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Information Resources on Amphibians & Reptiles
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Aggeli, I.K.S., C. Gaitanaki, A. Lazou, and I. Beis (2002). Hyperosmotic and thermal stresses activate p38-MAPK in the perfused amphibian heart. Journal of Experimental Biology 205(4): 443-454. ISSN: 0022-0949.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 B77
Descriptors: amphibians, Rana ridibunda, enzymes, p38 mapk activation, effects of thermal and osmotic stresses in perfused heart, functional implications, heart, salinity, temperature.

Ahmad, M., M. Ahmad, R. Hasan, and A. Qureshi (2005). The effects of isoniazid (INH) on the hematocrit of the lizard, Uromastix hardwickii. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 18(1): 52-54. ISSN: 1011-601X.
Abstract: In recent years isoniazid has been used as an antituberculous chemophylactic agent. Severe adverse reactions have been reported following its extensive treatment. In addition to hepatic and neurologic disturbances, hematologic alterations have also been reported. Present study was conducted to determine the effect of 0.06 mg isoniazid on the lacertilian packed cell volume. It was 14.0 per cent on day 5, 18.0 and 19.8 per cent on day 10 and day 15 respectively, whereas, it was 24.0, 24.2 and 24.6 per cent in controls on day 5, 10 and day 15 respectively.
Descriptors: lizard, antitubercular agents adverse effects, erythrocytes drug effects, iguanas blood, isoniazid adverse effects, administration, oral, erythrocytes cytology, hematocrit.

Ahmad, M., R. Hasan, M. Ahmad, A. Qureshi, Z. Ahmed, and S. Mansoor (2005). The effects of mefenamic acid on the blood haemoglobin of the lizard, Uromastix hardwickii. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 18(4): 41-45. ISSN: 1011-601X.
Abstract: This study deals with the effect of 7.1 mg/day, 10.5 mg/day and 14 mg/day doses of mefenamic acid administered for 12 days to three groups of Uromastix hardwickii respectively. Individual blood samples were obtained from the anterior abdominal vein and hemoglobin content was determined. The hemoglobin in test was 5.1 g/100 ml compared to 8.0 g/100 ml of controls in experiment I and its amount remained almost similar in the case of experiment II, whereas, 4.5 g/100 ml was observed of test compared to 8.0 g/100 ml of their counterparts.
Descriptors: lizard, anti inflammatory agents, non steroidal pharmacology, hemoglobins metabolism, lizards blood, mefenamic acid pharmacology, indicators, reagents, methemoglobin analogs, derivatives, methemoglobin chemistry, reference standards.

Alberio, S.O., J.A. Diniz, E.O. Silva, W. de Souza, and R.A. DaMatta (2005). Cytochemical and functional characterization of blood and inflammatory cells from the lizard Ameiva ameiva. Tissue and Cell 37(3): 193-202. ISSN: 0040-8166.
NAL Call Number: QH573.T5
Abstract: The fine structure and differential cell count of blood and coelomic exudate leukocytes were studied with the aim to identify granulocytes from Ameiva ameiva, a lizard distributed in the tropical regions of the Americas. Blood leukocytes were separated with a Percoll cushion and coelomic exudate cells were obtained 24 h after intracoelomic thioglycollate injection. In the blood, erythrocytes, monocytes, thrombocytes, lymphocytes, plasma cells and four types of granulocytes were identified based on their morphology and cytochemistry. Types I and III granulocytes had round intracytoplasmic granules with the same basic morphology; however, type III granulocyte had a bilobued nucleus and higher amounts of heterochromatin suggesting an advance stage of maturation. Type II granulocytes had fusiformic granules and more mitochondria. Type IV granulocytes were classified as the basophil mammalian counterpart based on their morphology and relative number. Macrophages and granulocytes type III were found in the normal coelomic cavity. However, after the thioglycollate injection the number of type III granulocyte increased. Granulocytes found in the coelomic cavity were related to type III blood granulocyte based on the morphology and cytochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase and basic proteins in their intracytoplasmic granules. Differential blood leukocyte counts showed a predominance of type III granulocyte followed by lymphocyte, type I granulocyte, type II granulocyte, monocyte and type IV granulocyte. Taken together, these results indicate that types I and III granulocytes correspond to the mammalian neutrophils/heterophils and type II to the eosinophil granulocytes.
Descriptors: lizard blood, blood platelets ultrastructure, erythrocytes ultrastructure, granulocytes ultrastructure, lizard anatomy, histology, lymphocytes ultrastructure, electron microscopy, transmission, monocytes ultrastructure.

Arikan, H., M.K. Atatur, and M. Tosunoglu (2003). A study on the blood cells of the Caucasus Frog, Pelodytes caucasicus. Zoology in the Middle East 30: 43-47. ISSN: 0939-7140.
Descriptors: amphibian, Pelodytes caucasicus, size, blood cells, study, characterization, Caucasus frog.
Language of Text: English; German.

Azevedo, R.A., A.S. de Jesus Santana, and L. de Brito Gitirana (2006). Dermal collagen organization in Bufo ictericus and in Rana catesbeiana integument (Anuran, Amphibian) under the evaluation of laser confocal microscopy. Micron 37(3): 223-228. ISSN: 0968-4328.
Descriptors: amphibians, Bufo ictericus, Rana catesbeiana, dermal collagen organization, evaluation, laser confocal microscopy.

Banerjee, S.N. and S. Chakrabarti (2003). Chromosomal sex determination in anuran amphibians. Hamadryad 27(2): 248-253. ISSN: 0972-205X.
Descriptors: Anura, amphibians, genetics, chromosomal sex determination, overview.

Bardeleben, C., M.M. Gray, and C.J. Hoskin (2006). Isolation of polymorphic tetranucleotide microsatellite markers for the ornate nursery frog Cophixalus ornatus. Molecular Ecology Notes 6(3): 888-890. ISSN: 1471-8278.
Abstract: We have isolated 18 polymorphic microsatellite loci for Cophixalus ornatus from genomic libraries enriched for (AAAG)n, (AACC)n and (AAGG)n repetitive elements. The number of alleles ranges from five to 22 per locus with the observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.10 to 0.92. These markers will be useful for the analysis of population structure in C. ornatus and testing alternative models of speciation.
Descriptors: frog, microsatellite markers, isolation, genomic libraries, models of speciation.

Barnes, W.J.P., C. Oines, and J.M. Smith (2006). Whole animal measurements of shear and adhesive forces in adult tree frogs: insights into underlying mechanisms of adhesion obtained from studying the effects of size and scale. Journal of Comparative Physiology A Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology 192(11): 1179-1191. ISSN: 0340-7594.
NAL Call Number: QP33.J68
Abstract: This allometric study of adhesion in 15 Trinidadian tree frog species investigates how relationships between length, area and mass limit the ability of adult frog species of different sizes to adhere to inclined and overhanging surfaces. Our experiments show that hylid frogs possess an area-based wet adhesive system in which larger species are lighter than expected from isometry and adhere better than expected from their toe pad area. However, in spite of these adaptations, larger species adhere less well than smaller species. In addition to these adhesive forces, tree frogs also generate significant shear forces that scale with mass, suggesting that they are frictional forces. Toe pads detach by peeling and frogs have strategies to prevent peeling from taking place while they are adhering to surfaces, including orienting themselves head-up on slopes. The scaling of tree frog adhesion is also used to distinguish between different models for adhesion, including classic formulae for capillarity and Stefan adhesion. These classic equations grossly overestimate the adhesive forces that tree frogs produce. More promising are peeling models, designed to predict the pull-off forces of adhesive tape. However, more work is required before we can qualitatively and quantitatively describe the adhesive mechanism of tree frogs.
Descriptors: tree frogs, adhesive forces, length, mass limit, adherance, wet adhesive system, adhesive mechanism.

Bartelt, P.E. and C.R. Peterson (2005). Physically modeling operative temperatures and evaporation rates in amphibians. Journal of Thermal Biology 30(2): 93-102. ISSN: 0306-4565.
NAL Call Number: QP82.2.T4J6
Descriptors: amphibians, Bufo boreas, physiological techniques, evaporation rate, physical model, temperature, thermal properties.

Basaglia, F. (2004). Comparative study of electrophoretic and isoelectrophoretic characteristics of osteichthyan and amphibian hemoglobin. Italian Journal of Zoology 71(4): 287-295. ISSN: 1125-0003.
NAL Call Number: QL1.B55
Descriptors: amphibians, osteichthyes, hemoglobin, electrophoretic and isoelectrophoretic characteristics, comparative study.

Beebee, T.J.C. (2005). Conservation genetics of amphibians. Heredity 95(6): 423-427. ISSN: 0018-067X.
Descriptors: amphibians, genetics research, conservation genetics.

Belzile, O., E. Simard, R. Gulemetova, A. Bairam, and R. Kinkead (2004). Un modele amphibien pour l'etude du developpement du controle de la respiration. [Amphibians as a model system for the investigation of respiratory control development]. Medecine Sciences MS 20(10): 904-908. ISSN: 0767-0974.
Abstract: Recent medical advances have made it possible for babies to survive premature birth at increasingly earlier developmental stages. This population requires costly and sophisticated medical care to address the problems associated with immaturity of the respiratory system. In addition to pulmonary complications, respiratory instability and apnea reflecting immaturity of the respiratory control system are major causes of hospitalization and morbidity in this highly vulnerable population. These medical concerns, combined with the curiosity of physiologists, have contributed to the expansion of research in respiratory neurobiology. While most researchers working in this field commonly use rodents as an animal model, recent research using in vitro brainstem preparation from bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) have revealed the technical advantages of this animal model, and shown that the basic principles underlying respiratory control and its ontogeny are very similar between these two groups of vertebrates. The present review highlights the recent advances in the area of research with a focus on intermittent (episodic) breathing and the role of serotonergic and GABAergic modulation of respiratory activity during development.
Descriptors: amphibians, bull frogs, animal model system, respiratory control system, episodicbreathing investigation, premature birth of human babies, immaturity, rodents.
Language of Text: French.

Bernareggi, A., Z. Duenas, J.M. Reyes Ruiz, F. Ruzzier, and R. Miledi (2007). Properties of glutamate receptors of Alzheimer's disease brain transplanted to frog oocytes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 104(8): 2956-2960. ISSN: 0027-8424.
NAL Call Number: 500 N21P
Abstract: It is known that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a synaptic disease that involves various neurotransmitter systems, particularly those where synaptic transmission is mediated by acetylcholine or glutamate (Glu). Nevertheless, very little is known about the properties of neurotransmitter receptors of the AD human brain. We have shown previously that cell membranes, carrying neurotransmitter receptors from the human postmortem brain, can be transplanted to frog oocytes, and their receptors will still be functional. Taking advantage of this fact, we have now studied the properties of Glu receptors (GluRs) from the cerebral cortices of AD and non-AD brains and found that oocytes injected with AD membranes acquired GluRs that have essentially the same functional properties as those of oocytes injected with membranes from non-AD brains. However, the amplitudes of the currents elicited by Glu were always smaller in the oocytes injected with membranes from AD brains. Western blot analyses of the same membrane preparations used for the electrophysiological studies showed that AD membranes contained significantly fewer GluR2/3 subunit proteins. Furthermore, the corresponding mRNAs were also diminished in the AD brain. Therefore, the smaller amplitude of membrane currents elicited by Glu in oocytes injected with membranes from an AD brain is a consequence of a reduced number of GluRs in cell membranes transplanted from the AD brain. Thus, using the comparatively simple method of microtransplantation of receptors, it is now possible to determine the properties of neurotransmitter receptors of normal and diseased human brains. That knowledge may help to decipher the etiology of the diseases and also to develop new treatments.
Descriptors: frogs, animal model for Alzheimer's disease, oocytes, glutamate receptors, disease brain, transplanted, neurotransmitter system.

Birinyi, A., G. Szekely, K. Csapo, and C. Matesz (2004). Quantitative morphological analysis of the motoneurons innervating muscles involved in tongue movements of the frog Rana esculenta. Journal of Comparative Neurology 470(4): 409-421. ISSN: 0021-9967.
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, tongue movements, innervating muscles, morphological analysis, protractor, retractor, inner, prey catching.

Brinkworth, C.S., J.H. Bowie, M.J. Tyler, and J.C. Wallace (2002). A comparison of the antimicrobial skin peptides of the New Guinea tree frog (Litoria genimaculata) and the fringed tree frog (Litoria eucnemis). Australian Journal of Chemistry 55(9): 605-610. ISSN: 0004-9425.
Descriptors: New guinea tree frog, Litoria eucnemis, fringed tree frog, Litoria genimaculata, comparison, antimicrobial skin peptides.

Broquet, T., L. Berset Braendli, G. Emaresi, and L. Fumagalli (2007). Buccal swabs allow efficient and reliable microsatellite genotyping in amphibians. Conservation Genetics 8(2): 509-511. ISSN: 1566-0621.
Descriptors: amphibians, buccal swabs, microsatellite genotyping, efficient, reliable.

Buchanan, B.W. (2006). Observed and potential effects of artificial night lighting on anuran amphibians. In: C. Rich and T. Longcore (Editors), Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting., Island Press: Washington, DC, p. 192-200. ISBN: 1559631287.
NAL Call Number: QH545.E98 E26 2006
Descriptors: amphibians, anurans, exterior lighting, environmental aspects, artificial night lighting, observed and potential effects.

Buchholz, D.R., B.D. Paul, and Y.B. Shi (2005). Gene-specific changes in promoter occupancy by thyroid hormone receptor during frog metamorphosis: Implications for developmental gene regulation. Journal of Biological Chemistry 280(50): 41222-41228. ISSN: 0021-9258.
NAL Call Number: 381 J824
Abstract: In all vertebrates, thyroid hormones (TH) affect postembryonic development. The role of the TH receptor (TR) in mediating the TH signal is complex as evidenced by divergent phenotypes in mice lacking TH compared with TR knock-out mice. We have proposed a dual function model for TR during development based on studies of frog metamorphosis. Here we examined an important assumption of this dual function model by using the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, namely constitutive TR binding to promoters in vivo. We examined two target genes with TH-response elements (TRE) in their promoters, TR[beta] itself and TH/bZIP (TH-responsive basic leucine zipper transcription factor). By using an antibody that recognizes both TR[alpha] and TR[beta], we found that TR binding to the TR[beta] promoter is indeed constitutive. Most surprisingly, TR binding to the TH/bZIP promoter increases dramatically after TH treatment of premetamorphic tadpoles and during metamorphosis. By using an antibody specific to TR[beta],TR[beta] binding increases at both promoters in response to TH. In vitro biochemical studies showed that TRs bind TH/bZIP TRE with 4-fold lower affinity than to TR[beta] TRE. Our data show that only high affinity TR[beta] TRE is occupied by limiting levels of TR during premetamorphosis and that lower affinity TH/bZIP TRE becomes occupied only when overall the TR expression is higher during metamorphosis. These data provide the first in vivo evidence to suggest that one mechanism for tissue- and gene-specific regulation of TR target gene expression is through tissue and developmental stage-dependent regulation of TR levels, likely a critical mechanism for coordinating development in different organs during postembryonic development.
Descriptors: frog, postembryotic development, gene specific changes, thyroid hormones, metamorphosis, gene regulation.

Burlibasa, L., N. Cucu, and L. Gavrila (2005). Amphibians as model organisms for studying the dynamics of eukaryote genetic material architecture. Wildlife Biology in Practice 1(1): 24-32. ISSN: print: 1646-1509; online: 1646-2742.
Descriptors: amphibia, animal model, study of dynamics of eukaryote genetic architecture, review, cytogenetics.

Calzolai, L., D.A. Lysek, D.R. Perez, P. Guntert, and K. Wuthrich (2005). Prion protein NMR structures of chickens, turtles, and frogs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102(3): 651-655. ISSN: print: 0027-8424; online: 1091-6490.
NAL Call Number: 500 N21P
Abstract: The NMR structures of the recombinant prion proteins from chicken (Gallus gallus; chPrP), the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta; tPrP), and the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis; xlPrP) are presented. The amino acid sequences of these prion proteins show approximately 30% identity with mammalian prion proteins. All three species form the same molecular architecture as mammalian PrP(C), with a long, flexibly disordered tail attached to the N-terminal end of a globular domain. The globular domain in chPrP and tPrP contains three alpha-helices, one short 3(10)-helix, and a short antiparallel beta-sheet. In xlPrP, the globular domain includes three alpha-helices and a somewhat longer beta-sheet than in the other species. The spatial arrangement of these regular secondary structures coincides closely with that of the globular domain in mammalian prion proteins. Based on the low sequence identity to mammalian PrPs, comparison of chPrP, tPrP, and xlPrP with mammalian PrP(C) structures is used to identify a set of essential amino acid positions for the preservation of the same PrP(C) fold in birds, reptiles, amphibians, and mammals. There are additional conserved residues without apparent structural roles, which are of interest for the ongoing search for physiological functions of PrP(C) in healthy organisms.
Descriptors: prions, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, chickens, Trachemys scripta, turtles, Xenopus laevis, frogs, amino acid sequences, protein secondary structure.

Carr, J.A. and P.E. Zozzaro (2004). The toad iris assay: a simple method for evaluating CRH action on the sympathetic nervous system. General and Comparative Endocrinology 135(1): 134-141. ISSN: 0016-6480.
NAL Call Number: 444.8 G28
Descriptors: toad, Bufo speciosus, iris assay, evaluating CRH action, sympathetic nervous system, simple method, evaluating.

Carrasquer, G. and M. Li (2002). Effect of ibuprofen and rofecoxib transport parameters in the frog corneal epithelium. Journal of Membrane Biology 190(2): 127-132. ISSN: 0022-2631.
NAL Call Number: QH573.J6
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, ibuprofen, effect, corneal epithelium, rofecoxib transport parameters, cox inhibitors.

