Viral Typing and Characterization
Alexander, D.J., W.H. Allan, and G. Parsons (1979). Characterisation of influenza viruses isolated from turkeys in Great Britain during 1963-1977. Research in Veterinary Science 26(1): 17-20. ISSN: 0034-5288.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R312
Abstract: Seven influenza viruses isolated from turkeys in Great Britain since 1963 were typed by haemagglutination inhibition and neuraminidase inhibition tests as: A/turkey/England/63 (Hav 1 Nav 3), A/turkey/England/66 (Hav 6 N2), A/turkey/England/69 (Hav 7 N2), A/turkey/Scotland/70 (Hav ? Neq 1), A/turkey/England/N28/73 (Hav 5 N2), A/turkey/England/110/77 (Hav 6 N2), A/turkey/England/647/77 /Hav 1 Neq 1). A/turkey/Scotland/70 failed to show a haemagglutinin relationship with any of the representative strains and may possess a hitherto unreported haemagglutinin subtype. Intravenous pathogenicity tests in six-week-old birds showed only A/turkey/England/63 to have high virulence for turkeys and chickens. A/turkey/England/69 produced some signs of disease in chickens and, to a lesser extent, turkeys but all other isolates were avirulent.
Descriptors: influenza A virus avian immunology, antigens, viral analysis, chickens, fowl plague etiology, Great Britain, hemagglutination tests, turkeys microbiology.
Barli Maganja, D., U. Krapez, S. Manko, I. Toplak, J. Grom, P. Hostnik, and O.Z. Rojs (2004). New approaches in diagnosis and typing of viruses causing diseases in poultry. Praxis Veterinaria (Zagreb) 52(1/2): 19-26. ISSN: 0350-4441.
Abstract: In the last two decades, various molecular biological methods were introduced in diagnostic virology. They are used for the rapid detection of viral nucleic acids, genetic characterization of the pathogens responsible for many viral infections and tracking of the origin and spread of viruses. In this review, the application of molecular biology methods, particularly the combined approach of amplifying defined fragments of viral genomes, using the polymerase chain reaction and subsequent nucleotide sequencing analysis, is described. Emphasis is placed on some of the few important viruses causing economically important diseases in poultry, like Newcastle disease virus, avian influenza virus, infectious bursal disease virus and chicken anaemia virus.
Descriptors: avian infectious bursitis, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, DNA sequencing, fowl diseases, genomes, influenza, methodology, molecular biology, Newcastle disease, polymerase chain reaction, poultry, reviews, avian influenza virus, chicken anaemia virus, fowls, infectious bursal disease virus, Newcastle disease virus.
Bean, W.J., Y. Kawaoka, J.M. Wood, J.E. Pearson, and R.G. Webster (1985). Characterization of virulent and avirulent A/chicken/Pennsylvania/83 influenza A viruses: potential role of defective interfering RNAs in nature. Journal of Virology 54(1): 151-60. ISSN: 0022-538X.
NAL Call Number: QR360.J6
Abstract: In April 1983, an influenza virus of low virulence appeared in chickens in Pennsylvania. Subsequently, in October 1983, the virus became virulent and caused high mortality in poultry. The causative agent has been identified as an influenza virus of the H5N2 serotype. The hemagglutinin is antigenically closely related to tern/South Africa/61 (H5N3) and the neuraminidase is similar to that from human H2N2 strains (e.g., A/Japan/305/57) and from some avian influenza virus strains (e.g., A/turkey/Mass/66 [H6N2]). Comparison of the genome RNAs of chicken/Penn with other influenza virus isolates by RNA-RNA hybridization indicated that all of the genes of this virus were closely related to those of various other influenza virus isolates from wild birds. Chickens infected with the virulent strain shed high concentrations of virus in their feces (10(7) 50% egg infective dose per g), and the virus was isolated from the albumin and yolk of eggs layed just before death. Virus was also isolated from house flies in chicken houses. Serological and virological studies showed that humans are not susceptible to infection with the virus, but can serve as short-term mechanical carriers. Analysis of the RNA of the viruses isolated in April and October by gel migration and RNA-RNA hybridization suggested that these strains were very closely related. Oligonucleotide mapping of the individual genes of virulent and avirulent strains showed a limited number of changes in the genome RNAs, but no consistent differences between the virulent and avirulent strains that could be correlated with pathogenicity were found. Polyacrylamide gel analysis of the early (avirulent) isolates demonstrated the presence of low-molecular-weight RNA bands which is indicative of defective-interfering particles. These RNAs were not present in the virulent isolates. Experimental infection of chickens with mixtures of the avirulent and virulent strains demonstrated that the avirulent virus interferes with the pathogenicity of the virulent virus. The results suggest that the original avirulent virus was probably derived from influenza viruses from wild birds and that the virulent strain was derived from the avirulent strain by selective adaptation rather than by recombination or the introduction of a new virus into the population. This adaptation may have involved the loss of defective RNAs, as well as mutations, and thus provides a possible model for a role of defective-interfering particles in nature.
Descriptors: chickens microbiology, influenza A virus avian pathogenicity, RNA viral analysis, antigens, viral analysis, defective viruses genetics, Diptera microbiology, ducks microbiology, avian genetics, avian immunology, swine microbiology, viral interference, virus replication.
Bender, C., H. Hall, J. Huang, A. Klimov, N. Cox, A. Hay, V. Gregory, K. Cameron, W. Lim, and K. Subbarao (1999). Characterization of the surface proteins of influenza A (H5N1) viruses isolated from humans in 1997-1998. Virology 254(1): 115-23. ISSN: 0042-6822.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 V81
Descriptors: hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus genetics, influenza virology, influenza A virus human genetics, neuraminidase genetics, adolescent, adult, antigens, viral immunology, base sequence, child, preschool, DNA, viral, disease outbreaks, genes viral, Hong Kong epidemiology, infant, influenza epidemiology, human growth and development, human immunology, human isolation and purification, middle aged, molecular sequence data, phylogeny.
Boudreault, A., J. Lecomte, and V.S. Hinshaw (1980). Caracterisation antigenique des virus influenza A isoles des oiseaux captures dans l'Ontario, le Quebec et les provinces maritimes durant la saison 1977. [Antigenic characterization of influenza A virus isolated from birds captured in Ontario, Quebec, and the maritime provinces during the 1977 season]. Revue Canadienne De Biologie Editee Par L'Universite De Montreal 39(2): 107-14. ISSN: 0035-0915.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 R325
Abstract: A total of 145 influenza A viruses were isolated from ducks, geese and passerine birds in Ontario, Quebec and the Maritimes in July-August 1977. Antigenic characterization of these isolates included five hemagglutinin (Hsw1, Hav4, Hav5, Hav6, Hav7) and five neuraminidase subtypes (N1, N2, Neq1, Neq2, Nav1) in nine different combinations; one combination Hav7 Neq1 had not been previously reported. The majority of these viruses were Hsw1 N1, antigenically related to influenza viruses in pigs and humans. This large reservoir of influenza A viruses circulating in ducks may well be involved in the appearance of new viruses in other species, including humans.
Descriptors: animal population groups microbiology, animals, wild microbiology, birds microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, Canada, disease reservoirs, ducks microbiology, hemagglutinins viral analysis, avian immunology, neuraminidase analysis, viral proteins analysis.
Bowes, V.A., S.J. Ritchie, S. Byrne, K. Sojonky, J.J. Bidulka, and J.H. Robinson (2004). Virus characterization, clinical presentation, and pathology associated with H7N3 avian influenza in British Columbia broiler breeder chickens in 2004. Avian Diseases 48(4): 928-34. ISSN: 0005-2086.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Av5
Abstract: Low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) subtype H7N3 was diagnosed on a two-age broiler breeder farm in Abbotsford, British Columbia (BC), in early February 2004. The presenting complaint in the older index flock was feed refusal, with 0.5% mortality over 72 hr that resolved over the following week Ten days after the initial complaint in the index flock, a younger flock in an adjacent barn experienced an abrupt spike in mortality (25% in 48 hr). The gross lesions of tracheal hyperemia and hilar pulmonary consolidation were subtle and nonspecific, and the diagnosis of avian influenza required laboratory confirmation. Two different viruses were isolated from the index farm: a LPAI (H7N3) was isolated from the older flock and a high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) (H7N3), which had an additional 21 base insertion at the hemagglutinin-cleavage site, was isolated from the younger flock. The presence of this insertion sequence and the similarity of adjacent sequences indicate that the LPAI had mutated into HPAI at some point between the first and second barn. Despite enhanced on-farm biosecurity measures, the virus was not contained on the index farm and eventually spread to over 40 commercial poultry facilities before massive depopulation efforts enabled its eradication.
Descriptors: chickens virology, influenza A virus, avian pathogenicity, avian influenza pathology, virology, base sequence, British Columbia epidemiology, disease outbreaks veterinary, avian genetics, avian influenza epidemiology, lung pathology, molecular sequence data, pharynx pathology, phylogeny, RNA, viral, trachea pathology.
Bragstad, K., P.H. Jorgensen, K.J. Handberg, S. Mellergaard, S. Corbet, and A. Fomsgaard (2005). New avian influenza A virus subtype combination H5N7 identified in Danish mallard ducks. Virus Research 109(2): 181-90. ISSN: 0168-1702.
NAL Call Number: QR375.V6
Abstract: During the past years increasing incidences of influenza A zoonosis have made it of uppermost importance to possess methods for rapid and precise identification and characterisation of influenza A viruses. We present here a convenient one-step RT-PCR method that will amplify full-length haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) directly from clinical samples and from all known subtypes of influenza A. We applied the method on samples collected in September 2003 from a Danish flock of mallards with general health problems and by this a previously undescribed influenza A subtype combination, H5N7, was identified. The HA gene showed great sequence similarity to the highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (HPAIV) A/Chicken/Italy/312/97 (H5N2); however, the cleavage site sequence between HA1 and HA2 had a motif typical for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV). The full-length NA sequence was most closely related to the HPAIV A/Chicken/Netherlands/01/03 (H7N7) that infected chickens and humans in the Netherlands in 2003. Ten persons with direct or indirect contact with the Danish mallard ducks showed signs of influenza-like illness 2-3 days following the killing of the ducks, but no evidence of influence infections was detected. To our knowledge this is the first report of an H5N7 influenza A virus.
Descriptors: new avian influenza A virus, H5N7, mallard ducks, Danish, subtype, HA1, HA2, zoonosis, identification, gene.
Butterfield, W.K. (1976). Methods for biologic preparation, isolation, identification and characterization of avian influenza A viruses. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association (80): 274-82. ISSN: 0082-8750.
NAL Call Number: 449.9 Un3r
Descriptors: influenza A virus avian immunology, hemagglutinins viral analysis, immune sera, neuraminidase immunology, virus cultivation.
Castro, A.E., H. Lu, D. Senne, and D. Henzler (1998). Biologic and molecular characteristics of the H7N2 subtype of avian influenza virus isolated during a 1997 field outbreak in layer flocks. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 47: 69-71.
NAL Call Number: SF995.W4
Descriptors: avian influenza virus, hens, layer, poultry, molecular characteristics.
Cattoli, G., R.J. Manvell, E. Tisato, J. Banks, and I. Capua (2001). Characterization of Newcastle disease viruses isolated in Italy in 2000. Avian Pathology 30(5): 465-469. ISSN: 0307-9457.
NAL Call Number: SF995.A1A9
Abstract: Thirty-two Newcastle disease virus isolates from the 2000 Italian epidemic were characterized by monoclonal antibody binding pattern and nucleotide sequencing of approximately 400 base pairs of the fusion gene. In addition, the pathogenicity of six of these isolates was assessed by means of the intracerebral pathogenicity test (ICPI). The strains tested exhibited an ICPI ranging from 1.6 to 2.0. On the basis of the monoclonal antibody binding pattern, all isolates could be classified as belonging to group C1. Both monoclonal antibody and genomic analysis revealed a very high degree of homology, indicating a common source of infection. On the basis of the phylogenetic analysis, it appears that the Italian isolates are closely related to the recent isolates from the UK, Scandinavia and South East Europe, thus suggesting the circulation of this viral strain in Europe during the past 5 years.
Descriptors: epidemiology, infection, molecular genetics, veterinary medicine, Newcastle disease, viral disease, intracerebral pathogenicity test analytical method, nucleotide sequencing molecular genetic method, phylogenetic analysis analytical method, homology.
Chambers, T.M., S. Yamnikova, Y. Kawaoka, D.K. Lvov, and R.G. Webster (1989). Antigenic and molecular characterization of subtype H13 hemagglutinin of influenza virus. Virology 172(1): 180-8. ISSN: 0042-6822.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 V81
Abstract: Influenza A viruses with subtype H13 hemagglutinin display an unusual host range. Although common in shorebirds, they are very rare or absent in wild ducks; additionally, H13 viruses have been isolated from a whale. To study the molecular basis for this host range, we have determined the complete nucleotide sequences of the hemagglutinin genes of three H13 influenza viruses from different species or geographical areas: A/gull/Maryland/77, A/gull/Astrachan (USSR)/84, and A/pilot whale/Maine/84. Based on the deduced amino acid sequences, H13 hemagglutinin shares the basic structure of other type A hemagglutinin subtypes such as H3, but has clearly diverged from other completely sequenced subtypes. Unique features of H13 hemagglutinin include the occurrence, near the receptor binding pocket, of residues Arg/Lys-227 and Trp-229 (H3 numbering); the significance of these are unknown. The sequence of the HA1-HA2 cleavage site resembles those of avirulent avian influenza viruses. The whale H13 hemagglutinin is similar to those from gulls, supporting the hypothesis that influenza viruses from avian sources can enter marine mammal populations but are probably not permanently maintained there. Antigenic analysis using a panel of monoclonal antibodies suggests that, like other subtypes, H13 viruses are heterogeneous, with different antigenic variants predominating in the eastern versus the western hemispheres.
