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Information Resources on Amphibians & Reptiles
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Annis, S.L., F.P. Dastoor, H. Ziel, P. Daszak, and J.E. Longcore (2004). A DNA-based assay identifies Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in amphibians. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 40(3): 420-428. ISSN: 0090-3558.
NAL Call Number: 41.9 W64B
Descriptors: amphibians, fungal pathogen, detection, DNA based assay, diagnostic techniques, fungal diseases, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

Berger, L., R. Speare, H.B. Hines, G. Marantelli, A.D. Hyatt, K.R. McDonald, L.F. Skerratt, V. Olsen, J.M. Clarke, G. Gillespie, M. Mahony, N. Sheppard, C. Williams, and M.J. Tyler (2004). Effect of season and temperature on mortality in amphibians due to chytridiomycosis. Australian Veterinary Journal 82(7): 434-439. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Au72
Descriptors: amphibians, anura, fungal diseases, chytridiomycosis, season and temperature, effects on mortality, season, temperature, Australia.

Bertelsen, M. and G. Crawshaw (2003). 5-Minute guide to amphibian disease. Exotic DVM 5(2): 23-26. ISSN: 1521-1363.
NAL Call Number: SF981.E96
Descriptors: amphibians, diseases, guide, diagnosis, verterinary resource.

Blumer, C., D.R. Zimmermann, R. Weilenmann, L. Vaughan, and A. Pospischil (2007). Chlamydiae in free-ranging and captive frogs in Switzerland. Veterinary Pathology 44(2): 144-150. ISSN: 0300-9858.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P27
Abstract: A total of 210 frog samples originating either from a mass mortality (1991/1992) or from routine postmortem investigations of the years 1990 to 2004 were examined retrospectively for a possible involvement of Chlamydiae. For a prevalence study of Chlamydia in a selected Swiss amphibian population, 403 samples from free-ranging Rana temporaria were examined. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody against chlamydial lipopolysaccharide, and a 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by DNA sequencing were performed on the formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. Using PCR, 8 of 54 (14.8%) frog samples from the mass mortality (1991/1992) were positive for Chlamydia suis S45. A control group of healthy Xenopus laevis had 3 of 38 positive samples, sequenced as C suis S45 (2/3) and an endosymbiont of Acanthamoeba species UWE1 (1/3). Chlamydophila pneumoniae TW-183 was detected from exotic frogs kept in a zoo. Of the frogs collected for the prevalence study, 6 of 238 (2.5%) tested positive, 1 each for C suis S45, Cp pneumoniae TW-183, and uncultured Chlamydiales CRG22, and the remaining 3 revealed Chlamydophila abortus S26/3. In immunohistochemistry, there were 2 positive labeling reactions, 1 in intestine and the other in the epithelium coating the body cavity, both testing positive for Cp pneumoniae TW-183 in PCR. Histologically there were no lesions recorded being characteristic for Chlamydia: Although there is a prevalence of Chlamydia in Swiss frogs, no connection to a mass mortality (1991/1992) could be established. For the first time, C suis S45 and Cp abortus S26/3 were detected in frog material.
Descriptors: frog, free ranging, captive, Chlamydia, mass mortality, postmortem, prevalence, Switzerland.

Bodetti, T.J., E. Jacobson, C. Wan, L. Hafner, A. Pospischil, K. Rose, and P. Timms (2002). Molecular evidence to support the expansion of the hostrange of chlamydophila pneumoniae to include reptiles as well as humans, horses, koalas and amphibians. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 25(1): 146-152. ISSN: 0723-2020.
NAL Call Number: QR1.Z42
Descriptors: amphibians, reptiles, horses, koalas, humans, host range expansion, molecular evidence, Chlamydophila pneumoniae.

Boyle, D.G., D.B. Boyle, V. Olsen, J.A.T. Morgan, and A.D. Hyatt (2004). Rapid quantitative detection of chytridiomycosis (Batrachochytrium dendrobatis) in amphibian samples using real-time Taqman PCR assay. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 60(2): 141-148. ISSN: 0177-5103.
Descriptors: amphibians, anura, diagnostic techniques, Batrachochytrium dendrobatis (fungus ), detection using pcr Taqman assay, fungal diseases.

Bradley, G.A., P.C. Rosen, M.J. Sredl, T.R. Jones, and J.E. Longcore (2002). Chytridiomycosis in native Arizona frogs. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 38(1): 206-212. ISSN: 0090-3558.
NAL Call Number: 41.9 W64B
Descriptors: Rana, frogs, chytridiomycosis, infection, fungus infection, reddening of skin, abdomen, pelvic area, legs, hyperkeratosis, sporangia.

Briggs, C.J., V.T. Vredenburg, R.A. Knapp, and L.J. Rachowicz (2005). Investigating the population-level effects of chytridiomycosis: An emerging infectious disease of amphibians. Ecology 86(12): 3149-3159. ISSN: 0012-9658.
Descriptors: Rana, frogs, animal pathogenic fungi, mycoses, population density, mortality, mathematical models, Batrachochytrium dendrobatids, Rana muscosa, California.
Notes: In the special section: Empirically motivated ecological theory / edited by A.R. Ives and A.A. Agrawal. Includes references.

Briggs, C. and S. Burgin (2003). A rapid technique to detect chytrid infection in adult frogs. Herpetological Review 34(2): 124-126. ISSN: 0018-084X.
NAL Call Number: QL640.H47
Descriptors: Limnodynastes tasmaniensis, Litoria peronii, diagnostic techniques, rapid detection, procedures, fungal disease.

Brunner, J.L., D.M. Schock, J.P. Collins, and E.W. Davidson (2002). Persistence of a lethal ranavirus in a seasonally abundant salamander host. Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting Abstracts 87: 88.
Descriptors: amphibians, salamander, ranavirus, persistance, lethal, abundant host, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: 87th Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of America and the 14th Annual International Conference of the Society for Ecological Restoration, Tucson, Arizona, USA; August 04-09, 2002.

Cecil, T.R. (2006). Amphibian renal disease. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Exotic Animal Practice 9(1): 175-188. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Abstract: Amphibians by nature have an intimate connection with the aquatic environment at some stage of development and fight an osmotic battle due to the influx of water. Many amphibians have acquired a more terrestrial existence at later stages of development and consequently have physiologic adaptations to conserve moisture. Renal adaptations have allowed amphibians successfully to bridge the gap between aqueous and terrestrial habitats. The kidneys, skin,and, in many amphibian species, the urinary bladder play key roles in fluid homeostasis. Renal impairment may be responsible for the clinical manifestation of disease, morbidity, and mortality.
Descriptors: amphibians, kidney anatomy, histology, kidney physiology, kidney diseases veterinary, adaptation, physiological, diagnosis, differential, kidney pathology, kidney diseases, diagnosis, kidney diseases microbiology, kidney diseases parasitology, species specificity.