Carrasquer, G., M. Li, and M. Schartz (2002). Effect of ibuprofen (ibu) on ion transport in the frog gastric epithelium. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 13(Program and Abstracts Issue): 671A. ISSN: 1046-6673.
Descriptors: frog, gastric epithelium, ibuprofen effect, ion transport, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: Meeting of the American Society of Nephrology, Philadelphia, PA, USA; October 30-November 04, 2002.

Carrasquer, G., M. Li, and M. Schwartz (2003). Effect of ibuprofen on transport parameters in the resting frog gastric mucosa. FASEB Journal 17(4-5): Abstract No. 330.15. ISSN: 0892-6638.
NAL Call Number: QH301.F3
Descriptors: ibuprofen, transport parameters, resting frog gastric mucosa, effect, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: FASEB Meeting on Experimental Biology: Translating the Genome, San Diego, CA, USA; April 11-15, 2003.

Chang, C., A.H. Brivanlou, and R.M. Harland (2006). Function of the two Xenopus Smad4s in early frog development. Journal of Biological Chemistry 281(41): 30794-30803. ISSN: 0021-9258.
NAL Call Number: 381 J824
Abstract: Signals from the transforming growth factor (Sb(B family members are transmitted in the cell through specific receptor-activated Smads and a common partner Smad4. Two Smad4 genes ((Sa(B and (Sb(B/10, or smad4 and smad4.2) have been isolated from Xenopus, and conflicting data are reported for Smad4(Sb(B/10 actions in mesodermal and neural induction. To further understand the functions of the Smad4s in early frog development, we analyzed their activities in detail. We report that Smad10 is a mutant form of Smad4(Sb(B that harbors a missense mutation of a conserved arginine to histidine in the MH1 domain. The mutation results in enhanced association of Smad10 with the nuclear transcription corepressor Ski and leads to its neural inducing activity through inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. In contrast to Smad10, both Smad4(Sa(B and Smad4(Sb(B enhanced BMP signals in ectodermal explants. Using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) to knockdown endogenous Smad4 protein levels, we discovered that Smad4(Sb(B was required for both activin- and BMP-mediated mesodermal induction in animal caps, whereas Smad4(Sa(B affected only the BMP signals. Neither Smad4 was involved directly in neural induction. Expression of Smad4(Sb(B-MO in early frog embryos resulted in reduction of mesodermal markers and defects in axial structures, which were rescued by either Smad4(Sa(B or Smad4(Sb(B. Smad4(Sa(B-MO induced only minor deficiency at late stages. As Smad4(Sb(B, but not Smad4(Sa(B, is expressed at high levels maternally and during early gastrulation, our data suggest that although Smad4(Sa(B and Smad4(Sb(B may have similar activities, they are differentially utilized during frog embryogenesis, with only Smad4(Sb(B being essential for mesoderm induction.
Descriptors: Xenopus, early frog development, growth factor, Smad4 genes, embryos.

Chemeris, N.K., A.B. Gapeyev, N.P. Sirota, O.Y. Gudkova, N.V. Kornienko, A.V. Tankanag, I.V. Konovalov, M.E. Buzoverya, V.G. Suvorov, and V.A. Logunov (2004). DNA damage in frog erythrocytes after in vitro exposure to a high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic field. Mutation Research 558(1-2): 27-34. ISSN: 0027-5107.
NAL Call Number: QH431.M8
Abstract: Till the present time, the genotoxic effects of high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic fields (HPPP EMF) on cultured cells have not been studied. We investigated possible genotoxic effects of HPPP EMF (8.8 GHz, 180 ns pulse width, peak power 65 kW, repetition rate 50 Hz) on erythrocytes of the frog Xenopus laevis. We used the alkaline comet assay, which is a highly sensitive method to assess DNA single-strand breaks and alkali-labile lesions. Blood samples were exposed to HPPP EMF for 40 min in rectangular wave guide. The specific absorption rate (SAR) calculated from temperature kinetics was about 1.6 kW/kg (peak SAR was about 300 MW/kg). The temperature rise in the blood samples at steady state was 3.5 +/- 0.1 degrees C. The data show that the increase in DNA damage after exposure of erythrocytes to HPPP EMF was induced by the rise in temperature in the exposed cell suspension. This was confirmed in experiments in which cells were incubated for 40 min under the corresponding temperature conditions. The results allow us to conclude that HPPP EMF-exposure at the given modality did not cause any a-thermal genotoxic effect on frog erythrocytes in vitro.
Descriptors: frog, Xenopus laevis, erythrocytes, DNA damage, electromagnetic fields, invitro exposure, high peak power pulse.

Chinchar, V.G., L. Bryan, U. Silphadaung, E. Noga, D. Wade, and L. Rollins Smith (2004). Inactivation of viruses infecting ectothermic animals by amphibian and piscine antimicrobial peptides. Virology 323(2): 268-275. ISSN: 0042-6822.
Descriptors: amphibian, piscine, viruses, ectothermic animals, antimicrobial peptides, virus inactivation.

Christensen, J.R., C.A. Bishop, J.S. Richardson, B. Pauli, and J. Elliott (2004). Validation of an amphibian sperm inhibition toxicological test method using zinc. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23(12): 2950-2955. ISSN: 0730-7268.
NAL Call Number: QH545.A1E58
Abstract: Analysis of sperm has been investigated as a possible method to examine the toxicity of environmental contaminants. The amphibian sperm inhibition toxicological test (ASITT) method examines the effects of contaminants on Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) sperm motility and path trajectories. As part of a preliminary validation of the method, the effects of increasing divalent metal ion, zinc (Zn2+), on X. laevis sperm motility were examined. We hypothesized that Zn2+ concentration would have significant inhibitory effects on percent sperm motility, velocities, and trajectories. The Zn2+ was added to a control solution in concentrations from 0 to 1,417 microg/L. Sperm cells were videotaped at 30 frames per second under x 400 microscope, and percent motility was recorded and paths were mapped by marking the change in position of the sperm head over a period of 1 s. Sperm motility was categorized as progressive, hyperactivated, idle, or nonmotile, and velocities and trajectories were calculated on the basis of x,y coordinates. Increasing Zn2+ concentrations caused a significant exponential decay in percent total motility and progressive motility. Straight-line velocity increased with increasing Zn2+ concentrations. Overall, results suggest that Zn2+ may be interfering with cellular processes, such as cellular respiration, flagellar bending, or ion exchange, thereby inhibiting sperm motility.
Descriptors: amphibian, toad, Xenopus laevis, sperm motility, inhibition, toxicological tests methods, pollutants, zinc, chemical toxicity, reproducibility of results.

Claas, B. and J. Dean (2006). Prey-capture in the African clawed toad (Xenopus laevis): comparison of turning to visual and lateral line stimuli. Journal of Comparative Physiology A Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology 192(10): 1021-1036. ISSN: 0340-7594.
NAL Call Number: QP33.J68
Abstract: Separately delivered visual and lateral line stimuli elicit similar but not identical orientation and approach by intact, sighted Xenopus. Response frequencies for visual stimuli declined sharply for distant or caudal stimuli while those for lateral line stimuli changed little. Turn angles correlated highly with stimulus angles but were smaller on average, so regression slopes were less than one. Regression slopes were smaller for visual than for lateral line stimuli, but this apparent difference was due to different distributions of stimulus distance interacting with the toad's rotation center. Errors in final headings, most often under-rotations, did not differ by modality. Frequencies of lunges and arm capture movements were higher for visual stimuli both overall and especially for rostral proximal stimuli. The results demonstrate accurate orientation by sighted Xenopus to visual and lateral line stimuli; they are consistent with expectations based on in-register tectal maps. Orientation to lateral line stimuli is similar to previous results with blinded animals, revealing no heightened acuity in the latter. Modality differences indicate that the lateral line system is better for omnidirectional orientation and approach to distant stimuli whereas the visual system is more attuned to nearby rostral stimuli and more apt to mediate strikes.
Descriptors: toad, pret capture, visual, lateral line, stimuli, response, sighted, blinded.

Cobellis, G., G. Cacciola, D. Scarpa, R. Meccariello, R. Chianese, M.F. Franzoni, K. Mackie, R. Pierantoni, and S. Fasano (2006). Endocannabinoid system in frog and rodent testis: type-1 cannabinoid receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase activity in male germ cells. Biology of Reproduction 75(1): 82-89. ISSN: 0006-3363.
Abstract: N-arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide [AEA]) is the main endocannabinoid described to date in the testis. It exerts its effects through the activation of G-protein coupled cannabinoid receptors (CNR). However, the activity of AEA in controlling male reproduction is still poorly known. Here we provide direct evidence on the presence of the "endocannabinoid system," constituted by type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CNR1) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), in the frog Rana esculenta testis demonstrating its expression in tubular compartment. In fact, during the annual reproductive cycle, both proteins increase in September, when the appearance of spermatids (SPT) occurs. Immunocytochemistry confirms their localization in germ cells and, in particular, in elongated SPT. Signals are still present in spermatozoa (SPZ), as demonstrated by Western blot analysis. Furthermore, the activation of CNR1 reduces sperm motility. Comparative research, carried out using mouse and rat SPZ, definitely indicates that the endocannabinoid system operates in SPZ of phylogenetically distant species. A conserved physiological role of endocannabinoid system in controlling the inhibition of sperm motility is suggested.
Descriptors: frog, Rana esculenta, rodent, testis, endocannabinoid dydtem, receptor, fatty acid, spermatids, germ cells.

Cobellis, G., M. Lombardi, D. Scarpa, G. Izzo, G. Fienga, R. Meccariello, R. Pierantoni, and S. Fasano (2005). Fra1 activity in the frog, Rana esculenta, testis: A new potential role in sperm transport. Biology of Reproduction 72(5): 1101-1108. ISSN: 0006-3363.
NAL Call Number: QL876.B5
Abstract: Using an anti-Fos family member antibody, we have previously described in Rana esculenta testis the presence of a nuclear, 43 kDa protein that we hypothesized to be Fra1. With the assistance of an antibody against Fra1 that does not cross-react with other Fos family members, here we report data on Fra1 expression, localization, and putative activity in Rana esculenta testis during its annual reproductive cycle. Western blot analysis confirms that the nuclear, 43 kDa protein is Fra1. Immunocytochemistry validates the Western blot results and shows cytoplasmic and nuclear immunostaining of Fra1 in peritubular myoid cells, efferent ducts, and blood vessels. We report for the first time in a vertebrate, experimental evidence showing that the expression of Fra1 is related to peritubular myoid cells during sperm transport from the tubular compartment to efferent ducts.
Descriptors: frog, Rana esculenta, Fral activity, sperm transport, antibody, reproductive cycle, Western blot, efferent ducts.

Collins, J.P., J.L. Brunner, J.K. Jancovich, and D.M. Schock (2004). A model host-pathogen system for studying infectious disease dynamics in amphibians: tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) and Ambystoma tigrinum virus. Herpetological Journal 14(4): 195-200. ISSN: 0268-0130.
Descriptors: amphibians, tiger salamanders, Ambystoma tigrinum, model host pathogen system, studying infectious disease, dynamics, virus.

Conlon, J.M. (2004). The therapeutic potential of antimicrobial peptides from frog skin. Reviews in Medical Microbiology 15(1): 17-25. ISSN: 0954-139X.
Descriptors: amphibians, Xenopus laevis, African clawed frog, frog skin, antimicrobial peptides, therapeutic potential.

Conlon, J.M., J. Kolodziejek, and N. Nowotny (2004). Antimicrobial peptides from ranid frogs: taxonomic and phylogenetic markers and a potential source of new therapeutic agents. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta 1696(1): 1-14. ISSN: 0304-4165.
Abstract: Granular glands in the skins of frogs of the genus Rana, a widely distributed group with over 250 species, synthesize and secrete a remarkably diverse array of peptides with antimicrobial activity that are believed to have arisen as a result of multiple gene duplication events. Almost without exception, these components are hydrophobic, cationic and form an amphipathic alpha-helix in a membrane-mimetic solvent. The peptides can be grouped into families on the basis of structural similarity. To date, brevinin-1, esculentin-1, esculentin-2, and temporin peptides have been found in ranid frogs of both Eurasian and North American origin; ranalexin, ranatuerin-1, ranatuerin-2 and palustrin peptides only in N. American frogs; and brevinin-2, tigerinin, japonicin, nigrocin and melittin-related peptides only in Eurasian frogs. It is generally assumed that this structurally diversity serves to protect the organism against a wide range of pathogens but convincing evidence in support of this hypothesis is still required. The possibility that "antimicrobial peptides" fulfill additional or alternative biological functions should not be rejected. The molecular heterogeneity of the peptide families, particularly brevinin-1, brevinin-2 and ranatuerin-2, may be exploited for the purposes of unequivocal identification of specimens and for an understanding of phylogenetic interrelationships between species. The broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal activities of certain peptides, for example esculentin-1, ranalexin-1 and ranatuerin, together with their relatively low hemolytic activity, make them candidates for development into therapeutically useful anti-infective agents.
Descriptors: Rana, frogs, skins, granular glands, antimicrobial peptides, possible new therapeutic agents, anti infective agents.

Conlon, J.M., A. Sonnevend, C. Davidson, A. Demandt, and T. Jouenne (2005). Host-defense peptides isolated from the skin secretions of the Northern red-legged frog Rana aurora aurora. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 29(1): 83-90. ISSN: 0145-305X.
Descriptors: Northern red-legged frog Rana aurora aurora, antimicrobial cationic peptides, isolation and purification, bacteria drug effects, Ranidae immunology, skin chemistry, amino acid sequence, antimicrobial cationic peptides, immunology, pharmacology, chromatography, high pressure liquid, hemolysis, immunity, natural, molecular sequence data, norepinephrine pharmacology, ranidae metabolism, microbiology, skin secretion.

Conlon, J.M., N. Al Ghaferi, B. Abraham, Hu Jiansheng, P. Cosette, J. Leprince, T. Jouenne, and H. Vaudry (2006). Antimicrobial peptides from diverse families isolated from the skin of the asian frog, Rana grahami. Peptides 27(9): 2111-2117. ISSN: 0196-9781.
Descriptors: amphibians, Asian frog, Rana grahami, skin, antimicrobial peptides, skin extract, nigrocin, brevinin-1, brevinin-2, esculentin-1.

Cox, C.M., S.L. D'agostino, M.K. Miller, R.L. Heimark, and P.A. Krieg (2006). Apelin, the ligand for the endothelial g-protein-coupled receptor, apj, is a potent angiogenic factor required for normal vascular development of the frog embryo. Developmental Biology 296(1): 177-189. ISSN: 0012-1606.
Descriptors: amphibians, Xenopus, frog embryo, vascular development, apelin, peptide growth factor, angiogenic factor.

Crespi, E.J. and R.J. Denver (2006). Physiological control of metamorphosis and growth in amphibians. Journal of Experimental Zoology 305A(2): 119. ISSN: print: 1548-8969; online: 1552-499X.
NAL Call Number: 410 J825
Descriptors: amphibians, growth, metamorphosis, physiological control, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: 15th International Congress of Comparative Endocrinology, Boston, MA, USA; May 22 -27, 2005.

Daly, J.W., T.F. Spande, and H.M. Garraffo (2005). Alkaloids from amphibian skin: a tabulation of over eight hundred compounds. Journal of Natural Products 68(10): 1556-1575. ISSN: 0163-3864.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 L77
Descriptors: amphibians, skin, alkaloids, tabulation, eight hundred compounds.

Davis, A., L.B. Slusher, and J.T. Beneski (2002). A novel method for the extraction and amplification of DNA from amphibians. Herpetological Review 33(2): 104-105. ISSN: 0018-084X.
NAL Call Number: QL640.H47
Descriptors: amphibians, plethodontidae, cytogenetic techniques, DNA extraction, amplification technique, novel method, procedures, technique evaluation, nucleic acids, molecular genetics, DNA.

Davison, A.J., C. Cunningham, W. Sauerbier, and R.G. Mckinnell (2006). Genome sequences of two frog herpesviruses. Journal of General Virology 87(Part 12): 3509-3514. ISSN: 0022-1317.
NAL Call Number: QR360.A1J6
Descriptors: amphibians, herpesviruses, genome sequences, ranid herpesevirus 1, ranid herpesvirus 2, DNA, sequences.

Davit Beal, T., H. Chisaka, S. Delgado, and J.Y. Sire (2007). Amphibian teeth: current knowledge, unanswered questions, and some directions for future research. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 82(1): 49-81. ISSN: print: 1464-7931; online: 1469-185X.
Abstract: Elucidation of the mechanisms controlling early development and organogenesis is currently progressing in several model species and a new field of research, evolutionary developmental biology, which integrates developmental and comparative approaches, has emerged. Although the expression pattern of many genes during tooth development in mammals is known, data on other lineages are virtually non-existent. Comparison of tooth development, and particularly of gene expression (and function) during tooth morphogenesis and differentiation, in representative species of various vertebrate lineages is a prerequisite to understand what makes one tooth different from another. Amphibians appear to be good candidates for such research for several reasons: tooth structure is similar to that in mammals, teeth are renewed continuously during life (=polyphyodonty), some species are easy to breed in the laboratory, and a large amount of morphological data are already available on diverse aspects of tooth biology in various species. The aim of this review is to evaluate current knowledge on amphibian teeth, principally concerning tooth development and replacement (including resorption), and changes in morphology and structure during ontogeny and metamorphosis. Throughout this review we highlight important questions which remain to be answered and that could be addressed using comparative morphological studies and molecular techniques. We illustrate several aspects of amphibian tooth biology using data obtained for the caudate Pleurodeles waltl. This salamander has been used extensively in experimental embryology research during the past century and appears to be one of the most favourable amphibian species to use as a model in studies of tooth development.
Descriptors: amphibia, salamander, anatomy, histology, tooth physiology, teeth, current knowledge, development, morphogenesis, animal model.

