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You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Information Resources on Amphibians   / Anatomy  Printer Friendly Page
Information Resources on Amphibians & Reptiles
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Birinyi, A., G. Szekely, K. Csapo, and C. Matesz (2004). Quantitative morphological analysis of the motoneurons innervating muscles involved in tongue movements of the frog Rana esculenta. Journal of Comparative Neurology 470(4): 409-421. ISSN: 0021-9967.
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, tongue movements, innervating muscles, morphological analysis, protractor, retractor, inner, prey catching.

Burton, T.C. (2004). Muscles of the pes of hylid frogs. Journal of Morphology 260(2): 209-233. ISSN: 0362-2525.
NAL Call Number: 444.8 J826
Descriptors: hylid frogs, pes muscles, dissection, foot musculature.

Chan, T. and M. Asashima (2006). Growing kidney in the frog. Nephron. Experimental Nephrology 103(3): E81-E85. ISSN: print: 1660-2129; online: 1660-2129.
Descriptors: frog, growing kidney, embryology, Xenopus laevis embryology, kidney development, renal organs.

Ehmcke, J., G. Clemens, and H. Greven (2002-2003). Oviductal anatomy and histology of five species of Neotropical plethodontid salamanders (Urodela, Amphibia). Acta Biologica Benrodis 12(1-2): 1-17. ISSN: 0177-9214.
Descriptors: Neotropical plethodontid salamanders, amphibians, oviductal anatomy, histology, comparative study, five species, Urodela, Amphibia.
Language of Text: English; German.

Fang, Z.q. (2006). Ultrastructure of liver of Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus. Sichuan Journal of Zoology 25(2): 228-230. ISSN: 1000-7083.
Descriptors: Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus, liver, ultrastructure.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in Chinese and English.

Gal, J., A. Antal, E. Sos, and M. Marosan (2003). A keteltuek es a hullok legzokeszulekenek anatomiaja, elettana es fontosabb betegsegei. Irodalmi attekintes. [Anatomy, physiology and important diseases of the respiratory apparatus of amphibians and reptiles. Literature review.]. Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 125(3): 165-171. ISSN: 0025-004X.
Descriptors: amphibians, reptiles, anatomy, physiology, important diseases, respiratory apparatus, literature review.
Language of Text: Hungarian.

Gonzalez Elorrlaga, M.A. and G. Canepa (2002). Evidencias que sugieren una asociacion microanatomica mastocito-nervio en la lengua del sapo Bufo marinus demostradas mediante microscopia de luz de alta resolucion. [Suggestive evidences for a microanatomical relationship between mast cells and nerve in the tongue of the toad Bufo marinus demonstrated by means of high resolution light microscopy.]. Acta Cientifica Venezolana 53(4): 258-265. ISSN: 0001-5504.
Descriptors: toad, Bufo marinus, mast cells, nerve, tongue, microanatomical relationship, high resolution light microscopy.
Language of Text: Spanish; Summary in English and Spanish.

Huang He and Bai XiuJuan (2003). Anatomical histological observation of reproductive organs of medicinal forest frog. Journal of Economic Animal 7(2): 47-49. ISSN: 1007-7448.
Descriptors: amphibians, medicinal forest frog, reproductive organs, anatomy, ovaries, oviducts, testes, uterus, histological observation.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in English.

Kupfer, A., H. Muller, M.M. Antoniazzi, C. Jared, H. Greven, R.A. Nussbaum, and M. Wilkinson (2006). Parental investment by skin feeding in a caecilian amphibian. Nature 440(7086): 926-929. ISSN: print: 0028-0836; online: 1476-4687.
NAL Call Number: 472 N21
Abstract: Although the initial growth and development of most multicellular animals depends on the provision of yolk, there are many varied contrivances by which animals provide additional or alternative investment in their offspring. Providing offspring with additional nutrition should be favoured by natural selection when the consequent increased fitness of the young offsets any corresponding reduction in fecundity. Alternative forms of nutrition may allow parents to delay and potentially redirect their investment. Here we report a remarkable form of parental care and mechanism of parent-offspring nutrient transfer in a caecilian amphibian. Boulengerula taitanus is a direct-developing, oviparous caecilian, the skin of which is transformed in brooding females to provide a rich supply of nutrients for the developing offspring. Young animals are equipped with a specialized dentition, which they use to peel and eat the outer layer of their mother's modified skin. This new form of parental care provides a plausible intermediate stage in the evolution of viviparity in caecilians. At independence, offspring of viviparous and of oviparous dermatotrophic caecilians are relatively large despite being provided with relatively little yolk. The specialized dentition of skin-feeding (dermatophagous) caecilians may constitute a preadaptation to the fetal feeding on the oviduct lining of viviparous caecilians.
Descriptors: Boulengerula taitanus, amphibia anatomy and histology, amphibia physiology, animal nutrition physiology, eating physiology, mothers, skin anatomy and histology, skin cytology, amphibia growth and development, oviparity physiology, selection genetics, tooth anatomy and histology, tooth physiology.