Chai, N., L. Deforges, W. Sougakoff, C. Truffot Pernot, A. De Luze, B. Demeneix, M. Clement, and M.C. Bomsel (2006). Mycobacterium szulgai infection in a captive population of African clawed frogs (Xenopus tropicalis). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 37(1): 55-58. ISSN: 1042-7260.
NAL Call Number: SF601.J6
Descriptors: amphibians, frogs, Xenopus tropicalis, Mycobacterium szulgai, infection, captive population.

Collins, J.P., J.L. Brunner, J.K. Jancovich, and D.M. Schock (2004). A model host-pathogen system for studying infectious disease dynamics in amphibians: tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) and Ambystoma tigrinum virus. Herpetological Journal 14(4): 195-200. ISSN: 0268-0130.
Descriptors: amphibians, tiger salamanders, Ambystoma tigrinum, model host pathogen system, studying infectious disease, dynamics, virus.

Cunningham, A.A., T.W.J. Garner, V. Aguilar Sanchez, B. Banks, J. Foster, A.W. Sainsbury, M. Perkins, S.F. Walker, A.D. Hyatt, and M.C. Fisher (2005). Emergence of amphibian chytridiomycosis in Britain. Veterinary Record 157(13): 386-387. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: amphibians, mycoses, chytridiomycosis, diseases, Great Britain.

Daszak, P., A. Strieby, A.A. Cunningham, J.E. Longcore, C.C. Brown, and D. Porter (2004). Experimental evidence that the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) is a potential carrier of chytridiomycosis, an emerging fungal disease of amphibians. Herpetological Journal 14(4): 201-207. ISSN: 0268-0130.
Descriptors: amphibians, bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, chytridiomycosis, potential carrier, fungal disease.

Daszak, P., A.A. Cunningham, and A.D. Hyatt (2003). Infectious disease and amphibian population declines. Diversity and Distributions 9(2): 141-150. ISSN: 1366-9516.
NAL Call Number: QH75.A1B573
Descriptors: amphibians, population declines, infectious disease, diseases and disorders, fungal diseases.

Davidson, E.W., M. Parris, J.P. Collins, J.E. Longcore, A.P. Pessier, and J. Brunner (2003). Pathogenicity and transmission of chytridiomycosis in tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum). Copeia 2003(3): 601-607. ISSN: 0045-8511.
Descriptors: tiger salamanders, Ambystoma tigrinum, fungal diseases, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, pathogenicity, transmission.

Davison, A.J., C. Cunningham, W. Sauerbier, and R.G. Mckinnell (2006). Genome sequences of two frog herpesviruses. Journal of General Virology 87(Part 12): 3509-3514. ISSN: 0022-1317.
NAL Call Number: QR360.A1J6
Descriptors: amphibians, herpesviruses, genome sequences, ranid herpesevirus 1, ranid herpesvirus 2, DNA, sequences.

Docherty, D.E., C.U. Meteyer, J. Wang, J. Mao, S.T. Case, and V.G. Chinchar (2003). Diagnostic and molecular evaluation of three iridovirus-associated salamander mortality events. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 39(3): 556-566. ISSN: 0090-3558.
NAL Call Number: 41.9 W64B
Descriptors: salamander, Ambystoma maculatum, Ambystoma tigrinum diaboli, Ambystoma tigrinum melanostictum, viral diseases, iridoviruses, associated mortality events, diagnostic, molecular, evaluation, mortality.

Drancourt, M., V. Jarlier, and D. Raoult (2002). The environmental pathogen mycobacterium ulcerans grows in amphibian cells at low temperatures. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68(12): 6403-6404. ISSN: print: 0099-2240; online: 1098-5336.
NAL Call Number: 448.3 Ap5
Descriptors: amphibians, amphibian cells, pathogen, Mycobacterium ulcerans, grows, low temperatures.

Ells, T.v., J. Stanton, A. Strieby, P. Daszak, A.D. Hyatt, and C. Brown (2003). Use of immunohistochemistry to diagnose chytridiomycosis in dying poison dart frogs (Dendrobates tinctorius). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 39(3): 742-745. ISSN: 0090-3558.
NAL Call Number: 41.9 W64B
Descriptors: poison dart frogs, Dendrobates tinctorius, Anura, dermatomycoses, Chytridiales, disease, diagnosis, Batrachochytrium dendrobatis.

Feldman, S.H., J.H. Wimsatt, and D.E. Green (2005). Phylogenetic classification of the frog pathogen Amphibiothecum (Dermosporidium) penneri based on small ribosomal subunit sequencing. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 41(4): 701-706. ISSN: 0090-3558.
NAL Call Number: 41.9 W64B
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, Amphibiothecum penneri, pathogen, phylogenetic classification, small ribosomal subunit sequencing.

Green, D.E. and K.A. Converse (2005). Diseases of frogs and toads. In: S.K. Majumdar, J.E. Huffman, F.J. Brenner and A.I. Panah (Editors), Wildlife Diseases: Landscape Epidemiology, Spatial Distribution and Utilization of Remote Sensing Technology: Pennsylvania Academy of Science: Easton, p. 89-117. ISBN: 0945809190.
Descriptors: frogs, toads, diseases, pathogens, epidemiology.

Green, D.E. and K.A. Converse (2005). Disease of amphibian eggs and embryos. In: S.K.H.J.E.B.F.J.P.A.I. Majumdar (Editors), Wildlife Diseases: Landscape Epidemiology, Spatial Distribution and Utilization of Remote Sensing Technology: Pennsylvania Academy of Science: Easton, p. 62-71. ISBN: 0945809190.
Descriptors: amphibians, diseases, eggs, embryos, pathogens, epidemiology.

Green, S.L., D.M. Bouley, C.A. Josling, and R. Fayer (2003). Cryptosporidiosis associated with emaciation and proliferative gastritis in a laboratory-reared South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis). Comparative Medicine 53(1): 81-84. ISSN: 1532-0820.
NAL Call Number: SF77.C65
Abstract: A 2-year-old emaciated female South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) was euthanized because of chronic weight loss. At necropsy, there was no evidence of bacterial, fungal or viral disease; however, the histopathologic findings indicated a proliferative gastritis and the presence of numerous cryptosporidial stages throughout the intestinal tract. Crytosporidial oocysts were present in the water taken from the aquarium housing the infected frog and were likely shed by the sick frog; however, the exact source of the oocysts could not be identified. Water samples from other frog aquaria in the facility did not contain cryptosporidial oocysts. Some Cryptosporidium species are important zoonotic pathogens and, to our knowledge, this is the first report of disease associated with Cryptosporidium infection in a laboratory Xenopus laevis.
Descriptors: clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, laboratory animals, cryptosporidiosis, Cryptosporidium, body condition, zoonoses, trophozoites, schizonts, oocysts, case studies, postmortem examinations.

