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Information Resources on Amphibians & Reptiles
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Acevedo, M.A. and L.J. Villanueva Rivera (2006). Using automated digital recording systems as effective tools for the monitoring of birds and amphibians. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34(1): 211-214. ISSN: 0091-7648.
NAL Call Number: SK357.A1W5
Descriptors: amphibians, birds, conservation measures, automated digital recording systems, monitoring.

Andia, B.N. and H.N. Behera (2005). Life span, sexual maturity and age determination of Indian bull frog, Rana tigrina using skeletochronology. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B Biological Sciences 75(4): 261-270. ISSN: 0369-8211.
NAL Call Number: Q73.N311
Descriptors: bullfrog, Rana tigrina, age determination, sexual maturity, life span, skeletochronology.

Anonymous (2003). Interesting reptiles and amphibians. CCA Ecological Journal 5: 64.
Descriptors: amphibians, reptiles, South Africa.

Baier, J. (2006). Guidelines for euthanasia of nondomestic animals. In: C.K. Baer Amphibians, American Association of Zoo Veterinarians: Lawrence, USA, p. 39-41. ISBN: 0689707266.
Descriptors: animal welfare, drugs, euthanasia, guidelines, methodology, techniques, nondomestic animals, zoo animals, amphibians, book chapter.

Blaustein, A.R., A.C. Hatch, L.K. Belden, E. Scheessele and J.M. Kiesecker (2003). Global change. Challenges facing amphibians. In: R.D. Semlitsch (Editor), Amphibian Conservation., Smithsonian Books: Washington, DC, p. 187-198. ISBN: 1588341194.
NAL Call Number: QL644.7 .A47 2003
Descriptors: amphibian declines, global populations, environmental changes.

Broquet, T., L. Berset Braendli, G. Emaresi, and L. Fumagalli (2007). Buccal swabs allow efficient and reliable microsatellite genotyping in amphibians. Conservation Genetics 8(2): 509-511. ISSN: 1566-0621.
Descriptors: amphibians, buccal swabs, microsatellite genotyping, efficient, reliable.

Buchanan, B.W. (2006). Observed and potential effects of artificial night lighting on anuran amphibians. In: C. Rich and T. Longcore (Editors), Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting., Island Press: Washington, DC, p. 192-200. ISBN: 1559631287.
NAL Call Number: QH545.E98 E26 2006
Descriptors: amphibians, anurans, exterior lighting, environmental aspects, artificial night lighting, observed and potential effects.

Busack, S.D. (2006). Discoglossus pictus (painted frog). Herpetological Review 37(1): 99. ISSN: 0018-084X.
NAL Call Number: QL640.H47
Descriptors: painted frog, Discoglossus pictus, Tunisia.

Calzolai, L., D.A. Lysek, D.R. Perez, P. Guntert, and K. Wuthrich (2005). Prion protein NMR structures of chickens, turtles, and frogs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102(3): 651-655. ISSN: print: 0027-8424; online: 1091-6490.
NAL Call Number: 500 N21P
Abstract: The NMR structures of the recombinant prion proteins from chicken (Gallus gallus; chPrP), the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta; tPrP), and the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis; xlPrP) are presented. The amino acid sequences of these prion proteins show approximately 30% identity with mammalian prion proteins. All three species form the same molecular architecture as mammalian PrP(C), with a long, flexibly disordered tail attached to the N-terminal end of a globular domain. The globular domain in chPrP and tPrP contains three alpha-helices, one short 3(10)-helix, and a short antiparallel beta-sheet. In xlPrP, the globular domain includes three alpha-helices and a somewhat longer beta-sheet than in the other species. The spatial arrangement of these regular secondary structures coincides closely with that of the globular domain in mammalian prion proteins. Based on the low sequence identity to mammalian PrPs, comparison of chPrP, tPrP, and xlPrP with mammalian PrP(C) structures is used to identify a set of essential amino acid positions for the preservation of the same PrP(C) fold in birds, reptiles, amphibians, and mammals. There are additional conserved residues without apparent structural roles, which are of interest for the ongoing search for physiological functions of PrP(C) in healthy organisms.
Descriptors: prions, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, chickens, Trachemys scripta, turtles, Xenopus laevis, frogs, amino acid sequences, protein secondary structure.

Caramaschi, U., R.O. De Sa, and W.R. Heyer (2005). Common names for the frog genus Leptodactylus (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae). Herpetological Review 36(2): 119-120. ISSN: 0018-084X.
NAL Call Number: QL640.H47
Descriptors: frog genus, Leptodactylus, vernacular names, common name use, proposal.

