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You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Information Resources on Amphibians   / Anesthesia, Analgesia and Pain  Printer Friendly Page
Information Resources on Amphibians & Reptiles
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Anesthesia, Analgesia and Pain

Andersen, J.B. and T. Wang (2002). Effects of anaesthesia on blood gases, acid-base status and ions in the toad Bufo marinus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A Molecular and Integrative Physiology 131A(3): 639-646. ISSN: 1095-6433.
Descriptors: Bufo marinus, toad, blood sampling, sedation, anesthesia, acid base status and ions, blood acid base status and ion balance, blood, respiratory gas transport, benzocaine.

Brown, H.H.K., H.K. Tyler, and T.A. Mousseau (2004). Orajel[registered trademark] as an amphibian anesthetic: refining the technique. Herpetological Review 35(3): 252. ISSN: 0018-084X.
NAL Call Number: QL640.H47
Descriptors: Notophthalmus viridescens dorsalis, newt, salamander, sedation, Orajel registered trademark, use as anaesthetic, refining the technique.

Buyukakilli, B., U. Comelekoglu, C. Tataroglu, and A. Kanik (2003). Reversible conduction block in isolated frog sciatic nerve by high concentration of bupivacaine. Pharmacological Research 47(3): 235-241. ISSN: 1043-6618.
Abstract: We evaluated the effects of a high concentration of bupivacaine commonly used for spinal anaesthesia on the reversibility of conduction block and compound nerve action potential (CNAP) parameters in isolated frog sciatic nerve measured by extracellular recording technique. Isolated frog sciatic nerves were bathed in 1.3% bupivacaine solution for 20 min. In each nerve, action potentials were recorded before exposure to bupivacaine solution, which served as the control data. The extracellular action potentials were recorded after 20 min in the drug by using a BIOPAC MP 100 Acquisition System Version 3.5.7 (Santa Barbara, USA). The nerves were washed for 3h continuously with Ringer's solution and action potentials were recorded. The nerve was then soaked overnight in Ringer's solution at room temperature and tested for impulse recovery. There were significant differences among the experiments regarding CNAP peak-to-peak amplitude, area and duration but conduction velocities among the experiments did not show any statistical difference.In the presence of bupivacaine the extracellular action potential amplitude decreased by 46.99+/-29.31% relative to the control amplitude (P<0.05), recovered to 47.10+/-26.90% after 3h of wash, and reached 123.20+/-39.70% after the overnight soak process.This study showed that exposing nerve to high concentration of bupivacaine causes reversible impulse blockade and that bupivacaine does not cause neurotoxic effect on isolated frog sciatic nerve.
Descriptors: frog, isolated sciatic nerve, conduction block, bupivacaine, high concentration, effects, spinal anesthesia, reversability, neurotoxic effect.

Crook, A.C. and H.H. Whiteman (2006). An evaluation of ms-222 and benzocaine as anesthetics for metamorphic and paedomorphic tiger salamanders (ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum). American Midland Naturalist 155(2): 417-421. ISSN: 0003-0031.
NAL Call Number: 410 M58
Descriptors: amphibians, anesthetics, tiger salamanders, ms-222, benzocaine, evaluation, induction, recovery time, dosages.

Green, S.L. (2003). Postoperative analgesics in South African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) after surgical harvest of oocytes. Comparative Medicine 53(3): 244-247. ISSN: 1532-0820.
NAL Call Number: SF77.C65
Descriptors: South African clawed frogs, Xenopus laevis, laboratory animals, pain, analgesia, animal welfare, narcotics, dosage, adrenergic agents.

