Table 2: Selected Clinical Observations Used in Cancer Research and Toxicological Studies

ParameterWhat to Look for
General AppearanceDehydration, decreased body weight, missing anatomy, abnormal posture, hypothermia, fractured appendage, swelling, tissue masses, prolapse, paraphimosis
Skin and furDiscoloration, urine stain, pallor, redness, cyanosis, icterus, wound, sore, abscess, ulcer, alopecia, ruffled fur
EyesExophthalmos, microphthalmia, ptosis, reddened eye, lacrimation, discharge, opacity
Nose, mouth, and headHead tilted, nasal discharge, malocclusion, salivation
RespirationSneezing, dyspnea, tachypnea, rales
UrineDiscoloration, blood in urine, polyuria, anuria
FecesDiscoloration, blood in feces, softness/diarrhea
LocomotorHyperactivity, hypoactivity, coma, ataxia, circling, muscle, tremors, convulsion/seizure, limb paralysis, prostration
Montgomery, C.A. Jr. (1990). Cancer Bulletin 42(4): 230-237.

This table was referenced in: Olfert, Ernest D. "Defining an Acceptable Endpoint in Invasive Experiments," Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter, 6(1):3-7, Spring 1995.

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