National Agricultural Library
Animal Welfare Information Center
HomeAbout AWICPublicationsWorkshopsServicesNews and EventsHelpContact Us
Search AWIC
Search all of the United States Department of Agriculture
Advanced search
Browse by Subject
Research Animals
Farm Animals
Zoo, Circus and Marine Animals
Companion Animals
Government and Professional Resources
Literature Searching and Databases
Pain and Distress
Humane Endpoints and Euthanasia
You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Information Resources on Amphibians   / Diet, Nutrition and Metabolism  Printer Friendly Page
Information Resources on Amphibians & Reptiles
<< Table of Contents << Previous |  Next >>


Diet, Nutrition and Metabolism

Alavarado Diaz, J., P. Garcia Garrido, and I. Suazo Ortuno (2003). Food habits of a paedomorphic population of the mexican salamander, Ambystoma ordinarium (caudata: ambystomatidae). Southwestern Naturalist 48(1): 100-102. ISSN: 0038-4909.
NAL Call Number: 409.6 So8
Descriptors: amphibians, salamander, Ambyostoma ordinarium, feeding habits, diet, caddfishfly larvae, grasshoppers, small pedomorphs.

Andrade, D.V., A.P. Cruz Neto, A.S. Abe and T. Wang (2005). Specific dynamic action in ectothermic vertebrates: A review of determinants of postprandial metabolic response in fishes, amphibians, and reptiles. In: J.M.W.T. Starck (Editors), Physiological and Ecological Adaptations to Feeding in Vertebrates., Science Publishers, Inc.: Enfield, NH, p. 305-324. ISBN: 1578082463.
NAL Call Number: QP145 .P46 2005
Descriptors: amphibians, fish, reptiles, determinants of postprandial metabolic response, digestion.

Arendt, J. and L. Hoang (2005). Effect of food level and rearing temperature on burst speed and muscle composition of western spadefoot toad (Spea hammondii). Functional Ecology 19(6): 982-987. ISSN: 0269-8463.
NAL Call Number: QH540.F85
Descriptors: amphibians, western spadefoot toad, Spea hammondii, food level, rearing temperature, burst speed, muscle composition, effect.

Beane, J.C. and L.T. Pusser (2005). Bufo terrestris (southern toad). Diet and scavenging behavior. Herpetological Review 36(4): 432. ISSN: 0018-084X.
NAL Call Number: QL640.H47
Descriptors: amphibians, toad, Bufo terrestris, diet, scavenging behavior.

Castaneda Gaytan, G., C. Garcia De La Pena, D. Lazcano, and A.J. Contreras Balderas (2006). Dietary composition of the Mexican spadefoot toad (Spea multiplicata) from a sand dune habitat in southwestern Coahuila, Mexico. Texas Journal of Science 58(1): 55-64. ISSN: 0040-4403.
Descriptors: amphibians, spadefoot toad, Spea multiplicata, dietary composition, Mexico, sand dune system, arthropods, ants, vegetal, diet composition.

Castaneda, L.E., P. Sabat, S.P. Gonzalez, and R.F. Nespolo (2006). Digestive plasticity in tadpoles of the chilean giant frog (Caudiverbera caudiverbera): factorial effects of diet and temperature. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 79(5): 919-926. ISSN: 1522-2152.
NAL Call Number: QL1.P52
Descriptors: amphibians, giant frog, digestive plasticity, factorial effects, diet, temperature, Caudiverbera caudiverbera.

Cook, K., S. Droege, and A.R. Kellogg (2002). Stomach content analysis of 13 North American toad species. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 38(3): 75-85. ISSN: 0025-4231.
NAL Call Number: QL640.M3
Descriptors: amphibians, toads, 13 species, stomach contents, analysis, summaries, North American species.

Cramp, R.L. and C.E. Franklin (2005). Arousal and re-feeding rapidly restores digestive tract morphology following aestivation in green-striped burrowing frogs. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A Molecular and Integrative Physiology 142(4): 451-460. ISSN: 1095-6433.
Descriptors: striped burrowing frogs, Cyclorana alboguttata, estivation, intestinal morphology, restoration, arousal, refeeding.