Casas Andreu, G., F.R. Mendez de la Cruz and X. Aguilar Miguel (2004). Anfibios y reptiles. [Amphibians and reptiles.]. In: A.J. Garcia-Mendoza, M.d.J. Ordonez and M. Briones-Salas (Editors), Biodiversidad De Oaxaca. [Biodiversity of Oaxaca.], Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico: Mexico, p. 375-390. ISBN: 9703220452.
Descriptors: amphibians, reptiles, biological conservation.
Language of Text: Spanish; Summary in English and Spanish.

Channing, A., D.C. Moyer, and A. Dawood (2004). A new sand frog from central tanzania (Anura: Ranidae: Tomopterna). African Journal of Herpetology 53(1): 21-28. ISSN: 0441-6651.
Descriptors: amphibians, new sand frog, genus Tomopterna, advertisement call, color pattern, morphology, differences, Tanzania.

Chinathamby, K., R.D. Reina, P.C.E. Bailey, and B.K. Lees (2006). Effects of salinity on the survival, growth and development of tadpoles of the brown tree frog, Litoria ewingii. Australian Journal of Zoology 54(2): 97-105. ISSN: 0004-959X.
NAL Call Number: 410 Au73
Descriptors: amphibians, brown tree frog, Litoria ewingii, salinity, effect, growth, development, tadpoles, survival.

Conlon, J.M. (2004). The therapeutic potential of antimicrobial peptides from frog skin. Reviews in Medical Microbiology 15(1): 17-25. ISSN: 0954-139X.
Descriptors: amphibians, Xenopus laevis, African clawed frog, frog skin, antimicrobial peptides, therapeutic potential.

Crother, B.I., J. Boundy, J.A. Campbell, K. De Quieroz, D. Frost, D.M. Green, R. Highton, J.B. Iverson, R.W. McDiarmid, P.A. Meylan, T.W. Reeder, M.E. Seidel, J.W.J. Sites, S.G. Tilley, and D.B. Wake (2003). Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico: update. Herpetological Review 34(3): 196-203. ISSN: 0018-084X.
NAL Call Number: QL640.H47
Descriptors: amphibians, reptiles, Mexico, scientific and English names, North America.

Davis, J.G. and N.A. Fath (2006). Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum (eastern tiger salamander). Herpetological Review 37(2): 236. ISSN: 0018-084X.
NAL Call Number: QL640.H47
Descriptors: eastern tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum, description.

Davit Beal, T., H. Chisaka, S. Delgado, and J.Y. Sire (2007). Amphibian teeth: current knowledge, unanswered questions, and some directions for future research. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 82(1): 49-81. ISSN: print: 1464-7931; online: 1469-185X.
Abstract: Elucidation of the mechanisms controlling early development and organogenesis is currently progressing in several model species and a new field of research, evolutionary developmental biology, which integrates developmental and comparative approaches, has emerged. Although the expression pattern of many genes during tooth development in mammals is known, data on other lineages are virtually non-existent. Comparison of tooth development, and particularly of gene expression (and function) during tooth morphogenesis and differentiation, in representative species of various vertebrate lineages is a prerequisite to understand what makes one tooth different from another. Amphibians appear to be good candidates for such research for several reasons: tooth structure is similar to that in mammals, teeth are renewed continuously during life (=polyphyodonty), some species are easy to breed in the laboratory, and a large amount of morphological data are already available on diverse aspects of tooth biology in various species. The aim of this review is to evaluate current knowledge on amphibian teeth, principally concerning tooth development and replacement (including resorption), and changes in morphology and structure during ontogeny and metamorphosis. Throughout this review we highlight important questions which remain to be answered and that could be addressed using comparative morphological studies and molecular techniques. We illustrate several aspects of amphibian tooth biology using data obtained for the caudate Pleurodeles waltl. This salamander has been used extensively in experimental embryology research during the past century and appears to be one of the most favourable amphibian species to use as a model in studies of tooth development.
Descriptors: amphibia, salamander, anatomy, histology, tooth physiology, teeth, current knowledge, development, morphogenesis, animal model.

de Silva, A. (2004). Some field techniques and sampling methods for amphibians. Frog Leg 11: 6-8. ISSN: print: 0971-6378; online: 0973-2551.
Descriptors: amphibians, field techniques, sampling methods.

Dolan, C.R., J.T. Lamer, and J.K. Tucker (2006). Rana sphenocephala (southern leopard frog). Herpetological Review 37(1): 102. ISSN: 0018-084X.
NAL Call Number: QL640.H47
Descriptors: Rana sphenocephala, southern leopard frog, amphibian, description, USA.