Harkewicz, K., A.P. Pessier, L.A. Rollins Smith, R. Speare, and C. Weldon (2005). Amphibian chytridiomycosis. Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery 15(3): 32-44. ISSN: 1529-9651.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.R4 B85
Descriptors: amphibians, fungal disease, chytridiomycosis, treatment techniques, transmission, diagnosis.

Harp, E.M. and J.W. Petranka (2006). Ranavirus in wood frogs (Rana sylvatica): potential sources of transmission within and between ponds. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 42(2): 307-318. ISSN: 0090-3558.
NAL Call Number: 41.9 W64B
Descriptors: wood frogs, Rana sylvatica, viral diseases, ranavirus, potential sources, transmission, between ponds.

Harris, R.N., T.Y. James, A. Lauer, M.A. Simon, and A. Patel (2006). Amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is inhibited by the cutaneous bacteria of amphibian species. EcoHealth 3(1): 53-56. ISSN: print: 1612-9202; online: 1612-9210.
Descriptors: amphibians, pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, inhibited, cutaneous bacteria, fungal.

Hassl, A. and G. Benyr (2003). Hygienic evaluation of terraria inhabited by amphibians and reptiles: Cryptosporidia, free-living amebas, Salmonella. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift 115(Suppl.3): 68-71. ISSN: 0043-5325.
Descriptors: amphibians, reptiles, hygenic evaluation, Cryptosporidia, amebas, Salmonella, pets, disease transmission, vivarium, infectious diseases.
Language of Text: German.
Notes: Meeting Information: Vortrage der 36. jahrestagung der Osterreichischen Gesellschaft fur Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie.

Herrera, R.A., M.M. Steciow, and G.S. Natale (2005). Chytrid fungus parasitizing the wild amphibian Leptodactylus ocellatus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) in Argentina. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 64(3): 247-252. ISSN: print: 0177-5103; online: 1616-1580.
Descriptors: amphibian, Leptodactylus ocellatus, diseases, fungal disease, Chytrid fungus, wild amphibians, parasitizing, Argentina.

Holland, M.P., D.K. Skelly, M. Kashgarian, S.R. Bolden, L.M. Harrison, and M. Cappello (2007). Echinostome infection in green frogs (Rana clamitans) is stage and age dependent. Journal of Zoology 271(4): 455-462. ISSN: 0952-8369.
Descriptors: amphibians, green frogs, Rana clamitans, echinostome, infection, stage and age dependent, emerging infectious diseases, renal function, tadpoles.

Huys, G., M. Pearson, P. Kaempfer, R. Denys, M. Cnockaert, V. Inglis, and J. Swings (2003). Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. Ranae subsp. nov., isolated from septicaemic farmed frogs in Thailand. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53(3): 885-891. ISSN: 1466-5026.
Descriptors: farmed frogs, Rana, Aeromonas hydrophila ranae, septicemic, Thailand.

James, T.Y. and R. Vilgalys (2006). Amphibian chytridiomycosis as an emerging infectious disease of wildlife: what can we learn from the earliest diverging fungi? In: Molecular Principles of Fungal Pathogenesis., American Society of Microbiology: Washington, DC, p. 271-278. ISBN: 1555813682.
Descriptors: amphibians, chytridiomycosis, fungal disease, epidemiology, etiology, emerging infectious disease, book chapter.

Jancovich, J.K., E.W. Davidson, N. Parameswaran, J. Mao, V.G. Chinchar, J.P. Collins, B.L. Jacobs, and A. Storfer (2005). Evidence for emergence of an amphibian iridoviral disease because of human-enhanced spread. Molecular Ecology 14(1): 213-224. ISSN: 0962-1083.
NAL Call Number: QH540.M64
Descriptors: amphibians, salamanders, infectious diseases, iridoviruses, pathogen, emerging diseases, epizootics, ranaviruses.

Johnson, A.J. and J.F.X. Wellehan (2005). Amphibian virology. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Exotic Animal Practice 8(1): 53-65. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Descriptors: amphibian virology, virology, veterinary clinics, review, viral diseases.

Johnson, M.L. and R. Speare (2005). Possible modes of dissemination of the amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in the environment. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 65(3): 181-186. ISSN: 0177-5103.
Descriptors: amphibians, frogs, diseases, chytridiomycosis, bird feathers, dissemination, B. dendrobatidis, possible modes, river sand, environment.

Johnson, M.L., L. Berger, L. Philips, and R. Speare (2003). Fungicidal effects of chemical disinfectants, UV light, desiccation and heat on the amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 57(3): 255-260. ISSN: 0177-5103.
Descriptors: amphibians, diseases, chemical disinfectants, UV light, desiccation, heat, fungicidal effects, chytrid, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, fungal disease.

Johnson, P.T. (2006). Amphibian diversity: decimation by disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103(9): 3011-3012. ISSN: print: 0027-8424; online: 1091-6490.
NAL Call Number: 500 N21P
Descriptors: amphibia, animal diseases epidemiology, biodiversity, communicable diseases veterinary, communicable diseases epidemiology.
Notes: Comment On: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Feb 28;103(9):3165-70.

Johnson, P.T.J. and J.M. Chase (2004). Parasites in the food web: Linking amphibian malformations and aquatic eutrophication. Ecology Letters 7(7): 521-526. ISSN: 1461-023X.
NAL Call Number: QH540.E262
Descriptors: amphibians, aquatic animals, parasites, food web, malformations, emerging diseases, Ribeiroia ondatrae, aquatic eutrophication.

Johnson, P.T., K.B. Lunde, D.A. Zelmer, and K. Werner (2003). Amphibian malformations and parasite infection: an emerging disease? Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting Abstracts 88: 171. ISSN: 0012-9623.
Descriptors: amphibians, malformations, parasite infection, emerging disease, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: 88th Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of America held jointly with the International Society for Ecological Modeling - North American Chapter, Savannah, Georgia, USA; August 03-08, 2003.

Juopperi, T., K. Karli, R. De Voe, and C.B. Grindem (2002). Granulomatous dermatitis in a spadefoot toad (Scaphiopus holbrooki). Veterinary Clinical Pathology 31(3): 137-139. ISSN: 0275-6382.
NAL Call Number: SF601.A54
Descriptors: toad, dermatitis, symptoms, duration, body condition, biopsy, fungi, case studies, fungal diseases of plants, clinical aspects, lesions.

