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Information Resources on Amphibians & Reptiles
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Adams, S.M., J.M. Biazik, M.B. Thompson, and C.R. Murphy (2005). Cyto-epitheliochorial placenta of the viviparous lizard Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii: a new placental morphotype. Journal of Morphology 264(3): 264-276. ISSN: 0362-2525.
NAL Call Number: 444.8 J826
Descriptors: viviparous lizard, epithelial cells ultrastructure, lizards anatomy, histology, embryo, nonmammalian, gestational age, cyto-epitheliochorial placenta.

Adler, K. (2003). Salamander classification and reproductive biology. An historical overview. In: D.M. Sever (Editor), Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Urodela, Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny Series, Science Publishers, Inc.: Enfield and Plymouth. p. 1-29. ISBN: 1578082854.
NAL Call Number: QL668.C2 R45 2003
Descriptors: Urodela, salamanders, history of zoology, reproductive biology and classification.

Aguiar, O., A.A. Garda, A.P. Lima, G.R. Colli, S.N. Bao, and S.M. Recco Pimentel (2003). Biflagellate spermatozoon of the poison-dart frogs Epipedobates femoralis and Colostethus sp. (Anura, Dendrobatidae). Journal of Morphology 255(1): 114-121. ISSN: 0362-2525.
NAL Call Number: 444.8 J826
Descriptors: amphibians, poison dart frogs, Epipedobates femoralis, Colostethus sp., biflagellate spermatozoon, Anura.

Andersen, F. (2006). Hold og opdraet af dvaerg-pipatudsen (Pipa parva). [Care and breeding of the dwarf toad (Pipa parva).]. Nordisk Herpetologisk Forening 49(4): 139-142. ISSN: 0900-484X.
Descriptors: dwarf toad, Pipa parva, diet in captivity, housing techniques, terrarium conditions, rearing techniques, terrarium conditions, diet significance, reproductive techniques, breeding techniques.
Language of Text: Danish; Summary in English.

Anonymous (2005). Gene expression during frog development. Journal of Biological Chemistry 280(29): e99935. ISSN: 0021-9258.
NAL Call Number: 381 J824
Descriptors: frog, development, gene expression, embryo, reproduction.

Boegi, C., G. Levy, I. Lutz, and W. Kloas (2002). Functional genomics and sexual differentiation in amphibians. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 133B(4): 559-570. ISSN: 1096-4959.
Descriptors: amphibians, Xenopus laevis, functional genomics, sexual differentiation, mechanism, sexual steroids, hatching, androgens, estradiol.

Booth, D.T. (2006). Influence of incubation temperature on hatchling phenotype in reptiles. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 79(2): 274-281. ISSN: 1522-2152.
NAL Call Number: QL1.P52
Abstract: Incubation temperature influences hatchling phenotypes such as sex, size, shape, color, behavior, and locomotor performance in many reptiles, and there is growing concern that global warming might adversely affect reptile populations by altering frequencies of hatchling phenotypes. Here I overview a recent theoretical model used to predict hatchling sex of reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination. This model predicts that sex ratios will be fairly robust to moderate global warming as long as eggs experience substantial daily cyclic fluctuations in incubation temperatures so that embryos are exposed to temperatures that inhibit embryonic development for part of the day. I also review studies that examine the influence of incubation temperature on posthatch locomotion performance and growth because these are the traits that are likely to have the greatest effect on hatchling fitness. The majority of these studies used artificial constant-temperature incubation, but some have addressed fluctuating incubation temperature regimes. Although the number of studies is small, it appears that fluctuating temperatures may enhance hatchling locomotor performance. This finding should not be surprising, given that the majority of natural reptile nests are relatively shallow and therefore experience daily fluctuations in incubation temperature.
Descriptors: reptiles, newborn anatomy, histology, growth, development, reptiles anatomy, histology, growth, development, temperature, physiology, greenhouse effect, ovum physiology.

Bramucci, M., L. Quassinti, E. Maccari, O. Murri, and D. Amici (2004). Seasonal changes in angiotensin converting enzyme activity in male and female frogs (Rana esculenta). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A Molecular and Integrative Physiology 137A(3): 605-610. ISSN: 1095-6433.
Descriptors: frogs, male, female, Rana esculenta, angiotensin converting enzyme activity, seasonal changes.

Briggler, J.T. and W.L. Puckette (2003). Observations on reproductive biology and brooding behavior of the Ozark zigzag salamander, Plethodon angusticlavius. Southwestern Naturalist 48(1): 96-100. ISSN: 0038-4909.
NAL Call Number: 409.6 So8
Descriptors: amphibians, Ozark zigzag salamander, Plethodon angusticlavius, observations on reproductive biology, brooding behavior.
Language of Text: English; Spanish.

Browne, R.K., J. Davis, M. Pomering, and J. Clulow (2002). Storage of cane toad (Bufo marinus) sperm for 6 days at 0degree C with subsequent cryopreservation. Reproduction, Fertility, and Development 14(5-6): 267-273. ISSN: 1031-3613.
NAL Call Number: QP251.R47
Descriptors: cane toad, sperm, storage 6 days, cryopreservation, suspensions, macerated testes, SAR, diluents, sperm motility.

Browne, R.K., M. Mahony, and J. Clulow (2002). A comparison of sucrose, saline, and saline with egg-yolk diluents on the cryopreservation of cane toad (Bufo marinus) sperm. Cryobiology 44(3): 251-257. ISSN: 0011-2240.
Descriptors: amphibians, toad, Bufo marinus, sperm, cryopreservation, diluents, sucrose, saline, egg yolk, comparison.

Canosa, L.F. and N.R. Ceballos (2002). Seasonal changes in testicular steroidogenesis in the toad Bufo arenarum H. General and Comparative Endocrinology 125(3): 426-434. ISSN: 0016-6480.
NAL Call Number: 444.8 G28
Descriptors: toad, Bufo arenarum, steroids, steroidogenesis, seasonal changes, hormones, steroid hormones, testis.