Cramp, R.L., C.E. Franklin, and E.A. Meyer (2005). The impact of prolonged fasting during aestivation on the structure of the small intestine in the green-striped burrowing frog, Cyclorana alboguttata. Acta Zoologica Copenhagen 86(1): 13-24. ISSN: 0001-7272.
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, Cyclorana alboguttata, short-term fasting, long-term fasting, estivation, effects, small intestine.

Dixit, P.K. and H.N. Behera (2002). Studies on carbohydrate metabolism in tissues of toad, Bufo melanostictus following cold-stress and thyroxine treatment. Journal of Animal Morphology and Physiology 49(1-2): 59-70. ISSN: 0021-8804.
NAL Call Number: 444.8 J823
Descriptors: amphibians, toad, Bufo melanostictus, cold stress, carbohydrate metabolism, thyroxine treatment, tissues.

Emelyanova, L.V., E.M. Koroleva, and M.V. Savina (2004). Glucose and free amino acids in the blood of lampreys (Lampetra fluviatilis L.) and frogs (Rana temporaria L.) under prolonged starvation. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A Molecular and Integrative Physiology 138A(4): 527-532. ISSN: 1095-6433.
Descriptors: amphibians, frogs, Rana temporaria, lampreys, Lampetra fluviatilis, prolonged starvation, glucose, free amino acids, blood.

Finkler, M.S. (2006). Effects of temperature, sex, and gravidity on the metabolism of small-mouthed salamanders, Ambystoma texanum, during the reproductive season. Journal of Herpetology 40(1): 103-106. ISSN: 0022-1511.
NAL Call Number: QL640.J6
Descriptors: amphibians, small mouthed salamander, Ambystoma texanum, metabolism, temperature, sex, gravidity, effects, reproductive season.

Finkler, M.S. and K.A. Cullum (2002). Sex-related differences in metabolic rate and energy reserves in spring-breeding small-mouthed salamanders (Ambystoma texanum). Copeia 2002(3): 824-829. ISSN: 0045-8511.
Descriptors: small mouthed salamanders, Ambystoma texanum, oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient, carbohydrates, energy budget, energy reserves, reproduction, physiological and biochemical sex differences, metabolic rate and energy reserves, relations with spring breeding, breeding season, energetic costs of spring breeding, sex differences.

Gomes, F.R., J.G. Chaui Berlinck, J.E. Bicudo, and C.A. Navas (2004). Intraspecific relationships between resting and activity metabolism in anuran amphibians: influence of ecology and behavior. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 77(2): 197-208. ISSN: 1522-2152.
NAL Call Number: QL1.P52
Abstract: The aerobic capacity model, as well as other models for the evolution of aerobic metabolism and the origin of endothermy, requires a mechanistic link between rates of resting and activity oxygen consumption (VO2rest and VO2act). The existence of such link is still controversial, but studies with anuran amphibians support a correlation between VO2rest and VO2act at both the intraspecific and interspecific levels. Because results at the intraspecific level are based only on a few species, we test for the generality of a link between these two metabolic variables in anurans by studying the intraspecific correlational patterns between mass-independent VO2rest and VO2act in anurans. We focus on 21 Neotropical species from different geographical areas that include remarkable diversity in behavior and thermal ecology. Although uncorrelated, VO2rest and VO2act seem to be consistent among individuals. Diverse intraspecific phenotypic correlational trends were detected, indicating that the intraspecific relationships between VO2rest and VO2act might be very diverse in anurans. The three possible trends (positive, negative, and absent correlations) were observed and appeared to be predictable from ecological and behavioral variables that relate to evolutionary physiological shifts in anurans. Positive correlations between VO2rest and VO2act were more common in species with active lifestyles (e.g., intense vocal activity) and in species that call at low temperatures (e.g., winter or high-elevation specialists).
Descriptors: anuran amphibians, ecology, behavior, metabolism, active, resting, intraspecific relationships, aerobic capacity model.