Laberge, F., S. Muhlenbrock Lenter, W. Grunwald, and G. Roth (2006). Evolution of the amygdala: new insights from studies in amphibians. Brain, Behavior and Evolution 67(4): 177-187. ISSN: 0006-8977.
Abstract: The histology of amphibian brains gives an impression of relative simplicity when compared with that of reptiles or mammals. The amphibian telencephalon is small and contains comparatively few and large neurons, which in most parts constitute a dense periventricular cellular layer. However, the view emerging from the last decade is that the brains of all tetrapods, including amphibians, share a general bauplan resulting from common ancestry and the need to perform similar vital functions. To what extent this common organization also applies to higher brain functions is unknown due to a limited knowledge of the neurobiology of early vertebrates. The amygdala is widely recognized as a brain center critical for basic forms of emotional learning (e.g., fear conditioning) and its structure in amphibians could suggest how this capacity evolved. A functional systems approach is used here to synthesize the results of our anatomical investigations of the amphibian amygdala. It is proposed that the connectivity of the amphibian telencephalon portends a capacity for multi-modal association in a limbic system largely similar to that of amniote vertebrates. One remarkable exception is the presence of new sensory-associative regions of the amygdala in amniotes: the posterior dorsal ventricular ridge plus lateral nuclei in reptiles and the basolateral complex in mammals. These presumably homologous regions apparently are capable of modulating the phylogenetically older central amygdala and allow more complex forms of emotional learning.
Descriptors: amphibia physiology, amygdala physiology, evolution, limbic system physiology, thalamus cytology, thalamus physiology.

Li, M.h., W. Li, W. Zhou, Q. Zhang, and F.l. Li (2006). Comparative anatomy of respiratory system of three frogs and discussion on their evolutive relationship. Sichuan Journal of Zoology 25(2): 223-227. ISSN: 1000-7083.
Descriptors: amphibians, frogs, respiratory system, comparative anatomy, discussion, evolution.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in Chinese and English.

Mali, L.B. and B. Bulog (2004). Histology and ultrastructure of the gut epithelium of the neotenic cave salamander, Proteus anguinus (Amphibia, Caudata). Journal of Morphology 259(1): 82-89. ISSN: 0362-2525.
NAL Call Number: 444.8 J826
Descriptors: amphibians, neotenic cave salamander, Proteus anguinus, gut epithelium, histology, ultrastructure.

Norris, D.O. and K.H. Lopez (2005). Anatomy of the amphibian endocrine system. Amphibian Biology 6: 2021-2044.
Descriptors: amphibians, endocrine system, anatomy.

O'Malley, B. (2005). Clinical Anatomy and Physiology of Exotic Species: Structure and Function of Mammals, Birds, Reptiles and Amphibians., Elsevier Saunders: Edinburgh and New York, 269 p. ISBN: 0702027820.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 O44 2005
Descriptors: amphibians, birds, reptiles, mammals, clinical anatomy, physiology, exotic animals.

Okuda Akabane, K., H. Fukami, K. Narita, and Y. Kitada (2006). Membrane excitability of wing and rod cells in frog taste discs following denervation. Brain Research 1103(1): 145-149. ISSN: 0006-8993.
Abstract: The frog tongue has a disc-shaped taste organ (taste disc) on the top of fungiform papillae. The taste disc contains two types of cells, wing cells with a sheet-like apical process and rod cells with a rod-like apical process. Both wing and rod cells can produce action potentials. Unlike the taste buds of mammals, frog taste discs do not degenerate over a long period after denervation. Here we report that the shapes of wing and rod cells isolated from taste discs in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) remained unchanged 1 month after cutting bilateral glossopharyngeal nerves. By applying the whole cell patch-clamp technique to isolated wing and rod cells, we found voltage-dependent inward currents and outward currents and action potentials in denervated frogs as seen in normal frogs. These results suggest that the maintenance of morphological integrity and electrical excitability of taste cells does not require a nerve supply in frogs.
Descriptors: frog, Rana catesbeiana, neurons, afferent physiology, taste physiology, tongue innervation, action potentials physiology, cell membrane physiology, cell separation, cell shape, denervation, electric stimulation, glossopharyngeal nerve physiology, ion channel gating physiology, membrane potentials physiology, neurons, afferent ultrastructure, patch clamp techniques, potassium physiology, sodium channels physiology.