Catenazzi, A. (2006). Phrynopus cophites (Cuzco Andes frog). Reproduction. Herpetological Review 37(2): 206. ISSN: 0018-084X.
NAL Call Number: QL640.H47
Descriptors: amphibians, Andes frog, reproduction, egg number, clutch size.

Chan, L.M. (2003). Seasonality, microhabitat and cryptic variation in tropical salamander reproductive cycles. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 78(4): 489-496. ISSN: 0024-4066.
NAL Call Number: QH301.B56
Descriptors: tropical salamander reproductive cycles, seasonality, microhabitat, cryptic variation, amphibians.

Chen, H.L. and X. Ji (2002). The effects of thermal environments on duration of incubation, hatching success and hatchlings traits in a colubrid snake, Rhabdophis tigrinus lateralis (Boie). Acta Ecologica Sinica 22(11): 1850-1858. ISSN: 1000-0933.
Descriptors: reptiles, colubrid snake, Rhabdophis tigrinus lateralis, thermal environments, effects. incubation duration, hatching success, hatching traits.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in Chinese and English.

Cobellis, G., G. Cacciola, D. Scarpa, R. Meccariello, R. Chianese, M.F. Franzoni, K. Mackie, R. Pierantoni, and S. Fasano (2006). Endocannabinoid system in frog and rodent testis: type-1 cannabinoid receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase activity in male germ cells. Biology of Reproduction 75(1): 82-89. ISSN: 0006-3363.
Abstract: N-arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide [AEA]) is the main endocannabinoid described to date in the testis. It exerts its effects through the activation of G-protein coupled cannabinoid receptors (CNR). However, the activity of AEA in controlling male reproduction is still poorly known. Here we provide direct evidence on the presence of the "endocannabinoid system," constituted by type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CNR1) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), in the frog Rana esculenta testis demonstrating its expression in tubular compartment. In fact, during the annual reproductive cycle, both proteins increase in September, when the appearance of spermatids (SPT) occurs. Immunocytochemistry confirms their localization in germ cells and, in particular, in elongated SPT. Signals are still present in spermatozoa (SPZ), as demonstrated by Western blot analysis. Furthermore, the activation of CNR1 reduces sperm motility. Comparative research, carried out using mouse and rat SPZ, definitely indicates that the endocannabinoid system operates in SPZ of phylogenetically distant species. A conserved physiological role of endocannabinoid system in controlling the inhibition of sperm motility is suggested.
Descriptors: frog, Rana esculenta, rodent, testis, endocannabinoid dydtem, receptor, fatty acid, spermatids, germ cells.

Donna, D., E. Cottone, E. Campantico, A. Guastalla, K. Mackie, and M.F. Franzoni (2006). Endocannabinoids and amphibian reproduction: an immunchistochemical study. Journal of Experimental Zoology 305A(2): 123. ISSN: Part A: print:1548-8969; online: 1552-499X.
NAL Call Number: 410 J825
Descriptors: amphibians, reproduction, endocannabinoids, immunohistochemical study, meeting.

Du, W.G. and X. Ji (2006). Effects of constant and fluctuating temperatures on egg survival and hatchling traits in the northern grass lizard (Takydromus septentrionalis, Lacertidae). Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Comparative Experimental Biology 305(1): 47-54. ISSN: print: 1548-8969; online: 1552-499X.
NAL Call Number: QL1.J854
Abstract: To understand how nest temperatures influence phenotypic traits of reptilian hatchlings, the effects of fluctuating temperature on hatchling traits must be known. Most investigations, however, have only considered the effects of constant temperatures. We incubated eggs of Takydromus septentrionalis (Lacertidae) at constant (24 degrees C, 27 degrees C, 30 degrees C and 33 degrees C) and fluctuating temperatures to determine the effects of these thermal regimes on incubation duration, hatching success and hatchling traits (morphology and locomotor performance). Hatching success at 24 degrees C and 27 degrees C was higher, and hatchlings derived from these two temperatures were larger and performed better than their counterparts from 30 degrees C and 33 degrees C. Eggs incubated at fluctuating temperatures exhibited surprisingly high hatching success and also produced large and well-performed hatchlings in spite of the extremely wide range of temperatures (11.6-36.2 degrees C) they experienced. This means that exposure of eggs to adversely low or high temperatures for short periods does not increase embryonic mortality. The variance of fluctuating temperatures affected hatchling morphology and locomotor performance more evidently than did the mean of the temperatures in this case. The head size and sprint speed of the hatchlings increased with increasing variances of fluctuating temperatures. These results suggest that thermal variances significantly affect embryonic development and phenotypic traits of hatchling reptiles and are therefore ecologically meaningful.
Descriptors: grass lizard, Takydromus septentrionalis, body constitution, energy metabolism, lizards growth and development, locomotion, temperature, physiological adaptation, newborn animals, embryonic development.

Edwards, D.L., M.J. Mahony, and J. Clulow (2004). Effect of sperm concentration, medium osmolality and oocyte storage on artificial fertilisation success in a myobatrachid frog (Limnodynastes tasmaniensis). Reproduction, Fertility, and Development 16(3): 347-354. ISSN: 1031-3613.
NAL Call Number: QP251.R47
Descriptors: amphibians, myobatrachid frog, Limnodynastes tasmaniensis, artificial fertilisation, oocyte storage, sperm concentration, medium osmolality, effect.

Eggert, C. (2004). Sex determination: the amphibian models. Reproduction, Nutrition, Development 44(6): 539-549. ISSN: print: 0926-5287; online: 1297-9708.
NAL Call Number: QL1.R35
Abstract: We review and discuss current knowledge about sex determination in amphibians. The astonishing wide variety of mechanisms of genotypic sex determination is presented and discussed in an evolutionary context. We recall the natural occurrence of transitory juvenile hermaphroditism in some species. Our present knowledge of the mechanisms of sex determination in amphibians is compared to that in mammals. The influence of epigenetic factors, and especially temperature is highlighted. In amphibians, the influence of temperature on sexual differentiation, that can prevail over genotypic sex determination, remains poorly considered in publications. We suggest that studies on genetic and epigenetic factors of gonadal sex differentiation in amphibians could provide substantial information on the evolutionary process of sex determination mechanisms in current living vertebrates.
Descriptors: amphibian genetics, hermaphroditism, sex determination genetics, genotype, hermaphroditism genetics, temperature, influence, sex differentiation genetics, testis physiology.