De Robertis, E.M. (2006). Spemann's organizer and self-regulation in amphibian embryos. Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology 7(4): 296-302. ISSN: print: 1471-0072; online: 1471-0080.
Abstract: In 1924, Spemann and Mangold demonstrated the induction of Siamese twins in transplantation experiments with salamander eggs. Recent work in amphibian embryos has followed their lead and uncovered that cells in signalling centres that are located at the dorsal and ventral poles of the gastrula embryo communicate with each other through a network of secreted growth-factor antagonists, a protease that degrades them, a protease inhibitor and bone-morphogenic-protein signals.
Descriptors: amphibian embryology, cell communication, embryo, nonmammalian physiology, organizers, embryonic embryology, organizers, embryonic physiology, body patterning physiology, intralaminar thalamic nuclei transplantation, Siamese twins.

Del Pino, E.M., F.E. Saenz, O.D. Perez, F.D. Brown, M.E. Avila, V.A. Barragan, N. Haddad, M. Paulin Levasseur, and G. Krohne (2002). Lamina-associated polypeptide 2 (LAP2) expression in fish and amphibians. International Journal of Developmental Biology 46(2): 227-234. ISSN: 0214-6282.
Descriptors: fish, amphibians, proteins, lamina associated polypeptide 2, expression in somatic and germinal cells, comparative study.

Do Rego, J.L., S. Acharjee, J.Y. Seong, L. Galas, D. Alexandre, P. Bizet, A. Burlet, H.B. Kwon, V. Luu The, G. Pelletier, and H. Vaudry (2006). Vasotocin and mesotocin stimulate the biosynthesis of neurosteroids in the frog brain. Journal of Neuroscience 26(25): 6749-6760. ISSN: print: 0270-6474; online: 1529-2401.
Abstract: The neurohypophysial nonapeptides vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) modulate a broad range of cognitive and social activities. Notably, in amphibians, vasotocin (VT), the ortholog of mammalian VP, plays a crucial role in the control of sexual behaviors. Because several neurosteroids also regulate reproduction-related behaviors, we investigated the possible effect of VT and the OT ortholog mesotocin (MT) in the control of neurosteroid production. Double immunohistochemical labeling of frog brain sections revealed the presence of VT/MT-positive fibers in close proximity of neurons expressing the steroidogenic enzymes 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta5-delta4 isomerase (3beta-HSD) and cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/c17, 20-lyase (P450(C17)). High concentrations of VT and MT receptor mRNAs were observed in diencephalic nuclei containing the 3beta-HSD and P450(C17) neuronal populations. Exposure of frog hypothalamic explants to graded concentrations of VT or MT produced a dose-dependent increase in the formation of progesterone, 17-hydroxypregnenolone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone. The stimulatory effect of VT and MT on neurosteroid biosynthesis was mimicked by VP and OT, as well as by a selective V1b receptor agonist, whereas V2 and OT receptor agonists had no effect. VT-induced neurosteroid production was completely suppressed by selective V1a receptor antagonists and was not affected by V2 and OT receptor antagonists. Concurrently, the effect of MT on neurosteroidogenesis was markedly attenuated by selective OT and V1a receptor antagonists but not by a V2 antagonist. The present study provides the first evidence for a regulatory effect of VT and MT on neurosteroid biosynthesis. These data suggest that neurosteroids may mediate some of the behavioral actions of VT and MT.
Descriptors: frog, Rana esculenta, brain drug effects, oxytocics pharmacology, oxytocin analogs and derivatives, steroids biosynthesis, vasotocin pharmacology, brain metabolism, chromatography, high pressure liquid methods, electrochemistry methods, immunohistochemistry methods, in situ hybridization methods, oxytocin pharmacology, rna, messenger biosynthesis, Rana esculenta, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction methods.

Donald, J.A. and S. Trajanovska (2006). A perspective on the role of natriuretic peptides in amphibian osmoregulation. General and Comparative Endocrinology 147(1): 47-53. ISSN: 0016-6480.
NAL Call Number: 444.8 G28
Abstract: The natriuretic peptide (NP) system is a complex family of peptides and receptors that is primarily linked to the maintenance of osmotic and cardiovascular homeostasis. In amphibians, the potential role(s) of NPs is complicated by the range of osmoregulatory strategies found in amphibians, and the different tissues that participate in osmoregulation. Atrial NP, brain NP, and C-type NP have been isolated or cloned from a number of species, which has enabled physiological studies to be performed with homologous peptides. In addition, three types of NP receptors have been cloned and partially characterised. Natriuretic peptides are always potent vasodilators in amphibian blood vessels, and ANP has been shown to increase the permeability of the microcirculation. In the perfused kidney, ANP causes vasodilation, diuresis and natriuresis that are caused by an increased GFR rather than effects in the renal tubules. These data are supported by the presence of ANP receptors only on the glomeruli and renal blood vessels. In the bladder and skin, the function of NPs is enigmatic because physiological analysis of the effects of ANP on bladder and skin function has yielded conflicting data with no clear role for NPs being revealed. Overall, NPs often have no direct effect, but in some studies they have been shown to inhibit the function of AVT. In addition, there is evidence that ANP can inhibit salt retention in amphibians since it can inhibit the ability of adrenocorticotrophic hormone or angiotensin II to stimulate corticosteroid secretion. It is proposed that an important role for cardiac NPs could be in the control of hypervolaemia during periods of rapid rehydration, which occurs in terrestrial amphibians.
Descriptors: Bufo marinus, amphibian physiology, natriuretic peptides physiology, water electrolyte balance, amino acid sequence, amphibia blood, base sequence, brain metabolism, Bufo marinus genetics, models, biological, molecular sequence data, natriuretic peptides blood, natriuretic peptides chemistry, plasma volume, protein structure, secondary, sequence homology, amino acid.

Edginton, A.N., P.M. Sheridan, G.R. Stephenson, D.G. Thompson, and H.J. Boermans (2004). Comparative effects of pH and Vision herbicide on two life stages of four anuran amphibian species. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23(4): 815-822. ISSN: 0730-7268.
NAL Call Number: QH545.A1E58
Abstract: Vision, a glyphosate-based herbicide containing a 15% (weight:weight) polyethoxylated tallow amine surfactant blend, and the concurrent factor of pH were tested to determine their interactive effects on early life-stage anurans. Ninety-six-hour laboratory static renewal studies, using the embryonic and larval life stages (Gosner 25) of Rana clamitans, R. pipiens, Bufo americanus, and Xenopus laevis, were performed under a central composite rotatable design. Mortality and the prevalence of malformations were modeled using generalized linear models with a profile deviance approach for obtaining confidence intervals. There was a significant (p < 0.05) interaction of pH with Vision concentration in all eight models, such that the toxicity of Vision was amplified by elevated pH. The surfactant is the major toxic component of Vision and is hypothesized, in this study, to be the source of the pH interaction. Larvae of B. americanus and R. clamitans were 1.5 to 3.8 times more sensitive than their corresponding embryos, whereas X. laevis and R. pipiens larvae were 6.8 to 8.9 times more sensitive. At pH values above 7.5, the Vision concentrations expected to kill 50% of the test larvae in 96-h (96-h lethal concentration [LC50]) were predicted to be below the expected environmental concentration (EEC) as calculated by Canadian regulatory authorities. The EEC value represents a worst-case scenario for aerial Vision application and is calculated assuming an application of the maximum label rate (2.1 kg acid equivalents [a.e.]/ha) into a pond 15 cm in depth. The EEC of 1.4 mg a.e./L (4.5 mg/L Vision) was not exceeded by 96-h LC50 values for the embryo test. The larvae of the four species were comparable in sensitivity. Field studies should be completed using the more sensitive larval life stage to test for Vision toxicity at actual environmental concentrations.
Descriptors: amphibians, anuran, pH, Vision herbicide effects, two life stages, comparative effects, larval life stages.

El Sayed, M.F. (2002). The effect of interaction between adrenaline and caffeine on the cardiac contractions developed after 5 minutes of rest in catfish and frog. Journal of the Egyptian German Society of Zoology 37(A): 319-339. ISSN: 1110-5356.
NAL Call Number: QL1.E49
Descriptors: frog, catfish, neurotransmitters, heart beat, adrenaline and caffeine, interactive effects, cardiac contractions.
Language of Text: Arabic; English.

Elepfandt, A. (2002). Examination of underwater hearing and frequency discrimination in the clawed frog Xenopus laevis laevis. Bioacoustics 12(2-3): 174-176. ISSN: 0952-4622.
Descriptors: clawed frog, Xenopus laevis laevis, sound reception, underwater hearing range, frequency discrimination abilities, sound, underwater sound.

Endepols, H., K. Roden, and W. Walkowiak (2005). Hodological characterization of the septum in anuran amphibians: II. Efferent connections. Journal of Comparative Neurology 483(4): 437-457. ISSN: 0021-9967.
Descriptors: anuran, amphibians, septum, efferent conections, hodological characterization.

Ewald, A.J., J.M. Tyszka, J. Wallingford, R. Harland, and S.E. Fraser (2003). A three dimensional analysis of frog gastrulation. FASEB Journal 17(Abstract No. 531.8): 4-5. ISSN: 0892-6638.
NAL Call Number: QH301.F3
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, gastrulation, three dimensional, analysis, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: FASEB Meeting on Experimental Biology: Translating the Genome, San Diego, CA, USA; April 11-15, 2003.

Ewert, J.P. and W.W. Schwippert (2006). Modulation of visual perception and action by forebrain structures and their interactions in amphibians. EXS 98: 99-136. ISSN: 1023-294X.
Descriptors: amphibian physiology, prosencephalon physiology, visual perception physiology.

Ewert, J.P. (2004). Motion perception shapes the visual world of amphibians. In: F.R. Prete (Editor), Complex Worlds From Simpler Nervous Systems., MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, p. 117-160. ISBN: 0262162237.
NAL Call Number: QL785 .C545 2004
Descriptors: amphibians, shapes, visual world, motion perception, learning in animals.

Feng, A.S., P.M. Narins, C.H. Xu, W.Y. Lin, Z.L. Yu, Q. Qiu, Z.M. Xu, and J.X. Shen (2006). Ultrasonic communication in frogs. Nature 440(7082): 333-336. ISSN: print: 0028-0836; online: 1476-4687.
NAL Call Number: 472 N21
Abstract: Among vertebrates, only microchiropteran bats, cetaceans and some rodents are known to produce and detect ultrasounds (frequencies greater than 20 kHz) for the purpose of communication and/or echolocation, suggesting that this capacity might be restricted to mammals. Amphibians, reptiles and most birds generally have limited hearing capacity, with the ability to detect and produce sounds below approximately 12 kHz. Here we report evidence of ultrasonic communication in an amphibian, the concave-eared torrent frog (Amolops tormotus) from Huangshan Hot Springs, China. Males of A. tormotus produce diverse bird-like melodic calls with pronounced frequency modulations that often contain spectral energy in the ultrasonic range. To determine whether A. tormotus communicates using ultrasound to avoid masking by the wideband background noise of local fast-flowing streams, or whether the ultrasound is simply a by-product of the sound-production mechanism, we conducted acoustic playback experiments in the frogs' natural habitat. We found that the audible as well as the ultrasonic components of an A. tormotus call can evoke male vocal responses. Electrophysiological recordings from the auditory midbrain confirmed the ultrasonic hearing capacity of these frogs and that of a sympatric species facing similar environmental constraints. This extraordinary upward extension into the ultrasonic range of both the harmonic content of the advertisement calls and the frog's hearing sensitivity is likely to have co-evolved in response to the intense, predominantly low-frequency ambient noise from local streams. Because amphibians are a distinct evolutionary lineage from microchiropterans and cetaceans (which have evolved ultrasonic hearing to minimize congestion in the frequency bands used for sound communication and to increase hunting efficacy in darkness), ultrasonic perception in these animals represents a new example of independent evolution.
Descriptors: bats, cetaceans, rodents, mammals, amphibians, reptiles, birds, concave-eared torrent frog, Amolops tormotus, animal communication, Ranidae physiology, ultrasonics, acoustic stimulation, brain physiology, ear physiology, evoked potentials, auditory physiology, evolution, hearing physiology, China.

Fernandes, M.S., H. Giusti, and M.L. Glass (2005). An assessment of dead space in pulmonary ventilation of the toad Bufo schneideri. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A Molecular and Integrative Physiology 142(4): 446-450. ISSN: 1095-6433.
Descriptors: amphibians, toad, Bufo schneideri, pulmonary ventilation, dead space, assessment.

Filadelfi, A.M.C., A. Vieira, and F.M. Louzada (2005). Circadian rhythm of physiological color change in the amphibian Bufo ictericus under different photoperiods. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A Molecular and Integrative Physiology 142(3): 370-375. ISSN: 1095-6433.
Descriptors: amphibians, toad, Bufo ictericus, circadian rhythm, physiological color change, different photoperiods.

Frehlick, L.J., J.M. Eirin Lopez, E.D. Jeffery, D.F. Hunt, and J. Ausio (2006). The characterization of amphibian nucleoplasmins yields new insight into their role in sperm chromatin remodeling. BMC Genomics 7: 99. ISSN: 1471-2164.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Nucleoplasmin is a nuclear chaperone protein that has been shown to participate in the remodeling of sperm chromatin immediately after fertilization by displacing highly specialized sperm nuclear basic proteins (SNBPs), such as protamine (P type) and protamine-like (PL type) proteins, from the sperm chromatin and by the transfer of histone H2A-H2B. The presence of SNBPs of the histone type (H type) in some organisms (very similar to the histones found in somatic tissues) raises uncertainty about the need for a nucleoplasmin-mediated removal process in such cases and poses a very interesting question regarding the appearance and further differentiation of the sperm chromatin remodeling function of nucleoplasmin and the implicit relationship with SNBP diversity The amphibians represent an unique opportunity to address this issue as they contain genera with SNBPs representative of each of the three main types: Rana (H type); Xenopus (PL type) and Bufo (P type). RESULTS: In this work, the presence of nucleoplasmin in oocyte extracts from these three organisms has been assessed using Western Blotting. We have used mass spectrometry and cloning techniques to characterize the full-length cDNA sequences of Rana catesbeiana and Bufo marinus nucleoplasmin. Northern dot blot analysis shows that nucleoplasmin is mainly transcribed in the egg of the former species. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleoplasmin family members from various metazoans suggests that amphibian nucleoplasmins group closely with mammalian NPM2 proteins. CONCLUSION: We have shown that these organisms, in striking contrast to their SNBPs, all contain nucleoplasmins with very similar primary structures. This result has important implications as it suggests that nucleoplasmin's role in chromatin assembly during early zygote development could have been complemented by the acquisition of a new function of non-specifically removing SNBPs in sperm chromatin remodeling. This acquired function would have been strongly determined by the constraints imposed by the appearance and differentiation of SNBPs in the sperm.
Descriptors: frog, Xenopus, chromatin chemistry, nuclear proteins chemistry, phosphoproteins chemistry, spermatozoa metabolism, base sequence, blotting, northern, bufonidae, chromatin metabolism, molecular sequence data, nuclear proteins metabolism, oocytes metabolism, phosphoproteins metabolism, phylogeny, Ranidae, species specificity.

Fuchs, C., T. Burmester, and T. Hankeln (2006). The amphibian globin gene repertoire as revealed by the Xenopus genome. Cytogenetic and Genome Research 112(3-4): 296-306. ISSN: print: 1424-8581; online: 1424-859X.
NAL Call Number: QH431.C95
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, Xenopus tropicalis, amphibian globin gene repertoire, Xenopus genome.

Fujimoto, K., K. Nakajima, and Y. Yaoita (2007). Expression of matrix metalloproteinase genes in regressing or remodeling organs during amphibian metamorphosis. Development Growth and Differentiation 49(2): 131-143. ISSN: 0012-1592.
Abstract: Several matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are induced by thyroid hormone (TH) during the climax of amphibian metamorphosis and play a pivotal role in the remodeling of the intestine and the regressing tail and gills by degrading the extracellular matrix (ECM). We compared MMP gene expression levels precisely by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The expression of MMP genes increases prominently at Nieuwkoop and Faber (NF) stages 60, 60-61 and 62 in the intestine, gills and tail, respectively, when the drastic morphological changes start in each organ. Gene expression analysis in the TH-treated tadpoles and cell line revealed that MMP mRNAs are upregulated in response to TH quickly within several hours to low levels and then increase in a day to high levels. All TH-induced MMP genes have TH response elements (TREs). The presence of high affinity TREs in MMP genes correlates with early TH-induction. Based on these results, we propose that TH stimulates the transcription of MMP genes through TREs within several hours to low levels and then brings about the main increase of mRNAs by TH-induced transcriptional factors, including TH receptor (Sb(B, in a cell type-specific transcriptional environment.
Descriptors: Xenopus, amphibian metamorphosis, matrix metalloproteinase, thyroid hormone, thyroid hormone-response element, genes.