Gordon, N.M. (2004). The effect of supplemental feeding on the territorial behavior of the green frog (Rana clamitans). Amphibia Reptilia 25(1): 55-62. ISSN: 0173-5373.
Descriptors: Rana clamitans, green frog, supplemental feeding, effect, teritorial behavior.

Hadfield, C.A., L.A. Clayton, and S.L. Barnett (2006). Nutritional support of amphibians. Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine 15(4): 255-263. ISSN: 1557-5063.
NAL Call Number: SF994.2.A1 S36
Descriptors: amphibians, frogs, toads, salamanders, nutritional support, body condition, contraindications, hydration, husbandry, liquid diet.

Huntington, B. (2005). Cultured critters: raising live foods for small fish and aquatic amphibians. Proceedings of the National Conference of the American Association of Zoo Keepers Inc 31: 130-138. ISSN: 0164-9531.
Descriptors: aquatic amphibians, small fish, raising live foods, cultured, feeding.

Iwai, N. and T. Kagaya (2005). Larval food habits of the forest green tree frog. Bulletin of the Herpetological Society of Japan 2: 100-102. ISSN: 1345-5826.
Descriptors: green tree frog, diet, larval food habits, food preferences, larval development, growth.
Language of Text: Japanese; Summary in English.

Iwai, N. and T. Kagaya (2005). Growth of Japanese toad (Bufo japonicus formosus) tadpoles fed different food items. Current Herpetology 24(2): 85-89. ISSN: 1345-5834.
Descriptors: amphibians, toad, Bufo japonicus formosus, diet, tadpoles, growth, different food items.

Kumbar, S.M. and K. Pancharatna (2002). Frequency of feeding and formation of bone growth marks in frog, Rana cyanophlyctis (schn.). Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 40(9): 1074-1076. ISSN: 0019-5189.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 IN2
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, Rana cyanophlyctis, feeding frequency, formation of bone growth marks, live guppies, seasonal rainfall.

Kupfer, A., H. Muller, M.M. Antoniazzi, C. Jared, H. Greven, R.A. Nussbaum, and M. Wilkinson (2006). Parental investment by skin feeding in a caecilian amphibian. Nature 440(7086): 926-929. ISSN: print: 0028-0836; online: 1476-4687.
NAL Call Number: 472 N21
Abstract: Although the initial growth and development of most multicellular animals depends on the provision of yolk, there are many varied contrivances by which animals provide additional or alternative investment in their offspring. Providing offspring with additional nutrition should be favoured by natural selection when the consequent increased fitness of the young offsets any corresponding reduction in fecundity. Alternative forms of nutrition may allow parents to delay and potentially redirect their investment. Here we report a remarkable form of parental care and mechanism of parent-offspring nutrient transfer in a caecilian amphibian. Boulengerula taitanus is a direct-developing, oviparous caecilian, the skin of which is transformed in brooding females to provide a rich supply of nutrients for the developing offspring. Young animals are equipped with a specialized dentition, which they use to peel and eat the outer layer of their mother's modified skin. This new form of parental care provides a plausible intermediate stage in the evolution of viviparity in caecilians. At independence, offspring of viviparous and of oviparous dermatotrophic caecilians are relatively large despite being provided with relatively little yolk. The specialized dentition of skin-feeding (dermatophagous) caecilians may constitute a preadaptation to the fetal feeding on the oviduct lining of viviparous caecilians.
Descriptors: Boulengerula taitanus, amphibia anatomy and histology, amphibia physiology, animal nutrition physiology, eating physiology, mothers, skin anatomy and histology, skin cytology, amphibia growth and development, oviparity physiology, selection genetics, tooth anatomy and histology, tooth physiology.