Klenk, K. and N. Komar (2003). Poor replication of West Nile virus (New York 1999 strain) in three reptilian and one amphibian species. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 69(3): 260-262. ISSN: 0002-9637.
West Nile virus, NY 1999 strain, poor replication, three reptilian species, one amphibian species.

Knapp, R.A. and J.A.T. Morgan (2006). Tadpole mouthpart depigmentation as an accurate indicator of chytridiomycosis, an emerging disease of amphibians. Copeia 2006(2): 188-197. ISSN: 0045-8511.
Descriptors: amphibians, emerging diseases, tadpole mouthpart depigmentation as accurate indicator of fungal disease, chytridiomycosis.

Kohler, G. (2006). Diseases of Amphibians and Reptiles, Malabar, USA: Krieger Publishing Company., x + 171 pp. p. ISBN: 1575242559.
Descriptors: diseases, clinical aspects, diagnosis, euthanasia, examination, neoplasms, imaging techniques, surgery, treatment, amphibians, reptiles, blood tests, first aid, book.

Kriger, K.M. and J.M. Hero (2006). Survivorship in wild frogs infected with chytridiomycosis. EcoHealth 3(3): 171-177. ISSN: print: 1612-9202; online: 1612-9210.
Descriptors: amphibians, wild frogs, chytridiomycosis, infectious disease, survivorship, emerging infectious diseases.

Kriger, K.M., H.B. Hines, A.D. Hyatt, D.G. Boyle, and J.M. Hero (2006). Techniques for detecting chytridiomycosis in wild frogs: Comparing histology with real-time taqman pcr. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 71(2): 141-148. ISSN: 0177-5103.
Descriptors: amphibians, wild frogs, chytridiomycosis, detecting techniques, PCR assay, rapid, noninvasive, swab PCR.

Kuroki, T. and Y. Une (2007). Chytridiomycosis in amphibians. Bulletin of the Herpetological Society of Japan(1): 20-31. ISSN: 1345-5826.
Descriptors: amphibians, frogs, fungal disease, infection, emerging infectious diseases, Chytridiomycosis.
Language of Text: Japanese.

Lane, E.P., C. Weldon, and J. Bingham (2003). Histological evidence of chytridiomycete fungal infection in a free-ranging amphibian, Afrana fuscigula (Anura: Ranidae), in South Africa. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 74(1): 20-21. ISSN: 0038-2809.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 So8
Descriptors: amphibians, fungal infection, chytridiomycosis, histological evidence, frogs, dermatitis, Anura, Ranidae, free ranging, South Africa.

Lips, K.R., F. Brem, R. Brenes, J.D. Reeve, R.A. Alford, J. Voyles, C. Carey, L. Livo, A.P. Pessier, and J.P. Collins (2006). Emerging infectious disease and the loss of biodiversity in a Neotropical amphibian community. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103(9): 3165-3170. ISSN: print: 0027-8424; online: 1091-6490.
NAL Call Number: 500 N21P
Abstract: Pathogens rarely cause extinctions of host species, and there are few examples of a pathogen changing species richness and diversity of an ecological community by causing local extinctions across a wide range of species. We report the link between the rapid appearance of a pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in an amphibian community at El Cope, Panama, and subsequent mass mortality and loss of amphibian biodiversity across eight families of frogs and salamanders. We describe an outbreak of chytridiomycosis in Panama and argue that this infectious disease has played an important role in amphibian population declines. The high virulence and large number of potential hosts of this emerging infectious disease threaten global amphibian diversity.
Descriptors: amphibia physiology, animal diseases epidemiology, biodiversity, communicable diseases, emerging veterinary, tropical climate, communicable diseases, emerging epidemiology, models, biological, mycoses epidemiology, mycoses veterinary, Panama epidemiology, population dynamics, time factors.
Notes: Comment In: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Feb 28;103(9):3011-2.

Lips, K.R., D.E. Green, and R. Papendick (2003). Chytridiomycosis in wild frogs from southern Costa Rica. Journal of Herpetology 37(1): 215-218. ISSN: 0022-1511.
NAL Call Number: QL640.J6
Descriptors: amphibians, diseases, fungal disease, wild frogs, chytridiomycosis, Costa Rica.

Maclean, B. (2006). Common dermatoses of ornamental fish and amphibians. In Practice 28(10): 604-613. ISSN: 0263-841X.
Descriptors: ornamental fish, amphibians, skin diseases, skin lesions, signs, symptoms (animals and humans), animal pathogens, disease diagnosis, clinical examination, medical treatment.

Manskikh, V.N. (2003). Skin tumor in toad (Bufo bufo). Voprosy Onkologii 49(3374-3375) ISSN: 0507-3758.
Descriptors: amphibians, toad, Bufo, tumor, skin, neoplasia.
Language of Text: Russian.

Mazzoni, R., A.A. Cunningham, P. Daszak, A. Apolo, E. Perdomo, and G. Speranza (2003). Emerging pathogen of wild amphibians in frogs (Rana catesbeiana) farmed for international trade. Emerging Infectious Diseases 9(8): 995-998. ISSN: print: 1080-6040; online: 1080-6059.
NAL Call Number: RA648.5.E46
Descriptors: amphibians, frogs, Rana catesbeiana, farmed, international trade, emerging pathogen, chytridiomycosis, infectious disease.

Miller, D.L., S. Rajeev, M.J. Gray, and C.A. Baldwin (2007). Frog virus 3 infection, cultured American bullfrogs. Emerging Infectious Diseases 13(2): 342-343. ISSN: print: 1080-6040; online: 1080-6059.
NAL Call Number: RA648.5.E46
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, virus 3 infection, cultured bullfrogs, diseases, infection.

Monks, D.J., M.S. Carlisle, M. Carrigan, K. Rose, D. Spratt, A. Gallagher, and P. Prociv (2005). Angiostrongylus cantonensis as a cause of cerebrospinal disease in a yellow-tailed black cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus funereus) and two tawny frogmouths (Podargus strigoides). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 19(4): 289-293. ISSN: 1082-6742.
NAL Call Number: SF994.J6
Descriptors: amphibians, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, cockatoo, Calyptorhynchus funereus, tawny frogmouths, Podargus strigoides, cerebrospinal disease, Australia.