Gaitanaki, C., M. Papatriantafyllou, K. Stathopoulou, and I. Beis (2006). Effects of various oxidants and antioxidants on the p38-MAPK signalling pathway in the perfused amphibian heart. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 291(1): 107-117. ISSN: 0300-8177.
Abstract: We investigated the effects of different antioxidants such as L-ascorbic acid, catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), on the p38-MAPK activation induced by oxidative stress in the isolated perfused amphibian heart. Oxidative stress was exemplified by perfusing hearts with 30 (So(BM H subscript 2(BO subscript 2(B for 5 min or with the enzymatic system of xanthine/xanthine oxidase (200 (So(BM/10 mU/ml, respectively) for 10 min. H subscript 2(BO subscript 2(B-induced activation of p38-MAPK (7.04 +/- 0.20-fold relative to control values) was totally attenuated by L-ascorbic acid (100 (So(BM) or catalase (150 U/ml). These results were confirmed by immunohistochemical studies in which the phosphorylated form of p38-MAPK was localised in the perinuclear region and dispersedly in the cytoplasm of the ventricular cells during H subscript 2(BO subscript 2(B treatment, a pattern that was abolished by catalase or L-ascorbic acid. p38-MAPK was also activated (2.34+/- 0.17-fold) by perfusing amphibian hearts with the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating system of xanthine/xanthine oxidase and this activation sustained in the presence of 150 U/ml catalase (2.16 +/- 0.26-fold), 50 U/ml SOD (2.02 +/-0.07) or 100 (So(BM L-ascorbic acid (2.18 +/- 0.10), but was suppressed by the combination of 150 U/ml catalase and 50 U/ml SOD. Finally, our studies showed that xanthine/xanthine oxidase induced the phosphorylation of the potent p38-MAPK substrates MAPKAPK2 (3.14 +/- 0.27-fold) and HSP27 (5.32 +/- 0.83-fold), which are implicated in cell protection, and this activation was reduced by the simultaneous use of catalase and SOD.
Descriptors: amphibians, antioxidants, oxidative stress, signal transduction, xanthine oxidase, amphibian heart, HSP27, p38 MAPK, Rana ridibunda.

Gall, J.G., Z. Wu, C. Murphy, and H. Gao (2004). Structure in the amphibian germinal vesicle. Experimental Cell Research 296(1): 28-34. ISSN: 0014-4827.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 Ex7
Abstract: The germinal vesicle (GV) of Xenopus laevis is an enormous nucleus that contains 18 giant lampbrush chromosomes and thousands of inclusions. The inclusions are primarily of three types: approximately 1500 extrachromosomal nucleoli, 50-100 Cajal bodies, and several thousand B-snurposomes, which correspond to speckles or interchromatin granule clusters in other nuclei. The large size and abundance of the GV organelles, as well as the ease with which they can be studied both in vivo and in vitro, make the GV an ideal object for analysis of nuclear structure and function.
Descriptors: amphibia, Xenopus laevis, cell nucleus ultrastructure, oocytes ultrastructure, cell nucleolus, cell nucleus physiology, germinal vesicle, ultrastructure, chromosomes.

Gargaglioni, L.H. and L.G.S. Branco (2004). Nucleus isthmi and control of breathing in amphibians. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology 143(2-3): 177-186. ISSN: 1569-9048.
NAL Call Number: QP121.A1 R4
Descriptors: amphibians, nucleus isthmi, control of breathing, respiratory function.

Giacometti, A., O. Cirioni, R. Ghiselli, F. Mocchegiani, C. Silvestri, F. Orlando, W. Kamysz, A. Licci, E. Kamysz, J. Lukasiak, V. Saba, and G. Scalise (2006). Amphibian peptides prevent endotoxemia and bacterial translocation in bile duct-ligated rats. Critical Care Medicine 34(9): 2415-2420. ISSN: print: 0090-3493; online: 1530-0293.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of amphibian antimicrobial peptides in preventing bacterial translocation and neutralizing endotoxins in bile duct-ligated rats. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled animal study. SETTING: Research laboratory in a university hospital. SUBJECTS: Adult male Wistar rats. INTERVENTIONS: Adult male Wistar rats underwent sham operation or bile duct ligation (BDL). Eight groups were studied: sham operation with saline treatment, sham operation with 120 mg/kg tazobactam-piperacillin, sham operation with 2 mg/kg uperin 3.6, sham operation with 2 mg/kg magainin2, BDL with saline treatment, BDL with 120 mg/kg tazobactam-piperacillin, BDL with 2 mg/kg uperin 3.6, and BDL with 2 mg/kg magainin2. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Main outcome measures were: endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations in plasma and evidence of bacterial translocation in blood, peritoneum, liver, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha plasma levels were significantly higher in BDL rats compared with sham-operated animals. All amphibian peptides achieved a significant reduction of plasma endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentration when compared with saline- and tazobactam-piperacillin-treated groups. On the other hand, both tazobactam-piperacillin and peptides significantly reduced bacterial growth compared with the control. Tazobactam-piperacillin and magainin2 exerted the maximal inhibition of bacterial growth. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, because of their multifunctional properties, amphibian peptides could be interesting compounds to inhibit bacterial translocation and endotoxin release in obstructive jaundice.
Descriptors: amphibian proteins pharmacology, anti infective agents pharmacology, antimicrobial cationic peptides pharmacology, bacterial translocation drug effects, jaundice, obstructive microbiology, peptides pharmacology, Xenopus proteins pharmacology, bacteremia, bile ducts surgery, endotoxins blood, Enterococcus faecalis physiology, enzyme inhibitors pharmacology, Escherichia coli physiology, ligation, liver microbiology, lymph nodes microbiology, penicillanic acid analogs and derivatives, penicillanic acid pharmacology, peritoneum microbiology, piperacillin pharmacology, prospective studies, random allocation, rats, rats, wistar, tumor necrosis factor alpha analysis, beta lactamases antagonists and inhibitors.
Notes: Comment On: Crit Care Med. 2006 Sep;34(9):2503-4.

Gillette, J.R. (2002). Odor discrimination in the California slender salamander, Batrachoseps attenuatus: Evidence for self-recognition. Herpetologica 58(2): 165-170. ISSN: 0018-0831.
NAL Call Number: QL640.H4
Descriptors: salamander, Batrachoseps attenuatus, chemoreception, odor discrimination, scent marking, species recognition, self-recognition.

Godfrey, E.W. and G.E. Sanders (2004). Effects of water hardness on oocyte quality and embryo development in the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis). Comparative Medicine 54(2): 170-175. ISSN: 1532-0820.
NAL Call Number: SF77.C65
Descriptors: clawed frog, Xenopus, embryogenesis, ova, embryonic mortality, water hardness, effects, embryo development.

Goense, J.B.M. and A.S. Feng (2005). Seasonal changes in frequency tuning and temporal processing in single neurons in the frog auditory midbrain. Journal of Neurobiology 65(1): 22-36. ISSN: 0022-3034.
NAL Call Number: QP351.J55
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, auditory midbrain, frequency tuning, temporal processing, single neurons, seasonal changes, acoustic signaling.

Goldberg, C.S., M.E. Kaplan, and C.R. Schwalbe (2003). From the frog's mouth: buccal swabs from collection of DNA from amphibians. Herpetological Review 34(3): 220-221. ISSN: 0018-084X.
NAL Call Number: QL640.H47
Descriptors: frogs, mouth, buccal swabs, DNA collection, amphibians, method.

Gomez Mestre, I. and M. Tejedo (2003). Local adaptation of an anuran amphibian to osmotically stressful environments. Evolution 57(8): 1889-1899. ISSN: 0014-3820.
Descriptors: amphibian, anuran, osmotically stressful environments, salinity, brackish water, fresh water, adaptations.

Gonzalez Elorrlaga, M.A. and G. Canepa (2002). Evidencias que sugieren una asociacion microanatomica mastocito-nervio en la lengua del sapo Bufo marinus demostradas mediante microscopia de luz de alta resolucion. [Suggestive evidences for a microanatomical relationship between mast cells and nerve in the tongue of the toad Bufo marinus demonstrated by means of high resolution light microscopy.]. Acta Cientifica Venezolana 53(4): 258-265. ISSN: 0001-5504.
Descriptors: toad, Bufo marinus, mast cells, nerve, tongue, microanatomical relationship, high resolution light microscopy.
Language of Text: Spanish; Summary in English and Spanish.

Goodman, G. (2003). Oral biology and conditions of amphibians. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Exotic Animal Practice 6(3): 467-475. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Descriptors: amphibians, oral biology, conditions, diseases, tongue, mouth.

Gotoh, Y., K. Kashiwagi, S. Kawakami, N. Huruno, M. Yamashita, and A. Kashiwagi (2005). High gravity inhibits embryonic development of amphibians. Zoological Science 22(12): 1473. ISSN: 0289-0003.
NAL Call Number: QL1.Z68
Descriptors: amphibnians, embryonic development, high gravity, inhibits, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: 76th Annual Meeting of the Zoological Society of Japan, Tsukuba, Japan; October 06 -08, 2005.

Grace, M.S. and S. McMahon (2004). Circadian rhythms in reptiles and amphibians. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians 11: 77-84. ISSN: 1529-9651.
NAL Call Number: SF996.A77
Descriptors: amphibians, reptiles, circadian rhythms, conference proceedings.

Grant, J.B. and B. Land (2002). Transcutaneous amphibian stimulator (TAS): a device for the collection of amphibian skin secretions. Herpetological Review 33(1): 38-41. ISSN: 0018-084X.
NAL Call Number: QL640.H47
Descriptors: amphibians, biochemical techniques, histological techniques, skin secretions, collection technique.

Gray, M.M., C.J. Hoskin, and C. Bardeleben (2006). Isolation of polymorphic tetranucleotide microsatellite markers for the green-eyed tree frog (Litoria genimaculata). Molecular Ecology Notes 6(3): 859-861. ISSN: 1471-8278.
Abstract: We have isolated 16 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the green-eyed tree frog, Litoria genimaculata, from genomic libraries enriched for (AAGG)n and (AAAG)n repetitive elements. The number of alleles ranges from four to 14 per locus with the observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.36 to 1.00. These markers will be useful for analysis of questions concerning population genetic structure and speciation.
Descriptors: tree frog, Litoria genimaculata, microsatellite markers, polymorphic, alleles, locus, genomic libraries, population genetics.

Green, D.M. (2004). Structure and evolution of B chromosomes in amphibians. Cytogenetic and Genome Research 106(2-4): 235-242. ISSN: 1424-8581.
NAL Call Number: QH431.C95
Descriptors: amphibians, chromosomes, B chromosomes, structure, evolution.

Gross, M.L., W. Hanke, A. Koch, H. Ziebart, K. Amann, and E. Ritz (2002). Intraperitoneal protein injection in the axolotl: the amphibian kidney as a novel model to study tubulointerstitial activation. Kidney International 62(1): 51-59. ISSN: 0085-2538.
Descriptors: amphibians, kidney, novel model, tubulointerstitial activation, urinary system, axolotl, intraperitoneal protein injection.

Harada, Y., S. Kasuga, and S. Tamura (2002). Comparison of the morphology of the inner ear between newts and frogs in relation to their locomotory capability. Zoological Science 19(5): 583-592. ISSN: 0289-0003.
NAL Call Number: QL1.Z68
Descriptors: frogs, Rana nigromaculata, newts, Cynops pyrrhogaster, salamander, ear, inner ear, ultrastructure, locomotory capability, relations.

Hasegawa, M., Y. Suzuki, and S. Wada (2005). Design and performance of a wet sponge model for amphibian thermal biology. Current Herpetology 24(1): 27-32. ISSN: 1345-5834.
Descriptors: amphibians, wet sponge model for amphibian thermal biology, temperature, thermal biology.

Hauswaldt, J.S., C. Schroder, and R. Tiedemann (2007). Nine new tetranucleotide microsatellite markers for the fire-bellied toad (Bombina bombina). Molecular Ecology Notes 7(1): 49-52. ISSN: 1471-8278.
Abstract: We describe nine new polymorphic tetranucleotide microsatellite loci isolated from the fire-bellied toad (Bombina bombina). The relative yield of new loci was higher than described in previous studies in amphibians: out of 12 loci initially evaluated, nine were polymorphic and amplifying reliably. Number of alleles ranged from four to 10 and observed heterozygosities from 0.47 to 0.91. Seven loci were polymorphic also in Bombina variegata and five in Bombina orientalis. Enrichment protocols yielding long flanking regions potentially overcome difficulties (i.e, low yield of reliable loci relative to number of clones screened) which have been reported in microsatellite development in anurans.
Descriptors: toad, fire-bellied toad (Bombina bombina), Bombina variegata, Bombina orientalis, microsatellite markers, polymorphic tetranucleotide, loci, alleles, anurans.

Hayashi, S., T. Osawa, and K. Tohyama (2002). Comparative observations on corneas, with special reference to Bowman's layer and Descemet's membrane in mammals and amphibians. Journal of Morphology 254(3): 247-258. ISSN: 0362-2525.
NAL Call Number: 444.8 J826
Descriptors: amphibians, mammals, cornea, comparative observations, Bowman's layer and Descemet's membrane.

Heikkila, J.J. (2004). Regulation and function of small heat shock protein genes during amphibian development. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 93(4): 672-680. ISSN: 0730-2312.
Abstract: Small heat shock proteins (shsps) are molecular chaperones that are inducible by environmental stress such as elevated temperature or exposure to heavy metals or arsenate. Recent interest in shsps has been propelled by the finding that shsp synthesis or mutations are associated with various human diseases. While much is known about shsps in cultured cells, less is known about their expression and function during early animal development. In amphibian model systems, shsp genes are developmentally regulated under both normal and environmental stress conditions. For example, in Xenopus, the shsp gene family, hsp30, is repressed and not heat-inducible until the late neurula/early tailbud stage whereas other hsps are inducible at the onset of zygotic genome activation at the midblastula stage. Furthermore, these shsp genes are preferentially induced in selected tissues. Recent studies suggest that the developmental regulation of these shsp genes is controlled, in part, at the level of chromatin structure. Some shsps including Xenopus and hsp30 are synthesized constitutively in selected tissues where they may function in the prevention of apoptosis. During environmental stress, amphibian multimeric shsps bind to denatured target protein, inhibittheir aggregation and maintain them in a folding-competent state until reactivated by other cellular chaperones. Phosphorylation of shsps appears to play a major role in the regulation of their function.
Descriptors: Xenopus, Rana, amphibian development, small heat shock protein genes, shsps, regulation, function, environmental stress, elevated temperature.

Hertwig, S., R.O. De Sa, and A. Haas (2004). Phylogenetic signal and the utility of 12S and 16S mtDNA in frog phylogeny. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 42(1): 2-18. ISSN: 0947-5745.
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, Anura, frog phylogeny, phylogenetic signal, utility, 12S, 16S, mtDNA, genes.
Language of Text: English; German.

Hillyard, S.D., J. Goldstein, W. Tuttle, and K. Hoff (2004). Transcellular and paracellular elements of salt chemosensation in toad skin. Chemical Senses 29(9): 755-762. ISSN: 0379-864X.
Descriptors: Bufo punctatus, toad, skin, salt chemosensation, transcellular, paracellular, elements in skin.

Hirai, K., E. Tanaka, I. Motelica heino, Y. Katayama, H. Higashi, and S. Tsuji (2006). A new cytochemical method for in situ detection of cholinergic synaptic transmission by staining of Cu2+ incorporated in frog neuromuscular junction during nerve stimulation. Biomedical Research 27(3): 125-130. ISSN: 0388-6107.
Abstract: A new cytochemical method was devised in order to visualize Cu2+ ions in the synaptic area after their intracellular penetration during nerve stimulation of the frog neuromuscular junction (NMJ). The motor nerves were stimulated in presence of Cu2+. After total blockade of the neuromuscular junction, the tissue was treated by ferrocyanide, a precipitating agent of Cu2+, and fixed for optical and electron microscopic observation. The oxidoreductase-like catalytic activity of the copper ferrocyanide precipitate was used to amplify the cytochemical staining by a treatment with diaminobenzidine and H2O2, after permeabilization of cell membranes by Triton X-100. At optical level, an intense staining was observed in the synaptic area. Application of d-tubocurarine (d-TC), a selective inhibitor of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), markedly reduced the staining. No reaction could be observed in absence of membrane permeabilization. These results suggest that Cu2+ was localized in the cytoplasm of muscle cells after its penetration through nAChRs. At electron microscopic level, cytochemical reaction was found in the cytoplasm of muscle cells near the postsynaptic membrane, and in a few synaptic vesicles in the vicinity of the active zone. This method may be used for the identification of cholinergic inputs in central and peripheral nerve systems and, generally speaking, for the detection of synaptic activity elicited by specific nerve stimulation.
Descriptors: frog, copper pharmacology, neuromuscular junction pathology, neurons metabolism, receptors, nicotinic metabolism, synaptic transmission, 3,3' diaminobenzidine pharmacology, copper metabolism, cytoplasm metabolism, detergents pharmacology, ferrocyanides pharmacology, hydrogen peroxide pharmacology, immunohistochemistry, microscopy, electron, nicotinic antagonists pharmacology, octoxynol pharmacology, Ranidae.

Ho, C.C.K. and P.M. Narins (2006). Directionality of the pressure-difference receiver ears in the northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens pipiens. Journal of Comparative Physiology A Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology 192(4): 417-429. ISSN: 0340-7594.
NAL Call Number: QP33.J68
Descriptors: northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens pipiens, receiver ears, directionality, pressure difference, eardrum system.

Hochedlinger, K. and R. Jaenisch (2002). Nuclear transplantation: lessons from frogs and mice. Current Opinion in Cell Biology 14(6): 741-748. ISSN: 0955-0674.
Descriptors: frogs, mice, nuclear transplantation, lessons, cloning.

Hou, J.h., B.c. Zhu, Y.w. Dong, P.q. Li, H.m. Liu, and X.q. Wang (2004). Research advances of Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus. Sichuan Journal of Zoology 23(3): 262-266, 276. ISSN: 1000-7083.
Descriptors: amphibians, Andrias davidianus, giant salamander, research advances, China.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in Chinese and English.

Hudson, N.J., M.B. Bennett, and C.E. Franklin (2004). Effect of aestivation on long bone mechanical properties in the green-striped burrowing frog, Cyclorana alboguttata. Journal of Experimental Biology 207(3): 475-482. ISSN: 0022-0949.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 B77
Abstract: T
Descriptors: green striped burrowing frog, Cyclorana alboguttata, estivation, long bone mechanical properties, skeleton, effect of estivation on mechanical properties.