Maneyro, R., D.E. Naya, I. Da Rosa, A. Canavero, and A. Camargo (2004). Diet of the South American frog Leptodactylus ocellatus (Anura, Leptodactylidae) in Uruguay. Iheringia Serie Zoologia 94(1): 57-61. ISSN: 0073-4721.
Descriptors: amphbians, frog, Leptodactylus ocellatus, diet, South American, stomach contents, preditor and prey sizes, Uruguay.

Marszalek Mikulcik, P. and L.A. Maginniss (2006). Effects of exhaustive exercise on blood-o-2 transport in northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens). FASEB Journal 20(5, Part 2): A822. ISSN: 0892-6638.
NAL Call Number: QH301.F3
Descriptors: amphibians, leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, exhaustive exercise, effects, blood Q2 transport, aerobic metabolism, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: Experimental Biology 2006 Meeting, San Francisco, CA, USA; April 01 -05, 2006.

Martinez, I.P., M. Real, and R. Alvarez (2004). Growth of Rana perezi Seoane, 1885 froglets fed on diets with different nutrient compositions. Aquaculture 241(1-4): 387-394. ISSN: 0044-8486.
Abstract: There are no data available about the nutritional requirements of Rana perezi froglets reared under controlled conditions. Four experimental groups of froglets (newly metamorphosed tadpoles) were fed on four types of trout fodder with different nutritional compositions. Survival rates and other growth parameters were studied in the four groups over 120 days. The results revealed that grow-out was better with protein contents between 46% and 50%, and fat percentages of 20-22%. Among the four diets tested, the best results were achieved using the one with a nutritional composition of 46% protein, 22% lipids, and 13.5% carbohydrates.
Descriptors: Rana perezi, frogs, mortality, body weight, weight gain, feeds, trout, feed composition.

McCallum, M.L. and S.E. Trauth (2002). Performance of wood frog tadpoles (Rana sylvaticus) on three soybean meal-corn meal rations. Podarcis 3(3): 78-85. ISSN: 1567-3871.
Descriptors: amphibians, Rana sylvaticus, wood frog tadpoles, diet, captivity, three soybean meal-corn meal rations, performance.

Naya, D.E. and F. Bozinovic (2004). Digestive phenotypic flexibility in post-metamorphic amphibians: studies on a model organism. Biological Research 37(3): 365-370. ISSN: 0716-9760.
Abstract: Studies of phenotypic flexibility are central to the understanding of evolutionary and comparative physiology. Research conducted on many vertebrate species has shown that the digestive system is highly responsive and sensitive to environmental cues. However, amphibians, which are a standard and classic model organism for the study of many physiological processes, have been poorly considered in the study of ecological consequences on digestive flexibility. Here we review and analyze the current information on this topic for amphibians. We identify three major bodies of empirical evidence: a) seasonal changes in gut development, b) lack of dietary modulation of gut attributes in adult individuals, c) a relationship between feeding habits and the magnitude of digestive performance regulation. Once the natural history characteristics of the species under study are taken into account, all the evidence is in full agreement with the predictions of digestive theory. We propose that evolutionary and comparative physiology could benefit greatly from the study of phenotypic flexibility in amphibians.
Descriptors: amphibians, adaptation, physiology, digestion physiology, evolution, phenotype, genetics, digestion genetics, food habits.

Ruchin, A.B. and M.K. Ryzhov (2002). On the diet of the marsh frog (Rana ridibunda) in the Sura and Moksha watershed, Mordovia. Advances in Amphibian Research in the Former Soviet Union 7: 197-205. ISSN: 1310-8840.
Descriptors: amphibian, marsh frog, Rana ridibunda, diet, watershed, Mordovia.
Language of Text: English; Russian.