Descriptors: hemagglutinins viral immunology, influenza A virus avian immunology, amino acid sequence, base sequence, genes viral, hemagglutinins viral classification, hemagglutinins viral genetics, avian classification, influenza A virus avian genetics, molecular sequence data, RNA viral genetics.
Chen, H., G. Deng, Z. Li, G. Tian, Y. Li, P. Jiao, L. Zhang, Z. Liu, R.G. Webster, and K. Yu ( 2004). The evolution of H5N1 influenza viruses in ducks in southern China. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101(28): 10452-7. ISSN: 0027-8424.
NAL Call Number: 500 N21P
Abstract: The pathogenicity of avian H5N1 influenza viruses to mammals has been evolving since the mid-1980s. Here, we demonstrate that H5N1 influenza viruses, isolated from apparently healthy domestic ducks in mainland China from 1999 through 2002, were becoming progressively more pathogenic for mammals, and we present a hypothesis explaining the mechanism of this evolutionary direction. Twenty-one viruses isolated from apparently healthy ducks in southern China from 1999 through 2002 were confirmed to be H5N1 subtype influenza A viruses. These isolates are antigenically similar to A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 (H5N1) virus, which was the source of the 1997 Hong Kong "bird flu" hemagglutinin gene, and all are highly pathogenic in chickens. The viruses form four pathotypes on the basis of their replication and lethality in mice. There is a clear temporal pattern in the progressively increasing pathogenicity of these isolates in the mammalian model. Five of six H5N1 isolates tested replicated in inoculated ducks and were shed from trachea or cloaca, but none caused disease signs or death. Phylogenetic analysis of the full genome indicated that most of the viruses are reassortants containing the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96-like hemagglutinin gene and the other genes from unknown Eurasian avian influenza viruses. This study is a characterization of the H5N1 avian influenza viruses recently circulating in ducks in mainland China. Our findings suggest that immediate action is needed to prevent the transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from the apparently healthy ducks into chickens or mammalian hosts.
Descriptors: ducks virology, evolution, molecular, influenza A virus, avian genetics, avian pathogenicity, influenza, avian virology, chickens, China, genes, viral genetics, genotype, avian transmission, mice, molecular sequence data, phylogeny, virulence.
Couceiro, J.N., J.R. Chaves, C.T. Brandao, and R.D. Machado (1982). Isolamento e caracterizacao de virus influenza A, em aves ornamentais, no Rio de Janeiro. [Isolation and characterization of influenza virus type A, in ornamental birds, in Rio de Janeiro]. Anais De Microbiologia 27: 159-67. ISSN: 0485-1854.
Descriptors: fowl plague microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, birds, Brazil, feces microbiology, fowl plague epidemiology, hemagglutination inhibition tests, serotyping.
Couceiro, J.N., R.D. Machado, and J.R. Chaves (1982). Influenza A, isolamento e caracerizacao de virus isolados de aves de vida livre. [Influenza A, isolation and characterization of virus isolated from wild birds]. Anais De Microbiologia 27: 193-204. ISSN: 0485-1854.
Descriptors: birds microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, antigens, viral analysis, culture media, feces microbiology, hemagglutination inhibition tests, hemagglutinins viral analysis, immune sera, avian immunology, virus cultivation.
Di Trani, L., B. Bedini, P. Cordioli, M. Muscillo, E. Vignolo, A. Moreno, and M. Tollis (2004). Molecular characterization of low pathogenicity H7N3 avian influenza viruses isolated in Italy. Avian Diseases 48(2): 376-83. ISSN: 0005-2086.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Av5
Abstract: The complete coding regions of the surface glycoproteins, nucleoprotein (NP), polymerase 2 (PB2), and matrix (M) of A/turkey/214845/02 and A/turkey/220158/99 (H7N3) low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses isolated in October 2002 in Italy were amplified and sequenced to determine the epidemiologic relationships with an A/turkey/Italy/4603/99 (H7N1/4603/99) LPAI virus isolated during the 1999-2001 epizootic in Italy. The hemagglutinin (HA) of H7N3 viruses showed 97.8% nucleotide similarity with A/turkey/Italy/4603/99 (H7N1), and NP, M, and PB2 gene similarities were 93.6%, 98.2%, and 96.2%, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of HA, PB2, and M genes showed that H7N3 and H7N1 viruses were closely related. Sequence analysis revealed a 23 amino acid deletion in the stalk of the neuraminidase of H7N3 viruses and a unique deletion of amino acid glycine in position 17 in the NP gene of H7N1 virus.
Descriptors: disease outbreaks veterinary, genes, viral genetics, influenza A virus, avian genetics, avian isolation and purification, avian epidemiology, poultry diseases epidemiology, turkeys virology, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus genetics, avian pathogenicity, avian virology, Italy epidemiology, membrane glycoproteins genetics, molecular biology, neuraminidase, nucleoproteins genetics, open reading frames, phylogeny, polymerase chain reaction, poultry diseases virology.
Donatelli, I., L. Campitelli, L. Di Trani, S. Puzelli, L. Selli, A. Fioretti, D.J. Alexander, M. Tollis, S. Krauss, and R.G. Webster (2001). Characterization of H5N2 influenza viruses from Italian poultry. Journal of General Virology 82(Pt. 3): 623-30. ISSN: 0022-1317.
NAL Call Number: QR360.A1J6
Abstract: From October 1997 to January 1998, highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza viruses caused eight outbreaks of avian influenza in northern Italy. A nonpathogenic H5N9 influenza virus was also isolated during the outbreaks as a result of virological and epidemiological surveillance to control the spread of avian influenza to neighbouring regions. Antigenic analysis showed that the Italian H5N2 isolates were antigenically similar to, although distinguishable from, A/HK/156/97, a human influenza H5N1 virus isolated in Hong Kong in 1997. Phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin (HA) genes showed that the highly pathogenic Italian viruses clustered with the Hong Kong strains, whereas the nonpathogenic H5N9 virus, despite its epidemiological association with the highly pathogenic Italian isolates, was most closely related to the highly pathogenic A/Turkey/England/91 (H5N1) strain. Like the HA phylogenetic tree, the nonstructural (NS) phylogenetic tree showed that the H5N2 Italian virus genes are clearly separate from those of the H5N9 strain. In contrast, results of the phylogenetic analysis of nucleoprotein (NP) genes indicated a closer genetic relationship between the two Italian virus groups, a finding suggesting a common progenitor. Comparison of the HA, NS and NP genes of the Italian H5 strains with those of the H5N1 viruses simultaneously circulating in Hong Kong revealed that the two groups of viruses do not share a recent common ancestor. No virological and serological evidence of bird-to-human transmission of the Italian H5N2 influenza viruses was found.
Descriptors: chickens virology, influenza A virus avian genetics, poultry diseases virology, base sequence, chick embryo, DNA, viral, fowl plague epidemiology, fowl plague transmission, fowl plague virology, genes viral, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus classification, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus genetics, avian classification, avian immunology, avian pathogenicity, Italy epidemiology, molecular sequence data, nucleoproteins classification, nucleoproteins genetics, phylogeny, poultry, poultry diseases epidemiology, poultry diseases transmission, sequence analysis, DNA methods, viral core proteins classification, viral core proteins genetics, viral nonstructural proteins classification, viral nonstructural proteins genetics.
Edwards, L.E., D.C. Nguyen, X. Lu, H. Hall, A. Balish, J.E. Mabry, W. Lim, N.J. Cox, A. Klimov, and J.M. Katz (2004). Antigenic characteristics of recent avian influenza A H5N1 viruses isolated from humans. International Congress Series 1263: 109-113.
Abstract: Background: In February 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 viruses reemerged in humans. Despite repeated outbreaks in domestic poultry in Hong Kong since 1999, this was the first isolation of H5N1 from humans since the outbreak in Hong Kong in 1997, which resulted in 18 human cases and 6 deaths. Methods: To better understand the antigenic relationship between the 2003 H5N1 human virus A/Hong Kong/213/03 (HK/213) and other H5 viruses, post-infection ferret sera or post-infection human sera were tested for reactivity by hemagglutination-inhibition and microneutralization assays with H5N1 viruses circulating in Hong Kong or elsewhere in Asia since 1997. Results: The H5N1 virus isolated from a 9-year-old male in Hong Kong was antigenically distinguishable from recent H5N1 viruses isolated from wild birds in Hong Kong and from the human 1997 H5N1 viruses, using post-infection ferret sera. Likewise, sera from this case patient, collected 22 days post-symptom onset, reacted to high titers with the homologous HK/213 virus, but gave eightfold lower titers with A/Hong Kong/156/97, and other H5 viruses. Conclusion: These results suggest that this recent human H5N1 virus is antigenically distinguishable from current and previously circulating H5N1 viruses from Asia, including the viruses previously isolated from humans.
Descriptors: influenza H5N1, antigenicity, serology.
Fouchier, R.A., V. Munster, A. Wallensten, T.M. Bestebroer, S. Herfst, D. Smith, G.F. Rimmelzwaan, B. Olsen, and A.D. Osterhaus (2005). Characterization of a novel influenza A virus hemagglutinin subtype (H16) obtained from black-headed gulls. Journal of Virology 79(5): 2814-22. ISSN: 0022-538X.
NAL Call Number: QR360.J6
Abstract: In wild aquatic birds and poultry around the world, influenza A viruses carrying 15 antigenic subtypes of hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 antigenic subtypes of neuraminidase (NA) have been described. Here we describe a previously unidentified antigenic subtype of HA (H16), detected in viruses circulating in black-headed gulls in Sweden. In agreement with established criteria for the definition of antigenic subtypes, hemagglutination inhibition assays and immunodiffusion assays failed to detect specific reactivity between H16 and the previously described subtypes H1 to H15. Genetically, H16 HA was found to be distantly related to H13 HA, a subtype also detected exclusively in shorebirds, and the amino acid composition of the putative receptor-binding site of H13 and H16 HAs was found to be distinct from that in HA subtypes circulating in ducks and geese. The H16 viruses contained NA genes that were similar to those of other Eurasian shorebirds but genetically distinct from N3 genes detected in other birds and geographical locations. The European gull viruses were further distinguishable from other influenza A viruses based on their PB2, NP, and NS genes. Gaining information on the full spectrum of avian influenza A viruses and creating reagents for their detection and identification will remain an important task for influenza surveillance, outbreak control, and animal and public health. We propose that sequence analyses of HA and NA genes of influenza A viruses be used for the rapid identification of existing and novel HA and NA subtypes.
Descriptors: wild aquatic birds, influenza A virus, black-headed gulls, Larus ridibundus, orthomyxoviridae, amino acids, genes, hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, immunodiffusion, immunologic techniques, laboratory techniques.
Gambaryan, A.S., A.B. Tuzikov, G.V. Pazynina, R.G. Webster, M.N. Matrosovich, and N.V. Bovin ( 2004). H5N1 chicken influenza viruses display a high binding affinity for Neu5Acalpha2-3Galbeta1-4(6-HSO3)GlcNAc-containing receptors. Virology 326(2): 310-6. ISSN: 0042-6822.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 V81
Abstract: To characterize differences in the receptor-binding specificity of H5N1 chicken viruses and viruses of aquatic birds, we used a panel of synthetic polyacrylamide (PAA)-based sialylglycopolymers that carried identical terminal Neu5Acalpha2-3Gal fragments but varied by the structure of the next saccharide residues. A majority of duck viruses irrespective of their HA subtype, bound with the highest affinity to trisaccharide Neu5Acalpha2-3Galbeta1-3GlcNAc, suggesting that these viruses preferentially recognize sialyloligosaccharide receptors with type 1 core (Galbeta1-3GlcNAc). Substitution of 6-hydroxyl group of GlcNAc residue of tested sialylglycopolymers by 6-sulfo group had little effect on receptor binding by duck viruses. By contrast, H5N1 chicken and human viruses isolated in 1997 in Hong Kong preferred receptors with type 2 core (Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta) and bound sulfated trisaccharide Neu5Acalpha2-3Galbeta1-4(6-HSO3)GlcNAcbeta (6-Su-3'SLN) with the extraordinary high affinity. Another chicken virus, A/FPV/Rostok/34 (H7N1), and several mammalian viruses also displayed an increased affinity for sulfated sialyloligosaccharide receptor. The binding of chicken and mammalian viruses to tracheal epithelial cells of green monkey decreased after treatment of cells with glucosamine-6-sulfatase suggesting the presence of 6-O-Su-3'SLN determinants in the airway epithelium. It remains to be seen whether existence of the 6-O-Su-3'SLN groups in the human airway epithelial cells might facilitate infection of humans with H5N1 chicken viruses.