Hudson, N.J. and C.E. Franklin (2002). Maintaining muscle mass during extended disuse: aestivating frogs as a model species. Journal of Experimental Biology 205(15): 2297-2303. ISSN: 0022-0949.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 B77
Descriptors: estivating frogs, model species, muscle mass, maintaining, literature review, dormancy, muscle maintenance, musculature, muscle maintenance during extended disuse, review.

Hudson, N.J. and C.E. Franklin (2003). Preservation of three-dimensional capillary structure in frog muscle during aestivation. Journal of Anatomy 202(5): 471-474. ISSN: 0021-8782.
Descriptors: frog, estivation, frog muscle, structure, three diensional capillary structure, preservation during estivation.

Inoue, A. and H. Akiyoshi (2005). Comparative histological study of the hepatic architecture in amphibian livers in relation to phylogeny. Zoological Science 22(12): 1437. ISSN: 0289-0003.
NAL Call Number: QL1.Z68
Descriptors: amphibians, comparative histological study, hepatic architecture, livers, phylogony, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: 76th Annual Meeting of the Zoological Society of Japan, Tsukuba, Japan; October 6-8, 2005.

Jiang, L.L. and D.J. Shang (2004). Antimicrobial activity of skin antimicrobial peptide in Chinese forest frogs. Chinese Journal of Zoology 39(6): 70-72. ISSN: 0250-3263.
Descriptors: Chinese forest frogs, skin, antimicrobial peptide, antimicrobial activity, bacteria.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in Chinese and English.

Jin, S., M.C. Cornwall, and D.D. Oprian (2003). Transgenic frogs and the molecular mechanism of congenital night blindness. Biophysical Journal 84(2 Part 2): 270a. ISSN: 0006-3495.
Descriptors: amphibians, transgenic frogs, sense organs, night blindness, congenital disease, eye disease, molecular mechanism.
Notes: Meeting Information: 47th Annual Meeting of the Biophysical Society, San Antonio, TX, USA; March 01-05, 2003.

Johansson, L.C. and G.V. Lauder (2004). Hydrodynamics of surface swimming in leopard frogs (Rana pipiens). Journal of Experimental Biology 207(Pt 22): 3945-3958. ISSN: 0022-0949.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 B77
Abstract: The kinematics of swimming frogs have been studied extensively in the past and, based on these results, hypotheses regarding the hydrodynamics of frog swimming can be generated. To test these hypotheses we used digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) to quantify the flow structure of the wake produced by the feet during the propulsion phase of the kick of surface swimming frogs (Rana pipiens). These frogs use two different gaits, asynchronous and synchronous kicking, and the magnitude of the thrust produced by the feet differs between asynchronous (34+/-5.4 mN foot(-1)) and synchronous kicking (71+/-13.3 mN foot(-1)), as does maximum swimming speed, with higher swimming speed and forces produced during the synchronous kicks. Previous studies have suggested that an interaction between the feet, resulting in a single posteriorly directed fluid jet, as the feet come together at the end of synchronous kicks, may augment force production. Our results show, however, that each foot produces its own distinct vortex ring, in both asynchronous and synchronous kicking of the feet. There is no evidence of a central jet being produced even during powerful synchronous kicks (maximum thrust calculated was 264 mN foot(-1)). An alternative mechanism of force production could be the lift-based paddling recently suggested for delta-shaped feet of swimming birds. However, the orientation of the vortex rings generated by the feet is almost perpendicular to the swimming direction for both gaits and there is only a slight asynchrony of the shedding of the distal (start) and proximal (stop) vortex rings, which is different from what would be expected by a dominantly lift-based mechanism. Thus, our results do not support lift as a major mechanism contributing to thrust. Instead, our data support the hypothesis that propulsion is based on drag and acceleration reaction forces where the thrust is generated by separated, but attached, vortex rings on the suction side of the feet, resulting in vortices that are shed behind the frogs during both asynchronous and synchronous kicking.
Descriptors: leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, surface swimming, hydrodynamics, kinematics, gaits, kicking, propulsion, thrust.

Kashiwagi, K., H. Hanada, H. Kubo, T. Shinkai, H. Fujii, M. Yamashita, T. Naito, and A. Kashiwagi (2002). Effects of gravity during amphibian metamorphosis. Zoological Science 19(12): 1458. ISSN: 0289-0003.
NAL Call Number: QL1.Z68
Descriptors: amphibians, gravity, effects, metamorphosis, development, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: Seventy-Third Annual Meeting of the Zoological Society of Japan, Kanazawa, Japan; September 24-27, 2002.

Katayama, M., H. Yoshizawa, K. Matsuda, and M. Uchiyama (2003). Regulation of body fluid and the structure of kidneys in japanese arboreal frog, Rhacophorus arboreus. Zoological Science 20(12): 1575. ISSN: 0289-0003.
NAL Call Number: QL1.Z68
Descriptors: amphibians, arboreal frog, kidney structure, body fluid regulation, Japan, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: Proceedings of the Seventy Fourth Annual Meeting of the Zoological Society of Japan, Hakodate, Japan; September 17-19, 2003.

Katbamna, B., J.A. Brown, M. Collard, and C.F. Ide (2006). Auditory brainstem responses to airborne sounds in the aquatic frog Xenopus laevis: correlation with middle ear characteristics. Journal of Comparative Physiology A Neuroethology Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology 192(4): 381-387. ISSN: 0340-7594.
NAL Call Number: QP33.J68
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, Xenopus laevis, airborn sound, auditory brainstem responses, aquatic frogs, middle ear characteristics, hearing sensitivity.

Kauer, J.S. (2002). On the scents of smell in the salamander. Nature 417(6886): 336-342. ISSN: 0028-0836.
NAL Call Number: 472 N21
Descriptors: amphibians, salamander, literature review, biochemistry, nervous system, chemoreception, olfactory processing, review.

Kawakami, S., K. Kashiwagi, N. Furuno, M. Yamashita, and A. Kashiwagi (2006). Effects of hypergravity environments on amphibian development, gene expression and apoptosis. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A Molecular and Integrative Physiology 145(1): 65-72. ISSN: 1095-6433.
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, Xenopus laevis, hypergravity environments, effects, development, gene expression, apoptosis, brain, eyes.

Kawakami, S., K. Kashiwagi, A. Kashiwagi, N. Furuno, Y. Gotoh, M. Yamashita, and Y. Tanimoto (2005). Effect of a high magnetic field on amphibians. Zoological Science 22(12): 1473. ISSN: 0289-0003.
NAL Call Number: QL1.Z68
Descriptors: amphibians, high magnetic field, effect, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: 76th Annual Meeting of the Zoological Society of Japan, Tsukuba, Japan; October 06 -08, 2005.

Kawamura, K., T. Kouki, G. Kawahara, and S. Kikuyama (2002). Hypophyseal development in vertebrates from amphibians to mammals. General and Comparative Endocrinology 126(2): 130-135. ISSN: 0016-6480.
NAL Call Number: 444.8 G28
Descriptors: amphibians, vertebrates, literature review, pituitary gland, hypophyseal development, origins, phylogenetic considerations, phylogeny, pituitary developmental aspects, review.

Kikuyama, S., T. Nakada, F. Toyoda, T. Iwata, K. Yamamoto, and J.M. Conlon (2005). Amphibian pheromones and endocrine control of their secretion. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1040: 123-130. ISSN: 0077-8923.
NAL Call Number: 500 N484
Descriptors: amphibians, phermones, secretions, endocrine control, breeding.

Kikuyama, S., K. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, and F. Toyoda (2002). Peptide and protein pheromones in amphibians. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 132B(1): 69-74. ISSN: 1096-4959.
Descriptors: amphibians, Anura, urodel, proteins, reproductive behavior, pheromones, peptide and protein sex pheromones, purification, characterization, biological activity, review.

Kikuyama, S., K. Yamamoto, T. Kobayashi, M.C. Tonon, L. Galas, and H. Vaudry (2005). Hormonal regulation of growth in amphibians. Amphibian Biology 6: 2267-2300. ISSN: 0386-3166.
Descriptors: amphibians, hormonal regulation, growth, review.

Klenk, K. and N. Komar (2003). Poor replication of West Nile virus (New York 1999 strain) in three reptilian and one amphibian species. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 69(3): 260-262. ISSN: 0002-9637.
Descriptors: West Nile virus, NY 1999 strain, poor replication, three reptilian species, one amphibian species.

Kloas, W. (2002). Amphibians as a model for the study of endocrine disruptors. In: International Review of Cytology. Volume 216, Academic Press Ltd.: London, UK, p. 1-57. ISBN: 0123646200.
Descriptors: amphibians, endicrine disrupters, study model, book chapter, journal.

Kloas, W. and I. Lutz (2006). Amphibians as model to study endocrine disrupters. Journal of Chromatography A 1130(1, Sp. Iss. SI): 16-27. ISSN: 0021-9673.
Descriptors: amphibians, animal model, endocrine disrupters, pharmacology, endocrine system, reproductive system, bioassay, thyroid system.

Komazaki, S. (2004). Gravitational effects on apoptosis of presumptive ectodermal cells of amphibian embryo. Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Comparative Experimental Biology 301(3): 204-211. ISSN: print: 1548-8969; online: 1552-499X.
NAL Call Number: QL1.J854
Descriptors: amphibian embryo, gravitational effects, apoptosis, ectodermal cells.

Kosik Bogacka, D.I. and T. Tyrakowski (2007). Effect of hibernation on sodium and chloride ion transport in isolated frog skin. Folia Biologica 55(1-2): 47-51. ISSN: 0015-5500.
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, sodium and chloride ion transport, isolated frog skin, hibernation, effect.

Kuffler, D.P., A. Lyfenko, L. Vyklicky, and V. Vlachova (2002). Cellular mechanisms of nociception in the frog. Journal of Neurophysiology 88(4): 1843-1850. ISSN: 0022-3077.
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, nociception, Rana pipiens, cellular mechanisms, defense reactions, neurons, temperature.

Laberge, F., S. Muhlenbrock Lenter, W. Grunwald, and G. Roth (2006). Evolution of the amygdala: new insights from studies in amphibians. Brain, Behavior and Evolution 67(4): 177-187. ISSN: 0006-8977.
Abstract: The histology of amphibian brains gives an impression of relative simplicity when compared with that of reptiles or mammals. The amphibian telencephalon is small and contains comparatively few and large neurons, which in most parts constitute a dense periventricular cellular layer. However, the view emerging from the last decade is that the brains of all tetrapods, including amphibians, share a general bauplan resulting from common ancestry and the need to perform similar vital functions. To what extent this common organization also applies to higher brain functions is unknown due to a limited knowledge of the neurobiology of early vertebrates. The amygdala is widely recognized as a brain center critical for basic forms of emotional learning (e.g., fear conditioning) and its structure in amphibians could suggest how this capacity evolved. A functional systems approach is used here to synthesize the results of our anatomical investigations of the amphibian amygdala. It is proposed that the connectivity of the amphibian telencephalon portends a capacity for multi-modal association in a limbic system largely similar to that of amniote vertebrates. One remarkable exception is the presence of new sensory-associative regions of the amygdala in amniotes: the posterior dorsal ventricular ridge plus lateral nuclei in reptiles and the basolateral complex in mammals. These presumably homologous regions apparently are capable of modulating the phylogenetically older central amygdala and allow more complex forms of emotional learning.
Descriptors: amphibia physiology, amygdala physiology, evolution, limbic system physiology, thalamus cytology, thalamus physiology.

Lai, R., J.g. Liang, and Y. Zhang (2004). Antimicrobial peptides in amphibian skins and their application. Zoological Research 25(5): 465-468. ISSN: 0254-5853.
NAL Call Number: QL1.T85
Descriptors: amphibians, amphibian skins, antimicrobial properties, application.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in Chinese and English.

Lai, R., D.m. Yang, W.H. Lee, and Y. Zhang (2002). Biological activities of skin secretions of the salamander Tylototriton verrucosus. Journal of Natural Toxins 11(3): 245-250. ISSN: 1058-8108.
Descriptors: amphibians, salamander, Tylototriton verrucosus, biochemistry, skin, secretions, biological activities, immune response.

Lardner, B. and J. Loman (2003). Growth or reproduction? Resource allocation by female frogs Rana temporaria. Oecologia Berlin 137(4): 541-546. ISSN: 0029-8549.
Descriptors: frogs, female, Rana temporaria, resource allocation, growth, reproduction.

Layne, J.R.J. and S.D. Kennedy (2002). Cellular energetics of frozen wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) revealed via NMR spectroscopy. Journal of Thermal Biology 27(3): 167-173. ISSN: 0306-4565.
NAL Call Number: QP82.2.T4J6
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, Rana sylvatica, ion and water relations, intracellular ph, temperature relationships, freeze tolerance, cellular energetics, nucleic acids, ATP and creative phosphate, temperature.

Layne, J.R.J. and M.E. Rice (2003). Postfreeze locomotion performance in wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) and spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer). Canadian Journal of Zoology 81(12): 2061-2065. ISSN: 0008-4301.
NAL Call Number: 470 C16D
Descriptors: wood frogs, spring peepers, Rana sylvatica, Pseudacris crucifer, post freeze locomotion performance.
Language of Text: English; French.

Liu, J.y., Y.a. Tan, Q.s. Tan, X.l. He, Y.c. Zhang, and M.g. Liu (2006). Research on Chinese giant salamander F2 adaptability and growth advantages. Sichuan Journal of Zoology 25(2): 387-390. ISSN: 1000-7083.
Descriptors: amphibians, Chinese giant salamander, adaptability, growth advantages, research.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in Chinese and English.

Liu, J.Y., J.P. Jiang, F. Xie, and Z.H. Zheng (2004). Structure and antimicrobial peptides of amphibian skin. Chinese Journal of Zoology 39(1): 112-116. ISSN: 0250-3263.
Descriptors: amphibians, skin, structure, antimicrobial peptides.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in Chinese and English.

Liu, Y., X.c. Li, and D. Yu (2005). High osmotic endurance of tadpole of common giant toad. Sichuan Journal of Zoology 24(3): 432-435. ISSN: 1000-7083.
Descriptors: common giant toad, Bufo bufo gargarizans, high osmotic endurance, tadpole.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in Chinese and English.

Logares, R.E. and C.A. Ubeda (2006). First insights into the overwintering biology of alsodes gargola frogs and tadpoles inhabiting harsh Andean-Patagonia alpine environments. Amphibia Reptilia 27(2): 263-267. ISSN: 0173-5373.
Descriptors: amphibians, alsodes gargola frogs, overwintering biology, insights, tadpoles, harsh alpine environments.

Loi, P., J.J. Fulka, and G. Ptak (2003). Amphibian and mammal somatic-cell cloning: different species, common results? Trends in Biotechnology 21(11): 471-473. ISSN: 0167-7799.
NAL Call Number: TA166.T72
Descriptors: sheep, mammals, Amphibia, cloning (animals), chromatin, somatic cell.

Lu, Y.y., J. Wang, X.h. Liu, Z.y. Zhou, X.z. Chen, X.a. Wang, P. Zhang, and P.p. Li (2004). Microstructure of skin of Fischer's clawed salamander (Onychodactylus fischeri). Sichuan Journal of Zoology 23(3): 178-182. ISSN: 1000-7083.
Descriptors: Fisher's clawed salamander, Onychodactylus fischeri, skin, microstructure, capillaries.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in Chinese and English.

Mali, L.B. and B. Bulog (2004). Histology and ultrastructure of the gut epithelium of the neotenic cave salamander, Proteus anguinus (Amphibia, Caudata). Journal of Morphology 259(1): 82-89. ISSN: 0362-2525.
NAL Call Number: 444.8 J826
Descriptors: amphibians, neotenic cave salamander, Proteus anguinus, gut epithelium, histology, ultrastructure.

Marenah, L., P.R. Flatt, D.F. Orr, C. Shaw, and Y.H.A. Abdel Wahab (2006). Skin secretions of Rana saharica frogs reveal antimicrobial peptides esculentins-1 and-1b and brevinins-1e and-2ec with novel insulin releasing activity. Journal of Endocrinology 188(1): 1-9. ISSN: 0022-0795.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 J8293
Descriptors: amphibians, Rana saharica, frogs, skin secretions, antimicrobial peptides, esculentin-1, brevinin-1E, esculentin-1B, bnevinin-2EC.

Marvin, G.A. (2003). Aquatic and terrestrial locomotor performance in a semiaquatic plethodontid salamander (Pseudotriton ruber): Influence of acute temperature, thermal acclimation, and body size. Copeia 2003(4): 704-713. ISSN: 0045-8511.
Descriptors: plethodontid salamander, Psuedotriton ruber, aquatic and terrestrial locmotor performance, acute temperature, thermal acclimation, effect, body size.

Marvin, G.A., R.R. Whitekiller, and V.H. Hutchison (2004). Avoidance of alarm chemicals by plethodontid salamanders (genus Eurycea): Importance of phylogeny, ecology, and methodology. Herpetologica 60(1): 24-33. ISSN: 0018-0831.
NAL Call Number: QL640.H4
Descriptors: amphibians, plethodontid salamanders, Eurcea, alarm chemicals, avoidance, phylogeny, ecology, methodology, importance.

Mason, M.J. (2007). Pathways for sound transmission to the inner ear in amphibians. In: Springer Handbook of Auditory Research. Vol. 28, 147-183, Springer: New York, NYISBN: 0387325212.
Descriptors: amphibians, sound transmission, pathways, inner ear, sensory system, hearing, book chapter.