Morehouse, E.A., T.Y. James, A.R. Ganley, R. Vilgalys, L. Berger, P.J. Murphy, and J.E. Longcore (2003). Multilocus sequence typing suggests the chytrid pathogen of amphibians is a recently emerged clone. Molecular Ecology 12(2): 395-403. ISSN: 0962-1083.
NAL Call Number: QH540.M64
Abstract: Chytridiomycosis is a recently identified fungal disease associated with global population declines of frogs. Although the fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is considered an emerging pathogen, little is known about its population genetics, including the origin of the current epidemic and how this relates to the dispersal ability of the fungus. In this study, we use multilocus sequence typing to examine genetic diversity and relationships among 35 fungal strains from North America, Africa and Australia. Only five variable nucleotide positions were detected among 10 loci (5918 bp). This low level of genetic variation is consistent with the description of B. dendrobatidis as a recently emerged disease agent. Fixed (i.e. 100%) or nearly fixed frequencies of heterozygous genotypes at two loci suggested that B. dendrobatidis is diploid and primarily reproduces clonally. In contrast to the lack of nucleotide polymorphism, electrophoretic karyotyping of multiple strains demonstrated a number of chromosome length polymorphisms.
Descriptors: amphibians, chytrid pathogen, sequence typing, recently emerged clone, fungal disease, population genetics.

Mutschmann, F. (2004). Pathological changes in African hyperoliid frogs due to a myxosporidian infection with a new species of Hoferellus (Myxozoa). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 60(3): 215-222. ISSN: print: 0177-5103; online: 1616-1580.
Abstract: A proliferous, polycystic and sometimes fatal kidney disease due to an infection with myxosporidia is reported in 24 of 28 hyperoliid frogs (Afrixalus dorsalis, Hyperolius concolor, Hyperolius sp.) from Nigeria, Ghana and Tanzania. In line with pathological changes in fish, the disease is described as 'frog kidney enlargement disease' (FKED). Myxosporidian plasmodia, different developmental stages and spores occurred in the kidney, ureter, and urinary bladder and in the intestine of the frogs. The parasite belongs to the genus Hoferellus and is presented as a new species: H. anurae n. sp. Spores are similar in size and structure to other Hoferellus species in fish but differ by the presence of a more prominent suture line and shorter caudal appendages. This is the first report on a Hoferellus species in amphibians as well as the first report of the genus Hoferellus in African vertebrates.
Descriptors: frogs, pathological changes, infection, myxosporidian, new species, Hoferellus, fatal kidney disease, ureter, urinary bladder, intestine, parasite.

Mylniczenko, N.D. (2006). A medical health survey of diseases in captive caecilian amphibians. Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery 16(4): 120-128. ISSN: 1529-9651.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.R4 B85
Descriptors: amphibians, diseases, survey, captive, fecal examintions, antemortem, postmortem, examination, therapy, antibiotics, treatments, medical care, microbial cultures, septicemia.

Olsen, V., A.D. Hyatt, D.G. Boyle, and D. Mendez (2004). Co-localisation of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and keratin for enhanced diagnosis of chytridiomycosis in frogs. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 61(1-2): 85-88. ISSN: print: 0177-5103; online: 1616-1586.
Abstract: Chytridiomycosis is a disease of post-metamorphic frogs caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and is associated with large declines in frog populations on a global scale. B. dendrobatidis is found only in the keratinised tissues, which include the mouthparts of healthy tadpoles. The epidermis of infected post-metamorphic frogs is thickened (hyperkeratosis) and the superficial layer can sometimes slough. Diagnosis is most commonly performed on stained sections of toe clips or ventral skin. Accurate interpretation can be difficult and requires a high level of expertise, particularly in infected animals exhibiting hyperkeratosis with sloughing. Misdiagnosis can occur when zoosporangia of B. dendrobatidis are shed with the superficial keratin layers. We have developed a staining protocol based on previously described methods to detect both B. dendrobatidis and keratin, to improve the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis of chytridiomycosis by inexperienced diagnosticians.
Descriptors: frogs, anurans, fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, microbiology, chytridiomycota, mycoses, azo compounds, eosine yellowish eyes, immunohistochemistry, keratins, methyl green, mouth pathology.

Pare, J.A. (2003). Fungal diseases of amphibians: an overview. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Exotic Animal Practice 6(2): 315-326. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Descriptors: amphibians, fungal diseases, overview.

Parker, J.M., I. Mikaelian, N. Hahn, and H.E. Diggs (2002). Clinical diagnosis and treatment of epidermal chytridiomycosis in African clawed frogs (Xenopus tropicalis). Comparative Medicine 52(3): 265-268. ISSN: 1532-0820.
NAL Call Number: SF77.C65
Abstract: An investigation was conducted to determine the cause of morbidity and mortality in a collection of 55 adult male Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis at the University of California, Berkeley. More than 80% of affected frogs died during the epizootic. All frogs were anorectic and lethargic, had dark pigmentation and excess skin sloughing, and lacked a slime layer. Histologic examination revealed severe hyperplastic and spongiotic dermatitis associated with colonization of the stratum corneum by large numbers of zoosporangia diagnostic of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Treatment with a commercial formalin/malachite green solution at a dilution of 0.007 ml/L of tank water for 24 h, repeated every other day for four treatments, eliminated the organism and was curative. These findings are indicative of epidermal chytridiomycosis as a primary cause of death in this collection of X. tropicalis.
Descriptors: Xenopus, laboratory animals, mortality, Chytridiales, dermatomycoses, epidemiology, histopathology, case studies, Silurana tropicalis, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

Parris, M.J. and T.O. Cornelius (2004). Fungal pathogen causes competitive and developmental stress in larval amphibian communities. Ecology 85(12): 3385-3395. ISSN: 0012-9658.
Descriptors: Bufo, Hyla, frogs, animal pathogenic fungi, mycoses, animal development, interspecific competition, mortality, Bratrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

Pasmans, F., P. Zwart, and A.D. Hyatt (2004). Chytridiomycosis in the Central American bolitoglossine salamander (Bolitoglossa dofleini). Veterinary Record 154(5): 153. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: salamander, Bolitoglossa dofleini, disease, chytridiomycosis, fungus.