Douglas, R. (2002). The semantics of resting states in reptiles and amphibians. African Herp News 34: 4-8. ISSN: 1017-6187.
Descriptors: amphibians, reptiles, whole animal physiology, concepts, definitions, terminology of resting states, review, discussion.

Duffey, E. (2004). Frogs, toads and Dolomedes species. British Arachnological Society Newsletter 101: 3-4. ISSN: 0959-2261.
Descriptors: frogs, toads, Dolomedes species, amphibians.

Ewert, J.P. (2004). Motion perception shapes the visual world of amphibians. In: F.R. Prete (Editor), Complex Worlds From Simpler Nervous Systems., MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, p. 117-160. ISBN: 0262162237.
NAL Call Number: QL785 .C545 2004
Descriptors: amphibians, shapes, visual world, motion perception, learning in animals.

Fidenci, P. (2006). Barbourula busuangensis (Philippine discoglossid frog). Herpetological Review 37(1): 98. ISSN: 0018-084X.
NAL Call Number: QL640.H47
Descriptors: discoglossid frog, Barbourula busuangensis, Philippines.

Fodor, A. and M. Puky (2002). Herpetological methods: II. Protocol for monitoring amphibian deformities under temperate zone conditions. Opuscula Zoologica Budapest 34: 35-42. ISSN: 0237-5419.
Descriptors: amphibians, amphibian deformities, protocol for monitoring, temperate zone conditions, herpetological methods.

Gibson, J.D. and M. Cramer (2006). Rana sylvatica (wood frog). Catesbeiana 26(1): 21-22. ISSN: 0892-0761.
Descriptors: wood frog, Rana sylvatica, breeding, behavior.

Glaw, F. and M. Vences (2003). Introduction to Amphibians. In: S.M.B.J.P. Goodman (Editors), The Natural History of Madagascar., University of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL, p. 883-933. ISBN: 0226303063.
NAL Call Number: QH195.M2 N38 2003
Descriptors: amphibians, natural history, Madagascar.

Glorioso, B.M. and M.L. Niemiller (2006). Bufo americanus americanus (Eastern American toad). Herpetological Review 37(1): 98. ISSN: 0018-084X.
NAL Call Number: QL640.H47
Descriptors: Eastern American toad, Bufo americanus americanus, amphibian.

Glorioso, B.M., E.L. Young, and M.L. Niemiller (2006). Ambystoma talpoideum (mole salamander). Herpetological Review 37(1): 97. ISSN: 0018-084X.
NAL Call Number: QL640.H47
Descriptors: mole salamander, Ambystoma talpoideum, amphibians.

Goldberg, C.S., M.E. Kaplan, and C.R. Schwalbe (2003). From the frog's mouth: buccal swabs from collection of DNA from amphibians. Herpetological Review 34(3): 220-221. ISSN: 0018-084X.
NAL Call Number: QL640.H47
Descriptors: frogs, mouth, buccal swabs, DNA collection, amphibians, method.

Goodman, G. (2003). Oral biology and conditions of amphibians. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Exotic Animal Practice 6(3): 467-475. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Descriptors: amphibians, oral biology, conditions, diseases, tongue, mouth.

Gower, D.J. and M. Wilkinson (2005). Conservation biology of caecilian amphibians. Conservation Biology 19(1): 45-55. ISSN: 0888-8892.
NAL Call Number: QH75.A1C5
Descriptors: amphibians, caecilian amphibians, frogs, salamanders, conservation biology.
Language of Text: Spanish.

Grace, M.S. and S. McMahon (2004). Circadian rhythms in reptiles and amphibians. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians 11: 77-84. ISSN: 1529-9651.
NAL Call Number: SF996.A77
Descriptors: amphibians, reptiles, circadian rhythms, conference proceedings.

Gridi Papp, M., A.S. Rand, and M.J. Ryan (2006). Animal communication: Complex call production in the tungara frog. Nature 441(7089): 38. ISSN: print: 0028-0836; online: 1476-4687.
NAL Call Number: 472 N21
Descriptors: tungara frog, complex call production, animal communication, anatomy.

Halliday, T.A.K. (Editors) (2002). The New Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians., Oxford University Press: Oxford, 240 p. ISBN: 0198525079.
Descriptors: amphibians, reptiles, encyclopedia.

Harshbarger, J.C. (2004). Chronology of oncolygy in fish, amphibians and invertebrates. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 24(1): 62-84. ISSN: 0108-0288.
Descriptors: amphibians, fish, invertebrates, oncology, models, sentinals, poikilothermic vertebrates, bioassy subjects, neoplasms.