Descriptors: influenza A virus, avian metabolism, lactose analogs and derivatives, lactose metabolism, receptors, virus metabolism, carbohydrate sequence, cell membrane metabolism, cells, cultured, cercopithecus aethiops, chickens virology, ducks virology, epithelial cells virology, gangliosides metabolism, influenza, avian transmission, influenza, avian virology, lactose chemistry, molecular sequence data, oligosaccharides chemistry, oligosaccharides metabolism, receptors, virus chemistry, trisaccharides metabolism, virus replication.
Garcia Garcia, J. and O.M. Mendez (1996). Estudio sobre algunas caracteristicas de los virus de influenza aviar de baja patogenicidad aislados en Mexico, de enero a Septiembre de 1994. [A study on some characteristics of low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses isolated in Mexico from January to September, 1994]. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 45: 295-296.
NAL Call Number: SF995.W4
Descriptors: avian influenza virus, pathogenicity, Mexico, America, biological properties, influenza virus, Latin America, microbial properties, North America, orthomyxoviridae, viruses.
Garcia Garcia, J., A. Mendez M, and E. Rivera C (1995). Estudio descriptivo de los aislamientos del virus de influenza aviar de baja patogenicidad de enero a septiembre de 1994. [Descriptive study of isolations of avian influenza virus from January to September 1994]. Veterinaria Mexico 26(Suppl. 2): 100. ISSN: 0301-5092.
NAL Call Number: SF604.V485
Abstract: El objeto del presente estudio fue determinar el comportamiento del VIA para conocer variaciones que pudiera indicar un cambio gradual de patogenicidad. Se realizo una encuesta con los laboratorios que hicieron aislamientos del virus, de enero a septiembre de 1994, y que fueron enviados a la Cornision Mexico Americana para la Prevencion de Fiebre Aftosa y otras enfermedades exoticas, para realizar pruebas de patogenicidad. De un total de 64 aislamientos se obtuvo la informacion de 55 de ellos. La distribucion por estados fue que el 27 se aislaron en el Edo. de Mexico, el 25 en Jal., el 22 en Qro., el 7 en Gto., el S en Pue., en Mor. y Gro. El 4 y en Ags., Hgo. y Ver. El 2. Del total de los aislamientos el 49 se pudieron aislar al primer pase, el 31 al segundo pase, el 15 se aislaron al 3er pase y el 5 al 4o pase. Los aislamientos al 2o, 3o y 4o pase fueron mas frecuentes a partir de mayo. Las frecuencias de aislamiento a partir de traquea fueron de un 43, en pulmon de 38, de tonsilas cecales el 6, de bazo el 5, de encefalo el 4, de rinon y senos infraorbitarios el 2. La mortalidad embrionaria durante los aislamientos fue la siguiente: el 15 se presento entre 24 y 48 h, el 42 entre 48 y 72 h, de los cuales el mayor numero se presento en aislamientos al primer pase, y en 42 no se observo mortalidad. Las lesiones observadas fueron hemorragias en el embrion en un 24, de los cuales el mayor numero fue al primer pase, el 25 mostro congestion y en un 51 no se observaron lesiones. Por lo que se puede concluir que existen variaciones, en cuanto a su capacidad de producir lesiones y mortalidad, en los virus aislados durante este periodo, por lo que se requeriran otros estudios para identificar en que consisten esas variaciones.
Descriptors: chickens, avian influenza virus, diagnosis, pathogenicity, biological properties, birds, domestic animals, Galliformes, influenza virus, livestock, microbial properties, orthomyxoviridae, poultry, useful animals, viruses.
Glass, S.E., D. McGeoch, and R.D. Barry (1975). Characterization of the mRNA of influenza virus. Journal of Virology 16(6): 1435-43. ISSN: 0022-538X.
NAL Call Number: QR360.J6
Abstract: The kinetics of the appearance of influenza mRNA, the distribution of mRNA between free and membrane-associated polyribosomes, its poly(A) content, and the extent to which the genome was transcribed into mRNA early in infection were determined. Polyribosomes were prepared from influenza virus-infected cells labeled for 30-min periods at various times after infection with [3H]uridine. Most of the 3H-labeled RNA extracted from these polyribosomes sedimented as a heterogeneous 8S to 20S peak in sucrose gradients, and it was largely complementary to virion RNA. By the following criteria, the complementary RNA had properties normally ascribed to mRNA: (i) it labeled rapidly with [3H]uridine; (ii) after glutaraldelyde treatment, it banded with polyribosomes in CsCl density gradients; and (iii) it contained poly(A). In chick cells at 37 C, virus mRNA was first detectable at 45 min postinfection and reached its maximal rate of appearance at 2 to 2.5 h postinfection. The free and membrane-bound polyribosomes of infected cells were separated and were found to contain the same classes of mRNA. There was no absolute segregation of mRNA sequences into either polyribosome class although each probably contained distinct ratios of the different mRNA's. From 45 min postinfection onwards, both membrane-bound and free polysomal poly(A)-containing RNA contained sequences complementary to at least 80% of the genome RNA, whereas poly(A)-minus RNA contained sequences complementary to 90 to 100% of the genome. There was no evidence for the temporal control of transcription of influenza mRNA. At 31 C, when virus development was slowed relative to 37 C,complementary RNA first appeared at 1 h postinfection. At this time, total polysomal RNA contained sequences complementary to the whole genome.
Descriptors: influenza A virus avian metabolism, RNA messenger biosynthesis, RNA viral biosynthesis, base sequence, influenza A virus avian analysis, influenza A virus avian growth and development, poly A analysis, polyribosomes analysis, polyribosomes metabolism, RNA messenger analysis, RNA viral analysis, temperature, time factors, tissue culture, transcription, genetic, virus replication.
Guo, Y., M. Wang, Y. Kawaoka, O. Gorman, T. Ito, T. Saito, and R.G. Webster (1992). Characterization of a new avian-like influenza A virus from horses in China. Virology 188(1): 245-55. ISSN: 0042-6822.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 V81
Abstract: In March 1989 a severe outbreak of respiratory disease occurred in horses in the Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces of Northeast China that caused up to 20% mortality in some herds. An influenza virus of the H3N8 subtype was isolated from the infected animals and was antigenically and molecularly distinguishable from the equine 2 (H3N8) viruses currently circulating in the world. The reference strain A/Equine/Jilin/1/89 (H3N8) was most closely related to avian H3N8 influenza viruses. Sequence comparisons of the entire hemagglutinin (HA), nucleoprotein (NP), neuraminidase (NA), matrix (M), and NS genes along with partial sequences of the three polymerase (PB1, PB2, PA) genes suggest that six of the eight gene segments (PA, HA, NP, NA, M, NS) are closely related to avian influenza viruses. Since direct sequence analysis can only provide a crude measure of relationship, phylogenetic analysis was done on the sequence information. Phylogenetic analyses of the entire HA, NP, M, and NS genes and of partial sequences of PB1, PB2, and PA indicated that these genes are of recent avian origin. The NP gene segment is closely related to the gene segment found in the newly described H14 subtype isolated from ducks in the USSR. The A/Equine/Jilin/1/89 (H3N8) influenza virus failed to replicate in ducks, but did replicate and cause disease in mice on initial inoculation and on subsequent passaging caused 100% mortality. In ferrets, the virus caused severe influenza symptoms. A second outbreak of influenza in horses in Northeast China occurred in April 1990 in the Heilongjiang province with 48% morbidity and no mortality. The viruses isolated from this outbreak were antigenically indistinguishable from those in the 1989 outbreak and it is probable that the reduced mortality was due to the immune status of of the horses in the region. No influenza was detected in horses in Northern China in the spring, summer, or fall of 1991 and no influenza has been detected in horses in adjacent areas. Our analysis suggests that this new equine influenza virus in horses in Northeast China is the latest influenza virus in mammals to emerge from the avian gene pool in nature and that it may have spread to horses without reassortment. The appearance of this new equine virus in China emphasizes the potential for whole avian influenza viruses to successfully enter mammalian hosts and serves as a model and a warning for the appearance of new pandemic influenza viruses in humans.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Descriptors: horse diseases microbiology, influenza A virus isolation and purification, orthomyxoviridae infections veterinary, antigens, viral genetics, antigens, viral immunology, base composition, chick embryo, China epidemiology, cloning, molecular, genes viral, horse diseases epidemiology, horses, influenza A virus avian immunology, influenza A virus genetics, influenza A virus immunology, influenza A virus pathogenicity, orthomyxoviridae infections epidemiology, orthomyxoviridae infections microbiology, phylogeny, species specificity, virus replication.
Guo, Y., J. Xie, K. Wu, J. Dong, M. Wang, Y. Zhang, J. Guo, J. Chen, Z. Chen, and Z. Li (2002). [Characterization of genome of A/Guangzhou/333/99(H9N2) virus]. Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi Zhonghua Shiyan He Linchuang Bingduxue Zazhi [Chinese Journal of Experimental and Clinical Virology]. 16(2): 142-5. ISSN: 1003-9279.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: To understand the characterization of genome of a strain of avian influenza A H9N2 virus repeatedly isolated from a child with influenza illness. Thereafter to reveal the origin of this H9N2 virus. METHODS: Viruses were passed in embryonated hen eggs and virion RNA was extracted from allantoic fluid and reverse transcribed to synthesize cDNA. cDNA was amplified by PCR and the PCR product was purified with a purification kit. Afterwards RNA sequence analysis was performed by dideoxynucleotide chain termination and a cloning method. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of the sequencing data was performed with MegAlign (Version 1.03) and Editseg (Version 3.69) softwares. RESULTS: Genome of A/Guangzhou/333/99 (H9N2) virus was closely related to avian influenza A H9N2 virus, but obvious difference from that of A/Duck/Hong Kong/Y439/97(H9N2) virus, as well as its genome did not include any RNA segment derived from human influenza A virus. However, the genes encoding the HA,NA,NP and NS proteins of A/Guangzhou/333/99 virus were derived from those of G9 lineage virus, the rest genes encoding the M and three polymerase (PB2,PB1 and PA) proteins were derived from G1 lineage strain. CONCLUSIONS: A/Guangzhou/333/99 virus was a reassortant derived from reassortment betweenG9 and G1 lineages of avian influenzaA(H9N2) viruses. Therefore, the most possibility is that it is derived from avian influenza A virus directly. The results do not only demonstrate that avian influenza A (H9N2) virus could infect men, but also firstly prove that the genetic reassortment could be occurred between different genetic lineages of avian influenza A (H9N2) viruses in the nature.
Descriptors: genome, viral, influenza virology, influenza A virus avian genetics, base sequence, chick embryo, child, phylogeny.
Guo, Y., X. Xu, and X. Wan (1998). [Genetic characterization of an avian influenza A (H5N1) virus isolated from a sick goose in China]. Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi Zhonghua Shiyan He Linchuang Bingduxue Zazhi [Chinese Journal of Experimental and Clinical Virology]. 12(4): 322-5. ISSN: 1003-9279.
Abstract: Genetic analysis of viral HA gene showed that there were 22 nucleotide differences in HA gene between goose and human H5N1 viruses. The sequence analysis of amino acid on viral protein molecules indicated that there were 7 and 9 position differences between goose and human, chicken H5N1 viruses, respectively. All the three viruses share multiple basic amino acids (R-E-R-R-R-K-K-R) at the cleavage site between HA1 and HA2 domain, that is associated with highly pathogenic H5 avian viruses. Except one more glycosylation site located at 156 position in the chicken strain, there were 7 glycosylation sites at same positions in three virus HA protein molecules. The analysis of NA protein molecule indicated that the stalk region which extends from the viral membrane up to amino acid 85, human and chicken viruses had a 19 amino-acid deletion as compared with that of goose virus, while the goose NA gene was closely related to A/Parrot/Ulster/73 (H7N1) virus. Therefore, goose H5N1 virus HA and NA genes were avian in origin and were different from those of human and chicken H5N1 viruses. In our knowledge, this is the first time that the avian H5N1 virus was found causing influenza outbreak in goose. Why was A/Goose/Guangdong/2/96(H5N1) virus virulent for geese? It might be related to the substitution of amino acid located at 138 position near by RBS on HA protein molecule and 19 amino acids insertion on NA protein molecule as compared with those of human and chicken H5N1 viruses.
Descriptors: influenza virology, influenza A virus avian genetics, influenza A virus human genetics, poultry diseases virology, amino acid sequence, chick embryo, geese virology, influenza veterinary, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, influenza A virus human isolation and purification, molecular sequence data, sequence homology, amino acid.