Guenette, S.A., P. Helie, F. Beaudry, and P. Vachon (2007). Eugenol for anesthesia of African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 34(3): 164-170. ISSN: print: 1467-2987; online: 1467-2995.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the level of anesthesia attained in Xenopus laevis frogs with eugenol at different doses and by different routes of administration. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective experimental trial. ANIMALS: Sixty X. laevis nonbreeding female frogs weighing between 90 and 140 g. METHODS: Three different routes of administration were tested - subcutaneous injections into the dorsal lymph sacs, topical administration using a gauze patch, and immersion in a bath containing eugenol. Following the determination of the best route of administration, the acetic acid test, the withdrawal reflex, righting reflex, heart rate, and respiratory frequency were used to evaluate central nervous system depression following eugenol bath administration. In an additional group, the response to a surgical incision of the abdominal wall was evaluated. The pharmacokinetics of eugenol were determined following bath immersion administration, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated following blood concentration determination by tandem liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses. RESULTS: It was not possible to induce anethesia with subcutaneous and patch administration, independent of the eugenol dose administered. The immersion bath was the only efficacious route for anesthesia inducing surgical anesthesia for at least 30 minutes with postoperative analgesia. Histopathology of selected tissues (heart, lung, liver, kidneys, eyes) showed no evidence of lesions 24 hours following bath immersion. The elimination half-life (T(1/2)) was 4 hours. CONCLUSIONS: When administered as a single-bath immersion (dose 350 mg L(-1)) for 15 minutes, eugenol may serve as an effective anesthetic in Xenopus laevis frogs for short surgical procedures.
Descriptors: African clawed frogs, Xenopus laevis, amphibians, anesthesia, eugenol, doses, routes of administration, subcutaneous, topical, immersion bath, pharmacokinetics, blood concentration, surgical anesthesia.

Guenette, S.A. and S. Lair (2006). Anesthesia of the leopard frog, Rana pipiens: a comparative study between four different agents. Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery 16(2): 38-44. ISSN: 1529-9651.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.R4 B85
Descriptors: amphibians, leopard frog, Rana pipiens, anesthesia, anesthetics, benzocaine, drug combinations, lidocaine, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology, comparative study, clove oil.

Guenette, S.A., D. Rodrigue, and P. Vachon (2005). Utilisation des amphibiens en recherche: l'eugenol pour la gestion de la douleur chez la grenouille Xenopus laevis. [Utilization of amphibians in research: Eugenol in pain management in Xenopus laevis]. Medecin Veterinaire Du Quebec 35(1): 12-14. ISSN: 0225-9591.
Descriptors: amphibians, frogs, Xenopus laevis, analgesics, eugenol, laboratory animals, pain management, research.
Language of Text: French.
Notes: Special issue: Medecine des animaux de laboratoire.

Kinkead, K.E., J.D. Lanham, and M.R. Montanucci (2006). Comparison of anesthesia and marking techniques on stress and behavioral responses in two desmognathus salamanders. Journal of Herpetology 40(3): 323-328. ISSN: 0022-1511.
NAL Call Number: QL640.J6
Descriptors: amphibians, salamanders, Desmognathus fuscus, Desmognathus monticola, dusky salamanders, seal salamanders, anesthesia, marking techniques, stress levels, behavioral responses, comparison, toe clipping, pain.

Kuffler, D.P., A. Lyfenko, L. Vyklicky, and V. Vlachova (2002). Cellular mechanisms of nociception in the frog. Journal of Neurophysiology 88(4): 1843-1850. ISSN: 0022-3077.
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, nociception, Rana pipiens, cellular mechanisms, defense reactions, neurons, temperature.

Martin, K.K. and C.W. Stevens (2003). Nociceptin analgesia and receptor binding assay studies in amphibians. Society for Neuroscience Abstract Viewer and Itinerary Planner 2003: Abstract No. 577.11. ISSN: 1529-2401.
Descriptors: amphibians, analgesia, nociception, receptor binding assay, nociceptin peptide, analgesia models, neuropeptide, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: 33rd Annual Meeting of the Society of Neuroscience, New Orleans, LA, USA; November 08-12, 2003.