Secor, S.M. and M. Boehm (2006). Specific dynamic action of ambystomatid salamanders and the effects of meal size, meal type, and body temperature. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 79(4): 720-735. ISSN: 1522-2152.
NAL Call Number: QL1.P52
Abstract: The past decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in studies of amphibian and reptile specific dynamic action (SDA). These studies have demonstrated that SDA, the summed energy expended on meal digestion and assimilation, is affected significantly by meal size, meal type, and body size and to some extent by body temperature. While much of this attention has been directed at anuran and reptile SDA, we investigated the effects of meal size, meal type, and body temperature on the postprandial metabolic responses and the SDA of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum). We also compared the SDA responses among six species of Ambystoma salamanders representing the breadth of Ambystoma phylogeny. Postprandial peaks in VO(2) and VO(2), duration of elevated metabolism, and SDA of tiger salamanders increased with the size of cricket meals (2.5%-12.5% of body mass). For A. tigrinum, as for other ectotherms, a doubling of meal size results in an approximate doubling of SDA, a function of equal increases in peak VO(2) and duration. For nine meal types of equivalent size (5% of body mass), the digestion of hard-bodied prey (crickets, superworms, mealworms, beetles) generated larger SDA responses than the digestion of soft-bodied prey (redworms, beetle larvae). Body temperature affected the profile of postprandial metabolism, increasing the peak and shortening the duration of the profile as body temperature increased. SDA was equivalent among three body temperatures (20 degrees, 25 degrees, and 30 degrees C) but decreased significantly at 15 degrees C. Comparatively, the postprandial metabolic responses and SDA of Ambystoma jeffersonianum, Ambystoma maculatum, Ambystoma opacum, Ambystoma talpoideum, Ambystoma texanum, and the conspecific Ambystoma tigrinum mavortium digesting cricket meals that were 5% of their body mass were similar (independent of body mass) to those of A. t. tigrinum. Among the six species, standard metabolic rate, peak postprandial VO(2), and SDA scaled with body mass with mass exponents of 0.72, 0.78, and 1.05, respectively.
Descriptors: ambystomatid salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum, body temperature, feeding behavior physiology, food, Urodela physiology, Annelida, Cyprinidae, energy metabolism physiology, Gryllidae, mice, Tenebrio, time factors.

Secor, S.M. (2005). Evolutionary and cellular mechanisms regulating intestinal performance of amphibians and reptiles. Integrative and Comparative Biology 45(2): 282-294. ISSN: print: 1540-7063; online: 1557-7023.
NAL Call Number: QL1.I67
Descriptors: reptiles, evolutionary, cellular, mechanisms, intestinal performance, regulating, amphibians.

Secor, S.M. and A.C. Faulkner (2002). Effects of meal size, meal type, body temperature, and body size on the specific dynamic action of the marine toad, Bufo marinus. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 75(6): 557-571. ISSN: 1522-2152.
NAL Call Number: QL1.P52
Descriptors: amphibians, marine toad, Bufo marinus, size, body temperature, meal size, meal type, body size, effects.

Sundqvist, M. and S. Holmgren (2006). Ontogeny of excitatory and inhibitory control of gastrointestinal motility in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 291(4): R1138-R1144. ISSN: print: 0363-6119; online: 1522-1490.
Abstract: The transparent body wall of Xenopus laevis larvae during the first developmental stages allows in vivo studies of gastrointestinal tract activity. The purpose of this study was to chart the ontogeny of gut motility in Xenopus larvae and to identify the most important control systems during the first developmental stages. Coordinated descending contraction waves first occurred in the gut at Nieuwkoop and Faber stage 43 [0.8 +/- 0.1 contractions/min (cpm)] and increased to 4.9 +/- 0.1 cpm at stage 47. The cholinergic receptor agonist carbachol (5-10 microM) increased contraction frequency already at stage 43, as did neurokinin A (NKA, 0.3-1 microM). The muscarinic antagonist atropine (100 microM) first affected contraction frequency at stage 45, which coincides with the onset of feeding. The tachykinin antagonist MEN-10,376 (6 microM) blocked NKA-induced contractions but not spontaneous motility. Both sodium nitroprusside [nitric oxide (NO) donor, 1-10 microM] and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, 0.1-1 microM) inhibited contractions from the earliest stage onward. Blocking NO synthesis using NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (100 microM) had no effect per se, but antagonized VIP evoked inhibition at stage 47. We conclude that gastrointestinal motility is well developed in the Xenopus laevis larvae before the onset of feeding. Functional muscarinic and tachykinin receptors are present already at the onset of motility, whereas a cholinergic tone develops around the onset of feeding. No endogenous tachykinin tone was found. Functional VIP receptors mediate inhibition at the onset of motility. NO seems to mediate the VIP effect at later stages.
Descriptors: African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, enteric nervous system, gastrointestinal motility, intestines innervation, atropine, carbachol, cholinergic agonists, enzyme inhibitors, neural inhibition, neurokinin a analogs and derivatives, nitric oxide donors, nitroprusside, vasoactive intestinal peptide.