Hasegawa, M., Y. Suzuki, and S. Wada (2005). Design and performance of a wet sponge model for amphibian thermal biology. Current Herpetology 24(1): 27-32. ISSN: 1345-5834.
Descriptors: amphibians, wet sponge model for amphibian thermal biology, temperature, thermal biology.

Hassl, A. and G. Benyr (2003). Hygienic evaluation of terraria inhabited by amphibians and reptiles: Cryptosporidia, free-living amebas, Salmonella. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift 115(Suppl.3): 68-71. ISSN: 0043-5325.
Descriptors: amphibians, reptiles, hygenic evaluation, Cryptosporidia, amebas, Salmonella, pets, disease transmission, vivarium, infectious diseases.
Language of Text: German.
Notes: Meeting Information: Vortrage der 36. jahrestagung der Osterreichischen Gesellschaft fur Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie.

Anonymous (2005). Amphibian biology: Endocrinology. Amphibian Biology 6: 2021-2405. Descriptors: amphibian, biology, endocrinology, review.
Notes: Special issue on endocrinology, edited by Harold Heatwole. Papers indexed separately.

Ishii, Y., S. Asakawa, Y. Taguchi, S. Ishibashi, T. Yagi, and N. Shimizu (2004). Construction of BAC library for the amphibian Xenopus tropicalis. Genes and Genetic Systems 79(1): 49-51. ISSN: 1341-7568.
Descriptors: amphibians, Xenopus tropicalis, BAC library, construction, model, genomic studies.

Jehle, R. and J.W. Arntzen (2002). Microsatellite makers in amphibian conservation genetics. Herpetological Journal 12(1): 1-9. ISSN: 0268-0130.
Descriptors: amphibians, conservation, literature review, genetic techniques, microsatellite markers use in conservation genetics, nucleic acids, genetics, molecular genetics, review.

Johnson, P.T. (2006). Amphibian diversity: decimation by disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103(9): 3011-3012. ISSN: print: 0027-8424; online: 1091-6490.
NAL Call Number: 500 N21P
Descriptors: amphibia, animal diseases epidemiology, biodiversity, communicable diseases veterinary, communicable diseases epidemiology.
Notes: Comment On: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Feb 28;103(9):3165-70.

Johnson, P.T.J. and K.B. Lunde (2005). Parasite infection and limb malformations: A growing problem in amphibian conservation. In: M.J. Lannoo (Editor), Amphibian Declines: The Conservation Status of United States Species., University of California Press.: Berkeley, CA, p. 124-138. ISBN: 0520235924.
NAL Call Number: QL644.7 .A48 2005
Descriptors: amphibians, limbs, parasites, limb malformations, diseases, amphibian declines.

Johnson, P.T.J., E.R. Preu, D.R. Sutherland, J.M. Romansic, B. Han, and A.R. Blaustein (2006). Adding infection to injury: synergistic effects of predation and parasitism on amphibian malformations. Ecology 87(9): 2227-2235. ISSN: 0012-9658.
Descriptors: amphibians, malformations, trematode infection, parasitic disease, infectious disease, predation, synergistic effect, parasitism.

Kamble, S.S. (2005). Amphibians. In: A. Mahabal (EDitor), Fauna of Melghat Tiger Reserve, Conservation Area Series, Zoological Survey of India: Kolkata, p. 223-230. ISBN: 8181710800.
Descriptors: amphibians, conservation area, zoological survey, checklists, Melghat Tiger Reserve, India.

Kaminsky, S.K., T.U. Grafe, M. Spieler, and K.E. Linsenmair (2004). A new method for immobilizing fossorial frogs after radiotransmitter implantation and notes on movement patterns of the pig-nosed frog, Hemisus marmoratus. Herpetological Review 35(2): 146-148. ISSN: 0018-084X.
NAL Call Number: QL640.H47
Descriptors: pig nosed frog, Hemisus marmoratus, restraining techniques, immobilization, radiotransmitter implantation, movement patterns.

Kawakami, S., K. Kashiwagi, N. Furuno, M. Yamashita, and A. Kashiwagi (2006). Effects of hypergravity environments on amphibian development, gene expression and apoptosis. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A Molecular and Integrative Physiology 145(1): 65-72. ISSN: 1095-6433.
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, Xenopus laevis, hypergravity environments, effects, development, gene expression, apoptosis, brain, eyes.

