawan (2004). The genome sequence analysis of H5N1 avian influenza A virus isolated from the outbreak among poultry populations in Thailand. Virology  328(2): 169-76.  ISSN: 0042-6822.

            NAL Call Number:  448.8 V81

            Abstract:  In this report, the genome of the Thai avian influenza virus A (H5N1); A/Chicken/Nakorn-Pathom/Thailand/CU-K2/04, isolated from the Thai avian influenza A (AI) epidemic during the early of 2004 was sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses were performed in comparison to AI viruses from Hong Kong 1997 outbreaks and other AI (H5N1) isolates reported during 2001-2004. Molecular characterization of the Thai AI (H5N1) HA gene revealed a common characteristic of a highly pathogenic AI (HPAI), a 20-codon deletion in the neuraminidase gene, a 5-codon deletion in the NS gene and polymorphisms of the M2 and PB2 genes. Moreover, the HA and NA genes of the Thai AI displayed high similarity to those of the AI viruses isolated from human cases during the same epidemic. Finally, our results demonstrated that the Thai AI emerged as a member of 2000's AI lineage with most of the genetic sequences closely related to the Influenza A/Duck/China/E319.2/03 (H5N1).

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks veterinary, genome, viral, influenza A virus, avian genetics, avian influenza virology, amino acid sequence, codon, gene deletion, avian influenza A virus isolation and purification, avian influenza A virus pathogenicity, avian influenza epidemiology, molecular sequence data, phylogeny, polymorphism, genetic, poultry, sequence alignment, Thailand epidemiology, viral proteins genetics.

Voeten, C. (2003). Is the hobby chicken really a danger for commercial poultry farming [during the recent outbreak of avian influenza]? Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 128(12): 388-389.  ISSN: 0040-7453.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 T431

            Descriptors:  risk assessment, avian influenza virus, Netherlands, western Europe, European Union countries, hobby chicken, poultry farming.

Walker, E. and P. Christie (1998). Chinese avian influenza. BMJ Clinical Research 316(7128): 325.  ISSN: 0959-8138.

            Descriptors:  fowl plague epidemiology, influenza epidemiology, disease outbreaks, fowl plague virology, Hong Kong epidemiology, influenza virology.

Wallensten, A., V.J. Munster, R.A.M. Fouchier, and B. Olsen (2004). Avian Influenza A virus in ducks migrating through Sweden. International Congress Series 1263: 771-772.

            Abstract:  In order to investigate the prevalence and ecology of the Avian Influenza A virus (AIV) in western Palearctic wild birds, migrating ducks, mainly Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), have been caught in a funnel trap at the Ottenby Bird Observatory on the Swedish Island Oland. After banding and collection of biometrical data, every individual was sampled for AIV. Since the fall of 2002, more than 3200 samples from 1900 birds have been collected showing a prevalence of AIV of 12%. Several subtypes have been found, including the low pathogenic H5N2. Some ducks are re-caught both during fall and spring migration, and the recruiting and wintering areas of the birds are known enabling us to draw conclusions about the geographical and reservoir distribution of AIV.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, Sweden, ecology, wild birds, migrating ducks, Anas platyrhynchos, banding, data collection.

Webster, R.G., Y. Kawaoka, W.J. Bean, C.W. Naeve, J.M. Wood, W.G. Laver, A.J. Gibbs (ed.) and  H.R.C. Meischke (ed.)  (1985). Lethal avian influenza (H5N2) in the USA: is a similar outbreak in Australia or New Zealand possible? In: Pests and Parasites As Migrants, p. 140-146.

            NAL Call Number:  QR175.P47

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, pests, parasites, outbreaks, Australia, New Zealand, United States.

Weir, E., T. Wong, and I. Gemmill (2004). Avian influenza outbreak: update. CMAJ Canadian Medical Association Journal; Journal De L'Association Medicale Canadienne 170(5): 785-6.  ISSN: 0820-3946.

            NAL Call Number:  R11.C3

            Descriptors:  avian influenza, outbreak, update.

Welsch, A.C. (1993). Avian influenza (AI) surveillance in the United States. Foreign Animal Disease Report (21-1): 13-15.  ISSN: 0091-8199.