Ehmcke, J., G. Clemens, and H. Greven (2002-2003). Oviductal anatomy and histology of five species of Neotropical plethodontid salamanders (Urodela, Amphibia). Acta Biologica Benrodis 12(1-2): 1-17. ISSN: 0177-9214.
Descriptors: Neotropical plethodontid salamanders, amphibians, oviductal anatomy, histology, comparative study, five species, Urodela, Amphibia.
Language of Text: English; German.

Exbrayat, J.M. (2005). Reproduction and development of Typhlonectes compressicauda, as a contribution to the knowledge of the biology of Gymnophiona, the least known Amphibian order. Recent Research Developments in Life Sciences 3: 215-239.
Descriptors: amphibians, Typhlonectes compressicauda, reproduction, biology, taxonomy, order Gymnophiona.

Ferrara, D., C. Palmiero, M. Branno, R. Pierantoni, and S. Minucci (2004). Testicular activity of mos in the frog, Rana esculenta: A new role in spermatogonial proliferation. Biology of Reproduction 70(6): 1782-1789. ISSN: 0006-3363.
NAL Call Number: QL876.B5
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, Rana esculenta, mos, testicular activity, spematogonial proliferation, MAPK, kinase, gonads.

Ficetola, G.F. and F. De Bernardi (2005). Interspecific social interactions and breeding success of the frog Rana latastei: a field study. Ethology 111(8): 764-774. ISSN: 0179-1613.
NAL Call Number: QL750.E74
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, Rana latastei, interspecific social interactions, breeding success, field study.

Fort, D.J., S. Degitz, J. Tietge, and L.W. Touart (2007). The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in frogs and its role in frog development and reproduction. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 37(1-2): 117-161. ISSN: print: 1040-8444; online: 1547-6898.
Abstract: Metamorphosis of the amphibian tadpole is a thyroid hormone (TH)-dependent developmental process. For this reason, the tadpole is considered to be an ideal bioassay system to identify disruption of thyroid function by environmental contaminants. Here we provide an in-depth review of the amphibian thyroid system with particular focus on the role that TH plays in metamorphosis. The amphibian thyroid system is similar to that of mammals and other tetrapods. We review the amphibian hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, focusing on thyroid hormone synthesis, transport, and metabolism. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms of TH action, including the role of TH receptors, the actions of TH on organogenesis, and the mechanisms that underlie the pleiotropic actions of THs. Finally, we discuss methods for evaluating thyroid disruption in frogs, including potential sites of action, relevant endpoints, candidate protocols for measuring thyroid axis disruption, and current gaps in our knowledge. The utility of amphibian metamorphosis as a model for evaluating thyroid axis disruption has recently led to the development of a bioassay using Xenopus laevis.
Descriptors: frogs, Xenopus laevis, development, reproduction, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, HPT, role, metamorphosis, tadpole, bioassay, thyroid function, animal model.

Giaretta, A.A. and M.N.d.C. Kokubum (2004). Reproductive ecology of Leptodactylus furnarius Sazima & Bokermann, 1978, a frog that lays eggs in underground chambers (Anura: Leptodactylidae). Herpetozoa 16(3-4): 115-126. ISSN: 1013-4425.
Descriptors: frog, Leptodactylus furnarius, reproductive ecology, lays eggs, underground chambers, Anura, amphibians.
Language of Text: English; German.

Gibson, R.C. and K.R. Buley (2004). Maternal care and obligatory oophagy in Leptodactylus fallax: a new reproductive mode in frogs. Copeia 2004(1): 128-135. ISSN: 0045-8511.
Descriptors: frogs, Leptodactylus fallax, obligatory oophagy, developing larvae, new reproductive mode, maternal care, captive breeding, rearing, larval development.

Given, M.F. (2005). Vocalizations and reproductive behavior of male pickerel Frogs, Rana palustris. Journal of Herpetology 39(2): 223-233. ISSN: 0022-1511.
NAL Call Number: QL640.J6
Descriptors: pickerel frogs, Rana palustris, reproductive behavior, vocalizations, male.

Glen, F., A.C.G.B.J. Broderick, and G.C. Hays (2003). Incubation environment affects phenotype of naturally incubated green turtle hatchlings. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 83(5): 1183-1186. ISSN: print: 0025-3154; online: 1469-7769.
Descriptors: reptiles, green turtle hatchlings, incubation environment, phenotype, affects, body size.

Grace, M.S. (2003). Timing of reproductive immigration in salamanders: roles of environmental cues and endogenous biological clocks. Herpetological Review 91(1): 17-20. ISSN: 0018-084X.
NAL Call Number: QL640.H47
Descriptors: amphibians, salamander, reproductive immigration, endogenous biological clocks, environmental cues, role.

Green, S. (2002). Factors affecting oogenesis in the South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis). Comparative Medicine 52(4): 307-312. ISSN: 1532-0820.
NAL Call Number: SF77.C65
Abstract: Xenopus laevis, commonly known as the South African Clawed frog, is a hardy adaptable species that is relatively easy to maintain as a laboratory animal. Gametogenesis in wild Xenopus laevis is continuous and under ideal conditions, reproduction can occur year round. This unique aspect of amphibian reproduction offers an advantage over mammalian model systems: the eggs and oocytes collected from laboratory maintained Xenopus laevis provide an abundant and readily obtainable supply of material for cellular and biological research. However, many investigators report that laboratory Xenopus laevis go through periods of unexplained inefficient or complete failure of oocyte production or the production of poor quality oocytes. This results in experimental delays, inability to reproduce data, and ultimately the use of more animals. There is a lack of evidenced based information regarding the housing conditions that are necessary to optimize the health and fecundity of this species in captivity, but studies of wild Xenopus laevis have shown that temperature, age of the female, and nutrition are of key importance. The objective of this report is to review oogenesis with a special emphasis on these factors as they pertain to laboratory Xenopus laevis maintained for the purpose of providing a steady supply of eggs and oocytes. Harvesting methods and other experimental techniques that affect the quality of eggs and oocytes are also discussed.
Descriptors: South African Clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, oogenesis, laboratory animals, ova, oocytes, female fertility, temperature, age, diet, females, laboratory techniques, literature reviews, laboratory rearing, pituitary gonadal axis.

