Fournier, M., J. Robert, H.M. Salo, C. Dautremepuits, and P. Brousseau (2005). Immunotoxicology of Amphibians. Applied Herpetology 2(3): 297-309. ISSN: 1570-7539.
Descriptors: amphibians, immune system, immunotoxicology review, pollution.
Kurth, T. (2003). Immunocytochemistry of the amphibian embryo: From overview to ultrastructure. International Journal of Developmental Biology 47(5): 373-383. ISSN: 0214-6282.
Descriptors: amphibians, immunocytochemistry, embryo, overview, ultrastructure.
Lee, J.H., S.K. Ku, H.S. Lee, and H. Kitagawa (2003). An immunohistochemical study of endocrine cells in the pancreas of the red-bellied frog (Bombina orientalis). European Journal of Histochemistry 47(2): 165-172. ISSN: 1121-760X.
Descriptors: red-bellied frog, Bombina orientalis, endocrine cells, pancreas, immunohistochemical study.
Rollins Smith, L.A., D.C. Woodhams, L.K. Reinert, V.T. Vredenburg, C.J. Briggs, P.F. Nielsen, and J. Michael Conlon (2006). Antimicrobial peptide defenses of the mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa). Developmental and Comparative Immunology 30(9): 831-842. ISSN: 0145-305X.
Abstract: The mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa) inhabits high elevation lakes in California that are largely undisturbed by human activities. In spite of this habitation in remote sites, populations continue to decline. Although predation by non-native fish is one cause for declines, some isolated populations in fishless lakes are suffering new declines. One possible cause of the current wave of declines is the introduction of the pathogenic chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) which invades the adult skin to cause chytridiomycosis. In many amphibian species, the skin is protected by antimicrobial peptides secreted into the mucous. Here we show that R. muscosa produces three previously unknown antimicrobial peptides belonging to the ranatuerin-2 and temporin-1 families of antimicrobial peptides. These three peptides, along with bradykinin, are the most abundant peptides in the skin secretions detected by mass spectrometry. Natural mixtures of peptides and individual purified peptides strongly inhibit chytrid growth. The concentration of total peptides recovered from the skin of frogs following a mild norepinephrine induction is sufficient to inhibit chytrid growth in vitro. A comparison of the species susceptibility to chytridiomycosis and the antichytrid activity of peptides between R. muscosa and R. pipiens suggest that although R. muscosa produces more total skin peptides, it appears to be more vulnerable to B. dendrobatidis in nature. Possible differences in the antimicrobial peptide repertoires and life history traits of the two species that may account for differences in susceptibility are discussed.
Descriptors: mountain yellow-legged frog, Rana muscosa, amphibian proteins immunology, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, dermatomycoses veterinary, peptides immunology, proteins immunology, ranidae immunology, amino acid sequence, amphibian proteins chemistry, proteins isolation, purification, proteins pharmacology, chytridiomycota growth, development, dermatomycoses immunology and microbiology, molecular sequence data, peptides chemistry, isolation and purification, peptides pharmacology, proteins chemistry, isolation and purification, proteins pharmacology, ranidae microbiology.
Rollins Smith, L.A. and N. Cohen (2005). Hormones and the immune system of amphibians. Amphibian Biology 6: 2377-2391. ISSN: 0386-3166.
Descriptors: amphibians, hormones, immune system, review, immunology.