Kawakami, S., K. Kashiwagi, A. Kashiwagi, N. Furuno, Y. Gotoh, M. Yamashita, and Y. Tanimoto (2005). Effect of a high magnetic field on amphibians. Zoological Science 22(12): 1473. ISSN: 0289-0003.
NAL Call Number: QL1.Z68
Descriptors: amphibians, high magnetic field, effect, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: 76th Annual Meeting of the Zoological Society of Japan, Tsukuba, Japan; October 06 -08, 2005.

Kawamura, K., T. Kouki, G. Kawahara, and S. Kikuyama (2002). Hypophyseal development in vertebrates from amphibians to mammals. General and Comparative Endocrinology 126(2): 130-135. ISSN: 0016-6480.
NAL Call Number: 444.8 G28
Descriptors: amphibians, vertebrates, literature review, pituitary gland, hypophyseal development, origins, phylogenetic considerations, phylogeny, pituitary developmental aspects, review.

Kelley, D.B. (2004). Vocal communication in frogs. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 14(6): 751-757. ISSN: 0959-4388.
Abstract: The robust nature of vocal communication in frogs has long attracted the attention of natural philosophers and their biologically inclined successors. Each frog species produces distinctive calls that facilitate pre-mating reproductive isolation and thus speciation. In many terrestrial species, a chorus of simultaneously calling males attracts females to breeding sites; reproductive females then choose and locate one male, using distinctive acoustic cues. Males compete with each other vocally and sometimes physically as well. Anuran acoustic signaling systems are thus subject to the strong pressures of sexual selection. We are beginning to understand the ways in which vocal signals are produced and decoded by the nervous system and the roles of neurally active hormones in both processes.
Descriptors: frogs, vocal communication, animal communication, auditory perception, physiology, Ranidae, sexual behavior, mating, reproductive isolation, brain physiology, cues, models, animal, neuropeptides, neurosecretory systems.

Kunz, K. (2006). Merlins Zwergkrallenfrosch - Neuigkeiten ueber einen kaum bekannten Sonderling. [Dwarf clawed frogs - news on a little known species.]. Amazonas 4: 47-51.
Descriptors: dwarf clawed frogs, Hymenochirus merlini, little known species, biological notes.
Language of Text: German.

Kwet, A. (2005). Reptilien Und Amphibien Europas. [Reptiles and Amphibians of Europe.], Franckh Kosmos: Stuttgart, 252 p. ISBN: 3440102378.
Descriptors: amphibians, reptiles, Europe.
Language of Text: German.

Lappage, B. (2004). Report on reptiles and amphibians - 2003. Exmoor Naturalist 30: 55-58. ISSN: 1367-7047.
Descriptors: amphibians, reptiles, report, annual review, England.

Lebedkina, N.S. (2004). Evolution of the amphibian skull. Advances in Amphibian Research in the Former Soviet Union 9: 1-265. ISSN: 1310-8840.
Descriptors: amphibian, skull, evolution, morphology, development.
Language of Text: English; Russian.

Lee, M.S. and J.S. Anderson (2006). Molecular clocks and the origin(s) of modern amphibians. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40(2): 635-639. ISSN: 1055-7903.
NAL Call Number: QH367.5.M56
Descriptors: amphibia genetics, amphibia physiology, evolution, molecular, phylogeny, time factors.

Lever, C. (2003). Naturalized Reptiles and Amphibians of the World., Oxford University Press: Oxford, 318 p. ISBN: 0198507712.
Descriptors: amphibians, reptiles, species, worldwide.

Loetters, S. (2004). Amphibian decline: history and current research. Reptilia GB 36: 14-20. ISSN: 1138-4913.
Descriptors: amphibians, decline, history, current research, polution, diseases.

Malashichev, Y.B. (2002). Asymmetries in amphibians: a review of morphology and behaviour. Laterality 7(3): 197-217. ISSN: 1357-650X.
Descriptors: amphibians, literature review, behavioral and morphological asymmetries, symmetry, behavior, review.

Malashichev, Y.B. and L.J.E. Rogers (2002). Behavioural and morphological asymmetries in amphibians and reptiles. Proceedings of the 4th World Congress of Herpetology satellite symposium. Laterality 7(3): 195-299. ISSN: 1357-650X.
Descriptors: amphibians, reptiles, symmetry, behavior, asymmetries, symposium on behavioral and morphological asymmetries, proceedings, meetings.
Notes: Proceedings of meeting held in Sri Lanka.

Mason, M.J. (2007). Pathways for sound transmission to the inner ear in amphibians. In: Springer Handbook of Auditory Research. Vol. 28, 147-183, Springer: New York, NYISBN: 0387325212.
Descriptors: amphibians, sound transmission, pathways, inner ear, sensory system, hearing, book chapter.