            NAL Call Number:  aSF601.U5

            Descriptors:  poultry, avian influenza virus, viroses, monitoring, United States, America, domestic animals, domesticated birds, infectious diseases, influenza virus, livestock, North America, useful animals, viruses.

Westbury, H.A. and C (1989). Avian influenza [outbreaks; virus; diagnosis; Australia]. [conference paper]. Australian Perspectives in Veterinary Virology. Geelong, Vic. (Australia). 11 May 1989. Australian Veterinary Journal 66(12): 427-428.  ISSN: 0005-0423.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Au72

            Descriptors:  poultry, avian influenza virus, diagnosis, epidemiology, Australia, domestic animals, domesticated birds, influenza virus, livestock, Oceania, useful animals, viruses.

Wieliczko, A., B. Tomanek, and M. Kuczkowski (2003). Prevalence of infectious diseases in ring-necked pheasant flocks in Poland. Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences 6(3): 177-182.  ISSN: 1505-1773.

            NAL Call Number:  SF604.P65

            Abstract:  The health status of ring-necked pheasants in view of the prevalence of infectious diseases was estimated in Polish pheasantries in the years 1997-2000. Anatomicopathological, microbiological and serological examinations were carried out on birds derived from 26 pheasantries, including birds randomly selected from 18 flocks and sick or dead birds sent from 8 pheasantries. Antibodies specific to the following viruses were detected in serum blood samples: HE, AE, AP, REO, AI, Adeno group 1, MD, ND, as well as Mycoplasma gallisepticum specific antibodies. However, in none of the examined flocks was the presence of antibodies against reticuloendoteliosis virus found. Marble spleen disease and salmonellosis proved to be the most frequent cause of death during the growing period.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, veterinary medicine, avian influenza virus infection, viral disease, avian pox virus infection, viral disease, hemorrhagic enteritis virus infection, viral disease, Marek's disease, blood and lymphatic disease, immune system disease, neoplastic disease, viral disease, Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection, bacterial disease, reticuloendotheliosis virus infection, viral disease, adenovirus group I infection, viral disease, avian encephalomyelitis virus infection, viral disease, marble spleen disease, blood and lymphatic disease, immune system disease, viral disease, reovirus infection, viral disease, salmonellosis, bacterial disease, serology clinical techniques, diagnostic techniques, health status mortality pheasantry.

Williams, J.L. (1989). Emergency field investigations. Avian influenza. Foreign Animal Disease Report 17(1): 1.  ISSN: 0091-8199.

            NAL Call Number:  aSF601.U5

            Descriptors:  disease surveys, disease prevalence, avian influenza virus, United States, OECD countries.

Wilson, T.M., D.A. Gregg, D.J. King, D.L. Noah, L.E.L. Perkins, D.E. Swayne, and W.I. Inskeep (2001). Agroterrorism, biological crimes, and biowarfare targeting animal agriculture: The clinical, pathologic, diagnostic, and epidemiologic features of some important animal diseases. Clinics in Laboratory Medicine 21(3): 549-591.  ISSN: 0272-2712.

            Descriptors:  animal husbandry, government and law, infection, Newcastle disease, viral disease, avian influenza, viral disease, classic swine fever, hog cholera, viral disease, foot and mouth disease, viral disease, infectious animal diseases, infectious disease, agroterrorism, biological crimes, biological terrorism, biowarfare, clinical features, clinical signs, differential diagnosis, disease control, disease definition, disease eradication, epidemiology, etiology, geographic distribution, host range, incubation period, intentional outbreak, morbidity, mortality, natural outbreak, pathology, public health, transmission, zoonotic potential.