Pearl, C.A., E.L. Bull, D.E. Green, J. Bowerman, M.J. Adams, A. Hyatt, and W.H. Wente (2007). Occurrence of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in the Pacific northwest. Journal of Herpetology 41(1): 145-149. ISSN: 0022-1511.
NAL Call Number: QL640.J6
Descriptors: amphibians, chytridiomycosis, fungal disease, infectious disease, Pacific nothwest, occurrence, pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

Pereira, C.N., I. Di Rosa, A. Fagotti, F. Simoncelli, R. Pascolini, and L. Mendoza (2005). The pathogen of frogs Amphibiocystidium ranae is a member of the order Dermocystida in the class Mesomycetozoea. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 43(1): 192-198. ISSN: 0095-1137.
NAL Call Number: QR46.J6
Abstract: The pathogen of frogs Amphibiocystidium ranae was recently described as a new genus. Due to its spherical shape, containing hundred of endospores, it was thought to be closely related to the pathogens of fish, mammals, and birds known as Dermocystidium spp., Rhinosporidium seeberi, and Sphaerothecum destruens in the Mesomycetozoea, but further studies were not conducted to confirm this relationship. To investigate its phylogenetic affinities, total genomic DNA was extracted from samples collected from infected frogs containing multiple cysts (sporangia) and endospores. The universal primers NS1 and NS8, used to amplify the 18S small-subunit rRNA by PCR, yielded [approximately]1,770-bp amplicons. Sequencing and basic local alignment search tool analyses indicated that the 18S small-subunit rRNA of A. ranae from both Rana esculenta and Rana lessonae was closely related to all of the above organisms. Our phylogenetic analysis placed this pathogen of frogs as the sister group to the genus Dermocystidium and closely related to RHINOSPORIDIUM: These data strongly supported the placement of the genus Amphibiocystidium within the mesomycetozoeans, which is in agreement with the phenotypic features that A. ranae shares with the other members of this class. Interestingly, during this study Dermocystidium percae did not group within the Dermocystidium spp. from fish; rather, it was found to be the sister group to Sphaerothecum destruens. This finding suggests that D. percae could well be a member of the genus Sphaerothecum or perhaps represents a new genus.
Descriptors: amphibians, frogs, Amphibiocystidium ranae, pathogens, endospores, Mesomycetozoea, Sphaerothecum.

Pessier, A.P. (2007). Cytologic diagnosis of disease in amphibians. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Exotic Animal Practice 10(1): 187-206. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Abstract: Cytology is an inexpensive yet powerful diagnostic tool that allows for rapid diagnosis of many common disease conditions in amphibian patients. Although the emphasis of this article is on infectious diseases, there is great potential for application of cytologic diagnosis to variety of medical conditions as the knowledge base in amphibian medicine and pathology continues to grow. Routine methods used that may fall under the umbrella of cytology range from wet mount examination of skin scrapings (or gill biopsies of larvae) to examination of stained impression smears. Routine Romanowsky's-type stains work well for amphibian samples. Preparation of multiple smears is always recommended to allow for use of special staining procedures.
Descriptors: amphibians, parasitology, cytodiagnosis, veterinary, skin diseases, animal diseases, pathology, body fluids, cytology, microbiology, parasitology.

Pessier, A.P. (2002). An overview of amphibian skin disease. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine 11(3): 162-174. ISSN: 1055-937X.
NAL Call Number: SF994.2.A1S36
Descriptors: amphibians, skin diseases, overview, parasites.

Pfleger, S., G. Benyr, R. Sommer, and A. Hassl (2003). Pattern of Salmonella excretion in amphibians and reptiles in a vivarium. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 206(1): 53-59. ISSN: 1438-4639.
Abstract: During a period of about three years the faeces of five species of amphibians (35 individuals) and of 23 species of reptiles (103 individuals) living in one vivarium with terrariums imitating different types of ecosystems were examined for Salmonellae. From 54 out of 376 faecal samples Salmonella spp. was isolated (= 14%). Twenty-one different Salmonella strains were found. Salmonellae could be isolated about twice as often from animals kept under arid or mesic conditions than from animals living in humid or aquatic environments although this was not statistically significant. Statistically significant for the rate of Salmonella excretion was the animals' diet and the class the animals are belonging to. Animals feeding on mice (p = 0.04) and reptiles in general (p = 0.04) were more commonly excreting Salmonella. Duration of stay was also a significant factor (p = 0.0005), whereby the relative risk for Salmonella excretion increased with the factor 2.91 per year during the investigation period. Salmonella strains were not necessarily transferred among animals living in the same terrarium or among the inhabitants of different terrariums. The pattern of Salmonella excretion was generally fragmentary. The outsides as well as the insides of the walls of the terrariums were also tested for salmonellae several times, but Salmonellae have never been isolated.
Descriptors: amphibians, reptiles, Salmonella, excretion, pattern, vivarium, terrariums, ecosystems, fecal samples.

Piotrowski, J.S., S.L. Annis, and J.E. Longcore (2004). Physiology of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a chytrid pathogen of amphibians. Mycologia 96(1): 9-15. ISSN: 0027-5514.
NAL Call Number: 450 M99
Descriptors: Chytridiomycetes, animal pathogenic fungi, zoospores, proteinases, fungal proteins, protein synthesis, temperature, pH, culture media, Amphibia, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

Rachowicz, L.J., R.A. Knapp, J.A.T. Morgan, M.J. Stice, V.T. Vredenburg, J.M. Parker, and C.J. Briggs (2006). Emerging infectious disease as a proximate cause of amphibian mass mortality. Ecology 87(7): 1671-1683. ISSN: 0012-9658.
Descriptors: mycoses, frogs, Rana muscosa, disease incidence, disease prevalence, population size, mortality, field experimentation, chytridiomycosis, Batrachytrium dendrobatidis, population loss, Sierra Nevada, California.

Rachowicz, L.J. and V.T. Vredenburg (2004). Transmission of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis within and between amphibian life stages. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 61(1-2): 75-83. ISSN: print: 0177-5103; online: 1616-1586.
Abstract: Chytridiomycosis is an emerging infectious disease caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which has been implicated in amphibian declines worldwide. The mountain yellow-legged frog Rana muscosa is a declining amphibian species that can be infected by B. dendrobatidis; however, transmission between conspecifics has not been documented. Here, we present experimental evidence that R. muscosa tadpoles can be infected by fungal zoospores and that they can transmit infection to each other and to postmetamorphic animals. We compared several techniques for detecting B. dendrobatidis transmission and found that histology with serial sectioning was able to detect infection before cytology or visual inspections. We also show that R. muscosa tadpoles appear healthy with B. dendrobatidis infection, while postmetamorphic animals experience mortality. In addition, we provide guidelines for visually detecting B. dendrobatidis in R. muscosa tadpoles, which may be useful in other affected species. Field surveys of infected and uninfected populations verify this identification technique.
Descriptors: amphibians, Rana mucosa, chytridiomycosis, transmission, life stages, fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, tadpoles, infected, zoospores, detecting infection, icentification technique.