Hakansson, P. and J. Loman (2004). Communal spawning in the common frog rana temporaria - egg temperature and predation consequences. Ethology 110(9): 665-680. ISSN: 0179-1613.
NAL Call Number: QL750.E74
Descriptors: frog, Rana temporaria, communal spawning, egg temperature, pedation.

Halverson, M.A., D.K. Skelly, and A. Caccone (2006). Inbreeding Linked to Amphibian Survival in the Wild but Not in the Laboratory. Journal of Heredity 97(5): 499-507. ISSN: 0022-1503.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 Am3
Abstract: We examined the effects of inbreeding on the performance of wood frog (Rana sylvatica) larvae in the field and in the laboratory. We used microsatellite analysis to establish the parentage and degree of inbreeding of the larvae. Two different estimators of inbreeding were used. The first was based on average multilocus heterozygosity, and the second was based on a molecular relatedness estimator. The estimators were highly correlated, and both showed a significant negative relationship between inbreeding and survival in the wild. However, there was no evidence that inbreeding influenced growth or development in the wild. Neither was there any evidence that inbreeding affected survival, growth, or development in the laboratory. These results suggest that, for wood frogs, inbreeding has a bigger effect on fitness in the wild than in captivity and that measurements of survival are more sensitive than measures of growth or development.
Descriptors: amphibian, wood frog (Rana sylvatica), inbreeding, survival, larvae, field, laboratory, microsatellite analysis.

Harris, W.E. and J.R. Lucas (2002). A state-based model of sperm allocation in a group-breeding salamander. Behavioral Ecology 13(5): 705-712. ISSN: 1045-2249.
Descriptors: salamander, Ambystoma texanum, mathematical techniques, sperm, reproductive behavior, population density' intraspecific competition, sperm competition, optimal sperm allocation, state based model, Indiana, Tippecanoe county, USA.

Hartel, T. (2003). The breeding biology of the frog Rana dalmatina in Tarnava Mare Valley, Romania. Russian Journal of Herpetology 10(3): 169-174. ISSN: 1026-2296.
Descriptors: frog, Rana dalmatina, breeding biology, spawning period, eggs, Romania.

Hengl, T.J. and S. Burgin (2002). Reproduction and larval growth of the urban dwelling brown striped marsh frog limnodynastes peronii. Australian Zoologist 32(1): 62-68. ISSN: 0067-2238.
Descriptors: amphibians, striped marsh frog, Limnodynastes peronii, reproduction, larval growth, urban dwelling, egg viability, hatching success, Australia.

Hettyey, A. and P.B. Pearman (2003). Social environment and reproductive interference affect reproductive success in the frog Rana latastei. Behavioral Ecology 14(2): 294-300. ISSN: 1045-2249.
Descriptors: frog, Rana, reproductive behavior success, reproductive interference, social environment, affect.

Hobel, G. (2005). Rana clamitans (Green Frog) and Rana catesbeiana (American Bullfrog). Reproduction. Herpetological Review 36(4): 439-440. ISSN: 0018-084X.
NAL Call Number: QL640.H47
Descriptors: bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, green frog, Rana clamitans, mating, reproduction.

Hobel, G. (2005). Rana palustris (pickerel frog) and Ambystoma maculatum (spotted salamander). Reproductive behavior. Herpetological Review 36(1): 55-56. ISSN: 0018-084X.
NAL Call Number: QL640.H47
Descriptors: pickerel frog, Rana palustris, spotted salamander, Ambystoma maculatum, reproductive behavior.

Huang He and Bai XiuJuan (2003). Anatomical histological observation of reproductive organs of medicinal forest frog. Journal of Economic Animal 7(2): 47-49. ISSN: 1007-7448.
Descriptors: amphibians, medicinal forest frog, reproductive organs, anatomy, ovaries, oviducts, testes, uterus, histological observation.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in English.

Iimori, E., M.J. D' Occhio, A.T. Lisle, and S.D. Johnston (2005). Testosterone secretion and pharmacological spermatozoal recovery in the cane toad (Bufo marinus). Animal Reproduction Science 90(1-2): 163-173. ISSN: 0378-4320.
NAL Call Number: QP251.A5
Descriptors: frogs, Bufo marinus, testosterone, hormone secretion, spermatozoa, animal models, toads, diurnal variation, gonadotropin releasing hormone, hormone agonists, intraperitoneal injection, human chorionic gonadotropin, follicle stimulating hormone, optimization, dosage, steroidogenesis, animal breeding.

Ishchenko, V.G. (2003). The measurement of reproductive effort in amphibians. Russian Journal of Herpetology 10(3): 207-212. ISSN: 1026-2296.
Descriptors: amphibians, reproductive effort, measurement, eggs, water.

Jofre, G.M., C.J. Reading, and I.E. di Tada (2005). Breeding behaviour and reproduction in the Pampa de Achala toad, Bufo achalensis. Amphibia Reptilia 26(4): 451-458. ISSN: 0173-5373.
Descriptors: toad, Bufo achalensis, reproduction, breeding behavior.

Keller, R. and D. Shook (2004). Gastrulation in amphibians. In: C.D. Stern (Editor), Gastrulation: From Cells to Embryo., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press: Cold Spring Harbor, NY, p. 171-203. ISBN: 0879697075.
NAL Call Number: QL955 .G34 2004
Descriptors: amphibians, embryo development, gastrulation, cells, literature review.