Guo, Y.J., S. Krauss, D.A. Senne, I.P. Mo, K.S. Lo, X.P. Xiong, M. Norwood, K.F. Shortridge, R.G. Webster, and Y. Guan (2000). Characterization of the pathogenicity of members of the newly established H9N2 influenza virus lineages in Asia. Virology 267(2): 279-88. ISSN: 0042-6822.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 V81
Abstract: The reported transmission of avian H9N2 influenza viruses to humans and the isolation of these viruses from Hong Kong poultry markets lend urgency to studies of their ecology and pathogenicity. We found that H9N2 viruses from North America differ from those of Asia. The North American viruses, which infect primarily domestic turkeys, replicated poorly in inoculated chickens. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes indicated that the Asian H9N2 influenza viruses could be divided into three sublineages. Initial biological characterization of at least one virus from each lineage was done in animals. Early isolates of one lineage (A/Chicken/Beijing/1/94, H9N2) caused as high as 80% mortality rates in inoculated chickens, whereas all other strains were nonpathogenic. Sequence analysis showed that some isolates, including the pathogenic isolate, had one additional basic amino acid (A-R/K-S-S-R-) at the hemagglutinin cleavage site. Later isolates of the same lineage (A/Chicken/Hong Kong/G9/97, H9N2) that contains the PB1 and PB2 genes similar to Hong Kong/97 H5N1 viruses replicated in chickens, ducks, mice, and pigs but were pathogenic only in mice. A/Quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 (H9N2), from a second lineage that possesses the replicative complex similar to Hong Kong/97 H5N1 virus, replicated in chickens and ducks without producing disease signs, was pathogenic in mice, and spread to the brain without adaptation. Examples of the third Asian H9N2 sublineage (A/Chicken/Korea/323/96, Duck/Hong Kong/Y439/97) replicated in chickens, ducks, and mice without producing disease signs. The available evidence supports the notion of differences in pathogenicity of H9N2 viruses in the different lineages and suggests that viruses possessing genome segments similar to 1997 H5N1-like viruses are potentially pathogenic in mammals. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
Descriptors: influenza A virus avian genetics, influenza A virus avian pathogenicity, binding sites genetics, chickens virology, DNA complementary chemistry, DNA complementary genetics, glycosylation, hemagglutinins viral genetics, hemagglutinins viral metabolism, Hong Kong epidemiology, mice, mice inbred BALB c virology, molecular sequence data, phylogeny, poultry diseases epidemiology, RNA viral genetics, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, sequence analysis, DNA, virulence genetics, virus replication.
Guo, Y.J., L.Y. Wen, M. Wang, Y. Zhang, and J.F. Guo (2004). [Characterization of HA and NA genes of swine influenza A (H9N2) viruses]. Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi 18(1): 7111. ISSN: 1003-9279.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To understand the origin of HA and NA genes of swine influenza A (H9N2) viruses isolated from pigs in the mainland of China and on basis of these to reveal the pathogenecity of them in pigs. METHODS: The target gene was amplified by PCR, the PCR product was ligated with PGEM-T Easy Vector (Promega company, USA) at 4 degrees, the recombined plasmid was transferred into DH-10-beta bacteria; positive colonies were selected and identified then digested with restriction enzyme. Afterwards,the nucleotide sequence was determined. Finally,phylogenetic analysis of the sequencing data was performed with MegAlign (Version 1.03) and Editseg (Version 3.69) softwares. RESULTS: Two strains of swine influenza A(H9N2) virus isolated in the mainland had an amino acid residue, leucine (L) at position 226 (H3 numbering) on HA protein molecule found in H9N2 viruses isolated either in pigs or humans previously; the amino acid sequence at HA connecting peptide of isolates possessed R-L-S-R, whereas the other H9N2 viruses with virulence in poultry had R-S-S-R at HA connecting peptide. The two pig H9N2 isolates shared the same three-amino-acids deletion in the NA stalk at 62.64 position found in A/Shaoguan/408/98 and A/Swine/Hong Kong/9/98, as well as A/Duck/Hong Kong /Y280/97(H9N2) viruses. The analysis of the phylogenetic tree indicated that the HA and NA genes of new isolates were closely related to those of A/Chicken/Hong Kong/G23/97 and A/Chickon/Hong Kong/G9/97 and A/Shaoguan/408/98 viruses, respectively. CONCLUSION: The HA and NA genes of swine influenza A(H9N2) viruses isolated in the mainland of China probably were derived from those of avian influenza A(H9N2) virus. The occurrence of substitution of amino acid sequence at HA connecting peptide, could result in the H9N2 virus from non pathogenic to pathogenic in pigs. However, avian influenza A(H9N2) virus had deletion in the stalk of the NA that resulted in host range transmission.Therefore they could infect pigs directly.
Descriptors: HA, NA. genes, swine influenza A, viruses, H9N2, pigs, China, pathogenecity, amino acids, deletion.
Hay, A.J. and J.J. Skehel (1979). Characterization of influenza virus RNA transcripts synthesized in vitro. Journal of General Virology 44(3): 599-608. ISSN: 0022-1317.
NAL Call Number: QR360.A1J6
Abstract: Polyadenylated transcripts synthesized in vitro by detergent-disrupted influenza virus resemble virus mRNAs in that they possess the complement of the 3' terminus of the genome RNAs but lack sequences corresponding to the same 5' terminal region, including the homologous sequence of nucleotides 1 to 22. Transcription is initiated at the 3' terminus by both ApG and GpG as well as in the absence of added primer.
Descriptors: influenza A virus avian analysis, orthomyxoviridae analysis, RNA viral analysis, transcription, genetic, base sequence, cell free system, avian metabolism, nucleic acid hybridization, nucleotides analysis, poly A analysis, viral biosynthesis.
Hay, A.J., J.J. Skehel, and J. McCauley (1982). Characterization of influenza virus RNA complete transcripts. Virology 116(2): 517-22. ISSN: 0042-6822.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 V81
Descriptors: influenza A virus avian genetics, RNA viral analysis, adenosine metabolism, base sequence, chromatography, DEAE-cellulose, chromatography, thin layer, phosphorylation, ribonucleases pharmacology, ribonucleotides analysis, transcription, genetic.
He HouJun, Deng ShunZhou, Wu XiangDong, and Zhu ZhiXiu (2004). Isolation and identification of the avian influenza Virus strain in Jiangxi. Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Jiangxiensis 26(3): 409-411. ISSN: 1000-2286.
Descriptors: avian influenza virus, identification, isolation, strains, hens, Jiangzi, China.
Hinshaw, V.S., W.J. Bean, J. Geraci, P. Fiorelli, G. Early, and R.G. Webster (1986). Characterization of two influenza A viruses from a pilot whale. Journal of Virology 58(2): 655-6. ISSN: 0022-538X.
NAL Call Number: QR360.J6
Abstract: Influenza A viruses of the H13N2 and H13N9 subtypes were isolated from the lung and hilar node of a pilot whale. Serological, molecular, and biological analyses indicate that the whale isolates are closely related to the H13 influenza viruses from gulls.
Descriptors: cetacea microbiology, influenza A virus isolation and purification, whales microbiology, antigens, viral immunology, ferrets microbiology, hemagglutinins viral immunology, influenza A virus avian analysis, influenza A virus analysis, influenza A virus immunology, influenza A virus physiology, lung microbiology, lymph nodes microbiology, neuraminidase immunology, nucleic acid hybridization, RNA viral analysis, virus replication.
Hinshaw, V.S. and R.G. Webster (1979). Characterization of a new avian influenza virus subtype and proposed designation of this haemagglutinin as Hav10. Journal of General Virology 45(3): 751-4. ISSN: 0022-1317.
NAL Call Number: QR360.A1J6
Abstract: The haemagglutinin of A/Dk/alb/60/76, an influenza A virus isolated from feral ducks in Canada, possesses no antigenic relatedness to any of the 16 reference haemagglutinin subtypes. Results of serological tests (HI and double immunodiffusion) with monospecific antisera to the haemagglutinin of this virus indicate that it represents a new avian haemagglutinin subtype. We propose that this haemagglutinin be designated as Hav10 under the current system of nomenclature.
Descriptors: ducks microbiology, hemagglutinins viral immunology, influenza A virus avian immunology, chickens, cross reactions, hemagglutination inhibition tests, hemagglutinins viral classification, immunodiffusion, avian classification, avian pathogenicity.
Hiromoto, Y., T. Saito, S. Lindstrom, and K. Nerome (2000). Characterization of low virulent strains of highly pathogenic A/Hong Kong/156/97 (H5N1) virus in mice after passage in embryonated hens' eggs. Virology 272(2): 429-37. ISSN: 0042-6822.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 V81
Descriptors: influenza A virus avian pathogenicity, ovum virology, cell line, chick embryo, clone cells, dogs, fowl plague mortality, avian growth and development, avian isolation and purification, mice, organ specificity, sequence analysis, DNA, sequence analysis, protein, serial passage, tropism, virulence, virus replication.
Hoffmann, E., J. Stech, I. Leneva, S. Krauss, C. Scholtissek, P.S. Chin, M. Peiris, K.F. Shortridge, and R.G. Webster (2000). Characterization of the influenza A virus gene pool in avian species in southern China: was H6N1 a derivative or a precursor of H5N1? Journal of Virology 74(14): 6309-15. ISSN: 0022-538X.
NAL Call Number: QR360.J6
Abstract: In 1997, an H5N1 influenza virus outbreak occurred in chickens in Hong Kong, and the virus was transmitted directly to humans. Because there is limited information about the avian influenza virus reservoir in that region, we genetically characterized virus strains isolated in Hong Kong during the 1997 outbreak. We sequenced the gene segments of a heterogeneous group of viruses of seven different serotypes (H3N8, H4N8, H6N1, H6N9, H11N1, H11N9, and H11N8) isolated from various bird species. The phylogenetic relationships divided these viruses into several subgroups. An H6N1 virus isolated from teal (A/teal/Hong Kong/W312/97 [H6N1]) showed very high (>98%) nucleotide homology to the human influenza virus A/Hong Kong/156/97 (H5N1) in the six internal genes. The N1 neuraminidase sequence showed 97% nucleotide homology to that of the human H5N1 virus, and the N1 protein of both viruses had the same 19-amino-acid deletion in the stalk region. The deduced hemagglutinin amino acid sequence of the H6N1 virus was most similar to that of A/shearwater/Australia/1/72 (H6N5). The H6N1 virus is the first known isolate with seven H5N1-like segments and may have been the donor of the neuraminidase and the internal genes of the H5N1 viruses. The high homology between the internal genes of H9N2, H6N1, and the H5N1 isolates indicates that these subtypes are able to exchange their internal genes and are therefore a potential source of new pathogenic influenza virus strains. Our analysis suggests that surveillance for influenza A viruses should be conducted for wild aquatic birds as well as for poultry, pigs, and humans and that H6 isolates should be further characterized.
Descriptors: genome, viral, influenza A virus avian genetics, birds, China, fowl plague, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus genetics, avian classification, avian isolation and purification, avian pathogenicity, human classification, human genetics, human isolation and purification, human pathogenicity, mice, mice inbred BALB c, neuraminidase genetics, phylogeny, polymerase chain reaction, sequence analysis, DNA.
Karasin, A.I., I.H. Brown, S. Carman, and C.W. Olsen (2000). Isolation and characterization of H4N6 avian influenza viruses from pigs with pneumonia in Canada. Journal of Virology 74(19): 9322-7. ISSN: 0022-538X.
NAL Call Number: QR360.J6
Abstract: In October 1999, H4N6 influenza A viruses were isolated from pigs with pneumonia on a commercial swine farm in Canada. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequences of all eight viral RNA segments demonstrated that these are wholly avian influenza viruses of the North American lineage. To our knowledge, this is the first report of interspecies transmission of an avian H4 influenza virus to domestic pigs under natural conditions.
Descriptors: influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, pneumonia, viral virology, swine diseases virology, Canada epidemiology, influenza A virus avian genetics, molecular sequence data, phylogeny, pneumonia, viral epidemiology, swine, swine diseases epidemiology.
Karasin, A.I., K. West, S. Carman, and C.W. Olsen (2004). Characterization of avian H3N3 and H1N1 influenza A viruses isolated from pigs in Canada. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 42(9): 4349-54. ISSN: 0095-1137.
NAL Call Number: QR46.J6
Abstract: H3N3 and H1N1 influenza A viruses were isolated from Canadian pigs in 2001 and 2002. These viruses are phylogenetically related to waterfowl viruses and antigenically distinct from reference swine influenza viruses. The isolation of these viruses reemphasizes the potential for interspecies transmission of influenza viruses from waterfowl to pigs in North America.
Descriptors: influenza A virus, avian classification, swine virology, base sequence, birds, Canada, DNA primers, avian isolation and purification, molecular sequence data, phylogeny, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction methods.
Klenk, H.D., W. Keil, H. Niemann, R. Geyer, and R.T. Schwarz (1983). The characterization of influenza A viruses by carbohydrate analysis. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 104: 247-57. ISSN: 0070-217X.
NAL Call Number: QR1.C8
Descriptors: carbohydrates analysis, hemagglutinins viral analysis, influenza A virus avian analysis, influenza A virus analysis, chemistry, glycopeptides analysis, avian immunology, human analysis, porcine analysis, influenza A virus classification, influenza A virus immunology, serotyping, species specificity.
Kou, Z., L.J. Tang, F.M. Lei, X.F. An, Z.J. Fan, and T.X. Li (2004). Isolation and identification of an avian influenza virus of subtype H5N1 from Hubei Province. Virologica Sinica 19(5): 490-492. ISSN: 1003-5125.
NAL Call Number: QR355.P5
Descriptors: ELISA, isolation, identification, avian influenza virus, China.