Raffel, T.R., J.R. Rohr, J.M. Kiesecker, and P.J. Hudson (2006). Negative effects of changing temperature on amphibian immunity under field conditions. Functional Ecology 20(5): 819-828. ISSN: 0269-8463.
NAL Call Number: QH540.F85
Descriptors: amphibians, immunity, changing temperature, negative effects, field conditions, seasonal acclimation, increased susceptibility.

Raffel, T.R., J.R. Dillard, and P.J. Hudson (2006). Field evidence for leech-borne transmission of amphibian Ichthyophonus sp. Journal of Parasitology 92(6): 1256-1264. ISSN: 0022-3395.
Descriptors: amphibians, infection, Ichthyophonus infection, leech borne, fungal disease, transmission.

Robinson, J., R.A. Griffiths, and P. Jeffries (2003). Susceptibility of frog (Rana temporaria) and toad (Bufo bufo) eggs to invasion by saprolegnia. Amphibia Reptilia 24(3): 261-268. ISSN: 0173-5373.
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, Rana temporaria, toad, Bufo bufo, invasion, infection, saprolegnia, susceptibility, zoospores, eggs.

Rojas, S., K. Richards, J.K. Jancovich, and E.W. Davidson (2005). Influence of temperature on Ranavirus infection in larval salamanders Ambystoma tigrinum. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 63(2/3): 95-100. ISSN: print: 0177-5103; online: 1616-1580.
Descriptors: amphibians, salamanders, Ambystoma tigrinum, ranavirus infection, larval, water temperature, influence, mortality.

Rollins Smith, L.A. and J.M. Conlon (2005). Antimicrobial peptide defenses against chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease of amphibian populations. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 29(7): 589-598. ISSN: 0145-305X.
Descriptors: amphibians, antimicrobial peptides, defences, chytridiomycosis, skin, frogs, toads, fungus, Batrachohytrium dendrobatidis, infectious disease.

Rollins Smith, L.A., C. Carey, J. Longcore, J.K. Doersam, A. Boutte, J.E. Bruzgal, and J.M. Conlon (2002). Activity of antimicrobial skin peptides from ranid frogs against Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the chytrid fungus associated with global amphibian declines. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 26(5): 471-479. ISSN: 0145-305X.
Descriptors: amphibians, Rana, proteins, antimicrobial peptides, skin, fungal diseases, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, antimicrobial skin peptides effect on fungus, immune response.

Romansic, J.M., K.A. Diez, E.M. Higashi, and A.R. Blaustein (2006). Effects of nitrate and the pathogenic water mold Saprolegnia on survival of amphibian larvae. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 68(3): 235-243. ISSN: 0177-5103.
Descriptors: amphibian larvae, nitrate, pathogenic water, mold, Saprolegnia, effects, survival.

Ruthig, G.R. (2003). The influence of infectious disease on amphibian egg-laying behavior. Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting Abstracts 88: 293. ISSN: 0012-9623.
Descriptors: amphibians, egg laying behavior, infectious disease, influence, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: 88th Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of America held jointly with the International Society for Ecological Modeling - North American Chapter, Savannah, Georgia, USA; August 03-08, 2003.

Schumacher, J. (2006). Selected infectious diseases of wild reptiles and amphibians. Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine 15(1): 18-24. ISSN: 1557-5063.
NAL Call Number: SF994.2.A1 S36
Descriptors: amphibians, reptiles, bacterial diseases, susceptibility, captive animals, wild population, fungal diseases, viral diseases.

Stacy, B.A. and J.M. Parker (2004). Amphibian Oncology. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Exotic Animal Practice 7(3): 673-695. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Abstract: Spontaneous neoplasia is rare in all three orders of Amphibia.Tumors are documented in most major organ systems, and some have various underlying etiologies, including viral infection, environmental contaminants, and genetic predisposition. Currently,treatment options are limited to removal of the predisposing condition(s), palliative care, surgical excision, and, when necessary,humane euthanasia may be elected. Neoplasia must be distinguished from common infectious, nonneoplastic conditions that can negatively impact population health. This article is a review of the more common types of neoplasia in amphibians, and includes clinically relevant information, such as biologic behavior,anatomy, associated etiologies, major differential diagnoses, and clinical management.
Descriptors: amphibians, neoplasia, tumors, differential diagnosis, viral infection, anatomy, clinical management, surgical excision, palliative care.

Tanteidan, K. (2007). A handbook of amphibian chytrid fungus disease in the field. Bulletin of the Herpetological Society of Japan(1): 43-46. ISSN: 1345-5826.
Descriptors: amphibians, diseases, fungus disease, field, chytrid fungus disease, handbook.
Language of Text: Japanese.

Trott, K.A., B.A. Stacy, B.D. Lifland, H.E. Diggs, R.M. Harland, M.K. Khokha, T.C. Grammer, and J.M. Parker (2004). Characterization of a Mycobacterium ulcerans-like infection in a colony of African tropical clawed frogs (Xenopus tropicalis). Comparative Medicine 54(3): 309-317. ISSN: 1532-0820.
NAL Call Number: SF77.C65
Abstract: A nontuberculous Mycobacterium ulcerans-like organism was identified as the causative agent of an epizootic of mycobacteriosis in a colony of African tropical clawed frogs, Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis, at the University of California, Berkeley. Diverse clinical signs of disease were observed, including lethargy, excess buoyancy, coelomic effusion, cutaneous ulcers, and granulomas. Visceral granulomas, ulcerative and granulomatous dermatitis, coelomitis, and septicemia were common findings at necropsy. Identification of M. ulcerans-like organisms was based on molecular and phenotypical characteristics. The findings of this investigation indicate that this M. ulcerans-like organism is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in aquatic anurans and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of coelomic effusion in amphibians. Furthermore, if this Mycobacterium species ultimately is identified as M. ulcerans, X. tropicalis should be considered a potential source of this important public health pathogen.
Descriptors: amphibians, African tropicalclawed frogs, mycobacterium infections, atypical diagnosis, Mycobacterium ulcerans genetics, isolation, purification, Xenopus microbiology, liver microbiology, pathology, atypical pathology, differential diagnosis.