Kikuyama, S., T. Nakada, F. Toyoda, T. Iwata, K. Yamamoto, and J.M. Conlon (2005). Amphibian pheromones and endocrine control of their secretion. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1040: 123-130. ISSN: 0077-8923.
NAL Call Number: 500 N484
Descriptors: amphibians, phermones, secretions, endocrine control, breeding.

Kunz, K. (2004). Zum Paarungsverhalten Tropischer Krallenfroesche Silurana sp. Tiel 2. [The pairing behavior of the tropical clawed frogs Silurana sp. Part 2.]. Reptilia D 9(1): 56-62 Nr 45. ISSN: 1431-8997.
Descriptors: tropical clawed frog, Silurana species, pairing behavior, mating, reproduction.
Language of Text: German.

Kupfer, A., J. Nabhitabhata, and W. Himstedt (2004). Reproductive ecology of female caecilian amphibians (genus Ichthyophis): a baseline study. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 83(2): 207-217. ISSN: 0024-4066.
NAL Call Number: QH301.B56
Descriptors: caecilian amphibians, Ichthyophis, reproductive ecology, female, baseline study.

Lardner, B. and J. Loman (2003). Growth or reproduction? Resource allocation by female frogs Rana temporaria. Oecologia Berlin 137(4): 541-546. ISSN: 0029-8549.
Descriptors: frogs, female, Rana temporaria, resource allocation, growth, reproduction.

Lisboa, M.C., A.P.F. Melo, R.H.S. Ferraz, and R.F. Rodrigues (2003). Topografia e irrigacao do oviduto de ra (Rana catesbeiana, shaw, 1802). [Oviduct topography and arterial vascularization of frog (Rana catesbeiana, shaw, 1802).]. Revista Brasileira De Reproducao Animal 27(2): 292-294. ISSN: 0102-0803.
NAL Call Number: QP251.R48
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, cardiovascular, arterial vascularization, oviduct topography, anatomy.
Language of Text: Portuguese.

Lyapkov, S.M. (2005). Geographical and local variation of reproductive and demographic characteristics in brown frogs. Russian Journal of Herpetology 12: 187-190 (Suppl.) ISSN: 1026-2296.
Descriptors: brown frogs, reproductive characteristics, local variation, demographic, geographical.

Michael, S.F. and C. Jones (2004). Cryopreservation of spermatozoa of the terrestrial Puerto Rican frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui. Cryobiology 48(1): 90-94. ISSN: 0011-2240.
Abstract: World-wide reports of amphibian population declines have led to increased interest in the reproductive biology of anurans. As a model system, here we present evidence for the effective cryoprotection of sperm from the Puerto Rican frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui, using mixtures of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and dimethylsulfoxide (Me(2)SO), glycerol or sucrose extenders. Using a fluorescent dye exclusion assay, we found that 53.9 and 50.4% of all sperm with intact membranes prior to freezing maintained membrane integrity after rapid freezing and thawing when protected with either a FBS/glycerol or FBS/sucrose solution, respectively. The methods reported here may be useful for similar work with many of the more than 700 other species in this genus.
Descriptors: frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui, spermataozoa, cryopreservation, reproductive biology, model system, fetal bovine serum, dimethylsulfoxide, glycerol, sucrose, extenders.

Mosconi, G., O. Carnevali, M.F. Franzoni, E. Cottone, I. Lutz, W. Kloas, K. Yamamoto, S. Kikuyama, and A.M. Polzonetti Magni (2002). Environmental estrogens and reproductive biology in amphibians. General and Comparative Endocrinology 126(2): 125-129. ISSN: 0016-6480.
NAL Call Number: 444.8 G28
Descriptors: amphibians, Xenopus laevis, Triturus carnifex, sex determination, sexual differentiation, chemical factors, 4 nonyl phenol, sexual differentiation effects, overview.

Myers, E.M. and K.R. Zamudio (2003). Genetic characterization of reproductive strategy in an amphibian with aggregate breeding. SICB Annual Meeting and Exhibition Final Program and Abstracts 2003: 257-258. ISSN: print: 1540-7063; online: 1557-7023.
Descriptors: amphibians, reproductive strategy, genetic characterization, aggregate breeding, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: Annual Meeting and Exhibition of the SICB (Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology), Toronto, ON, Canada; January 04-08, 2003.

Nagao, Y., T. Nakazawa, and H. Ishikawa (2005). Optimum atmospheric environment for the reproduction and the survival of the toad, Bufo japonicus formosus - II. Atmospheric conditions for the living activities of Bufo japonicus formosus other than the reproductive period in the center of Tokyo. Bulletin of the Biogeographical Society of Japan 60: 57-68. ISSN: print: 0067-8716; online: 1880-8093.
Descriptors: toads, Bufo japonicus formosus, optimum atmospheric environment, reproduction, survival, Tokyo, Japan.
Language of Text: Japanese; Summary in English.

Nakamura, M. (2004). [Sex determination in reptiles and amphibians: with special reference to the mechanism of temperature-dependent sex determination]. Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso; Protein, Nucleic Acid, Enzyme 49(2): 124-129. ISSN: 0039-9450.
Descriptors: amphibian, reptiles, embryology, embryology, sex determination genetics, temperature, amphibian genetics, androgens physiology, dna binding proteins genetics, physiology, estrogens physiology, fushi tarazu transcription factors, gene expression, gonads embryology, high mobility group proteins genetics, physiology, homeodomain proteins, receptors, cytoplasmic, nuclear, reptiles genetics, sex chromosomes genetics, sex reversal, transcription factors genetics, transcription factors physiology.
Language of Text: Japanese.

Qian WeiPing (2004). Study on artificial breeding technology of toad and growth law of clumped feeding. Journal of Economic Animal 8(3): 157-160. ISSN: 1007-7448.
Descriptors: amphibians, toad, artificial breeding, technology, growth law, clumped feeding, study, rearing.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in English.