Wit, J.J., G. Koch, T.H. Fabri, and A.R. Elbers (2004). A cross-sectional serological survey of the Dutch commercial poultry population for the presence of low pathogenic avian influenza virus infections. Avian Pathology 33(6): 565-70.  ISSN: 0307-9457.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.A1A9

            Abstract:  After the discovery of poultry infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of subtype H7N7 in the central area of the Netherlands on 28 February 2003, the hypothesis was put forward that an outbreak of the low pathogenic (LP) variant of H7N7 had preceded, unnoticed, the occurrence of the HPAI virus. Consequently, a cross-sectional serological survey of the Dutch poultry population was executed in the second week of March 2003. The basic requirements set were detection of a 5% prevalence of flocks exposed to LPAI virus with 95% confidence within the production type stratification level within each province in the Netherlands. Because of supposed higher risk of avian influenza infections in ducks, turkeys and free-range poultry, all the commercial flocks of these production types present in the Netherlands were sampled. The serological screening of 28018 sera from 1193 randomly selected poultry farms, located outside surveillance zones showed that LPAI H7 virus infections had occurred on three neighbouring farms all located in the southwest of the Netherlands. No antibodies against the neuraminidase N7 subtype were detected in the sera of these farms, indicating that the subtype was different from the HPAI H7N7 subtype that caused the avian influenza epidemic in 2003. In addition, evidence of infections with non-H5 or non-H7 subtypes of influenza A virus were obtained in two other farms located in the northeast and the southeast of the Netherlands. It was concluded that the HPAI subtype H7N7 outbreak was most likely not preceded by a significant circulation of a LPAI subtype H7N7 virus. Based on the Dutch experience, recommendations are made to detect avian influenza infections faster in the future.

            Descriptors:  antibodies, disease prevalence, egg production, ELISA, poultry, serology, avian influenza virus, ducks, turkeys, Netherlands epidemiology, avian influenza A virus pathogenicity, avian influenza epidemiology, viral antibodies, cross-sectional studies, disease outbreaks, chickens virology, ducks virology, oviposition, seroepidemiologic studies, time factors, virulence, turkeys virology, virulence.

World Health Organization (2004). Assessment of risk to human health associated with outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in poultry--situation as at 14 May 2004. Weekly Epidemiological Record; Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire 79(21): 203-4.  ISSN: 0049-8114.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks, avian influenza A virus pathogenicity, avian influenza epidemiology, poultry diseases epidemiology, zoonoses epidemiology, southeastern Asia epidemiology, China epidemiology, avian influenza transmission, Japan epidemiology, poultry diseases transmission, risk assessment.

World Health Organization (2004). Avian influenza A(H5N1)--situation on 4 February 2004. Weekly Epidemiological Record Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire 79(6): 53-4.  ISSN: 0049-8114.

            Descriptors:  avian influenza, WHO, weekly record.

World Health Organization (2004). Avian influenza A(H5N1)--situation (poultry) in Asia as at 2 March 2004: need for a long-term response, comparison with previous outbreaks. Weekly Epidemiological Record; Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire  79(10): 96-9.  ISSN: 0049-8114.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks veterinary, avian influenza A virus pathogenicity, avian influenza epidemiology, Asia, influenza A virus, avian influenza A virus isolation and purification, avian influenza economics, avian influenza prevention and control, poultry.

World Health Organization (2004). Avian influenza--current evaluation of risks to humans from H5N1 following recent reports. Weekly Epidemiological Record; Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire 79(29): 265-9.  ISSN: 0049-8114.

            Descriptors:  influenza virology, avian influenza A virus pathogenicity, avian influenza transmission, Asia epidemiology, disease outbreaks, avian influenza epidemiology, avian influenza virology, risk assessment.

World Health Organization (2004). Avian influenza--situation in Viet Nam as of 18 August 2004. Weekly Epidemiological Record; Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire 79(34): 309.  ISSN: 0049-8114.

            Descriptors:  birds, disease outbreaks, avian influenza epidemiology, Vietnam epidemiology.

World Health Organization (2004). Avian influenza, Thailand. Weekly Epidemiological Record; Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire 79(42): 377-8.  ISSN: 0049-8114.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks prevention and control,, avian influenza epidemiology, child, fatal outcome, influenza vaccines, avian influenza prevention and control, avian influenza transmission, Thailand epidemiology.

World Health Organization (2005). Avian influenza, Viet Nam--update. Weekly Epidemiological Record; Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire 80(4): 29-30.  ISSN: 0049-8114.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks, influenza, avian epidemiology, adult, middle aged, Vietnam epidemiology.