Mattison, C. (2002). Frogs & Toads of the World., Sterling Pub. Co.: New York, NY , 191 p. ISBN: 0816052093.
NAL Call Number: QL668.E2 M33 2002
Descriptors: frogs, toads, reproducton, mating, feeding, development, physiology, bibliography.

Mayer, J. (2004). CITES and other regulations regarding reptiles and amphibians in the United States. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians 11: 49-58. ISSN: 1529-9651.
NAL Call Number: SF996.A77
Descriptors: amphibians, reptiles, CITES, other regulations, review, legislation, USA, conference proceedings.

McAllister, K.R., J.W. Watson, K. Risenhoover, and T. McBride (2004). Marking and radiotelemetry of Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa). Northwestern Naturalist 85(1): 20-25. ISSN: 1051-1733.
NAL Call Number: QL671.M8
Descriptors: Oregon spotted frogs, Rana pretiosa, marking, radiotelemetry, methods, evaluation, USA.

Muths, E. (2003). A radio transmitter belt for small ranid frogs. Herpetological Review 34(4): 345-348. ISSN: 0018-084X.
NAL Call Number: QL640.H47
Descriptors: small ranid frogs, Rana sylvatica, radio telemetry, radio transmitter belt.

Naitoh, T., M. Yamashita, and R.J. Wassersug (2004). Life history of amphibians and gravity. Uchu Seibutsu Kagaku 18(3): 130-131. ISSN: 0914-9201.
Abstract: Anurans hold a unique position in vertebrate phylogeny, as they made the major transition from water to land. Through evolution they have acquired fundamental mechanisms to adapt to terrestrial gravity. Such mechanisms are now shared among other terrestrial vertebrates derived from ancestral amphibians. Space research, using amphibians as a model animal, is significant based on the following aspects: (1) Anuran amphibians show drastic changes in their living niche during their metamorphosis. Environments for tadpoles and for terrestrial life of frogs are quite different in terms of gravity and its associated factors. (2) Certain tadpoles, such as Rhacophorus viridis amamiensis, have a transparent abdominal wall. Thus visceral organs and their motion can be observed in these animals in non-invasive manner through their transparent abdominal skin. This feature enables biologists to evaluate the physiological state of these amphibians and study the autonomic control of visceral organs. It is also feasible for space biologists to examine how such autonomic regulation could be altered by microgravity and exposure to the space environment.
Descriptors: amphibians, physiology, anura physiology, developmental biology, gastrointestinal tract physiology, amphibia classification, amphibia growth, development, anura, classification, anura growth, development, evolution, larva growth, development, larva physiology, animal models, space flight, weightlessness.

Palmer, C.A. and L.D. Houck (2005). Responses to sex- and species-specific chemical signals in allopatric and sympatric salamander species. In: R.T. Mason, M.P. LeMaster and D. Mueller-Schwarze (Editors), Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 10, Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.: New York, p. 32-41. ISBN: 0387251596.
NAL Call Number: QP455 .I54 2003
Descriptors: amphibians, salamanders, chemical signals, sex, species-specific responses.
Notes: Proceedings of the Tenth International Symposium on Chemical Signals in Vertebrates, held July 29-August 1, 2003, in Corvallis, Oregon, US.

Palo, J.U. and J. Merila (2003). A simple RFLP method for identification of two ranid frogs. Conservation Genetics 4(6): 801-803. ISSN: 1566-0621.
NAL Call Number: QH75.A1 C56
Descriptors: two ranid frogs, simple RFLP method for identification.

Pang, Q.P., Y. Ye, and Y.T. Wen (2002). Chromosome data of Chinese amphibians. Chinese Journal of Zoology 37(4): 49-62. ISSN: 0250-3263.
Descriptors: amphibians, literature review, chromosomes, characteristics, chromosome characteristics, review, China.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in Chinese.

Pukala, T.L., J.H. Bowie, V.M. Maselli, I.F. Musgrave, and M.J. Tyler (2006). Host-defence peptides from the glandular secretions of amphibians: structure and activity. Natural Product Reports 23(3): 368-393. ISSN: print: 0265-0568; online: 1460-4752.
Descriptors: amphibia, amphibian proteins chemistry, proteins genetics, metabolism, secretion, antimicrobial cationic peptides chemistry, peptides genetics, peptides metabolism, peptides secretion, amino acid sequence, evolution, molecular sequence data.