Qiao, Z.g., X.j. Li, X.y. Li, and C.s. Xu (2004). Effects of temperature, light and preservative fluid on the survival of spermatozoa in Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus). Fisheries Science Liaoning 23(3): 10-12. ISSN: 1003-1111.
Descriptors: Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus, effects, temeperature, light, preservative fluid, survival of spermatazoa.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in Chinese and English.

Qin, L.M., F. Xie, Z.H. Zheng, and J.P. Jiang (2005). Sperm morphology of alpine stream salamander, Batrachuperus tibetanus. Chinese Journal of Zoology 40(2): 71-74. ISSN: 0250-3263.
Descriptors: Batrachuperus tibetanus, sperm, morphology, alpine stream salamander.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in Chinese and English.

Quinn, A.E., A. Georges, S.D. Sarre, F. Guarino, T. Ezaz, and J.A. Graves (2007). Temperature sex reversal implies sex gene dosage in a reptile. Science 316(5823): 411. ISSN: 0036-8075.
Abstract: Sex in reptiles is determined by genes on sex chromosomes or by incubation temperature. Previously these two modes were thought to be distinct, yet we show that high incubation temperatures reverse genotypic males (ZZ) to phenotypic females in a lizard with ZZ and ZW sex chromosomes. Thus, the W chromosome is not necessary for female differentiation. Sex determination is probably via a dosage-sensitive male-determining gene on the Z chromosome that is inactivated by extreme temperatures. Our data invite a novel hypothesis for the evolution of temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) and suggest that sex chromosomes may exist in many TSD reptiles.
Descriptors: reptiles, temperature, sex reversal, sex gene, dosage, sex chromosomes, incubation, temperature dependent sex deterimation.

Ramos, I., S. Cisint, C.A. Crespo, M.F. Medina, and S.N. Fernandez (2002). Involvement of catecholamines in the regulation of oocyte maturation in frogs. Zygote 10(3): 271-281. ISSN: 0967-1994.
Descriptors: amphibians, Bufo arenarum, hormones, catecholamines, oogenesis, oocyte maturation, role of catecholamines.

Rastogi, R.K., L. Iela, M. di Meglio, M.M. Di Fiore, B. D'Aniello, C. Pinelli, and M. Fiorentino (2005). Hormonal regulation of reproductive cycles in amphibians. Amphibian Biology 6: 2045-2177.
Descriptors: amphibians, hormonal regulation, reproductive cycles, review, reproductive cycles.

Raucci, F. and M.M. Di Fiore (2007). The c-kit receptor protein in the testis of green frog Rana esculenta: seasonal changes in relationship to testosterone titres and spermatogonial proliferation. Reproduction 133(1): 51-60. ISSN: 1470-1626.
Abstract: The green frog Rana esculenta is a seasonal breeder. The cyclic changes between almost arrested and highly activated spermatogenesis offer an ideal model to study basic mechanisms of spermatogenesis. In this study, we demonstrated, to our knowledge for the first time, c-kit receptor positive cells in the testis of this amphibian. The presence of c-kit receptor protein was confirmed by western blotting (Wb) analyses carried out in the testis during all the three main phases of the sexual cycle. The antibody recognized a band of about 150 kDa that was correlated with the positive staining in the germinal epithelium. The immunolabelling for c-kit receptor, evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC), was localized in I and II spermatogonia (SPG), in I and II spermatocytes, in both elongating spermatids and spermatozoa and in the Leydig cells. Furthermore, c-kit expression showed a seasonal pattern connected with both testicular and plasma profiles of testosterone during the reproductive cycle. The highest expression of c-kit receptor occurred during the reproductive period, when the testis exhibited the maximum concentration of testosterone. In this period, the mitotic activity of germ cell, assessed by both Wb and IHC analyses for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), was intensive. Indeed, during the post-reproductive period, testosterone titres were the lowest and the expression of both PCNA and c-kit receptor protein in the testis, although present, is minor when compared with the reproductive phase. This evidence suggests that cell division can continue sufficiently to accumulate SPG for the next spring, when new germinal cells undergo multiplication. Finally, during the pre-reproductive period, testosterone levels begin to increase and mitotic activity of germinal epithelium is comparably enhanced. These events seem to precede the period of maximum stimulated spermatogonial proliferation, i.e. the reproductive period. These results suggest that the c-kit receptor may play a role in germ cell proliferation and provide a basis for future detailed investigation of regulatory factors of the proliferation of SPG.
Descriptors: green frog, Rana esculenta, seasonal breeder, spaermatogenesis, germ cell, amphibian, reproductive cycle, mitotic activity.

Reading, C.J. (2003). The effects of variation in climatic temperature (1980-2001) on breeding activity and tadpole stage duration in the common toad, Bufo bufo. Science of the Total Environment 310(1-3): 231-236. ISSN: 0048-9697.
Descriptors: amphibians, toad, Bufo bufo, breeding activity, climatic temperature, variation, effects, tadpole stage duration.

Reyer, H.U. and I. Battig (2004). Identification of reproductive status in female frogs - a quantitative comparison of nine methods. Herpetologica 60(3): 349-357. ISSN: 0018-0831.
NAL Call Number: QL640.H4
Descriptors: female frogs, reproductive status, identification, quantitative comparison, nine methods.

Roedel, M.O., K.P. Lampert, and K.E. Linsenmair (2006). Reproductive biology of the West African savannah frog Hyperolius nasutus Guenther, 1864 (Amphibia: Anura: Hyperoliidae). Herpetozoa 19(1-2): 3-12. ISSN: 1013-4425.
Descriptors: savannah frog, Hyperolius nasutus, reproductive biology, mating activities.
Language of Text: English; German.

Ruthig, G.R. (2003). The influence of infectious disease on amphibian egg-laying behavior. Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting Abstracts 88: 293. ISSN: 0012-9623.
Descriptors: amphibians, egg laying behavior, infectious disease, influence, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: 88th Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of America held jointly with the International Society for Ecological Modeling - North American Chapter, Savannah, Georgia, USA; August 03-08, 2003.