Pickering, M., D. Campion, and J.F.X. Jones (2004). A gastrointestinal role for the amphibian 'diaphragm' of Xenopus laevis. Journal of Zoology 264(1): 45-51. ISSN: 0952-8369.
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, Xenopus laevis, diaphragm, gastrointestinal role.

Riad I, A.M. and M.A. Mosaibih (2004). Anatomical studies on the ontogeny of the chondral neurocranium and splanchnocranium during larval metamorphosis of an anuran amphibian (Xenopus laevis): I - intermediate stage. Journal of the Egyptian German Society of Zoology 43(B): 65-91. ISSN: 1110-5356.
NAL Call Number: QL1.E49
Descriptors: amphibians, anuran, Xenopus laevis, anatomical studies, chondral neurocranium, splanchnocranium, larval metamorphosis.
Language of Text: Arabic; English.

Shearman, R.M. (2003). The frog pectoral girdle: a non-amniote model of bone formation. SICB Annual Meeting and Exhibition Final Program and Abstracts 2003: 301. ISSN: print: 1540-7063; online: 1557-7023.
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, pectoral girdle, bone formation, non amniote model, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: Annual Meeting and Exhibition of the SICB (Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology), Toronto, ON, Canada; January 04-08, 2003.

Simmons, D.D., S.W.F. Meenderink and P.N. Vassilakis (2007). Anatomy, physiology, and function of auditory end-organs in the frog inner ear. In: Springer Handbook of Auditory Research. Vol. 28, Springer: New York, NY, p. 184-220. ISBN: 0387325212.
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, auditory end organs, inner ear, functions, anatomy, physiology, book chapter.

Smirnov, S.V. and A.B. Vassilieva (2002). Skeletal and dental ontogeny in the long-tailed clawed salamander, Onychodactylus fischeri (Urodela: Hynobiidae). Russian Journal of Herpetology 9(1): 21-32. ISSN: 1026-2296.
Descriptors: amphibians, salamander, Onychodactylus fischeri, skeleton, morphology, ontogeny, dentition, skull, development.

Srivastava, U.C. and S. Srivastava (2002). Ventral root projections in the spinal cord in frog R. tigrina. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B Biological Sciences 72(2): 169-172. ISSN: 0369-8211.
NAL Call Number: Q73.N311
Descriptors: frog, Rana tigrina, spinal cord, ventral root projections.

Straka, H. and E. Gilland (2002). Anatomical and functional organization of the vestibular commissure in frogs. Society for Neuroscience Abstract Viewer and Itinerary Planner. 2002: Abstract No. 564.19. ISSN: 0190-5295.
Descriptors: amphibians, frogs, vestibular commissure, anatomy, brainstem, vestibular neurons.
Notes: Meeting Information: 32nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL, USA; November 2-7, 2002.

Vassilieva, A.B. (2005). The dental system of urodelan amphibians and the role of thyroid hormones in its metamorphic remodelling. Russian Journal of Herpetology 12(Suppl.): 312-314. ISSN: 1026-2296.
Descriptors: amphibians, urodela, dental system, role of thyroid hormones, jaws, metamorphic remodeling.

Wilczynski, W. and H. Endepols (2007). Central auditory pathways in anuran amphibians: the anatomical basis of hearing and sound communication. In: Springer Handbook of Auditory Research. Vol. 28, Springer: New York, NY, p. 221-249. ISBN: 0387325212.
Descriptors: amphibians, hearing, sound communication, central auditory pathways, anatomical basis, book chapter.

Yu, S.Y., K.Y. Si, Z.H. Liu, Z.R. Wang, and J.l. Wang (2004). Compare observation on the microvascular casts of the lungs of lizard and toad. Journal of the Northwest Normal University Natural Sciences 40(2): 55-58. ISSN: 1001-988X.
Descriptors: lizard, toad, amphibians, Bufo raddei, blood vessels, lungs, microvascular casts.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in Chinese and English.

Yue, X.J., Y.G. Zhang, and Z.J. Wang (2002). The histology and histo-chemistry studies of the digestive tract of the toad in China, Bufo gargariizans. Journal of Southwest China Normal University Natural Science 27(3): 383-389; No 120. ISSN: 1000-5471.
Descriptors: toad, Bufo gargariizans, biochemistry, digestive system, digestive tract, anatomy, histology and histochemistry.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in Chinese and English.



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