Pyke, G.H. (2002). A review of the biology of the Southern Bell Frog Litoria raniformis (Anura: Hylidae). Australian Zoologist 32(1): 32-48. ISSN: 0067-2238.
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, Litoria raniformis, conservation, literature review, biology, conservation, distribution, review, Australia, south east.

Rajchard, J. (2006). Antipredator pheromones in amphibians: A review. Veterinarni Medicina 51(8): 409-413. ISSN: 0375-8427.
NAL Call Number: 41.9 C333
Descriptors: amphibians, antipredator pheromones, behavior, vermonasal system, chemosignals, tadpoles, Rana, literature review.

Reiss, J.O. (2002). The phylogeny of amphibian metamorphosis. Zoology [Jena] 105(2): 85-96. ISSN: 0944-2006.
NAL Call Number: QL1.Z769
Descriptors: amphibians, metamorphosis, phylogeny, skull, morphological changes.

Relyea, R.A., N.M. Schoeppner, and J.T. Hoverman (2005). Pesticides and amphibians: the importance of community context. Ecological Applications 15(4): 1125-1134. ISSN: 1051-0761.
NAL Call Number: QH540.E23
Descriptors: malathion, insecticide residues, glyphosate, herbicide residues, ecotoxicology, toxicity, Hyla, Bufo americanus, Rana pipiens, developmental stages, adult animals, food webs, community ecology, predators, predator prey relationships, water pollution, Dytiscidae, aquatic organisms, Dytiscus, Notophthalmus viridescens, eastern newt.

Rodriguez Robles, J.A., D.A. Good, and D.B. Wake (2003). Brief history of herpetology in the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Berkeley, with a list of type specimens of recent amphibians and reptiles. University of California Publications in Zoology 131: 1-119. ISSN: 0068-6506.
Descriptors: amphibians, type specimens, herpetology, brief history, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Berkeley, University of California, reptiles, recent.

Rose, G.J. and D.M. Gooler (2007). Function of the amphibian central auditory system. In: Springer Handbook of Auditory Research. Vol. 28, 250-290, Springer: New York, NYISBN: 0387325212.
Descriptors: amphibians, central auditory system, function, hearing, sensory system, book chapter.

Roy, D. (2002). Amphibians as environmental sentinels. Journal of Biosciences 27(3): 187-188. ISSN: 0250-5991.
NAL Call Number: QH1.J63
Descriptors: amphibians, environmental sentinals, pollution, toxic chemicals, contamination.

Ruchin, A.B. (2003). Effects of permanent and variable illumination on development of the clawed frog Xenopus laevis larvae. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 82(7): 834-838. ISSN: 0044-5134.
Descriptors: amphibians, clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, development, illumination, permanent, varaiable, effects, larvae.
Language of Text: Russian.

Ruchin, A.B. (2002). Effects of monochromatic light on growth and development of the clawed frog Xenopus laevis larvae. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 81(6): 752-756. ISSN: 0044-5134.
Descriptors: clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, growth, development, effects of monochromatic light, larvae, tadpoles.
Language of Text: Russian.

Smotherman, M. and P. Narins (2004). Evolution of the amphibian ear. Springer Handbook of Auditory Research 22: 164-199. ISSN: 0947-2657.
Descriptors: amphibians, evolution of amphibian ear, auditory, acoustic.

Staniszewski, M. (2002). Schwanzlurche. [Salamanders.]. Reptilia D 7(2): 22-29; Nr 34. ISSN: 1431-8997.
Descriptors: amphibians, salamander, caudata, species diversity.
Language of Text: German.

Stebbins, R.C. (2003). A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 3rd edition, Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston and New York, 533 p. ISBN: 0395982723.
Descriptors: amphibians, reptiles, field guide, western United States.

Steinberg, C.E.W., S. Hoss, W. Kloas, I. Lutz, T. Meinelt, S. Pflugmacher, and C. Wiegand (2004). Hormonelike effects of humic substances on fish, amphibians, and invertebrates. Environmental Toxicology 19(4): 409-411. ISSN: print: 1520-4081; online: 1522-7278.
NAL Call Number: RA1221.T69
Descriptors: amphibians, fish, invertebrates, humic substances, hormonelike effects, toxicity.
Notes: In the special issue: 11th International Symposium on Toxicity Assessment / edited by L. Manusadzianas. Includes references.

Stewart, E.R., S.A. Reese, and G.R. Ultsch (2004). The physiology of hibernation in Canadian leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) and bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 77(1): 65-73. ISSN: 1522-2152.
NAL Call Number: QL1.P52
Descriptors: leopard frog, Rana pipiens, bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, hibernation, physiology.

