Anoxia and Hypoxia
Andersen, J.B., M.S. Hedrick, and T. Wang (2003). Cardiovascular responses to hypoxia and anaemia in the toad bufo marinus. Journal of Experimental Biology 206(5): 857-865. ISSN: 0022-0949.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 B77
Descriptors: amphibians, toad, anemia, hypoxia, cardiovascular, ventilatory responses, arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure.
Bickler, P.E. and L.T. Buck (2007). Hypoxia tolerance in reptiles, amphibians, and fishes: life with variable oxygen availability. Annual Review of Physiology 69: 145-170. ISSN: 0066-4278.
Abstract: The ability of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles to survive extremes of oxygen availability derives from a core triad of adaptations: profound metabolic suppression, tolerance of ionic and pH disturbances, and mechanisms for avoiding free-radical injury during reoxygenation. For long-term anoxic survival, enhanced storage of glycogen in critical tissues is also necessary. The diversity of body morphologies and habitats and the utilization of dormancy have resulted in a broad array of adaptations to hypoxia in lower vertebrates. For example, the most anoxia-tolerant vertebrates, painted turtles and crucian carp, meet the challenge of variable oxygen in fundamentally different ways: Turtles undergo near-suspended animation, whereas carp remain active and responsive in the absence of oxygen. Although the mechanisms of survival in both of these cases include large stores of glycogen and drastically decreased metabolism, other mechanisms, such as regulation of ion channels in excitable membranes, are apparently divergent. Common themes in the regulatory adjustments to hypoxia involve control of metabolism and ion channel conductance by protein phosphorylation. Tolerance of decreased energy charge and accumulating anaerobic end products as well as enhanced antioxidant defenses and regenerative capacities are also key to hypoxia survival in lower vertebrates.
Descriptors: amphibians, reptiles, fishes, hypoxia tolerance, variable oxygen availability, adaptations, controlof metabolism, regenerative capacities.
Mcaneney, J., A. Gheshmy, S. Uthayalingam, and S.G. Reid (2006). Chronic hypoxia modulates NMDA-mediated regulation of the hypoxic ventilatory response in an amphibian, Bufo marinus. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology 153(1): 23-38. ISSN: 1569-9048.
NAL Call Number: QP121.A1 R4
Descriptors: amphibians, Bufo marinus, toad, chronic hypoxia, NMDA mediated regulation, hypoxic ventilatory response, breathing pattern.
McKean, T., G. Li, and K. Wei (2002). Cardiac effects of hypoxia in the neotenous tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. Journal of Experimental Biology 205(12): 1725-1734. ISSN: 0022-0949.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 B77
Descriptors: amphibians, tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum, hypoxia, cardiac effects, cardiac output, cardiac mass, oxygen consumption.
Warren, D.E. and D.C. Jackson (2004). The role of the skeleton in acid-base balance during anoxia in the leopard frog. FASEB Journal 18(4-5): Abst. 238.3. ISSN: 0892-6638.
NAL Call Number: QH301.F3
Descriptors: amphibians, leopard frog, skeleton role, acid base balance, anoxia, overwintering, lactic acid buffering, submergence, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: FASEB Meeting on Experimental Biology: Translating the Genome, Washington, District of Columbia, USA; April 17-21, 2004.
Yu, S.y., K.y. Si, Z.h. Liu, Z.r. Wang, and J.l. Wang (2004). Compare observation on the microvascular casts of the lungs of lizard and toad. Journal of the Northwest Normal University Natural Sciences 40(2): 55-58. ISSN: 1001-988X.
Descriptors: lizard, toad, amphibians, Bufo raddei, blood vessels, lungs, microvascular casts.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in Chinese and English.