Webb, R., D. Mendez, L. Berger, and R. Speare (2007). Additional disinfectants effective against the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 74(1): 13-16. ISSN: print: 0177-5103; online: 1616-1580.
Abstract: Chytridiomycosis, a disease contributing to amphibian declines worldwide, is caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Identifying efficient and practical disinfectants effective against B. dendrobatidis is important to reduce the spread of the disease both in the wild and captivity. Previous studies identified a range of suitable disinfectant strategies. We evaluated the suitability of 3 additional disinfectants: two of these (TriGene Virucidal Disinfectant Cleaner and F10 Super Concentrate Disinfectant) are mixtures of chemicals and one (Betadine Antiseptic Liquid) contains a single active ingredient, povidone iodine. The disinfectants were tested using a range of concentrations for 1,5 and 10 min to determine their ability to kill B. dendrobatidis in vitro. The measure of effectiveness was 100% kill of zoosporangia grown in multiwell plates. All disinfectants had a 100% efficacy at concentrations recommended by the manufacturers. The lowest concentrations capable of 100% kill after exposure for 1 min were 0.1 ml l(-1) for TriGene, 0.33 ml l(-1) for F10 and 100 ml l(-1) for Betadine. TriGene is the most effective disinfectant yet to be found, and both TriGene and F10 are more effective than various disinfectants tested in previous studies. TriGene and F10 are considered suitable for use in the field, as only small amounts of concentrate are needed.
Descriptors: decline of amphibians, chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, effective disinfectants, chytridomycosis, disinfectant strategies, reduce spread, kill of zoosporangia, lowest concentrations, TriGene most effective.

Weldon, C., L.H. du Preez, A.D. Hyatt, R. Muller, and R. Spears (2004). Origin of the amphibian chytrid fungus. Emerging Infectious Diseases 10(12): 2100-2105. ISSN: print: 1080-6040; online: 1080-6059.
NAL Call Number: RA648.5.E46
Abstract: The sudden appearance of chytridiomycosis, the cause of amphibian deaths and population declines in several continents, suggests that its etiologic agent, the amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, was introduced into the affected regions. However, the origin of this virulent pathogen is unknown. A survey was conducted of 697 archived specimens of 3 species of Xenopus collected from 1879 to 1999 in southern Africa in which the histologic features of the interdigital webbing were analyzed. The earliest case of chytridiomycosis found was in a Xenopus laevis frog in 1938, and overall prevalence was 2.7%. The prevalence showed no significant differences between species, regions, season, or time period. Chytridiomycosis was a stable endemic infection in southern Africa for 23 years before any positive specimen was found outside Africa. We propose that Africa is the origin of the amphibian chytrid and that the international trade in X. laevis that began in the mid-1930s was the means of dissemination.
Descriptors: amphibian, Xenopus laevis, chytrid fungus, chytridiomycosis, virulent pathogen, international trade, dissemination, southern Africa.

Weldon, C. and L.H. Du Preez (2006). Quantitative measurement of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in amphibian skin. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 72(2): 153-161. ISSN: 0177-5103.
Descriptors: amphibians, disease, skin, Batrachytrium dendrobatidis, quantitative measurement, pathological research, skin sloughs, examination.

Weng, S.P., J.G. He, X.H. Wang, L. Lu, M. Deng, and S.M. Chan (2002). Outbreaks of an iridovirus disease in cultured tiger frog, Rana tigrina rugulosa, in southern China. Journal of Fish Diseases 25(7): 423-427. ISSN: 0140-7775.
NAL Call Number: SH171.A1J68
Descriptors: amphibians, cultured tiger frog, Rana tigina rugulosa, indovirus disease, outbreak, China .

Woodhams, D.C., J. Voyles, K.R. Lips, C. Carey, and L.A. Rollins Smith (2006). Predicted disease susceptibility in a Panamanian amphibian assemblage based on skin peptide defenses. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 42(2): 207-218. ISSN: 0090-3558.
NAL Call Number: 41.9 W64B
Abstract: Chytridiomycosis is an emerging infectious disease of amphibians caused by a chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. This panzootic does not equally affect all amphibian species within an assemblage; some populations decline, others persist. Little is known about the factors that affect disease resistance. Differences in behavior, life history, biogeography, or immune function may impact survival. We found that an innate immune defense, antimicrobial skin peptides, varied significantly among species within a rainforest stream amphibian assemblage that has not been exposed to B. dendrobatidis. If exposed, all amphibian species at this central Panamanian site are at risk of population declines. In vitro pathogen growth inhibition by peptides from Panamanian species compared with species with known resistance (Rana pipiens and Xenopus laevis) or susceptibility (Bufo boreas) suggests that of the nine species examined, two species (Centrolene prosoblepon and Phyllomedusa lemur) may demonstrate strong resistance, and the other species will have a higher risk of disease-associated population declines. We found little variation among geographically distinct B. dendrobatidis isolates in sensitivity to an amphibian skin peptide mixture. This supports the hypothesis that B. dendrobatidis is a generalist pathogen and that species possessing an innate immunologic defense at the time of disease emergence are more likely to survive.
Descriptors: Bufo boreas, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, amphibians, antimicrobial cationic peptides, chytridiomycota pathogenicity, disease susceptibility, mycoses, wild animals, emerging communicable diseases, conservation of natural resources, predictive value of tests, species specificity, mass spectrometry, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization, survival rate.

Woodhams, D.C., R.A. Alford, and G. Marantelli (2003). Emerging disease of amphibians cured by elevated body temperature. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 55(1): 65-67. ISSN: 0177-5103.
Descriptors: amphibians, emerging diseases, cured, elevated body temperature.

Wright, K. (2003). Cholesterol, corneal lipidosis, and xanthomatosis in amphibians. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Exotic Animal Practice 6(1): 155-167. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Abstract: Many captive amphibians have high serum or plasma cholesterol and concomittant lesions such as corneal lipidosis and xanthomas. The underlying cause of this disorder is unknown, but it is likely that a diet high in cholesterol plays a role. The metabolism of lipids in healthy amphibians remains poorly documented, which makes it challenging to interpret the findings in affected specimens. Affected amphibians should be maintained on a low-cholesterol diet and fed sparingly, and their captive environment modified to provide an optimal temperature gradient for thermoregulation.
Descriptors: amphibians, corneal lipidosis, xanthomatosis, cholesterol, captive, diet, low cholesterol, thermoreglation.

Xie Jian, Li Zheng Qiu, Zhang Qi Ya, and Li Wen Xin (2002). Detection of Rana grylio virus (rgv) in host frog tissues by using immunohistochemistry assay. Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica 26(5): 438-443. ISSN: 1000-3207.
NAL Call Number: QH540
Descriptors: amphibians, frogs, Rana grylio virus, infection, detection, frog tissues, immunohistochemistry assay, heart, lung, spleen, liver, RGV.
Language of Text: Chinese.

Yu, Y.H., S.C. Zhang, Y.J. Zhao, J. Shi, L.H. Yu, and Q.F. Lu (2006). Chytridiomycosis and amphibian population declines. Chinese Journal of Zoology 41(3): 118-122. ISSN: 0250-3263.
Descriptors: amphibians, population declines, fungal disease, Chytridiomycosis, characteristics, literature review.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in Chinese and English.



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