Thomsen, G.H. (2006). A new century of amphibian developmental biology. Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 17(1): 78-79. ISSN: 1084-9521.
Descriptors: frog, body patterning, morphogenesis, Xenopus embryology, xenopus growth and development, cell polarity, oocytes physiology, Xenopus anatomy and histology.
Notes: Comment On: Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2006 Feb;17(1):110-6.

Uteshev, V. and E. Gakhova (2005). Gene cryobanks for conservation of endangered amphibian species. Russian Journal of Herpetology 12: 233-234 (Suppl.) ISSN: 1026-2296.
Descriptors: amphibians, conservation, gene cryobanks, endangered species, genetic techniques.

Venturino, A., E. Rosenbaum, A. Caballero de Castro, O.L. Anguiano, L. Gauna, T. Fonovich de Schroeder, and A.M. Pechen de d'Angelo (2003). Biomarkers of effect in toads and frogs. Biomarkers 8(3-4): 167-186. ISSN: 1354-750X.
Descriptors: toads, frogs, Bufo, biomarkers of effect.

Wilczynski, W. and H. Endepols (2007). Central auditory pathways in anuran amphibians: the anatomical basis of hearing and sound communication. In: Springer Handbook of Auditory Research. Vol. 28, Springer: New York, NY, p. 221-249. ISBN: 0387325212.
Descriptors: amphibians, hearing, sound communication, central auditory pathways, anatomical basis, book chapter.

Wright, K. (2006). Veterinary advances that impact amphibian conservation. Small Animal and Exotics Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference. 20: 1783-1785. ISSN: 0003-1488.
Descriptors: amphibians, veterinary advances, drugs, treatment, conservation, diagnosis, conference proceedings.

Wright, K. (2006). Common medical problems of amphibians. Small Animal and Exotics Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference. 20: 1689-1691. ISSN: 0003-1488.
Descriptors: amphibians, common medical problems, exotics, veterinary conference.

Wright, K. (2006). Important clinical aspects of amphibian physiology. Small Animal and Exotics Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference. 20: 1686-1688. ISSN: 0003-1488.
Descriptors: anatomy, animal physiology, body temperature, calcium, dehydration, energy metabolism, exotics, homeostasis, morphology, pets, rehydration, amphibians, clinical aspects.
Notes: Meeting Information: The North American Veterinary Conference, Gainesville, USA, Orlando, Florida, USA. January 7-11, 2006.

Yanchurevich, O.V. and S.V. Emelianchic (2005). Definition of age an amphibians by a method skeletochronology. Vyestsi Natsyyanal'Nai Akademii Navuk Byelarusi Syeryya Biyalahichnykh Navuk 3: 113-117. ISSN: 1029-8940.
Descriptors: amphibians, definition of age, method, skeletochronology.
Language of Text: Russian; Summary in English.

Yu, Z.L., Q. Qiu, Z.M. Xu, and J.X. Shen (2006). Auditory response characteristics of the piebald odorous frog and their implications. Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology 192(8): 801-806. ISSN: 0340-7594.
NAL Call Number: QP33.J68
Abstract: The piebald odorous frog (Odorrana schmackeri), the large odorous frog (Odorrana livida) and the concave-eared torrent frog (Amolops tormotus) are sympatric species living near the same torrent streams in the vicinity of Mt. Huangshan, China. A recent study demonstrated that A. tormotus can use sound signals involving ultrasonic components for communication in a noisy environment, and another sympatric species, O. livida, can also perceive ultrasonic sound. Here we report data on the hearing range of O. schmackeri by studying auditory evoked potentials and single-unit data from the torus semicircularis. This frog exhibits its two most sensitive peaks at 2 kHz and 3.5-4.0 kHz with thresholds <42 dB SPL, with an upper frequency limit of hearing at 8.5 kHz with threshold of 87 dB SPL. The upper limit is much lower than those of O. livida and A. tormotus, at 22 and 34 kHz, respectively. It suggests that sympatric species may respond differently to similar environmental selection pressures sculpting auditory communication systems.
Descriptors: frogs, Odorrana schmackeri, Odorrana livida, Amolops tormotus, auditory perception physiology, threshold physiology, hearing physiology, ranidae physiology, acoustic stimulation, action potentials drug effects, auditory perception radiation effects, brain stem cytology, physiology, dose response relationship, radiation, evoked potentials, auditory physiology, evoked potentials, auditory radiation effects, noise, reaction time physiology, reaction time radiation effects, vocalization, animal physiology, China.



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