Laudert, E., V. Sivanandan, D. Halvorson, D. Shaw, and R.G. Webster (1993). Biological and molecular characterization of H13N2 influenza type A viruses isolated from turkeys and surface water. Avian Diseases 37(3): 793-9. ISSN: 0005-2086.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Av5
Abstract: The pathogenicity potential of two H13N2 influenza viruses, one isolated from turkeys and the other isolated from surface water, was evaluated in turkeys, chickens, and mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos ) after intracranial and oculonasal inoculation. Both isolates replicated in turkey poults, causing depressed weight gain, morbidity and mortality; both also caused histopathological lesions, such as mild to severe pancreatitis, hepatitis, and nephritis in turkeys. These isolates replicated in mallard ducklings but not in chickens. There was depressed weight gain in ducklings given the H13N2 isolate from water. Neither isolate caused morbidity or mortality in ducklings or chicks after inoculation.
Descriptors: influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, turkeys microbiology, water microbiology, antibodies, monoclonal, chickens, cross reactions, ducks, fowl plague etiology, fowl plague pathology, avian immunology, avian pathogenicity, species specificity, virulence.
Lee, C.W., D.A. Senne, J.A. Linares, P.R. Woolcock, D.E. Stallknecht, E. Spackman, D.E. Swayne, and D.L. Suarez (2004). Characterization of recent H5 subtype avian influenza viruses from US poultry. Avian Pathology 33(3): 288-97. ISSN: 0307-9457.
NAL Call Number: SF995.A1A9
Abstract: In the US, the isolation of H5 subtype avian influenza (AI) viruses has been uncommon in commercial chickens and turkeys, although sporadic isolations have been made from the live bird markets or its supply chain since 1986. In 2002, two different outbreaks of H5 AI occurred in commercial chicken or turkey operations. The first occurred in Texas and was identified as a H5N3 subtype AI virus. The second outbreak was caused by a H5N2 virus isolated from a turkey farm in California. In this study we analyzed recent H5 subtype AI viruses from different avian species and different sources in the US. Most recent H5 subtype isolates shared a high sequence identity and phylogenetically assorted into a separate clade from the Pennsylvania/83 lineage isolates. However, no established lineage was found within this clade and the recent H5 subtype isolates seemed to be the result of separate introductions from the wild bird reservoir. The Texas H5N3 isolate shared the lowest homology with the other recent isolates in the haemagglutinin gene and had a unique haemagglutinin cleavage site sequence of REKR/G (other recent isolates have the typical avirulent motif, RETR/G). Furthermore, this isolate had a 28 amino acid deletion in the stalk region of the neuraminidase protein, a common characteristic of chicken adapted influenza viruses, and may indicate that this virus had actually been circulating in poultry for an extended period of time before it was isolated. In agreement with genetic evidence, the Texas H5N3 isolate replicated better than other H5 isolates in experimentally infected chickens. The outbreak in Texas with a more chicken-adapted H5N3 virus underscores the importance of ongoing surveillance and control efforts regarding the H5 subtype AI virus in the US.
Descriptors: chickens virology, disease outbreaks veterinary, influenza A virus, avian genetics, avian epidemiology, poultry diseases epidemiology, turkeys virology, amino acid sequence, base sequence, geography, hemagglutinins genetics, avian pathogenicity, avian virology, molecular sequence data, phylogeny, poultry diseases virology, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, sequence alignment, sequence analysis, DNA, sequence homology, species specificity, United States epidemiology.
Lee, C.W., D.L. Suarez, T.M. Tumpey, H.W. Sung, Y.K. Kwon, Y.J. Lee, J.G. Choi, S.J. Joh, M.C. Kim, E.K. Lee, J.M. Park, X. Lu, J.M. Katz, E. Spackman, D.E. Swayne, and J.H. Kim (2005). Characterization of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza A viruses isolated from South Korea. Journal of Virology 79(6): 3692-702. ISSN: 0022-538X.
NAL Call Number: QR360.J6
Abstract: An unprecedented outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has been reported for poultry in eight different Asian countries, including South Korea, since December 2003. A phylogenetic analysis of the eight viral genes showed that the H5N1 poultry isolates from South Korea were of avian origin and contained the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of the A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 (Gs/Gd) lineage. The current H5N1 strains in Asia, including the Korean isolates, share a gene constellation similar to that of the Penfold Park, Hong Kong, isolates from late 2002 and contain some molecular markers that seem to have been fixed in the Gs/Gd lineage virus since 2001. However, despite genetic similarities among recent H5N1 isolates, the topology of the phylogenetic tree clearly differentiates the Korean isolates from the Vietnamese and Thai isolates which have been reported to infect humans. A representative Korean isolate was inoculated into mice, with no mortality and no virus being isolated from the brain, although high titers of virus were observed in the lungs. The same isolate, however, caused systemic infections in chickens and quail and killed all of the birds within 2 and 4 days of intranasal inoculation, respectively. This isolate also replicated in multiple organs and tissues of ducks and caused some mortality. However, lower virus titers were observed in all corresponding tissues of ducks than in chicken and quail tissues, and the histological lesions were restricted to the respiratory tract. This study characterizes the molecular and biological properties of the H5N1 HPAI viruses from South Korea and emphasizes the need for comparative analyses of the H5N1 isolates from different countries to help elucidate the risk of a human pandemic from the strains of H5N1 HPAI currently circulating in Asia.
Descriptors: avian influenza A virus genetics, avian influenza A virus pathogenicity, avian influenza A virus epidemiology, avian influenza A virus virology, adrenal glands pathology, adrenal glands virology, brain virology, chickens, complementary DNA, DNA viral chemistry, DNA viral isolation and purification, ducks, viral genes, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus genetics, avian influenza A virus classification, Avian influenza A virus isolation and purification, avian influenza pathology, avian influenza transmission, Korea epidemiology, lung pathology, lung virology, mice, mice inbred BALB-C, molecular sequence data, neuraminidase genetics, pancreas pathology, pancreas virology, phylogeny, poultry, quail, RNA viral genetics, RNA viral isolation and purification, DNA sequence analysis, virulence, viral proteins genetics, virulence.
Lee, M.S., P.C. Chang, J.H. Shien, M.C. Cheng, and H.K. Shieh (2001). Identification and subtyping of avian influenza viruses by reverse transcription-PCR. Journal of Virological Methods 97(1-2): 13-22. ISSN: 0166-0934.
NAL Call Number: QR355.J6
Abstract: Avian influenza viruses have 15 different hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes (H1-H15). We report a procedure for the identification and HA-subtyping of avian influenza virus by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The avian influenza virus is identified by RT-PCR using a set of primers specific to the nucleoprotein (NP) gene of avian influenza virus. The HA-subtypes of avian influenza virus were determined by running simultaneously 15 RT-PCR reactions, each using a set of primers specific to one HA-subtype. For a single virus strain or isolate, only one of the 15 RT-PCR reactions will give a product of expected size, and thus the HA-subtype of the virus is determined. The result of HA-subtyping was then confirmed by sequence analysis of the PCR product. A total of 80 strains or isolates of avian influenza viruses were subtyped by this RT-PCR procedure, and the result of RT-PCR gave an excellent (100%) correlation with the result of the conventional serological method. The RT-PCR procedure we developed is rapid and sensitive, and could be used for the identification and HA-subtyping of avian influenza virus in organ homogenates.
Descriptors: molecular genetics, infection, veterinary medicine, methods and techniques, influenza, avian, respiratory system disease, viral disease, ABI 377 automatic DNA sequencer PE applied biosystems, equipment, DNA sequencing recombinant DNA technology, analytical method, sequencing techniques, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analytical method, applications, polymerase chain reaction, serology virological methodology.
Li, C., G. Tian, Y. Li, D. Yu, K. Yu, and H. Chen (2004). Antigenic and genetic analysis of the H9N2 avian influenza viruses isolated in China. International Congress Series 1263: 762-765.
Abstract: We analyzed the antigenic and genetic properties of 20 H9N2 viruses that have been isolated from domestic poultry in China during the last 10 years. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays with the antisera of five selected viruses showed that 18 of the viruses could cross-react well with the antisera that were induced by A/chicken/Shijiazhuang/2/98, A/chicken/Guangxi/10/99 and A/chicken/Shanghai/10/01, though antigenic variation among these strains were observed. Two viruses, A/chicken/Shijiazhuang/2/98 and A/chicken/Heilongjiang/35/00, could react well with the homologous antisera but poorly with others. The antisera of A/chicken/Shandong/6/96, the current vaccine strain, and A/Chicken/Heilongjiang/35/00 could not cross-react efficiently with other viruses. Phylogenic analysis showed that 19 of 20 viruses genetically were related to the Y-280 sub-lineage of Eurasia lineage, however, A/Chicken/Heilongjiang/35/00 was closely related to the early H9N2 isolate, A/Turkey/Wisconsin/66, and went into the North American lineage. These results are the first report about the antigenic and genetic diversity that existed among the H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIV) isolated in Mainland China.
Descriptors: avian influenza virus, H9N2 subtype, antigenic analysis, genetic analysis, poultry, China, antisera.
Lindstrom, S.E., N.J. Cox, and A. Klimov (2004). Evolutionary analysis of human H2N2 and early H3N2 influenza viruses: evidence for genetic divergence and multiple reassortment among H2N2 and/or H3N2 viruses. International Congress Series 1263: 184-190.
Abstract: Pandemic influenza H2N2 viruses emerged in humans in 1957 and caused widespread morbidity and mortality in humans until 1968 when they were displaced by emerging H3N2 viruses. Although it is known that both the appearance and disappearance of H2N2 viruses involved reassortment between human and avian influenza viruses, genetic characterization of these viruses is limited. In this study, detailed genetic analysis of all eight gene segments of human H2N2 viruses isolated from 1957 until 1968 from geographically diverse regions was undertaken to establish a better understanding of the evolutionary nature of this virus. In addition, a number of human H3N2 viruses isolated from 1968 until 1972 were examined to investigate genetic events associated with the emergence of pandemic H3N2 viruses in humans. Phylogenic analysis of all gene segments of human H2N2 viruses consistently demonstrated divergent evolution. Genes of late H2N2 isolates were located in either of two distinct clades (I and II). Analysis of H3N2 viruses of 1968 revealed that all gene segments that were retained from H2N2 viruses were most similar to H2N2 virus genes of clade I. However, genes of both lineages were found to cocirculate among H3N2 isolates of 1969-1971. Furthermore, each gene segment demonstrated unique phylogenic topologies, indicating multiple reassortment events between late H2N2 and/or H3N2 viruses. The H3N2 viruses of 1972 analyzed here appeared to possess the genome constellation that represents the ancestral virus of contemporary H3N2 viruses. This constellation was first observed among isolates of 1970 and was distinct from that found among the earliest human H3N2 viruses from 1968. This evidence demonstrates that establishment of H3N2 viruses in humans was associated with multiple-reassortment events that contributed to genetic diversity among viruses.
Descriptors: influenza, H2N2, H3N2, evolution, reassortment, hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, nucleoprotein, influenza virus genetics.
Lipkind, M., H. Burger, R. Rott, and C. Scholtissek (1984). Genetic characterization of influenza A viruses isolated from birds in Israel. A contribution to the ecology of avian influenza viruses. Zentralblatt Fur Veterinarmedizin. Reihe B Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B 31(10): 721-8. ISSN: 0514-7166.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Z52
Descriptors: birds microbiology, influenza A virus avian genetics, hemagglutinins viral genetics, porcine genetics, Israel, neuraminidase genetics, RNA viral genetics.
Lipkind, M., E. Shihmanter, and D. Shoham (1982). Further characterization of H7N7 avian influenza virus isolated from migrating starlings wintering in Israel. Zentralblatt Fur Veterinarmedizin. Reihe B Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B 29(7): 566-72. ISSN: 0514-7166.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Z52
Descriptors: antigens, viral analysis, birds microbiology, influenza A virus avian classification, neuraminidase immunology, cloaca microbiology, hemagglutination inhibition tests veterinary, immunodiffusion veterinary, Israel, trachea microbiology.
Lipkind, M.A., Y. Weisman, E. Shihmanter, D. Shoham, A. Douglas, and J.J. Skehel (1980). Characterization of avian influenza viruses isolated in Israel in 1978-1979. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 3(1-2): 185-92. ISSN: 0147-9571.
NAL Call Number: QR180.C62
Descriptors: birds microbiology, influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, turkeys microbiology, antigens, viral analysis, hemagglutinins viral analysis, avian classification, avian immunology, Israel, neuraminidase immunology, serotyping.
Lipkind, M.A., Y. Weisman, E. Shihmanter, D. Shoham, C. Yuval, and A. Aronovici (1979). Identification of avian influenza virus isolated from a turkey farm in Israel. Veterinary Record 105(23): 534-5. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, turkeys microbiology, virus diseases veterinary, antibodies, viral analysis, bird diseases immunology, bird diseases microbiology, hemagglutination inhibition tests, avian immunology, Israel, turkeys immunology.
Liu, J.H., K. Okazaki, A. Mweene, W.M. Shi, Q.M. Wu, J.L. Su, G.Z. Zhang, G.R. Bai, and H. Kida (2004). Genetic conservation of hemagglutinin gene of H9 influenza virus in chicken population in Mainland China. Virus Genes 29(3): 329-34. ISSN: 0920-8569.