McAllister, K.R., J.W. Watson, K. Risenhoover, and T. McBride (2004). Marking and radiotelemetry of Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa). Northwestern Naturalist 85(1): 20-25. ISSN: 1051-1733.
NAL Call Number: QL671.M8
Descriptors: Oregon spotted frogs, Rana pretiosa, marking, radiotelemetry, methods, evaluation, USA.

Meyers, J.J., J.C. O'Reilly, J.A. Monroy, and K.C. Nishikawa (2004). Mechanism of tongue protraction in microhylid frogs. Journal of Experimental Biology 207(1): 21-31. ISSN: 0022-0949.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 B77
Descriptors: microhylid frogs, tongue protraction, mechanism, muscle denervation, videography.

Moreno, N. and A. Gonzalez (2004). Localization and connectivity of the lateral amygdala in anuran amphibians. Journal of Comparative Neurology 479(2): 130-148. ISSN: print: 0092-7317; online: 1550-7130.
Descriptors: amphibians, anuran, lateral amygdala, localization, connectivity.

Morizot, D.C., K.J. Kochan, and D.A. Wright (2002). Comparative gene mapping in amphibians. Gene Families and Isozymes Bulletin 35: 12-32. ISSN: 0197-887X.
Descriptors: amphibians, comparative gene mapping.

Morse, R.P. and E.F. Evans (2003). The sciatic nerve of the toad Xenopus laevis as a physiological model of the human cochlear nerve. Hearing Research 182(1-2): 97-118. ISSN: 0378-5955.
Descriptors: amphibians, toad, Xenopus laevis, sciatic nerve, physiological research animal model, human cochlear nerve.

Mosconi, G., O. Carnevali, M.F. Franzoni, E. Cottone, I. Lutz, W. Kloas, K. Yamamoto, S. Kikuyama, and A.M. Polzonetti Magni (2002). Environmental estrogens and reproductive biology in amphibians. General and Comparative Endocrinology 126(2): 125-129. ISSN: 0016-6480.
NAL Call Number: 444.8 G28
Descriptors: amphibians, Xenopus laevis, Triturus carnifex, sex determination, sexual differentiation, chemical factors, 4 nonyl phenol, sexual differentiation effects, overview.

Mouchet, F., L. Gauthier, C. Mailhes, V. Ferrier, and A. Devaux (2005). Comparative study of the comet assay and the micronucleus test in amphibian larvae (Xenopus laevis) using benzo(a)pyrene, ethyl methanesulfonate, and methyl methanesulfonate: establishment of a positive control in the amphibian comet assay. Environmental Toxicology 20(1): 74-84. ISSN: 1520-4081.
NAL Call Number: RA1221.T69
Descriptors: frogs, Xenopus laevis, pollutants, genotoxicity, biomarkers, toxicity testing, bioassays, DNA damage, screening, dose response.

Muths, E. (2003). A radio transmitter belt for small ranid frogs. Herpetological Review 34(4): 345-348. ISSN: 0018-084X.
NAL Call Number: QL640.H47
Descriptors: small ranid frogs, Rana sylvatica, radio telemetry, radio transmitter belt.

Nakamura, M. and N. Osawa (2006). Expression of genes required for sex determination and differentiation in amphibians. Journal of Experimental Zoology, Part A Comparative Experimental Biology. 305A(2): 160. ISSN: print: 1548-8969; online: 1552-499X.
NAL Call Number: QL1.J854
Descriptors: amphibians, sex determination, differentiation, expression of genes required, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: 15th International Congress of Comparative Endocrinology, Boston, MA, USA; May 22 -27, 2005.

Naya, D., R. Maneyro, A. Camargo, A. Canavero, and I. Da Rosa (2003). Seasonal changes in gut length of the South American common frog Leptodactylus ocellatus (Amphibia, Anura). Biociencias 11(1): 47-52. ISSN: 0104-3455.
Descriptors: amphibians, common frog, Leptodactylus ocellatus, gut length, seasonal changes, changes in feeding activity, female, male, prey contents.

Ogurtsov, S.V. (2004). Olfactory orientation in anuran amphibians. Russian Journal of Herpetology 11(1): 35-40. ISSN: 1026-2296.
Descriptors: amphibians, anurans, olfactory orientation, odors, smell.

Oishi, T., K. Nagai, Y. Harada, M. Naruse, M. Ohtani, E. Kawano, and S. Tamotsu (2004). Circadian rhythms in amphibians and reptiles: ecological implications. Biological Rhythm Research 35(1-2): 105-120. ISSN: 0929-1016.
Descriptors: amphibians, reptiles, circadian rhythms, ecological implications.

Okada, R., Y. Ito, K. Yamamoto, and S. Kikuyama (2006). Identification of thyrotropin-releasing factor in amphibians. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 27(1): 155. ISSN: 0091-3022.
NAL Call Number: QL187.A1F7
Descriptors: amphibians, thyrotropin releasing factor, identification.
Notes: Meeting Information: 6th International Congress of Neuroendocrinology, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; June 19 -22, 2006.

Okuda Akabane, K., H. Fukami, K. Narita, and Y. Kitada (2006). Membrane excitability of wing and rod cells in frog taste discs following denervation. Brain Research 1103(1): 145-149. ISSN: 0006-8993.
Abstract: The frog tongue has a disc-shaped taste organ (taste disc) on the top of fungiform papillae. The taste disc contains two types of cells, wing cells with a sheet-like apical process and rod cells with a rod-like apical process. Both wing and rod cells can produce action potentials. Unlike the taste buds of mammals, frog taste discs do not degenerate over a long period after denervation. Here we report that the shapes of wing and rod cells isolated from taste discs in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) remained unchanged 1 month after cutting bilateral glossopharyngeal nerves. By applying the whole cell patch-clamp technique to isolated wing and rod cells, we found voltage-dependent inward currents and outward currents and action potentials in denervated frogs as seen in normal frogs. These results suggest that the maintenance of morphological integrity and electrical excitability of taste cells does not require a nerve supply in frogs.
Descriptors: frog, Rana catesbeiana, neurons, afferent physiology, taste physiology, tongue innervation, action potentials physiology, cell membrane physiology, cell separation, cell shape, denervation, electric stimulation, glossopharyngeal nerve physiology, ion channel gating physiology, membrane potentials physiology, neurons, afferent ultrastructure, patch clamp techniques, potassium physiology, sodium channels physiology.

Olsson, L. (2003). Cell migration, pattern formation and cell fate during head development in lungfishes and amphibians. Theory in Biosciences 122(2-3): 252-265. ISSN: 1431-7613.
Descriptors: amphibians, lung fishes, cell migration, pattern formation, cell fate, during head development.

Ortiz Santaliestra, M.E., A. Marco, M.J. Fernandez, and M. Lizana (2006). Influence of developmental stage on sensitivity to ammonium nitrate of aquatic stages of amphibians. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 25(1): 105-111. ISSN: 0730-7268.
NAL Call Number: QH545.A1E58
Descriptors: amphibians, develpmental stage, influence, sensitivity, ammonium nitrate, aquatic stages, effect, embryonic, larval.

Oshima, H., R. Miyazaki, Y. Ohe, H. Hayashi, K. Kawamura, and S. Kikuyama (2002). Isolation and sequence of a novel amphibian pancreatic chitinase. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 132(2): 381-388. ISSN: 1096-4959.
Abstract: An approximately 60-kDa protein with chitinase activity was purified from the pancreas of the toad Bufo japonicus. Its specific activity was 4.5 times higher than that of a commercial bacterial chitinase in fragmenting crab shell chitin, and its optimal pH was approximately 6.0. A cDNA clone encoding a protein consisting of 488 amino acid residues, including part of the peptide sequence determined from the isolated protein, was obtained from a toad pancreas cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequence indicated that the protein contained regions with high homology to those present in chitinases from different species, with the amino acid residues for the chitinase activity and the chitin-binding ability being completely conserved. We designate the protein as toad pancreatic chitinase (tPCase). Northern blot analysis revealed the mRNA of this enzyme to be expressed exclusively in the pancreas. Toad PCase is the first amphibian chitinase to be identified as well as the first pancreatic chitinase identified in a vertebrate.
Descriptors: amphibian, toad, Bufo japonicus, pancreatic chitinase, isolation, sequence.

Pakkasmaa, S., J. Merila, and R.B. O'Hara (2003). Genetic and maternal effect influences on viability of common frog tadpoles under different environmental conditions. Heredity 91(2): 117-124. ISSN: 0018-067X.
Descriptors: amphibians, common frog tadpoles, genetic, maternal, influences, viability, different environmental conditions.

Palo, J.U. and J. Merila (2003). A simple RFLP method for identification of two ranid frogs. Conservation Genetics 4(6): 801-803. ISSN: 1566-0621.
NAL Call Number: QH75.A1 C56
Descriptors: two ranid frogs, simple RFLP method for identification.

Peinado, J.R., J.P. Castano, R. Vazquez Martinez, Y. Anouar, M.C. Tonon, H. Vaudry, F. Gracia Navarro, and M.M. Malagon (2002). Amphibian melanotrophs as a model to analyze the secretory plasticity of endocrine cells. General and Comparative Endocrinology 126(1): 4-6. ISSN: 0016-6480.
NAL Call Number: 444.8 G28
Descriptors: amphibians, pituitary gland, intermediate lobe melanotrophs, secretory plasiticity models, review.

Pereira, C.N., I. Di Rosa, A. Fagotti, F. Simoncelli, R. Pascolini, and L. Mendoza (2005). The pathogen of frogs Amphibiocystidium ranae is a member of the order Dermocystida in the class Mesomycetozoea. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 43(1): 192-198. ISSN: 0095-1137.
NAL Call Number: QR46.J6
Abstract: The pathogen of frogs Amphibiocystidium ranae was recently described as a new genus. Due to its spherical shape, containing hundred of endospores, it was thought to be closely related to the pathogens of fish, mammals, and birds known as Dermocystidium spp., Rhinosporidium seeberi, and Sphaerothecum destruens in the Mesomycetozoea, but further studies were not conducted to confirm this relationship. To investigate its phylogenetic affinities, total genomic DNA was extracted from samples collected from infected frogs containing multiple cysts (sporangia) and endospores. The universal primers NS1 and NS8, used to amplify the 18S small-subunit rRNA by PCR, yielded [approximately]1,770-bp amplicons. Sequencing and basic local alignment search tool analyses indicated that the 18S small-subunit rRNA of A. ranae from both Rana esculenta and Rana lessonae was closely related to all of the above organisms. Our phylogenetic analysis placed this pathogen of frogs as the sister group to the genus Dermocystidium and closely related to RHINOSPORIDIUM: These data strongly supported the placement of the genus Amphibiocystidium within the mesomycetozoeans, which is in agreement with the phenotypic features that A. ranae shares with the other members of this class. Interestingly, during this study Dermocystidium percae did not group within the Dermocystidium spp. from fish; rather, it was found to be the sister group to Sphaerothecum destruens. This finding suggests that D. percae could well be a member of the genus Sphaerothecum or perhaps represents a new genus.
Descriptors: amphibians, frogs, Amphibiocystidium ranae, pathogens, endospores, Mesomycetozoea, Sphaerothecum.

Perez Leon, J.A., E. Lopez Vera, and R. Salceda (2004). Pharmacological properties of glycine transport in the frog retina. Neurochemical Research 29(1): 313-318. ISSN: print: 0364-3190; online: 1573-6930.
Abstract: The high-affinity glycine transport in neurons and glial cells is the primary means for inactivating synaptic glycine. Two different glycine transporter genes, Glyt-1 and Glyt-2, have been cloned. Glyt-1 has been reported to occur in the retina, but there is no evidence for expression of the Glyt-2 transporter. We have pharmacologically characterized glycine transport in the frog retina. 3H-Glycine uptake in the retina was insensitive to modulation by phorbol esters or changes in cAMP levels, and was partially inhibited by sarcosine. Differential sensitivity of glycine transport to sarcosine was exhibited by synaptosomal fractions from the inner and outer plexiform layers of the frog retina. The Na+ Hill coefficient of glycine uptake was 2.0, as has been reported for Glyt-2. In addition, amoxapine, a specific inhibitor of the Glyt-2a isoform, reduced by 60% glycine uptake by P2 synaptosomal fraction. Our results indicate the presence of different glycine transporter isoforms in the frog retina, acting mainly through the classical inhibitory glycine system.
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, retina, glycine trasnsport, pharmacological properties, glial cells, Glyt-1, Glyt-2, glycine uptake.

Pichon, F. and A. Ghysen (2004). Evolution of posterior lateral line development in fish and amphibians. Evolution and Development 6(3): 187-193. ISSN: print: 1520-541X; online: 1525-142X.
Abstract: The lateral line is a sensory system present in fish and amphibians. It is composed of discrete sense organs, the neuromasts, arranged on the head and body in species-specific patterns. The neuromasts are deposited by migrating primordia that originate from pre- and postotic placodes and follow defined pathways on the head and body. Here we examine the formation of the posterior lateral line (PLL), which extends rostrocaudally on the trunk and tail. In amphibians, the PLL neuromasts are deposited as a single wave from the head to the tip of the tail. In the zebrafish, however, the first wave of neuromast deposition forms but a rudimentary PLL, and several additional waves are needed to form the adult pattern. We show that the amphibian mode is also present in the sturgeon and therefore probably represents the primitive mode, whereas the zebrafish mode is highly conserved in several teleost species. A third mode is found in a subgroup of teleosts, the protacanthopterygians, and may represent a synapomorphy of this group. Altogether, the mode of formation of the embryonic PLL appears to have undergone remarkably few changes during the long history of anamniote evolution, even though large differences can be observed in the lateral line morphology of adult fishes.
Descriptors: amphibians, posterior lateral line, development, fish, evolution, sensory system, sense organs, neuromasts.

Pidancier, N., C. Miquel, and C. Miaud (2003(2004) October). Buccal swabs as a non-destructive tissue sampling method for DNA analysis in amphibians. Herpetological Journal 13(4): 175-178. ISSN: 0268-0130.
Descriptors: amphibians, buccal swabs, tissue sampling method, non destructive, DNA analysis.

Pierantoni, R., G. Cobellis, R. Meccariello, C. Palmiero, G. Fienga, S. Minucci, and S. Fasano (2002). The amphibian testis as model to study germ cell progression during spermatogenesis. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 132(1): 131-139. ISSN: 1096-4959.
Abstract: Testicular morphology of vertebrate testis indicates requirement of local control. In urodeles, the testis is organized in lobes of increasing maturity throughout the cephalocaudal axis. The anuran testis is organized in tubules. Spermatogenesis occurs in cysts composed by Sertoli cells enveloping germ cells at synchronous stages. Moreover, in numerous species germ cell progression lasts a year which defines the sexual cycle. Due to the above quoted features, research on factors regulating germ cell progression in amphibians may reach greater insight as compared with mammalian animal models. In particular, studies on endocrine and paracrine/autocrine factors involved in the regulation of germ cell functions reveal that fos activation and a J protein, previously specifically found in mouse testis, exert an important role in spermatogonial proliferation and maturation of post-meiotic stages, respectively.
Descriptors: amphibian, testis, germ cell progression, spermatogenesis, testicular morphology, vertebrate testis.

Plane, S.J. and S.J. Warburton (2002). High catecholamine environment: developmental cardiac effects in the amphibian, Xenopus laevis. FASEB Journal 16(5): A886. ISSN: print: 0892-6638; online: 1530-6860.
NAL Call Number: QH301.F3
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, Xenopus laevis, developmental cardiac effects, high catecholamine environment, chronic epinephrine esposure, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: Annual Meeting of Professional Research Scientists on Experimental Biology, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA; April 20-24, 2002.

Ponti, D., M.L. Mangoni, G. Mignogna, M. Simmaco, and D. Barra (2003). An amphibian antimicrobial peptide variant expressed in Nicotiana tabacum confers resistance to phytopathogens. Biochemical Journal. 370(Pt 1): 121-127. ISSN: print: 0264-6021; online: 1470-8728.
Abstract: Esculentin-1 is a 46-residue antimicrobial peptide present in skin secretions of Rana esculenta. It is effective against a wide variety of micro-organisms, including plant pathogens with negligible effects on eukaryotic cells. As a possible approach to enhance plant resistance, a DNA coding for esculentin-1, with the substitution Met-28Leu, was fused at the C-terminal end of the leader sequence of endopolygalacturonase-inhibiting protein, under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter region, and introduced into Nicotiana tabacum. The antimicrobial peptide was isolated from the intercellular fluids of healthy leaves of transgenic plants, suggesting that it was properly processed, secreted outside cells and accumulated in the intercellular spaces. The morphology of transgenic plants was unaffected. Challenging these plants with bacterial or fungal phytopathogens demonstrated enhanced resistance up to the second generation. Moreover, transgenic plants displayed insecticidal properties.
Descriptors: amphibians, antimicrobial peptide, resistance, phytopathogens, transgenic plants, skin secretions, frog, Rana esculenta, plant pathogens, cauliflower mosaic virus.

Pukala, T.L., J.H. Bowie, V.M. Maselli, I.F. Musgrave, and M.J. Tyler (2006). Host-defence peptides from the glandular secretions of amphibians: structure and activity. Natural Product Reports 23(3): 368-393. ISSN: print: 0265-0568; online: 1460-4752.
Descriptors: amphibia, amphibian proteins chemistry, proteins genetics, metabolism, secretion, antimicrobial cationic peptides chemistry, peptides genetics, peptides metabolism, peptides secretion, amino acid sequence, evolution, molecular sequence data.

Qiao, Z.g., X.j. Li, X.y. Li, and C.s. Xu (2004). Effects of temperature, light and preservative fluid on the survival of spermatozoa in Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus). Fisheries Science Liaoning 23(3): 10-12. ISSN: 1003-1111.
Descriptors: Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus, effects, temeperature, light, preservative fluid, survival of spermatazoa.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in Chinese and English.