Uchiyama, M. and N. Konno (2006). Hormonal regulation of ion and water transport in anuran amphibians. General and Comparative Endocrinology 147(1): 54-61. ISSN: 0016-6840.
NAL Call Number: 444.8 G28
Abstract: Amphibians occupy a wide variety of ecological habitats, and their adaptation is made possible through the specialization of the epithelia of their osmoregulatory organs, such as the skin, kidney, and urinary bladder, which control the hydromineral and acid-base balance of their internal medium. Amphibians can change drastically plasma Na+, Cl-, and urea levels and excretion rates in response to environmental stimuli such as acute desiccation and changes in external salinity. Several hormones and the autonomic nervous system act to control osmoregulation. Several ion channels including an epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), a urea transporter (UT), and water channels (AQPs) are found in epithelial tissues of their osmoregulatory organs. This mini review examines the currents status of our knowledge about hormone receptors for arginine vasotocin, angiotensin II and aldosterone, and membrane ion channels and transporters, such as ENaC, UT, and AQPs in amphibians.
Descriptors: amphibians, aldosterone metabolism, angiotensin II metabolism, anura physiology, ion transport physiology, vasotocin metabolism, water electrolyte balance physiology, kidney metabolism, receptors, peptide metabolism, skin physiology, urinary bladder metabolism.

Van Sluys, M., G.M. Schittini, R.V. Marra, A.R.M. Azevedo, J.J. Vicente, and D. Vrcebradic (2006). Body size, diet and endoparasites of the microhylid frog Chiasmocleis capixaba in an Atlantic forest area of southern Bahia state, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology 66(1A): 167-173. ISSN: 1519-6984.
Descriptors: frog, Chiasmocleis capixaba, diet, body size, endoparasites, Brazil.
Language of Text: English; Portuguese.

Wang, T., J.B. Andersen and J.W. Hicks (2005). Effects of digestion on the respiratory and cardiovascular physiology of amphibians and reptiles. In: J.M. Starck and T. Wang (Editors), Physiological and Ecological Adaptations to Feeding in Vertebrates., Science Publishers, Inc.: Enfield, NH, p. 279-303. ISBN: 1578082463.
NAL Call Number: QP145 .P46 2005
Descriptors: amphibians, reptiles, digestion, effect, respiratory physiology, cardiovascular physiology.

Whiles, M.R., J.B. Jensen, J.G. Palis, and W.G. Dyer (2004). Diets of larval flatwoods salamanders, Ambystoma cingulatum, from Florida and South Carolina. Journal of Herpetology 38(2): 208-214. ISSN: 0022-1511.
NAL Call Number: QL640.J6
Descriptors: amphibians, salamander, Ambystoma cingulatum, diet, larvae, fresh water crustaceans, isopods, copepods, cladocerans, amphipods, South Carolina, Florida, USA.



Back to Top  
<< Table of Contents << Previous |  Next >>
Last Modified: Jan 14, 2014  
AWIC Home | NAL Home | USDA | AgNIC | ARS | Web Policies and Important Links | RSS Feeds | Site Map
FOIA | Accessibility Statement | Privacy Policy | Non-Discrimination Statement | Information Quality | | White House