NAL Call Number: QH434.V57
Abstract: The hemagglutinin (HA) genes of 12 H9N2 influenza virus strains isolated from chickens in Mainland China during the period 1995-2002 were genetically analyzed. All the isolates possessed the same amino acid motif -R-S-S-R/G-L- at the cleavage site of HA. Except for the conserved amino acids, as is the case in the other avian influenza viruses, located in the receptor binding site, all of the 12 isolates possessed N at amino acid position 183; A, T, or V at position 190; K at position 137, whereas the representative strains of the other lineage (except Dk/HK/Y280/97-like lineage) virus of H9N2 viruses had H, E, and R at these positions respectively. These could be considered as the partial molecular markers of the H9 viruses isolated from chickens in Mainland China. Phylogenetic analyses showed HA genes of these isolates belonged to that of A/duck/Hong Kong/Y280/97-like virus lineage. No A/quail/Hong Kong/Gl/97-like virus was found in chicken, population since the outbreak of H9N2 influenza in Mainland China in 1992. The available evidence indicates that HA genes of H9 influenza virus circulating in Mainland China during the past years were well conserved.
Descriptors: chickens virology, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus genetics, avian influenza A virus genetics, avian influenza virology, amino acid sequence, binding sites, China, molecular evolution, avian Influenza A virus isolation and purification, avian Influenza A virus classification, molecular sequence data, phylogeny, RNA, viral isolation and purification, viral metabolism, DNA sequence analysis, sequence homology, metabolism, virology, genetics.
Lu, J., X. Liu, W. Shao, P. Zhang, and D. Wei (2003). Genetic characterization of the entire genome of an H9N2 avian influenza virus A/Chicken/Shanghai/F/98. Weishengwu Xuebao 43(4): 434-441. ISSN: 0001-6209.
NAL Call Number: 448.3 Ac83
Descriptors: molecular genetics, RT PCR, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, avian influenza virus.
Merritt, S.N. and H.F. Maassab (1977). Characteristics of a live avian influenza virus. Health Laboratory Science 14(2): 122-5. ISSN: 0017-9035.
NAL Call Number: 449.8 H343
Abstract: Two avian influenza viruses were employed; a virulent wild-type (WT) parent and the cold variant (CV) which was an attenuated virus derived by genetic recombination at 25 C. The attenuated virus grows in embryonated eggs and chicken tracheal organ cultures. Infectious virus could be recovered from lung and turbinate. Infection with attenuated virus provided protection against infection with wild virus.
Descriptors: influenza A virus avian, chick embryo, hemagglutination inhibition tests, hemagglutination, viral, recombination, genetic, virulence.
Muhammad, K., M.A. Muneer, and T. Yaqub (1997). Isolation and characterization of avian influenza virus from an outbreak in commercial poultry in Pakistan. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 17(1): 6-8. ISSN: 0253-8318.
NAL Call Number: SF604.P32
Descriptors: isolation, characterization, outbreaks, diagnosis, diseases, avian influenza virus, poultry, mortality, Pakistan.
Muneer, M.A., A.M.B.Z. Munir, I. Hussain, K. Muhammad, Masood Rabbani, S. Akhtar, M. Aleem, Bakht Sultan, M.A. Tariq, and K. Naeem (2001). Isolation and characterization of avian influenza (H9N2) virus from an outbreak at poultry farms in Karachi. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 21(2): 87-91. ISSN: 0253-8318.
NAL Call Number: SF604.P32
Descriptors: broilers, poultry farms, isolation, clinical aspects, mortality, outbreaks, avian influenza virus, characterization, Pakistan.
Nguyen, D.C., T.M. Uyeki, S. Jadhao, T. Maines, M. Shaw, Y. Matsuoka, C. Smith, T. Rowe, X. Lu, H. Hall, X. Xu, A. Balish, A. Klimov, T.M. Tumpey, D.E. Swayne, L.P. Huynh, H.K. Nghiem, H.H. Nguyen, L.T. Hoang, N.J. Cox, and J.M. Katz (2005). Isolation and characterization of avian influenza viruses, including highly pathogenic H5N1, from poultry in live bird markets in Hanoi, Vietnam, in 2001. Journal of Virology 79(7): 4201-12. ISSN: 0022-538X.
NAL Call Number: QR360.J6
Abstract: Since 1997, outbreaks of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 and circulation of H9N2 viruses among domestic poultry in Asia have posed a threat to public health. To better understand the extent of transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV) to humans in Asia, we conducted a cross-sectional virologic study in live bird markets (LBM) in Hanoi, Vietnam, in October 2001. Specimens from 189 birds and 18 environmental samples were collected at 10 LBM. Four influenza A viruses of the H4N6 (n = 1), H5N2 (n = 1), and H9N3 (n = 2) subtypes were isolated from healthy ducks for an isolation frequency of over 30% from this species. Two H5N1 viruses were isolated from healthy geese. The hemagglutinin (HA) genes of these H5N1 viruses possessed multiple basic amino acid motifs at the cleavage site, were HP for experimentally infected chickens, and were thus characterized as HP AIV. These HA genes shared high amino acid identities with genes of other H5N1 viruses isolated in Asia during this period, but they were genetically distinct from those of H5N1 viruses isolated from poultry and humans in Vietnam during the early 2004 outbreaks. These viruses were not highly virulent for experimentally infected ducks, mice, or ferrets. These results establish that HP H5N1 viruses with properties similar to viruses isolated in Hong Kong and mainland China circulated in Vietnam as early as 2001, suggest a common source for H5N1 viruses circulating in these Asian countries, and provide a framework to better understand the recent widespread emergence of HP H5N1 viruses in Asia.
Descriptors: avian influenza A virus classification, avian influenza A virus isolation and purification, avian influenza virology, poultry virology, viral antigens, chickens virology, ducks virology, molecular epidemiology, ferrets, geese virology, avian influenza A virus genetics, avian influenza A viruspathogenicity, mice, molecular sequence data, neuraminidase genetics, phylogeny, sequence analysis, serotyping, Vietnam, virulence.
Osterhaus, A.D.M.E., J.C. de Jong, G.F. Rimmelzwaan, and E.C.J. Claas (2002). H5N1 influenza in Hong Kong: Virus characterizations. Vaccine 20(Suppl. 2): S82-S83. ISSN: 0264-410X.
NAL Call Number: QR189.V32
Abstract: In 1997, 18 people were infected in Hong Kong with an avian influenza A(H5N1) virus from chicken. This type of interspecies transmission was never detected before and could have resulted in the development of a pandemic strain. The occurrence suggests that the pig is not needed for the emergence of pandemic influenza virus strains. Characteristics of the strains involved are discussed in relation to the question why, on the one hand, these strains were able to infect humans but on the other hand were not able to start an epidemic.
Descriptors: epidemiology, infection, influenza, respiratory system disease, transmission, viral disease.
Ottis, K. and P.A. Bachmann (1983). Isolation and characterization of ortho- and paramyxoviruses from feral birds in Europe. Zentralblatt Fur Veterinarmedizin. Reihe B Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B 30(1): 22-35.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Z52
Descriptors: wild birds, epidemiological surveys, avian influenza virus, avian paramyxovirus, poultry, Germany, Netherlands, Kenya.
Paoletti, E. (1990). Poxvirus-derived recombinant veterinary vaccines. In: Risk assessment in agricultural biotechnology. Proceedings of the international conference, Oakland, California, USA, p. 38-49.
Descriptors: recombinant veterinary vaccines, fowl pox virus, influenza virus, rabies virus, risk assessment, agricultural biotechnology, poultry.
Pasick, J., H. Weingartl, A. Clavijo, J. Riva, H. Kehler, K. Handel, E. Watkins, and K. Hills (2003). Characterization of avian influenza virus isolates submitted to the National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease between 1997 and 2001. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 1208-1213. ISSN: 0005-2086.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Av5
Abstract: The National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease (NCFAD) in Winnipeg, Manitoba, is the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's (CFIA) newest high biocontainment laboratory. One of the functions of the NCFAD is to serve as a national reference laboratory for avian influenza. Between 1997 and 2001, 15 avian influenza virus isolates were characterized. These isolates originated from domestic poultry, imported caged birds held in quarantine, and wild birds. Diagnostic specimens were submitted to the NCFAD by CFIA field veterinarians, provincial veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and veterinary colleges. Characterization of isolates included the determination of H and N subtypes: H1, H6, H7, and H10 subtypes were isolated from domestic poultry; H3, H4, and three H13 viruses were isolated from water fowl, and six H3 viruses were isolated from caged birds being held in import quarantine. Selected isolates were characterized with respect to their pathogenic potential by intravenous inoculation of 4-to-6-wk-old chickens. A molecular-based protocol was used to assess the pathogenicity of one H7 isolate. During this period, work was also carried out toward validating our molecular pathotyping protocol for avian influenza viruses with H5 and H7 hemagglutinin subtypes.
Descriptors: infection, molecular genetics, veterinary medicine, virology, avian influenza, diagnosis, infectious disease, respiratory system disease, viral disease, molecular pathotyping clinical techniques, diagnostic techniques, genetic techniques, laboratory techniques, biocontainment laboratory veterinary diagnostic laboratories viral pathogenicity.
Peroulis, I. and K. O'Riley (2004). Detection of avian paramyxoviruses and influenza viruses amongst wild bird populations in Victoria. Australian Veterinary Journal 82(1-2): 79-82. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Au72
Descriptors: Australia, avian paramyxoviruses, avian influenza viruses, isolation and characterization, Aves, wild birds, wild duck, pigeon, quail.
Puthavathana, P., P. Auewarakul, P.C. Charoenying, K. Sangsiriwut, P. Pooruk, K. Boonnak, R. Khanyok, P. Thawachsupa, R. Kijphati, and P. Sawanpanyalert (2005). Molecular characterization of the complete genome of human influenza H5N1 virus isolates from Thailand. Journal of General Virology 86(Pt. 2): 423-33. ISSN: 0022-1317.
NAL Call Number: QR360.A1J6
Abstract: The complete genomes of three human H5N1 influenza isolates were characterized, together with the haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from two additional human isolates and one chicken isolate. These six influenza isolates were obtained from four different provinces of Thailand during the avian influenza outbreak in Asia from late 2003 to May 2004. All six Thailand isolates contained multiple basic amino acids at the cleavage site in the HA gene. Amino acid residues at the receptor-binding site of the five human viruses were similar to those of the chicken virus and other H5N1 viruses from Hong Kong. The presence of amantadine resistance in the Thailand viruses isolated during this outbreak was suggested by a fixed mutation in M2 and confirmed by a phenotypic assay. All genomic segments of the Thailand viruses clustered with the recently described genotype Z. The Thailand viruses contained more avian-specific residues than the 1997 Hong Kong H5N1 viruses, suggesting that the virus may have adapted to allow a more efficient spread in avian species.
Descriptors: disease outbreaks, influenza epidemiology, influenza A virus, human genetics, RNA, viral genetics, amantadine pharmacology, antiviral agents pharmacology, chickens virology, drug resistance, viral, epidemiology, molecular, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus genetics, influenza virology, avian genetics, human drug effects, human isolation and purification, avian influenza epidemiology, molecular sequence data, mutation, neuraminidase genetics, phylogeny, receptors, virus, sequence alignment, species specificity, Thailand epidemiology, viral matrix proteins genetics.
Saito, T., W. Lim, T. Suzuki, Y. Suzuki, H. Kida, S.I. Nishimura, and M. Tashiro (2001). Characterization of a human H9N2 influenza virus isolated in Hong Kong. Vaccine 20(1-2): 125-33. ISSN: 0264-410X.
NAL Call Number: QR189.V32
Abstract: Two H9N2 viruses were isolated, for the first time, from humans in Hong Kong in 1999. Isolation of influenza viruses with a novel subtype of the hemagglutinin (HA) drew attention of health care authorities worldwide from the view of pandemic preparedness. Sequence analysis of the HA genes reveals that HA of A/Hong Kong/1073/99 (H9N2) is most closely related to that of A/quail/HK/G1/97 (H9N2) that contains the internal genes similar to those of Hong Kong/97 (H5N1) viruses. Phylogenetic and antigenic analyses demonstrated the diversity among H9 HA. A/Hong Kong/1073/99 was shown to cause a respiratory infection in Syrian hamsters, suggesting that the virus can replicate efficiently in mammalian hosts. We developed a whole virion test vaccine with a formalin-inactivated egg-grown HK1073. Intraperitoneal administration of the vaccine twice to hamsters conferred a complete protection against challenge infection by the MDCK cell-grown homologous virus. Receptor specificity of HK1073 appeared different from that of other avian influenza viruses of H9 subtype which recognize preferentially alpha-2,3 linked sialic acid. Hemagglutination of HK1073 with guinea pig erythrocytes was inhibited by both alpha-2,3 and alpha-2,6 linked sialic acid containing polymers. These data suggested that HK1073 had acquired a broader host range, including humans. Together with data so far available, the present study suggested that isolation of the H9 influenza viruses from humans requires precaution against the emergence of a novel human influenza.