Saxena, S., K. Singhal, and Suman (2003). Effect of testosterone on the sex-differentiation in toad Bufo andersonii. Journal of Advanced Zoology 24(1-2): 21-26. ISSN: 0253-7214.
Descriptors: toad, Bufo andersonii, testosterone, effect, sex determination, sex differentiation, effects of testosterone.

Sequeira, F., N. Ferrand, and E.G. Crespo (2003). Reproductive cycle of the golden-striped salamander Chioglossa lusitanica (Caudata, Salamandridae) in nw Portugal. Amphibia Reptilia 24(1): 1-12. ISSN: 0173-5373.
Descriptors: amphibians, salamander, Chioglossa lusitanica, reproductive cycle, Portugal.

Servoss, J.M. and K.M. Sharrocks (2006). Rana chiricahuensis (Chiricahua leopard frog) and Rana catesbeiana (American bullfrog). Reproductive behavior. Herpetological Review 37(2): 208. ISSN: 0018-084X.
NAL Call Number: QL640.H47
Descriptors: Rana catesbeiana, bullfrog, Rana chiricahuensis, leopard frog, reproductive behavior, mating.

Sever, D.M. (2002). Female sperm storage in amphibians. Journal of Experimental Zoology 292(2): 165-179. ISSN: print: 0022-104X; online: 1097-010X.
NAL Call Number: 410 J825
Descriptors: amphibians, fertilization, sperm storage, mechanisms, reproductive system, sperm storage sites, mechanisms, comparative study.

Shalan, A.G., S.D. Bradshaw, P.C. Withers, G. Thompson, M.F.F. Bayomy, F.J. Bradshaw, and T. Stewart (2004). Spermatogenesis and plasma testosterone levels in Western Australian burrowing desert frogs, Cyclorana platycephala, Cyclorana maini, and Neobatrachus sutor, during aestivation. General and Comparative Endocrinology 136(1): 90-100. ISSN: 0016-6480.
NAL Call Number: 444.8 G28
Descriptors: amphibians, western burrowing frogs, Cyclorana maini, Cyclorana platycephala, Neobatrachus sutor, spermatogenesis and plasma testosterone levels in burrowing desert frogs, during estivation.

Smith, M.J., P.C. Withers, and J.D. Roberts (2003). Reproductive energetics and behavior of an Australian myobatrachid frog Crinia georgiana. Copeia 2003(2): 248-254. ISSN: 0045-8511.
Descriptors: frog, Crinia georgiana, amphibians, reproductive energetics, behavior, myobatrachid frog, male.

Som, C. and H.U. Reyer (2007). Hemiclonal reproduction slows down the speed of Muller's ratchet in the hybridogenetic frog Rana esculenta. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 20(2): 650-660. ISSN: 1010-061X.
Abstract: Rare recombination in otherwise asexually reproducing organisms is known to beneficially influence the fitness in small populations. In most of the investigated organisms, asexual and rare sexual generations with recombination follow each other sequentially. Here we present a case where clonal reproduction and rare recombination occur simultaneously in the same population. The hybridogenetic water frog Rana esculenta (E), a hybrid between R. lessonae (L) and R. ridibunda (R) produces gametes that only contain the unaltered maternal R part of their genome. New generations of R. esculenta usually arise from E x L matings. Intraspecific E x E matings produce mostly inviable offspring, but in rare cases, female R. ridibunda arise from such matings which are capable of recombination. In the absence of conspecific males, these R females have to mate with E males, which results in further R females, or with L males, which produces new E lineages. This indirect mechanism reintroduces recombination into the otherwise clonally transmitted R genomes in R. esculenta populations. In this study, we show through Monte Carlo simulations that, in most cases, it is sufficient that only between 1 % and 10 % of mixed water frog populations consist of R females to prevent or significantly reduce the fixation and accumulation of deleterious mutations.
Descriptors: frog, Rana esculenta, cyclical parthenogenesis, hybridogenesis, mutation accumulation, Rana lessonae, recombination.

Soud, R. and R. Das (2006). Observation on the courtship of bamboo tree frog Polypedates leucomystax (Gravenhorst) (Anura: Rhacophoridae). Cobra Chennai 63: 16-18.
Descriptors: Polypedates leucomystax, bamboo tree frog, courtship observations, reproduction, mating.

Stephenson, B. and P. Verrell (2003). Courtship and mating of the tailed frog (Ascaphus truei). Journal of Zoology 259(1): 15-22. ISSN: 0952-8369.
Descriptors: amphibians, tailed frog, Ascaphus truei, courtship, mating, anura.

Stevens, K. and M. Nelson (2006). The captive reproduction of Amazon milk frogs (Phrynohyas resinifictrix). Herptile 31(3): 79-82. ISSN: 0953-2021.
Descriptors: Amazon milk frogs, Phrynohyas resinifictrix, captive care, reproduction, breeding methods.

Sun, Z.G., W.H. Kong, Y.J. Zhang, S. Yan, J.N. Lu, Z. Gu, F. Lin, and J.K. Tso (2002). A novel ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase is involved in toad oocyte maturation. Cell Research 12(3-4): 199-206. ISSN: print: 1001-0602; online: 1748-7838.
Descriptors: amphibians, toad, Bufo bufo, novel ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase, oocyte maturation, progesterone induced.

Sundell, J.J. and B.R. Norman (2002). Ensatina eschscholtzii oregonensisxpicta [Oregonxpainted salamander intergrade]. Reproduction/brooding behavior. Herpetological Review 33(4): 297-298. ISSN: 0018-084X.
NAL Call Number: QL640.H47
Descriptors: amphibians, salamander, reproduction, brooding behavior.