Rajchard, J. (2006). Antipredator pheromones in amphibians: A review. Veterinarni Medicina 51(8): 409-413. ISSN: 0375-8427.
NAL Call Number: 41.9 C333
Descriptors: amphibians, antipredator pheromones, behavior, vermonasal system, chemosignals, tadpoles, Rana, literature review.

Rankouhi, T.R., J.T. Sanderson, I.v. Holsteijn, P.v. Kooten, A.T.C. Bosveld, and M.v.d. Berg (2005). Effects of environmental and natural estrogens on vitellogenin production in hepatocytes of the brown frog (Rana temporaria). Aquatic Toxicology 71(1): 97-101. ISSN: 0166-445X.
NAL Call Number: QH541.5.W3A6
Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of the natural estrogens and synthetic estrogens as well as the estrogen mimics to induce estrogen-receptor mediated vitellogenesis in primary hepatocytes of the brown frog (Rana temporaria). Based on EC50 values the following order was determined for the potency of the estrogens: 17beta-estradiol (EC50: 19-43 nM) approximately equal to ethynylestradiol (EC50: 13-80 nM) > estrone (EC50: 218-241 nM) > DES (EC50: 338-3537 nM). Exposure to bisphenol A and methoxychlor concentrations up to 100 micromolar did not have any effect on in vitro vitellogenesis.
Descriptors: Rana temporaria, frogs, hepatocytes, estrogens, pollutants, xenobiotics, toxic substances, estradiol, estrone, diethylstilbestrol, methoxychlor, hormone agonists, endocrine disrupting chemicals, vitellogenesis, vitellogenin, in vitro studies, median effective concentration, 17 beta estradiol, bisphenol, ethynylestradiol, Netherlands.

Rodney, G.G., G.M. Wilson, and M.F. Schneider (2005). A calmodulin binding domain of RyR increases activation of spontaneous Ca superscript 2+ sparks in frog skeletal muscle. Journal of Biological Chemistry 280(12): 11713-11722. ISSN: 0021-9258.
NAL Call Number: 381 J824
Abstract: The calmodulin C lobe binding region (residues 3614-3643) on the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca superscript 2+ release channel (RyR1) is thought to be a region of contact between subunits within RyR1 homotetramer Ca superscript 2+ release channels. To determine whether the 3614-3643 region is a regulatory site/interaction domain within RyR in muscle fibers, we have investigated the effect of a synthetic peptide corresponding to this region (R3614-3643) on Ca superscript 2+ sparks in frog skeletal muscle fibers. R3614-3643 (0.2-3.0 [micro]M) promoted the occurrence of Ca superscript 2+ sparks in a highly cooperative dose-dependent manner, with a half-maximal activation at 0.47 [micro]M and a maximal increase in frequency of [approximately]5-fold. A peptide with a single amino acid substitution within R3614-3643 (L3624D) retained the ability to bind Ca superscript 2+-free calmodulin but did not increase Ca superscript 2+ spark frequency, suggesting that R3614-3643 does not modulate Ca superscript 2+ sparks by removal of endogenous calmodulin. Our data support a model in which the calmodulin binding domain of RyR1 modulates channel activity by at least two mechanisms: direct binding of calmodulin as well as interactions with other regions of RyR.
Descriptors: frog, skeletal muscle, calmodulin binding, RyR increases, spontaneous Ca superscript 2+.

Rollins Smith, L.A., J.D. King, P.F. Nielsen, A. Sonnevend, and J.M. Conlon (2005). An antimicrobial peptide from the skin secretions of the mountain chicken frog Leptodactylus fallax (Anura:Leptodactylidae). Regulatory Peptides 124(1-3): 173-178. ISSN: 0167-0115.
Abstract: A 25 amino-acid-residue, C-terminally alpha-amidated peptide with antimicrobial activity, which has been termed fallaxin, was isolated in high yield from the norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of the mountain chicken frog Leptodactylus fallax (Anura:Leptodactylidae). The amino acid sequence of the peptide (Gly-Val-Val-Asp-Ile-Leu-Lys-Gly-Ala-Ala-Lys-Asp-Ile-Ala-Gly-His-Leu-Ala-Ser-Lys-Val-Met-Asn-Lys-Leu.NH2) shows structural similarity with members of the ranatuerin-2 family previously isolated from the skins of frogs of the genus Rana that are only distantly related to the Leptodactylidae. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that many frog skin antimicrobial peptides are related evolutionarily, having arisen from multiple duplications of an ancestral gene that existed before the radiation of the different families. Fallaxin inhibited the growth of reference strains of Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae) but with relatively low potency (MIC> or =20 microM) and was inactive against the Gram-positive bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus) and the yeast Candida albicans. The hemolytic activity of fallaxin was very low (HC50>200 microM). A second peptide, comprising residues (1-22) of fallaxin, was also isolated from the skin secretions but this component was inactive against the microorganisms tested.
Descriptors: frog, Leptodactylus fallax, antimicrobial cationic peptides pharmacology, secretion, anura metabolism, skin secretion, amino acid sequence, antimicrobial cationic peptides chemistry, isolation and purification, chromatography, gel, chromatography, high pressure liquid, erythrocytes drug effects, hemolysis drug effects, molecular sequence data, sequence alignment, skin chemistry.

Rollins Smith, L.A., D.C. Woodhams, L.K. Reinert, V.T. Vredenburg, C.J. Briggs, P.F. Nielsen, and J. Michael Conlon (2006). Antimicrobial peptide defenses of the mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa). Developmental and Comparative Immunology 30(9): 831-842. ISSN: 0145-305X.
Abstract: The mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa) inhabits high elevation lakes in California that are largely undisturbed by human activities. In spite of this habitation in remote sites, populations continue to decline. Although predation by non-native fish is one cause for declines, some isolated populations in fishless lakes are suffering new declines. One possible cause of the current wave of declines is the introduction of the pathogenic chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) which invades the adult skin to cause chytridiomycosis. In many amphibian species, the skin is protected by antimicrobial peptides secreted into the mucous. Here we show that R. muscosa produces three previously unknown antimicrobial peptides belonging to the ranatuerin-2 and temporin-1 families of antimicrobial peptides. These three peptides, along with bradykinin, are the most abundant peptides in the skin secretions detected by mass spectrometry. Natural mixtures of peptides and individual purified peptides strongly inhibit chytrid growth. The concentration of total peptides recovered from the skin of frogs following a mild norepinephrine induction is sufficient to inhibit chytrid growth in vitro. A comparison of the species susceptibility to chytridiomycosis and the antichytrid activity of peptides between R. muscosa and R. pipiens suggest that although R. muscosa produces more total skin peptides, it appears to be more vulnerable to B. dendrobatidis in nature. Possible differences in the antimicrobial peptide repertoires and life history traits of the two species that may account for differences in susceptibility are discussed.
Descriptors: mountain yellow-legged frog, Rana muscosa, amphibian proteins immunology, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, dermatomycoses veterinary, peptides immunology, proteins immunology, ranidae immunology, amino acid sequence, amphibian proteins chemistry, proteins isolation, purification, proteins pharmacology, chytridiomycota growth, development, dermatomycoses immunology and microbiology, molecular sequence data, peptides chemistry, isolation and purification, peptides pharmacology, proteins chemistry, isolation and purification, proteins pharmacology, ranidae microbiology.

Rollins Smith, L.A., C. Carey, J. Longcore, J.K. Doersam, A. Boutte, J.E. Bruzgal, and J.M. Conlon (2002). Activity of antimicrobial skin peptides from ranid frogs against Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the chytrid fungus associated with global amphibian declines. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 26(5): 471-479. ISSN: 0145-305X.
Descriptors: amphibians, Rana, proteins, antimicrobial peptides, skin, fungal diseases, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, antimicrobial skin peptides effect on fungus, immune response.

Rose, G.J. and D.M. Gooler (2007). Function of the amphibian central auditory system. In: Springer Handbook of Auditory Research. Vol. 28, 250-290, Springer: New York, NYISBN: 0387325212.
Descriptors: amphibians, central auditory system, function, hearing, sensory system, book chapter.

Ruchin, A.B. (2003). Effects of permanent and variable illumination on development of the clawed frog Xenopus laevis larvae. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 82(7): 834-838. ISSN: 0044-5134.
Descriptors: amphibians, clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, development, illumination, permanent, varaiable, effects, larvae.
Language of Text: Russian.

Ruchin, A.B. (2002). Effects of monochromatic light on growth and development of the clawed frog Xenopus laevis larvae. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 81(6): 752-756. ISSN: 0044-5134.
Descriptors: clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, growth, development, effects of monochromatic light, larvae, tadpoles.
Language of Text: Russian.

Ruzov, A., D.S. Dunican, A. Prokhortchouk, S. Pennings, I. Stancheva, E. Prokhortchouk, and R.R. Meehan (2004). Kaiso is a genome-wide repressor of transcription that is essential for amphibian development. Development 131(24): 6185-6194. ISSN: print: 0950-1991; online: 1477-9129.
Abstract: DNA methylation in animals is thought to repress transcription via methyl-CpG specific binding proteins, which recruit enzymatic machinery promoting the formation of inactive chromatin at targeted loci. Loss of DNA methylation can result in the activation of normally silent genes during mouse and amphibian development. Paradoxically, global changes in gene expression have not been observed in mice that are null for the methyl-CpG specific repressors MeCP2, MBD1 or MBD2. Here, we demonstrate that xKaiso, a novel methyl-CpG specific repressor protein, is required to maintain transcription silencing during early Xenopus laevis development. In the absence of xKaiso function, premature zygotic gene expression occurs before the mid-blastula transition (MBT). Subsequent phenotypes (developmental arrest and apoptosis) strongly resemble those observed for hypomethylated embryos. Injection of wild-type human kaiso mRNA can rescue the phenotype and associated gene expression changes of xKaiso-depleted embryos. Our results, including gene expression profiling, are consistent with an essential role for xKaiso as a global repressor of methylated genes during early vertebrate development.
Descriptors: amphibians, development, Kaiso, genome, repressor, transcription, DNA methylation, methylated genes, develpmental arrest.

Sato, T., Y. Okada, T. Miyazaki, Y. Kato, and K. Toda (2005). Taste cell responses in the frog are modulated by parasympathetic efferent nerve fibers. Chemical Senses 30(9): 761-769. ISSN: 0379-864X.
Descriptors: frog, Rana catesbeiana, parasympathetic efferent nerve fibres, taste cell responses, modulation by parasympathetic efferent nerve fibres.

Saxena, S., K. Singhal, and Suman (2003). Effect of testosterone on the sex-differentiation in toad Bufo andersonii. Journal of Advanced Zoology 24(1-2): 21-26. ISSN: 0253-7214.
Descriptors: toad, Bufo andersonii, testosterone, effect, sex determination, sex differentiation, effects of testosterone.

Schlosser, G. (2002). Development and evolution of lateral line placodes in amphibians. II. Evolutionary diversification. Zoology [Jena] 105(3): 177-193. ISSN: 0944-2006.
NAL Call Number: QL1.Z769
Descriptors: amphibians, lateral line, development, evolution, placodes, diversification.

Schnizler, M., A. Berk, M. Fronius, and W.G. Clauss (2002). The amphibian lung provides a physiologically intact model for investigation of alveolar ion transport regulation. Pfluegers Archiv European Journal of Physiology 443(Suppl. 1): S386. ISSN: 0031-6768.
Descriptors: amphibian, lung, physiologicall intact model, alveolar ion transport, regulation, respiratory system.

Segev, R., J. Puchalla, and M.J.2. Berry (2006). Functional organization of ganglion cells in the salamander retina. Journal of Neurophysiology 95(4): 2277-2292. ISSN: 0022-3077.
Abstract: Recently, we reported a novel technique for recording all of the ganglion cells in a retinal patch and showed that their receptive fields cover visual space roughly 60 times over in the tiger salamander. Here, we carry this analysis further and divide the population of ganglion cells into functional classes using quantitative clustering algorithms that combine several response characteristics. Using only the receptive field to classify ganglion cells revealed six cell types, in agreement with anatomical studies. Adding other response measures served to blur the distinctions between these cell types rather than resolve further classes. Only the biphasic off type had receptive fields that tiled the retina. Even when we attempted to split these classes more finely, ganglion cells with almost identical functional properties were found to have strongly overlapping spatial receptive fields. A territorial spatial organization, where ganglion cell receptive fields tend to avoid those of other cells of the same type, was only found for the biphasic off cell. We further studied the functional segregation of the ganglion cell population by computing the amount of visual information shared between pairs of cells under natural movie stimulation. This analysis revealed an extensive mixing of visual information among cells of different functional type. Together, our results indicate that the salamander retina uses a population code in which every point in visual space is represented by multiple neurons with subtly different visual sensitivities.
Descriptors: salamander, Ambystoma physiology, retina cytology, retina physiology, retinal ganglion cells physiology, action potentials physiology, algorithms, spatial behavior physiology, visual fields physiology.

Shalan, A.G., S.D. Bradshaw, P.C. Withers, G. Thompson, M.F.F. Bayomy, F.J. Bradshaw, and T. Stewart (2004). Spermatogenesis and plasma testosterone levels in Western Australian burrowing desert frogs, Cyclorana platycephala, Cyclorana maini, and Neobatrachus sutor, during aestivation. General and Comparative Endocrinology 136(1): 90-100. ISSN: 0016-6480.
NAL Call Number: 444.8 G28
Descriptors: amphibians, western burrowing frogs, Cyclorana maini, Cyclorana platycephala, Neobatrachus sutor, spermatogenesis and plasma testosterone levels in burrowing desert frogs, during estivation.

Shane, M.A., C. Nofziger, and B.L. Blazer Yost (2006). Hormonal regulation of the epithelial Na+ channel: from amphibians to mammals. General and Comparative Endocrinology 147(1): 85-92. ISSN: 0016-6480.
NAL Call Number: 444.8 G28
Abstract: High-resistance epithelia derived from amphibian sources such as frog skin, toad urinary bladder, and the A6 Xenopus laevis kidney cell line have been widely used to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in the regulation of vectorial ion transport. More recently, the isolation of high-resistance mammalian cell lines has provided model systems in which to study differences and similarities between the regulation of ion transporter function in amphibian and mammalian renal epithelia. In the present study, we have compared the natriferic (Na+ retaining) responses to aldosterone, insulin, and vasotocin/vasopressin in the A6 and mpkCCDcl4 (mouse principal cells of the kidney cortical collecting duct) cell lines. The functional responses of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) to hormonal stimulation were remarkably similar in both the amphibian and mammalian lines. In addition, insulin- and aldosterone-stimulated, reabsorptive Na+ transport in both cell lines requires the presence of functional PI3-kinase.
Descriptors: frog, toad, Xenopus laevis, aldosterone pharmacology, amphibia metabolism, insulin pharmacology, kidney drug effects, sodium channels metabolism, amiloride antagonists and inhibitors, amiloride pharmacology, cell line, chromones antagonists and inhibitors, chromones pharmacology, dogs, epithelial sodium channel, ion transport physiology, kidney metabolism, mice, morpholines antagonists and inhibitors, morpholines pharmacology, vasotocin.

Shimizu, S. and H. Ota (2003). Normal development of Microhyla ornata: the first description of the complete embryonic and larval stages for the microhylid frogs (Amphibia: Anura). Current Herpetology 22(2): 73-90. ISSN: 1345-5834.
Descriptors: microhylid frogs, Microhyla ornata, normal development, embryonic, larval, stages, first description.

Simmons, D.D., S.W.F. Meenderink and P.N. Vassilakis (2007). Anatomy, physiology, and function of auditory end-organs in the frog inner ear. In: Springer Handbook of Auditory Research. Vol. 28, Springer: New York, NY, p. 184-220. ISBN: 0387325212.
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, auditory end organs, inner ear, functions, anatomy, physiology, book chapter.

Simon, H.G. (2002). Messenger RNA differntial [differential] display strategies in birds and amphibians. CMLS Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 59(8): 1264-1273. ISSN: 1420-682X.
Descriptors: amphibians, birds, messenger RNA, display strategies, differential, genes, expression levels.

Simon, M.P. and K.E. Mccarson (2002). Nociceptive sensitivity of the frog rana pipiens to vanilloids. In: 32nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, Society for Neuroscience Abstract Viewer and Itinerary Planner.,November 2, 2002-November 2, 2002, Orlando, Florida, USA, Vol. 2002, p. Abstract No. 49.13.
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, Rana pipiens, nociceptive sensitivity, vanilloids, noxious stimuli, vertebrates, conference proceedings.

Skoblina, M.N. (2002). The role of chloride channels and chloride ions in regulation of steroidogenesis in the gonads, of amphibians, birds, and mammals. Ontogenez 33(4): 292-302. ISSN: 0475-1450.
Descriptors: amphibians, aves, mammals, literature review, gonadal steroidogenesis, ion and water relations, chloride channels, steroids, hormones, gonads, effects, review.
Language of Text: Russian; Summary in English and Russian.

Smirnov, S.V. (2006). Metamorphosis in the urodelan amphibians: patterns, regulation mechanisms, and evolution. Zhurnal Obshchei Biologii 67(5): 323-334. ISSN: 0044-4596.
Descriptors: amphibians, salamanders, metamorphosis, urodelan evolution, regulation of metamorphosis, patterns.
Language of Text: Russian.

Smirnov, S.V. and A.B. Vassilieva (2002). Skeletal and dental ontogeny in the long-tailed clawed salamander, Onychodactylus fischeri (Urodela: Hynobiidae). Russian Journal of Herpetology 9(1): 21-32. ISSN: 1026-2296.
Descriptors: amphibians, salamander, Onychodactylus fischeri, skeleton, morphology, ontogeny, dentition, skull, development.