Descriptors: influenza virology, influenza A virus human isolation and purification, antigens, viral immunology, Asia, cattle, cultured cells, chick embryo, child, dogs, Europe, glycoconjugates pharmacology, guinea pigs, hamsters, hemagglutination tests, hemagglutination, viral, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus genetics, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus physiology, Hong Kong, horses, influenza prevention and control, influenza veterinary, avian classification, avian physiology, human classification, human genetics, human immunology, human physiology, porcine classification, porcine physiology, influenza vaccine immunology, lung virology, mesocricetus, N-acetylneuraminic acid metabolism, North America, phylogeny, poultry virology, poultry diseases virology, receptors, virus metabolism, sheep, species specificity, swine, swine diseases virology, vaccination, vaccines, inactivated, virion immunology, virus cultivation.
Sakoda, Y., T. Ito, K. Okazaki, A. Takada, Y. Ito, K. Tamai, M. Okamatsu, K.F. Shortridge, R.G. Webster, and H. Kida (2004). Preparation of a panel of avian influenza viruses of different subtypes for vaccine strains against future pandemics. International Congress Series 1263: 674-677.
Abstract: For the prediction of future influenza pandemics, global surveillance of avian influenza has been continuing since 1991 and carried out in Russia, Mongolia, China and Japan from 2000 to 2003. Influenza virus isolates of 50 combinations of HA and NA subtypes have been identified and 3 strains selected from each of those are stocked. In addition, 47 other combinations have been generated by standard genetic reassortment procedure in the laboratory. Since we have already shown that influenza viruses have been fully adapted to ducks and cause no disease signs and are in evolutionary stasis in their natural reservoirs, virus isolates from ducks are ideal as vaccine strains. Thus, influenza viruses of 97 combinations of HA and NA subtypes are now available as vaccine strain candidates against emerging pandemic influenza in humans, domestic animals and poultry.
Descriptors: global surveillance, vaccine, avian influenza virus, pandemic, prediction.
Scholtissek, C. and A.L. Bowles (1975). Isolation and characterization of temperature-sensitive mutants of fowl plague virus. Virology 67(2): 576-87. ISSN: 0042-6822.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 V81
Descriptors: influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, avian metabolism, mutation, DNA directed RNA polymerases biosynthesis, DNA directed RNA polymerases metabolism, genes, genetic complementation test, hemagglutinins viral, neuraminidase biosynthesis, RNA viral biosynthesis, recombination, genetic, temperature, tissue culture, viral proteins biosynthesis.
Selleck, P.W., L.J. Gleeson, P.T. Hooper, H.A. Westbury, and E. Hansson (1997). Identification and characterisation of an H7N3 influenza A virus from an outbreak of virulent avian influenza in Victoria. Australian Veterinary Journal 75(4): 289-92. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Au72
Descriptors: disease outbreaks veterinary, fowl plague diagnosis, fowl plague epidemiology, influenza A virus avian classification, poultry diseases diagnosis, poultry diseases epidemiology, amino acid sequence, antibodies, viral analysis, antibodies, viral immunology, base sequence, chickens, cloaca pathology, cloaca virology, DNA, viral analysis, DNA, viral chemistry, DNA, viral genetics, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay methods, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay veterinary, fowl plague pathology, hemagglutinins genetics, avian genetics, avian isolation and purification, poultry diseases pathology, specific pathogen free organisms, Victoria epidemiology.
Selleck, P.W., P.T. Hooper, D.C. Grix, and C.J. Morrow (1994). The characterisation of an influenza A virus isolated from Victorian ducks. Australian Veterinary Journal 71(7): 222-3. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Au72
Descriptors: ducks virology, fowl plague virology, influenza A virus avian classification, poultry diseases virology, chick embryo, chickens, cloaca virology, fowl plague pathology, avian isolation and purification, avian pathogenicity, kidney pathology, poultry diseases pathology, specific pathogen free organisms, Victoria.
Senne, D.A., E. Rivera, B. Panigrahy, M. Fraire, Y. Kawaoka, and R.G. Webster (1996). Characterization of avian influenza H5N2 isolates recovered from chickens in Mexico. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Diseases Conference 45: 5-8.
NAL Call Number: SF995.W4
Descriptors: chickens, avian influenza virus, Mexico, America, birds, domestic animals, domesticated birds, Galliformes, influenza virus, Latin America, livestock, North America, orthomyxoviridae, poultry, useful animals, viruses.
Shortridge, K.F. and D.J. Alexander (1978). Incidence and preliminary characterisation of a hitherto unreported, serologically distinct, avian paramyxovirus isolated in Hong Kong. Research in Veterinary Science 25(1): 128-30. ISSN: 0034-5288.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R312
Abstract: Twenty-seven apparent paramyxoviruses, unrelated to known avian paramyxoviruses, were isolated at a Hong Kong dressing plant from the trachea or cloaca of birds originating from Hong Kong and the People's Republic of China. A total of 2443 apparently healthy ducks, geese and fowls was sampled and isolation frequencies were 1.3%, 1.0% and 0.5% respectively. Twenty of the isolates were from the cloaca; 11 were obtained in association with Newcastle disease virus and one with an avian influenza virus. The majority of the isolations were made in the winter months. All 27 isolates were serologically related although 11 representative isolates differed slightly in haemagglutinin properties. A representative isolate was not pathogenic for chickens. A serological survey of poultry indicated a relatively low incidence of infection.
Descriptors: paramyxoviridae isolation and purification, cloaca microbiology, Hong Kong, paramyxoviridae immunology, paramyxoviridae pathogenicity, poultry microbiology, trachea microbiology.
Shortridge, K.F., N.N. Zhou, Y. Guan, P. Gao, T. Ito, Y. Kawaoka, S. Kodihalli, S. Krauss, D. Markwell, K.G. Murti, M. Norwood, D. Senne, L. Sims, A. Takada, and R.G. Webster (1998). Characterization of avian H5N1 influenza viruses from poultry in Hong Kong. Virology 252(2): 331-42. ISSN: 0042-6822.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 V81
Descriptors: fowl plague transmission, fowl plague virology, influenza A virus avian classification, poultry diseases virology, zoonoses virology, antibodies, monoclonal, chick embryo, chickens virology, ducks virology, feces virology, geese virology, Hong Kong, avian isolation and purification, avian physiology, avian ultrastructure, mice, rats, turkeys virology, virus replication.
Sinnecker, H., J. Egert, H.J. Eggert, J. Gogolin, S. Gumpel, C. Schrader, R. Sinnecker, and E. Zilske (1986). Studies of some biological and molecular characteristics of avian influenza A/H7 (Hav1) subtypes. Acta Virologica 30(1): 25-34. ISSN: 0001-723X.
NAL Call Number: 448.3 AC85
Abstract: Current isolates of the subtypes H7N3 and H7N7 from 1979 to 1981 were examined and compared with the reference strains with regard to their antigenic variability and to their pathogenicity for birds and mammals in order to establish the potentiality of influenza A/H7 virus (Hav1) transmission from birds to mammals. The analysis of the electrophoretic mobility of virus-induced polypeptides and of the double-stranded RNA segments after hybridization revealed equal, similar and deviating patterns. A substantial drift was determined in the surface antigens, especially in the neuraminidase. The avian strains replicated also in mammalian cells and were pathogenic for mammals. All strains examined were reisolated from the infected mammals; they caused more pronounced inflammatory changes in the trachea and lungs of infected mammals than in those of birds.
Descriptors: influenza A virus avian isolation and purification, cell line, chick embryo, DNA replication, fowl plague microbiology, fowl plague transmission, hamsters, hemagglutination tests, avian classification, avian genetics, kidney, neuraminidase genetics, nucleic acid hybridization, RNA viral genetics, species specificity, viral proteins genetics, virus replication.
Sinnecker, H., H. Eggert, J. Egert, J. Gogolin, S. Gumpel, C. Schrader, R. Sinnecker, and E. Zilske. (1984). Characteristics of avian influenza A/H7 virus (HAV1) subtypes. In: Abstracts of the Sixth International Congress of Virology, September 1-7, 1984, p. 300.
Descriptors: avian influenza virus, characteristics, subtypes.
Smirnov, Y.A., A.S. Lipatov, R. Van Beek, A.K. Gitelman, A.D. Osterhaus, and E.C. Claas (2000). Characterization of adaptation of an avian influenza A (H5N2) virus to a mammalian host. Acta Virologica 44(1): 1-8. ISSN: 0001-723X.
NAL Call Number: 448.3 AC85
Abstract: We have used the mouse model to monitor the acquisition of virulence of a non-pathogenic influenza A virus upon adaptation to a new mammalian host. An avian strain, A/Mallard duck/Pennsylvania/10218/84 (H5N2) (Mld/PA/84) was adapted to mice by 23 serial lung-to-lung passages until a highly virulent mouse-adapted (MA) variant (Mld/PA/84-MA) emerged. This MA variant was characterized and compared to the parental strain as well as some of its intermediate passage variants. MA variant caused bronchopneumonia in mice with a high mortality rate (the virulence of Mld/PA/84-MA measured as log (EID50/LD50) was 1.75), while the parental, avirulent strain Mld/PA/84 did not cause illness and mortality in mice (log (EID50/LD50) was 7.25). Hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) test with a set of hemagglutinin- (HA) specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) revealed antigenic differences between the parental strain and MA variant. Mld/PA/84-MA reacted with HA-specific MAbs in higher titers than the parental strain. The HA genes of the parental strain Mld/PA/84, the 1st, 3rd, 8th, and 15th intermediate passage variants, and Mld/PA/84-MA were sequenced. Three amino acid changes at positions 203, 273 and 320 were determined in the HA of MA variant. The first of them, Leu-->Pro (320), appeared in the HA stem region at the 8th passage. Two other in the HA1 globular region (Ser-->Phe (203) and Glu-->Gly (273)) appeared at the 15th passage. All of these substitutions were associated with the increase of viral infectivity for mouse lungs and changes in the HA antigenicity. The potential role of these changes in HA with respect to the process of viral interspecies transmission and acquisition of virulence for new host is discussed.
Descriptors: adaptation, physiological genetics, bronchopneumonia virology, influenza A virus avian pathogenicity, amino acid substitution, antigenic variation, chick embryo, genes viral, hemagglutination tests, hemagglutinins viral genetics, hemagglutinins viral immunology, hydrogen-ion concentration, avian genetics, avian immunology, lung immunology, lung microbiology, mice, molecular sequence data, virulence.
Spackman, E., D.A. Senne, S. Davison, and D.L. Suarez (2003). Sequence analysis of recent H7 avian influenza viruses associated with three different outbreaks in commercial poultry in the United States. Journal of Virology 77(24): 13399-13402. ISSN: 0022-538X.
NAL Call Number: QR360.J6
Descriptors: epidemiology, infection, molecular genetics, sequence analysis, genetic techniques, laboratory techniques, public health.
Subbarao, K., A. Klimov, J. Katz, H. Regnery, W. Lim, H. Hall, M. Perdue, D. Swayne, C. Bender, J. Huang, M. Hemphill, T. Rowe, M. Shaw, X. Xu, K. Fukuda, and N. Cox (1998). Characterization of an avian influenza A (H5N1) virus isolated from a child with a fatal respiratory illness. Science 279(5349): 393-6. ISSN: 0036-8075.
NAL Call Number: 470 Sci2
Abstract: An avian H5N1 influenza A virus (A/Hong Kong/156/97) was isolated from a tracheal aspirate obtained from a 3-year-old child in Hong Kong with a fatal illness consistent with influenza. Serologic analysis indicated the presence of an H5 hemagglutinin. All eight RNA segments were derived from an avian influenza A virus. The hemagglutinin contained multiple basic amino acids adjacent to the cleavage site, a feature characteristic of highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses. The virus caused 87.5 to 100 percent mortality in experimentally inoculated White Plymouth Rock and White Leghorn chickens. These results may have implications for global influenza surveillance and planning for pandemic influenza.
Descriptors: hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus genetics, influenza virology, influenza A virus avian genetics, avian pathogenicity, amino acid sequence, cell line, chickens, child, preschool, disease outbreaks, fatal outcome, fowl plague virology, genes viral, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus chemistry, Hong Kong epidemiology, influenza epidemiology, avian isolation and purification, molecular sequence data, neuraminidase genetics, phylogeny, virulence, virus replication.
Tang Xiuying, Tian Guobin, and Zhao Chuanshan (1998). Zhongguo Qinliugan Liuxingzhu de Fenli Jianding. [Isolation and characterization of prevalent strains of avian influenza viruses in China.]. Chinese Journal of Animal and Poultry Infectious Diseases 20(1): 1-5 . ISSN: 1001-6961.
Descriptors: China, poultry, avian influenza virus, pathotypes, microbial properties, Asia, biological properties, biotypes, domestic animals, East Asia, influenza virus, livestock, orthomyxoviridae, useful animals, viruses.
Terregino, C., G. Cattoli, B. Grossele, E. Bertoli, E. Tisato, and I. Capua (2003). Characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolated obtained from Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) in Italy. Avian Pathology 32(1): 63-68. ISSN: 0307-9457.
NAL Call Number: SF995.A1A9
Descriptors: Streptopelia decaocto, Columbidae, Newcastle disease, virus isolates characterization, Italy.