Martin, K.K. and C.W. Stevens (2002). Analgesia effects of nociceptin in amphibians. 2002: Abstract No. 553.2. ISSN: 1529-2401.
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, Rana pipiens, nociceptin, analgesia effects, spinal administration, neuropeptide, nociceptive processing.
Notes: Meeting Information: 32nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, Florida, USA; November 02-07, 2002.

Mohan, S. and C.W. Stevens (2006). Systemic and spinal administration of the mu opioid, remifentanil, produces antinociception in amphibians. European Journal of Pharmacology 534(1-3): 89-94. ISSN: 0014-2999.
Abstract: Remifentanil is a relatively new opioid analgesic related to the fentanyl family of mu opioid receptor agonists and is used clinically for its unique property of having an ultra-short duration of action. However, there is little preclinical data on the analgesic (antinociceptive) effects of remifentanil and none obtained in non-mammalian animal models. The antinociceptive effects of remifentanil were assessed by using the acetic acid test in amphibians. Systemic and spinal administration of remifentanil was made by subcutaneous and intraspinal injections in the Northern grass frog, Rana pipiens. After administration, remifentanil produced dose-dependent and long-lasting antinociceptive effects which persisted for five hours after systemic administration but gave a shorter duration of action after spinal delivery. The antinociceptive effects of remifentanil were significantly blocked by pretreatment with systemic naltrexone. Systemic and spinal administration of remifentanil produced log dose-response curves which yielded ED50 values of 7.1 nmol/g and 3.2 nmol/animal respectively. The relative antinociceptive potency of remifentanil compared to other opioids administered to amphibians is similar to that found in mammalian models.
Descriptors: Northern grass frog, Rana pipiens, analgesics, opioid pharmacology, pain prevention and control, piperidines pharmacology, acetic acid, analgesics, opioid administration and dosage, dose response relationship, drug, injections, spinal, injections, subcutaneous, models, animal, naltrexone pharmacology, narcotic antagonists pharmacology, pain measurement, piperidines administration and dosage, receptors, opioid, mu drug effects, time factors.

Salio, C., E. Cottone, M. Conrath, and M.F. Franzoni (2002). Cb1 cannabinoid receptors in amphibian spinal cord: relationships with some nociception markers. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 24(3): 153-162. ISSN: 0891-0618.
Descriptors: amphibians, spinal cord, cannabinoid receptors, Cb1, nociception markers, relationship, spinal analgesia, pain modulation.

Simon, M.P. and K.E. Mccarson (2002). Nociceptive sensitivity of the frog rana pipiens to vanilloids. In: 32nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, Society for Neuroscience Abstract Viewer and Itinerary Planner.,November 2, 2002-November 2, 2002, Orlando, Florida, USA, Vol. 2002, p. Abstract No. 49.13.
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, Rana pipiens, nociceptive sensitivity, vanilloids, noxious stimuli, vertebrates, conference proceedings.

Stevens, C.W. (2004). Opioid research in amphibians: an alternative pain model yielding insights on the evolution of opioid receptors. Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews 46(2): 204-215. ISSN: 0165-0173.
Abstract: This review summarizes the work from our laboratory investigating mechanisms of opioid analgesia using the Northern grass frog, Rana pipiens. Over the last dozen years, we have accumulated data on the characterization of behavioral effects after opioid administration on radioligand binding by using opioid agonist and antagonist ligands in amphibian brain and spinal cord homogenates, and by cloning and sequencing opioid-like receptor cDNA from amphibian central nervous system (CNS) tissues. The relative analgesic potency of mu, delta, and kappa opioids is highly correlated between frogs and other mammals, including humans. Radioligand binding studies using selective opioid agonists show a similar selectivity profile in amphibians and mammals. In contrast, opioid antagonists that are highly selective for mammalian mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors were not selective in behavioral and binding studies in amphibians. Three opioid-like receptor cDNAs were cloned and sequenced from amphibian brain tissues and are orthologs to mammalian mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors. Bioinformatics analysis of the three types of opioid receptor cDNAs from all vertebrate species with full datasets gave a pattern of the molecular evolution of opioid receptors marked by the divergence of mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptor sequences during vertebrate evolution. This divergence in receptor amino acid sequence in later-evolved vertebrates underlies the hypothesis that opioid receptors are more type-selective in mammals than in nonmammalian vertebrates. The apparent order of receptor type evolution is kappa, then delta, and, most recently, the mu opioid receptor. Finally, novel bioinformatics analyses suggest that conserved extracellular receptor domains determine the type selectivity of vertebrate opioid receptors.
Descriptors: amphibians, grass frog, Rana pipiens, pain models, opioid research, opioid receptors, evolution, opioid analgesia, mechanism, behavioral effects.