Tsai, P.S., J.B. Lunden, and J.T. Jones (2003). Effects of steroid hormones on spermatogenesis and GnRH release in male Leopard frogs, Rana pipiens. General and Comparative Endocrinology 134(3): 330-338. ISSN: 0016-6480.
NAL Call Number: 444.8 G28
Descriptors: leopard frogs, male, Rana pipiens, steroid hormones, effects, spermatogenesis and gnRH release.

Tsuji, H. (2004). Reproductive ecology and mating success of male limnonectes kuhlii, a fanged frog from Taiwan. Herpetologica 60(2): 155-167. ISSN: 0018-0831.
NAL Call Number: QL640.H4
Descriptors: amphibians, fanged frog, limnonectes kuhlii, reproductive ecology, male mating success, body size, polygyny mating system, Taiwan.

Tyagi, R.S.A.N. (2002). Encyclopaedia of Amphibia. Volume 3. Amphibian Sex Organs., Anmol: New Delhi, 303 p. ISBN: 8126110236.
Descriptors: amphibians, encyclopedia, amphibian sex organs, reproductive system, sex organs.

Vaira, M. (2005). Annual variation of breeding patterns of the toad, Melanophryniscus rubriventris (Vellard, 1947). Amphibia Reptilia 26(2): 193-199. ISSN: 0173-5373.
Descriptors: toad, Melanophryniscus rubriventris, breeding patterns, annual variation.

Verrell, P.A. (2004). The male reproductive cycle of the North American salamander Ambystoma macrodactylum columbianum. Amphibia Reptilia 25(3): 349-356. ISSN: 0173-5373.
Descriptors: amphibians, Ambystoma macrodactylum columbianum, male reproductive cycle, North American salamander.

Verrell, P.a. (2006). The female reproductive cycle of the north american salamander ambystoma macrodactylum columbianum. Amphibia Reptilia 27(2): 274-277. ISSN: 0173-5373.
Descriptors: amphibians, salamander, Ambystoma macrodactylum columbianum., female, reproductive cycle.

Vladimirova, I.G., T.A. Alekseeva, and M.V. Nechaeva (2005). [Effect of temperature on the rate of oxygen consumption during the second half of embryonic and early postembryonic development of European pond turtle Emys orbicularis (Reptilia: Emydidae)]. Izvestiia Akademii Nauk. Seriia Biologicheskaia Rossiiskaia Akademiia Nauk(5): 585-591. ISSN: 1026-3470.
Abstract: Oxygen consumption by eggs of European pond turtle was determined at two constant incubation temperatures of 25 and 28 degrees C during the second half of embryogenesis. During development at both temperatures, the rate of oxygen consumption initially increased to remain constant during the last quarter of embryogenesis. The difference between the rates of oxygen consumption at these temperatures decreased during the studied period. The coefficient Q10 for the rate of oxygen consumption decreased from 9 to 1.7. At an incubation temperature of 28 degrees C, the changes in the rate of oxygen consumption in response to a short-term temperature decrease to 25 degrees C or increase to 30 degrees C depended on the developmental stage and were most pronounced at the beginning of the studied period. During late embryonic and first 2.5 months of postembryonic development, the rate of oxygen consumption did not significantly differ after such temperature changes. The regulatory mechanisms formed during embryonic development are proposed to maintain the level of oxygen consumption during temperature changes.
Descriptors: pond turtle, Emys orbicularis, temperature, turtles embryology, growth, development, oxygen consumption, eggs, turtles metabolism.
Language of Text: Russian.

Woolley, S.C., J.T. Sakata, and D. Crews (2004). Evolutionary insights into the regulation of courtship behavior in male amphibians and reptiles. Physiology and Behavior 83(2): 347-360. ISSN: 0031-9384.
Abstract: Comparative studies of species differences and similarities in the regulation of courtship behavior afford an understanding of evolutionary pressures and constraints shaping reproductive processes and the relative contributions of hormonal, genetic, and ecological factors. Here, we review species differences and similarities in the control of courtship and copulatory behaviors in male amphibians and reptiles, focusing on the role of sex steroid hormones, the neurohormone arginine vasotocin (AVT), and catecholamines. We discuss species differences in the sensory modalities used during courtship and in the neural correlates of these differences, as well as the value of particular model systems for neural evolution studies with regard to reproductive processes. For example, in some genera of amphibians (e.g., Ambystoma) and reptiles (e.g., Cnemidophorus), interspecific hybridizations occur, making it possible to compare the ancestral with the descendant species, and these systems provide a window into the process of behavioral and neural evolution as well as the effect of genome size. Though our understanding of the hormonal and neural correlates of mating behavior in a variety of amphibian and reptilian species has advanced substantially, more studies that manipulate hormone or neurotransmitter systems are required to assess the functions of these systems.
Descriptors: amphibians, reptiles, courtship behavior, male, hormonal, genetic, species differences, copulatory behaviors.

Xie Feng, Fei Liang, Ye Chang Yuan, Wang Zu Wang, and Cai Chun Mo (2002). Oviposition sites and their effects on the reproductive success in the Chinhai salamander (Echinotriton chinhaiensis). Acta Zoologica Sinica 48(4): 554-557. ISSN: 0001-7302.
NAL Call Number: 410 AC87
Descriptors: amphibians, salamander, Echinotriton chinhaiensis, Chinhai salamanders, oviposition sites, effect, reproductive success.
Language of Text: Chinese.

Yurewicz, K.L. and H.M. Wilbur (2004). Resource availability and costs of reproduction in the salamander Plethodon cinereus. Copeia 2004(1): 28-36. ISSN: 0045-8511.
Descriptors: salamander, Plethodon cinereus, costs of reproduction, resource avaialability.

Zheng, R.Q., W.G. Du, and L. Shou (2002). Sexual dimorphism and female reproductive characteristics in the black-spotted pond frog, Pelophylax nigromaculata. Chinese Journal of Zoology 37(4): 14-18. ISSN: 0250-3263.
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, Pelophylax nigromaculata, biometrics, morphological sex differences, morphometrics, egg number, clutch size, female size relationships, Zhejiang, Jinhua, sexual dimorphism, clutch size.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in Chinese and English.



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