Tumpey, T.M., D.L. Suarez, L.E.L. Perkins, D.A. Senne, J.G. Lee, Y.J. Lee, I.P. Mo, H.W. Sung, and D.E. Swayne (2002 ). Characterization of a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza A virus isolated from duck meat. Journal of Virology 76(12): 6344-6355. ISSN: 0022-538X.
NAL Call Number: QR360.J6
Abstract: Since the 1997 H5N1 influenza virus outbreak in humans and poultry in Hong Kong, the emergence of closely related viruses in poultry has raised concerns that additional zoonotic transmissions of influenza viruses from poultry to humans may occur. In May 2001, an avian H5N1 influenza A virus was isolated from duck meat that had been imported to South Korea from China. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of A/Duck/Anyang/AVL-1/01 showed that the virus clustered with the H5 Goose/Guandong/1/96 lineage and 1997 Hong Kong human isolates and possessed an HA cleavage site sequence identical to these isolates. Following intravenous or intranasal inoculation, this virus was highly pathogenic and replicated to high titers in chickens. The pathogenesis of DK/Anyang/AVL-1/01 virus in Pekin ducks was further characterized and compared with a recent H5N1 isolate, A/Chicken/Hong Kong/317.5/01, and an H5N1 1997 chicken isolate, A/Chicken/Hong Kong/220/97. Although no clinical signs of disease were observed in H5N1 virus-inoculated ducks, infectious virus could be detected in lung tissue, cloacal, and oropharyngeal swabs. The DK/Anyang/AVL-1/01 virus was unique among the H5N1 isolates in that infectious virus and viral antigen could also be detected in muscle and brain tissue of ducks. The pathogenesis of DK/Anyang/AVL-1/01 virus was characterized in BALB/c mice and compared with the other H5N1 isolates. All viruses replicated in mice, but in contrast to the highly lethal CK/HK/220/97 virus, DK/Anyang/AVL-1/01 and CK/HK/317.5/01 viruses remained localized to the respiratory tract. DK/Anyang/AVL-1/01 virus caused weight loss and resulted in 22 to 33% mortality, whereas CK/HK/317.5/01-infected mice exhibited no morbidity or mortality. The isolation of a highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus from poultry indicates that such viruses are still circulating in China and may present a risk for transmission of the virus to humans.
Descriptors: foods, infection, molecular genetics, H5N1 avian influenza A virus infection, respiratory system disease, viral disease, molecular cloning molecular genetic method, pathogenetic analysis analytical method, duck meat, meat production.
Viseshakul, N., R. Thanawongnuwech, A. Amonsin, S. Suradhat, S. Payungporn, J. Keawchareon, K. Oraveerakul, P. Wongyanin, S. Plitkul, A. Theamboonlers, and Y. Poovorawan (2004). The genome sequence analysis of H5N1 avian influenza A virus isolated from the outbreak among poultry populations in Thailand. Virology 328(2): 169-76. ISSN: 0042-6822.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 V81
Abstract: In this report, the genome of the Thai avian influenza virus A (H5N1); A/Chicken/Nakorn-Pathom/Thailand/CU-K2/04, isolated from the Thai avian influenza A (AI) epidemic during the early of 2004 was sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses were performed in comparison to AI viruses from Hong Kong 1997 outbreaks and other AI (H5N1) isolates reported during 2001-2004. Molecular characterization of the Thai AI (H5N1) HA gene revealed a common characteristic of a highly pathogenic AI (HPAI), a 20-codon deletion in the neuraminidase gene, a 5-codon deletion in the NS gene and polymorphisms of the M2 and PB2 genes. Moreover, the HA and NA genes of the Thai AI displayed high similarity to those of the AI viruses isolated from human cases during the same epidemic. Finally, our results demonstrated that the Thai AI emerged as a member of 2000's AI lineage with most of the genetic sequences closely related to the Influenza A/Duck/China/E319.2/03 (H5N1).
Descriptors: disease outbreaks veterinary, genome, viral, influenza A virus, avian genetics, avian influenza virology, amino acid sequence, codon, gene deletion, avian influenza A virus isolation and purification, avian influenza A virus pathogenicity, avian influenza epidemiology, molecular sequence data, phylogeny, polymorphism, genetic, poultry, sequence alignment, Thailand epidemiology, viral proteins genetics.
Wang HengAn, Wang ShiQiang, Yan YaXian, Wu ZuLi, and Hua XiuGuo (1999). Isolation and characterization of duck derived type A influenza virus. Jiangsu Agricultural Research 20(4): 57-60.
Descriptors: strains, pathogenicity, viral morphology, ducks, avian influenza virus, Galliformes.
Webster, R.G., Y. Kawaoka, W.J. Bean, and C.W. Naeve (1984). Molecular characterization of the A/chicken/Pennsylvania/83 (H5N2) influenza viruses. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association 88: 447-461.
NAL Call Number: 449.9 Un3r
Descriptors: virulence, epidemiology, avian influenza virus, molecular charcterization, strains.
Webster, R.G., B. Tumova, V.S. Hinshaw, and G. Lang (1976). Characterization of avian influenza viruses. Designation of a newly recognized haemagglutinin. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 54(5): 555-60. ISSN: 0042-9686.
NAL Call Number: 449.9 W892B
Descriptors: agglutinins, hemagglutinins, orthomyxoviridae immunology, birds microbiology, turkeys microbiology.
Webster, R.G., M. Yakhno, V.S. Hinshaw, W.J. Bean, and K.G. Murti (1978). Intestinal influenza: replication and characterization of influenza viruses in ducks. Virology 84(2): 268-78. ISSN: 0042-6822.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 V81
Descriptors: influenza A virus avian growth and development, intestines microbiology, virus replication, ducks, feces microbiology, hydrogen-ion concentration, avian ultrastructure, human growth and development, porcine growth and development, lung microbiology.
Werner, O., E. Starick, and C.H. Grund (2003). Isolation and characterization of a low-pathogenicity H7N7 influenza virus from a Turkey in a small mixed free-range poultry flock in Germany. Avian Diseases 47(Special Issue): 1104-1106. ISSN: 0005-2086.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Av5
Abstract: A hemagglutinating virus was isolated from a dead turkey in a small mixed free-range flock in Southern Germany. It was identified as influenza virus type A of subtype H7N7. The pathogenicity was low. An intravenous pathogenicity index of 0.03 was recorded, and the nucleotide sequencing revealed the amino acid sequence NVPEIPKGR*GLFG at the cleavage site of the hemagglutinin. Antibodies as well as virus were detected in the affected flock. Further virus spreading to other flocks was prevented by stamping out policy. Serological monitoring of contact flocks revealed one small backyard flock of 18 hens, which was positive. This flock was also destroyed. The origin of the virus could not be identified.
Descriptors: epidemiology, immune system, infection, avian influenza, infectious disease, respiratory system disease, viral disease, nucleotide sequencing genetic techniques, laboratory techniques, serology clinical techniques, diagnostic techniques, free range poultry flock, viral pathogenicity.
Xu, C., W. Fan, R. Wei, and H. Zhao (2004). Isolation and identification of swine influenza recombinant A/Swine/Shandong/1/2003(H9N2) virus. Microbes and Infection Institut Pasteur 6(10): 919-25. ISSN: 1286-4579.
NAL Call Number: QR180.M53
Abstract: Ten influenza virus isolates were obtained from infected pigs from different places in Shandong province showing clinical symptoms from October 2002 to January 2003. All 10 isolates were identified in China's National Influenza Research Center as influenza A virus of H9N2 subtype. The complete genome of one isolate, designated A/Swine/Shandong/1/2003(H9N2), was sequenced and compared with sequences available in GenBank. The results of analyses indicated that the sequence of A/Swine/Shandong/1/2003(H9N2) was similar to those of several chicken influenza viruses and duck influenza viruses recently prevalent in South China. According to phylogenetic analysis of the complete gene sequences, A/Swine/Shandong/1/2003(H9N2) possibly originated from the reassortment of chicken influenza viruses and duck influenza viruses. It was found that the amino acid sequence at the HA cleavage site in Sw/SD/1/2003 is R-S-L-R-G, differing clearly from that of other H9N2 subtype isolates of swine influenza and avian influenza, which is R-S-S-R-G.
Descriptors: influenza veterinary, influenza A virus, porcine genetics, swine diseases virology, amino acid sequence, base sequence, chick embryo, guinea pigs, influenza virology, porcine chemistry, porcine isolation and purification, molecular sequence data, phylogeny, RNA, viral chemistry, viral genetics, rats, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction veterinary, sequence analysis, DNA, sequence homology, nucleic acid, swine.
Xu, X., Subbarao, N.J. Cox, and Y. Guo (1999). Genetic characterization of the pathogenic influenza A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 (H5N1) virus: similarity of its hemagglutinin gene to those of H5N1 viruses from the 1997 outbreaks in Hong Kong. Virology 261(1): 15-9. ISSN: 0042-6822.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 V81
Abstract: Analysis of the sequences of all eight RNA segments of the influenza A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 (H5N1) virus, isolated from a sick goose during an outbreak in Guangdong province, China, in 1996, revealed that the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the virus was genetically similar to those of the H5N1 viruses isolated in Hong Kong in 1997. However, the remaining genes showed greater similarity to other avian influenza viruses. Notably, the neuraminidase gene did no have the 19-amino-acid deletion in the stalk region seen in the H5N1 Hong Kong viruses and the NS gene belonged to allele B, while that of the H5N1 Hong Kong viruses belonged to allele A. These data suggest that the H5N1 viruses isolated from the Hong Kong outbreaks derived their HA genes from a virus similar to the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 virus or shared a progenitor with this goose pathogen.
Descriptors: geese virology, hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus genetics, influenza virology, influenza A virus avian genetics, human genetics, chickens virology, DNA, viral chemistry, DNA, viral genetics, disease outbreaks, fowl plague epidemiology, fowl plague virology, genes viral, Hong Kong epidemiology, influenza epidemiology, avian classification, avian isolation and purification, human classification, molecular sequence data, neuraminidase genetics, phylogeny, sequence analysis, DNA, viral nonstructural proteins genetics.
Yamane, N., T. Odagiri, J. Arikawa, and N. Ishida (1979). Isolation and characterization of influenza A viruses from wild ducks in northern Japan: appearance of HSW1 antigens in the Japanese duck population. Acta Virologica 23(5): 375-84. ISSN: 0001-723X.
NAL Call Number: 448.3 AC85
Abstract: Twenty-six influenza A viruses were isolated from cloacal and tracheal samples of 235 resident and 396 migratory ducks in Miyagi prefecture, Japan, in 1977--78. Of these, twelve were antigenically related to the avian-origin HSW1 virus, A/duck/Alberta/35/76 (HSW1N1), but their neuraminidase antigens were characterized as Nav2-3, Nav4 or N2. These antigenic configuration have not previously been reported. In addition, one strain in which the neuraminidase antigen was identified as Nav4, was demonstrated to be a mixture of two haemagglutinins, HSW1 and Hav7. Two distinct strains were separated from the mixture and characterized as HSW1Nav4 and Hav7Nav4. The antigenic identification of an additional 13 influenza A viruses revealed the presence of six haemagglutinin subtypes (Hav1, Hav3, Hav4, Hav6, Hav7, and Hav8) and five neuaraminidase subtypes (Nav1, Nav2-3, Nav4, Neq2, and N2) in various combinations. The results suggest that the avian influenza A viruses among feral ducks may be isolated in various combinations of haemagglutinins and neuraminidase subtypes in Japan, and that feral ducks may be the site of genetic recombination occurring as a result of dual infection with different subtypes of influenza A virus.
Descriptors: antigens, viral classification, ducks microbiology, influenza A virus immunology, influenza A virus isolation and purification, cloaca microbiology, hemagglutinins viral classification, Japan, neuraminidase immunology, trachea microbiology.
Ziegler, A.F., S. Davison, H. Acland, and R.J. Eckroade (1999). Characteristics of H7N2 (nonpathogenic) avian influenza virus infections in commercial layers, in Pennsylvania, 1997-98. Avian Diseases 43(1): 142-149. ISSN: 0005-2086.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Av5
Abstract: Between January 1997 and March 1998, 11 cases of H7N2 avian influenza (nonpathogenic) were diagnosed at the Laboratory of Avian Medicine and Pathology, Kenneth Square, PA. These cases involved either commercial leghorn laying hens or leghorn pullets raised in Pennsylvania. Grossly and histologically, the most striking lesion associated with disease was salpingitis, usually with edema and occasionally with oviduct necrosis. Fluid, fibrinous, and egg yolk material in the peritoneum (egg yolk peritonitis) as well as pulmonary congestion and pulmonary edema were also frequently seen. Oviduct lesions have rarely been described in association with avian influenza infections in previous outbreaks. Mortality in affected houses was mild to moderate (less than 4% total mortality during the outbreak), with concurrent mild to moderate egg production declines (2%-4% at the time of disease onset).
Descriptors: hens, pullets, avian influenza virus, infections, virulence, pathogenicity, diagnosis, histopathology, clinical aspects, symptoms, oviducts, necrosis, mortality, egg production, fecundity, case reports, Pennsylvania.