World Health Organization (1998). Influenza A(H5N1) in Hong Kong, special administrative region of China. Weekly Epidemiological Record; Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire 85(73): 12.  ISSN: 0049-8114.

            Descriptors:  human disease outbreaks, viral diseases, epidemiology, transmission, influenza virus, Hong Kong, avian influenza, primates, mammals, case control study, China, Asia.

World Health Organization (2004). WHO consultation on priority public health interventions before and during an influenza pandemic, Geneva, 16-18 March 2004. Weekly Epidemiological Record; Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire 79(11): 107-8.  ISSN: 0049-8114.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks, health priorities, influenza epidemiology, avian influenza A virus pathogenicity, public health, World Health Organization, Asia epidemiology avian influenza epidemiology.

Yi, X.F. and H.M. Luo (2004). [Avian influenza: crisis and respondence]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi; Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi 25(3): 185-7.  ISSN: 0254-6450.

            Descriptors:  disease outbreaks prevention and control, avian influenza epidemiology, avian influenza prevention and control, birds, Hong Kong epidemiology, poultry, public health, public health administration.

Yuanji, G. (2002). Influenza activity in China: 1998-1999. Vaccine 20(Suppl. 2): S28-S35.  ISSN: 0264-410X.

            NAL Call Number:  QR189.V32

            Abstract:  During 1989-1999, influenza A H3N2 and H1N1 subtypes and B type viruses were still co-circulating in human population in China, while influenza A (H3N2) virus was predominant strain. The two antigenically and genetically distinguishable strains of influenza B virus were also still co-circulating in men in southern China. The antigenic analysis indicated that most of the H3N2 viruses were A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2)-like strain, the most of the H1N1 viruses were antigenically similar to A/Beijing/262/95 (H1N1) virus. However, most of the influenza B viruses were B/Beijing/184/93-like strain, but few of them were antigenically similar to B/Shandong/7/97 virus. In the summer of 1998, the influenza outbreaks caused by H3N2 subtype of influenza A virus occurred widely in southern China. Afterwards, during 1998-1999 influenza season, a severe influenza epidemic caused by H3N2 virus emerged in northern China. The morbidity was reached as high as 10% in Beijing area. It was interesting that during influenza, surveillance from 1998 to 1999, five strains of avian influenza A (H9N2) virus were isolated from outpatients with influenza-like illness in July-August of 1998, and another one was repeatedly isolated from a child suffering from influenza-like disease in November of 1999 in Guangdong province. The genetic analysis revealed that the five strains isolated in 1998 were genetically closely related to H9N2 viruses being isolated from chickens (G9 lineage virus), whereas, A/Guangzhou/333/99 (H9N2) virus was a reassortant derived from reassortment between G9 and G1 lineage of avian influenza A (H9N2) viruses due to its genes encoding the HA, NA, NP and NS proteins, closely related to G9 lineage virus, the rest of the genes encoding the M and three polymerase (PB2, PB1 and PA) were closely related to G1 lineage strain of H9N2 virus. However, no avian influenza A (H5N1) virus has so far been isolated neither from in or outpatients with influenza-like disease in mainland China. Unfortunately, where did the reassortment occur and how did the reassortant transmit to men? These questions are still unknown.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, influenza, respiratory system disease, viral disease.

Zanella, A. (2003). Avian influenza attributable to serovar H7N1 in light layers in Italy. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 1177-1180.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  In March 1999 a syndrome characterized by depression, anorexia, fever, and respiratory and enteric signs appeared in many flocks of turkeys and, to a lesser extent, chickens in the densely populated poultry-rearing regions of Northeastern Italy. Initially the disease was characterized by sinusitis, tracheitis, peritonitis, and pancreatitis. The responsible agent was identified as low-pathogenicity (LP) avian influenza (AI) of H7N1 subtype. Concerning the light layers, the mortality was variable, from 1.7% to 9.5%, whereas egg production decreased by 10% to 40%. According to the epidemiologic data, chickens seemed to be less sensitive to the virus than were turkeys. Nine months later, the AI virus changed to a highly pathogenic (HP) AI virus and affected, besides turkeys, a great number of pullet and layer flocks, with high mortality (80%-100%) in a few days. However, the course of disease was more prolonged in pullets. Within 3 1/2 mo, over 100 outbreaks were reported. Following the HPAI outbreaks, in late 2000 and early 2001, LPAI reemerged, but only one flock of layers was affected.