Stevens, C.W. and C.M. Brasel (2003). Amphibian opioid receptors: cloning and sequence suggests pattern of opioid receptor evolution. Society for Neuroscience Abstract Viewer and Itinerary Planner 2003: Abstract No. 577.10. ISSN: 0190-5295.
Descriptors: amphibians, opioid receptors, cloning, sequence, evolution, opioid analgesia, kappa receptors, delta receptors, mu, evolution.
Notes: Meeting Information: 33rd Annual Meeting of the Society of Neuroscience, New Orleans, LA, USA; November 08-12, 2003.

Stevens, C.W., G. Toth, A. Borsodi, and S. Benyhe (2007). Xendorphin B1, a novel opioid-like peptide determined from a Xenopus laevis brain cDNA library, produces opioid antinociception after spinal administration in amphibians. Brain Research Bulletin 71(6): 628-632. ISSN: 0361-9230.
Abstract: Prodynorphins (PDYNs) from the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), originally described as 'proxendorphins', are novel members of the family of opioid-like precursor polypeptides and were recently discovered based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) isolates from a Xenopus brain cDNA library. This amphibian prodynorphin was found in two isoforms, (Xen)PDYN-A and (Xen)PDYN-B, consisting of 247 and 279 amino acids, respectively. Each prepropeptide contains five potential opioid-like peptides, collectively named xendorphins. One of these, xendorphin B1 ((Xen)PDYN-B sequence 96-111: YGGFIRKPDKYKFLNA), is a hexadecapeptide that displaced [3H]naloxone and the radiolabelled kappa opioid, [3H]dynorphin A (1-17), with nanomolar affinity from rat brain membranes. Using the acetic acid pain test, the present study examined the antinociceptive effects of spinally administered xendorphin B1 in amphibians. Xendorphin B1 produced a long-lasting and dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in the Northern grass frog (Rana pipiens) with an ED50 value of 44.5 nmol/frog. The antinociceptive effects of xendorphin B1 were significantly blocked by pretreatment with the non-selective opioid antagonist, naltrexone. This is the first report of the in vivo characterization of a non-mammalian prodynorphin-derived peptide and suggests that xendorphin peptides may play a role in the modulation of noxious information in vertebrates.
Descriptors: amphibians, African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, Northern grass frog, Rana pipiens, xendorphin B1, opioid like peptide, brain, opioid antinociception, spinal administration, polymerase chain reaction.

Stevens, C.W. (2006). Opioid analgesia research in amphibians: from behavioral assay to cloning opioid receptor genes. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians 13: 9-15. ISSN: 1529-9651.
NAL Call Number: SF996.A77
Descriptors: amphibians, Northern grass frog, Rana pipiens, anesthesia, sedation, opioid analgesia, review of research.

Suwalsky, M., C. Schneider, B. Norris, F. Villena, H. Cardenas, F. Cuevas, and C.P. Sotomayor (2002). The local anesthetic proparacaine modifies sodium transport in toad skin and perturbs the structures of model and cell membranes. Zeitschrift Fur Naturforschung. C, Journal of Biosciences 57(9-10): 930-938. ISSN: 0939-5075.
NAL Call Number: QH301.Z4
Descriptors: amphibians, toad, local anesthetic, proparacaine, sodium transport, modifies, toad skin, pertubes structures, cell membranes.



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