            Descriptors:  epidemiology, infection, veterinary medicine, avian influenza, infectious disease, respiratory system disease, viral disease, epidemiological data, poultry flocks.

Zanella, A. (2003). Avian influenza strikes Italy's poultry industry once again. World Poultry 19(2): 30-31.  ISSN: 1388-3119.

            NAL Call Number:  SF481.M54

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, disease control, outbreaks, pathogenicity, poultry housing, vaccination, turkeys, Italy, biosecurity.

Zanella, A., P. Dall'Ara, and P.A. Martino (2001). Avian influenza epidemic in Italy due to serovar H7N1. Avian Diseases 45(1): 257-61.  ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL Call Number:  41.8 Av5

            Abstract:  Beginning at the end of March 1999, a syndrome characterized by severe depression, anorexia, fever, and respiratory and enteric symptoms appeared in flocks of turkeys and, to a lesser extent, of chickens in the densely populated poultry-rearing regions of northeast Italy. The disease was characterized by sinusitis, tracheitis, peritonitis, and pancreatitis. The mortality varied between 5% and 90%. The disease was diagnosed as low pathogenic avian influenza, H7N1 serotype. After a summer period of declining cases, the disease reappeared in autumn exclusively in turkeys. Since the middle of December 1999, many farms of chickens, turkeys, and guinea fowl were abruptly affected by a highly pathogenic H7N1 virus, with very severe depression and mortality up to 100% in a few days. By the end of March 2000, nearly 500 farms, representing over 15 million birds, were affected or depopulated. To date, control measures have focused on improved biosecurity measures. Vaccine was not allowed, but its use was debated.

            Descriptors:  fowl plague epidemiology, poultry diseases epidemiology, chickens, influenza A virus avian, Italy epidemiology, pancreatitis complications, pancreatitis veterinary, peritonitis complications, peritonitis veterinary,  serotyping, sinusitis complications, sinusitis veterinary, tracheitis complications, tracheitis veterinary, turkeys.

Zanella, A., P. Dall'Ara, and P.A. Martino (2000). Avian influenza epidemic serovar H7N1 in Italy. Zootecnica International 23(11): 54-60.  ISSN: 0392-0593.

            NAL Call Number:  SF600.Z6

            Descriptors:  avian influenza virus, serovars, Galliformes, epidemic, Italy.

Zanella, A., P.A. Martino, A. Merino Martin, M. Stonfer, and G. Zanardi (2000). Avian influenza due to serovar H7N1 in light layers in Italy. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 49: 116-119.

            NAL Call Number:  SF995.W4

            Descriptors:  Italy, chickens, turkeys, avian influenza virus.

Zanella, A., P.A. Martino, A. Moreno Martin, and D. Gallazzi (2000). Influenza aviare. Su alcuni episodi di malattia in ovaiole leggere. [Avian influenza. About some outbreaks of diseases in light layers]. 38. Meeting of Italian Society of Poultry Pathology on immune response related to age and genetic type]. Forli (Italy). 30 Sep-1 Oct 1999. Selezione Veterinaria (Italy) (8-9): 639-644.

            NAL Call Number:  241.71 B75

            Abstract:  Some outbreaks of avian influenza due to H7N1 serotype in light egg layers are reported. The mortality resulted variable from 1.7 to 9.5%, whereas the laying decrease resulted variable from 10 to 40% in the different farms. According to epidemiological data, the light layers appeared less sensitive to avian influenza virus than turkeys and broiler breeders.

            Descriptors:  layer chickens, avian influenza virus, epidemiology, viroses, serotypes, etiology, mortality, oviposition, reproductive performance, laying performance, animal performance, biological differences, birds, chickens, domestic animals, Galliformes, infectious diseases, influenza virus, livestock, orthomyxoviridae, poultry, reproduction, sexual reproduction, useful animals, viruses.


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