Song, M.O., D.J. Fort, D.L. Mclaughlin, R.L. Rogers, J.H. Thomas, B.O. Buzzard, A.M. Noll, and N.K. Myers (2003). Evaluation of Xenopus tropicalis as an alternative test organism for frog embryo teratogenesis assay: Xenopus (fetax). Drug and Chemical Toxicology 26(3): 177-189. ISSN: print: 0148-0545; online: 1525-6014.
NAL Call Number: QP901.D7
Descriptors: amphibians, Xenopus tropicalis, frog embryo, teratogenesis assay, test organism, alternative, evaluation, ICCVAM.

Srivastava, U.C. and S. Srivastava (2002). Ventral root projections in the spinal cord in frog R. tigrina. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B Biological Sciences 72(2): 169-172. ISSN: 0369-8211.
NAL Call Number: Q73.N311
Descriptors: frog, Rana tigrina, spinal cord, ventral root projections.

Stevens, C.W. and C.M. Brasel (2003). Amphibian opioid receptors: cloning and sequence suggests pattern of opioid receptor evolution. Society for Neuroscience Abstract Viewer and Itinerary Planner 2003: Abstract No. 577.10. ISSN: 0190-5295.
Descriptors: amphibians, opioid receptors, cloning, sequence, evolution, opioid analgesia, kappa receptors, delta receptors, mu, evolution.
Notes: Meeting Information: 33rd Annual Meeting of the Society of Neuroscience, New Orleans, LA, USA; November 08-12, 2003.

Stevens, C.W., G. Toth, A. Borsodi, and S. Benyhe (2007). Xendorphin B1, a novel opioid-like peptide determined from a Xenopus laevis brain cDNA library, produces opioid antinociception after spinal administration in amphibians. Brain Research Bulletin 71(6): 628-632. ISSN: 0361-9230.
Abstract: Prodynorphins (PDYNs) from the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), originally described as 'proxendorphins', are novel members of the family of opioid-like precursor polypeptides and were recently discovered based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) isolates from a Xenopus brain cDNA library. This amphibian prodynorphin was found in two isoforms, (Xen)PDYN-A and (Xen)PDYN-B, consisting of 247 and 279 amino acids, respectively. Each prepropeptide contains five potential opioid-like peptides, collectively named xendorphins. One of these, xendorphin B1 ((Xen)PDYN-B sequence 96-111: YGGFIRKPDKYKFLNA), is a hexadecapeptide that displaced [3H]naloxone and the radiolabelled kappa opioid, [3H]dynorphin A (1-17), with nanomolar affinity from rat brain membranes. Using the acetic acid pain test, the present study examined the antinociceptive effects of spinally administered xendorphin B1 in amphibians. Xendorphin B1 produced a long-lasting and dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in the Northern grass frog (Rana pipiens) with an ED50 value of 44.5 nmol/frog. The antinociceptive effects of xendorphin B1 were significantly blocked by pretreatment with the non-selective opioid antagonist, naltrexone. This is the first report of the in vivo characterization of a non-mammalian prodynorphin-derived peptide and suggests that xendorphin peptides may play a role in the modulation of noxious information in vertebrates.
Descriptors: amphibians, African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, Northern grass frog, Rana pipiens, xendorphin B1, opioid like peptide, brain, opioid antinociception, spinal administration, polymerase chain reaction.

Stewart, E.R., S.A. Reese, and G.R. Ultsch (2004). The physiology of hibernation in Canadian leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) and bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 77(1): 65-73. ISSN: 1522-2152.
NAL Call Number: QL1.P52
Descriptors: leopard frog, Rana pipiens, bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, hibernation, physiology.

Stiffler, D.F. (2005). Endocrine control of water and electrolyte balance in amphibians. In: H. Heatwhole (Editor), Amphibian Biology. Vol. 6 - Endocrinology, p. 2301-2326. ISBN: 0949324957.
Descriptors: amphibians, water and electrolyte balance, endocrine control.

Straka, H. and E. Gilland (2002). Anatomical and functional organization of the vestibular commissure in frogs. Society for Neuroscience Abstract Viewer and Itinerary Planner. 2002: Abstract No. 564.19. ISSN: 0190-5295.
Descriptors: amphibians, frogs, vestibular commissure, anatomy, brainstem, vestibular neurons.
Notes: Meeting Information: 32nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL, USA; November 2-7, 2002.

Straka, H., R. Baker, and E. Gilland (2002). The frog as a unique vertebrate model for studying the rhombomeric organization of functionally identified hindbrain neurons. Brain Research Bulletin 57(3-4): 301-305. ISSN: 0361-9230.
Descriptors: frog, vertebrate model, hindbrain neurons, rhombomeric organization, studying, cranial nerve, precerebral neurons.

Suwalsky, M., S. Mennickent, B. Norris, and H. Cardenas (2006). The antiepileptic drug phenytoin affects sodium transport in toad epithelium. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part C Toxicology and Pharmacology 142(3-4): 253-261. ISSN: 1532-0456.
Abstract: The effects of phenytoin on isolated Pleurodema thaul toad skin were investigated. Low (micromolar) concentrations of the antiepileptic agent applied to the outside surface of the toad epithelium increased the electrical parameters (short-circuit current and potential difference) by over 40%, reflecting stimulation of Na(+) transport, whereas higher (millimolar concentrations, outside and inside surface) decreased both electric parameters, the effect being greater at the inside surface (40% and 80% decrease, respectively). The amiloride test showed that the stimulatory effect was accompanied by an increase and the inhibitory effect by a decrease in the sodium electromotive force (ENa). It is concluded that the drug interaction with membrane lipid bilayers might result in a distortion of the lipid-protein interface contributing to disturbance of Na(+) epithelial channel activity. After applying the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase blocker ouabain and replacing the Na(+) ions in the outer Ringer's solution by choline, it was concluded that both active and passive transport are involved in sodium absorption, although active transport predominates.
Descriptors: toad, Pleurodema thaul, anticonvulsants pharmacology, bufonidae physiology, epithelium drug effects, phenytoin pharmacology, sodium metabolism, choline pharmacology, electrophysiology, enzyme inhibitors pharmacology, epithelium metabolism, epithelium physiology, ion transport drug effects, Na+ K+ exchanging atpase antagonists and inhibitors, ouabain pharmacology.

Suwalsky, M., S. Mennickent, B. Norris, and H. Cardenas (2006). The antiepileptic drug carbamazepine affects sodium transport in toad epithelium. Toxicology in Vitro 20(6): 891-898. ISSN: 0887-2333.
Abstract: The present work investigates the effects of the antiepileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ) on sodium transport in the isolated skin of the toad Pleurodema thaul. A submaximal concentration of the drug (0.2 mM) applied to the outer surface of the epithelium increased the electrical parameters short-circuit current (Isc) and potential difference (PD) by over 28%, whereas only a higher concentration (1 mM) induced over a 45% decrease in these parameters when applied to the inner surface. The amiloride test showed that the outer surface stimulatory effect was accompanied by an increase and the inner surface inhibitory effect by a decrease in the sodium electromotive force (ENa). Exploration of these effects of CBZ on the outer surface showed that 0.2 mM increased net Na+ (22Na) influx by 20% and 0.6 mM CBZ decreased Na+ mucosa-serosa flux by 19%, a result in agreement with the finding that higher concentrations of CBZ applied to the inner surface not only decreased ENa but also sodium conductance (GNa).
Descriptors: toad, Pleurodema thaul, anticonvulsants toxicity, carbamazepine toxicity, sodium metabolism, amiloride pharmacology, bufonidae, dose response relationship, drug, ion transport drug effects, skin drug effects, skin metabolism.

Suwalsky, M., C. Schneider, B. Norris, F. Villena, H. Cardenas, F. Cuevas, and C.P. Sotomayor (2002). The local anesthetic proparacaine modifies sodium transport in toad skin and perturbs the structures of model and cell membranes. Zeitschrift Fur Naturforschung. C, Journal of Biosciences 57(9-10): 930-938. ISSN: 0939-5075.
NAL Call Number: QH301.Z4
Descriptors: amphibians, toad, local anesthetic, proparacaine, sodium transport, modifies, toad skin, pertubes structures, cell membranes.

Szigeti, Z.M., C. Matesz, G. Szekely, S. Felszeghy, T. Bacskai, G. Halasi, Z. Meszar, and L. Modis (2006). Distribution of hyaluronan in the central nervous system of the frog. Journal of Comparative Neurology 496(6): 819-831. ISSN: 0021-9967.
Descriptors: frog, Rana esculenta, hyaluronan, distribution, central nervous system.

Takahashi, Y. and S. Yokoyama (2005). Genetic basis of spectral tuning in the violet-sensitive visual pigment of African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. Genetics 171(3): 1153-1160. ISSN: 0016-6731.
Descriptors: African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, visual pigments, violet sensitive visual pigment, genetic basis of spectral tuning.

Tan, W.G.H., T.J. Barkman, V.G. Chinchar, and K. Essani (2004). Comparative genomic analyses of frog virus 3, type species of the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae). Virology 323(1): 70-84. ISSN: 0042-6822.
Descriptors: amphibians, frog virus 3, comparative genomic analyses, Ranavirus, nucleotide sequence, FV3genome.

Tata, J.R. (2006). Amphibian metamorphosis as a model for the developmental actions of thyroid hormone. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 246(1-2): 10-20. ISSN: 0303-7207.
Abstract: Thyroid hormone (TH) elicits multiple physiological actions in vertebrates from fish to man. These actions can be divided into two broad categories: those where the hormone regulates developmental processes and those that involve actions in the adult organism. Amphibian metamorphosis is a most dramatic example of extensive morphological, biochemical and cellular changes occurring during post-embryonic development, which is obligatorily initiated and sustained by TH. It is, therefore, an ideal model system to understand the action of the hormone. Each tissue of the frog tadpole responds differently to TH, ranging from altered gene expression, morphogenesis, tissue re-structuring and extensive cell death, according to a developmental programme set in place before the thyroid gland begins to secrete the hormone. The key element determining the response to the hormone is the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor (TR). As in most vertebrates, there are two thyroid hormone receptors, TRalpha and TRbeta, which repress transcription in the absence of the ligand and whose concentration in the tissues is directly modulated by the hormone itself. In Xenopus, biochemical and in situ techniques have shown that the amount of TRbeta mRNA and protein are elevated 50-100 times during TH-induced metamorphic climax. This phenomenon of "autoinduction" of receptor is also seen with developmental or inductive processes regulated by other hormones acting through nuclear receptors. It is possible that receptor upregulation may be a pre-requisite for hormonal response. Recent molecular and cell biological studies have suggested that TRs function as multimeric complexes with other nuclear or chromatin proteins, such as co-repressors and co-activators, to regulate the structure of the chromatin, and thereby determine the transcription of the receptor-specified target gene. There is evidence that this may also be so for thyroid hormone regulated transcription during amphibian metamorphosis.
Descriptors: amphibia growth and development, metamorphosis biological, models biological, thyroid hormones physiology, apoptosis, receptors, thyroid hormone genetics, receptors, thyroid hormone physiology.

Taylor, B.E., M.B. Harris, M.J. Gdovin, and J.C. Leiter (2002). Central respiratory chemoreception during frog development: the role of carbonic anhydrase. FASEB Journal 16(5): A813. ISSN: 0892-6638.
NAL Call Number: QH301.F3
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, Rana catesbeiana, chemoreception, development, central respiratory, carbomic anhydrase, role, tadpoles, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: Annual Meeting of Professional Research Scientists on Experimental Biology, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA; April 20-24, 2002.

Tota, B. (2003). Modulation of cardiac performance in teleosts and amphibians: nitric oxide-cgmp mechanisms. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A Molecular and Integrative Physiology 134A(Suppl. 1): S46-S47. ISSN: 1095-6433.
Descriptors: amphibians, cardiac performance, modulation, teleosts, nitric oxide-cgmp mechanisms, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: Sixth International Congress of Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry, Mt Buller, Australia; February 02-07, 2003.

Trapani, G., M. Franco, A. Trapani, A. Lopedota, A. Latrofa, E. Gallucci, S. Micelli, and G. Liso (2004). Frog intestinal sac: a new in vitro method for the assessment of intestinal permeability. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 93(12): 2909-2919. ISSN: 0022-3549.
Descriptors: amphibians, frog intestinal sac, intestinal permeability, assessment, invitro method. new, drug permeability, humans.

Tsai, P.S., J.B. Lunden, and J.T. Jones (2003). Effects of steroid hormones on spermatogenesis and GnRH release in male Leopard frogs, Rana pipiens. General and Comparative Endocrinology 134(3): 330-338. ISSN: 0016-6480.
NAL Call Number: 444.8 G28
Descriptors: leopard frogs, male, Rana pipiens, steroid hormones, effects, spermatogenesis and gnRH release.

Ukena, K., A. Koda, K. Yamamoto, E. Iwakoshi Ukena, H. Minakata, S. Kikuyama, and K. Tsutsui (2006). Structures and diverse functions of frog growth hormone-releasing peptide (fgrp) and its related peptides (fgrp-rps): a review. Journal of Experimental Zoology 305A(9): 815-821. ISSN: print: 1548-8969; online: 1552-499X.
NAL Call Number: 410 J825
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, growth hormone releasing peptide, structures, diverse functions, related peptides, review.

Ultsch, G.R., E.L. Brainerd, and D.C. Jackson (2004). Lung collapse among aquatic reptiles and amphibians during long-term diving. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and Integrative Physiology 139(1): 111-115. ISSN: 1095-6433.
Abstract: Numerous aquatic reptiles and amphibians that typically breathe both air and water can remain fully aerobic in normoxic (aerated) water by taking up oxygen from the water via extrapulmonary avenues. Nevertheless, if air access is available, these animals do breathe air, however infrequently. We suggest that such air breathing does not serve an immediate gas exchange function under these conditions, nor is it necessarily related to buoyancy requirements, but serves to keep lungs inflated that would otherwise collapse during prolonged submergence. We also suggest that lung deflation is routine in hibernating aquatic reptiles and amphibians in the northern portions of their ranges, where ice cover prevents surfacing for extended periods.
Descriptors: amphibians, lung collapse, long term diving, aquatic reptiles, air breathing, water breathing, gas exchange function, northern ranges, hibernation.

Usher Smith, J.A., J.A. Fraser, P.S. Bailey, J.L. Griffin, and C.L. Huang (2006). The influence of intracellular lactate and H+ on cell volume in amphibian skeletal muscle. Journal of Physiology 573(3): 799-818. ISSN: print: 0022-3751; online: 1469-7793 .
NAL Call Number: 447.8 J82
Abstract: The combined effects of intracellular lactate and proton accumulation on cell volume, Vc, were investigated in resting Rana temporaria striated muscle fibres. Intracellular lactate and H+ concentrations were simultaneously increased by exposing resting muscle fibres to extracellular solutions that contained 20-80 mm sodium lactate. Cellular H+ and lactate entry was confirmed using pH-sensitive electrodes and 1H-NMR, respectively, and effects on Vc were measured using confocal microscope xz-scanning. Exposure to extracellular lactate up to 80 mm produced significant changes in pH and intracellular lactate (from a pH of 7.24 +/- 0.03, n = 8, and 4.65 +/- 1.07 mm, n = 6, respectively, in control fibres, to 6.59 +/- 0.03, n = 4, and 26.41 +/- 0.92 mm, n = 3, respectively) that were comparable to those observed following fatiguing stimulation (6.30-6.70 and 18.04 +/- 1.78 mm, n = 6, respectively). Yet, the increase in intracellular osmolarity expected from such an increase in intracellular lactate did not significantly alter Vc. Simulation of these experimental results, modified from the charge difference model of Fraser & Huang, demonstrated that such experimental manoeuvres produced changes in intracellular [H+] and [lactate] comparable to those observed during muscle fatigue, and accounted for this paradoxical conservation of Vc through balancing negative osmotic effects resulting from the net cation efflux that would follow a titration of intracellular membrane-impermeant anions by the intracellular accumulation of protons. It demonstrated that with established physiological values for intracellular buffering capacity and the permeability ratio of lactic acid and anionic lactate, P(LacH): P(Lac-), this would provide a mechanism that precisely balanced any effect on cell volume resulting from lactate accumulation during exercise.
Descriptors: amphibians, Rana temporaria, cell size, intracellular fluid, muscle fibers cytology, sodium lactate metabolism, skeletal muscle.

Uteshev, V. and E. Gakhova (2005). Gene cryobanks for conservation of endangered amphibian species. Russian Journal of Herpetology 12: 233-234 (Suppl.) ISSN: 1026-2296.
Descriptors: amphibians, conservation, gene cryobanks, endangered species, genetic techniques.

Uteshev, V.K., T.N. Pashovkin, A.N. Sevirov, E.V. Mel'nikova, D.G. Sadikova, V.N. Karnaukhov, and E.N. Gakhova (2006). [Survival of amphibian embryos after continuous ultrasound treatment]. Biofizika 51(3): 539-544. ISSN: 0006-3029.
Abstract: The influence of continuous ultrasound on the embryonic development of grass frog Rana temporaria has been investigated. Intact embryos at the blastula stage were treated by ultrasound of different frequency (0.88 and 2.64 MHz), intensity (0.05-1.0 W/cm2), and duration (1-15 min). The treatment with ultrasound of frequency 0.88 MHz and intensity 0.05 W/cm2 for 1-5 min tended to increase the proportion of normally developing embryos up to hatch (10-25% of control). Increasing the intensity of ultrasound (0.88 MHz) to 0.7-1.0 W/cm2 and the duration of its action to 5-15 min induced the death of almost all of treated embryos. No significant differences were found between the development of control embryos and embryos treated with ultrasound of middle intensity (0.2-0.7 W/cm2) for 1-5 min. The exposure of amphibian embryos to ultrasound of frequency 2.64 MHz and intensity 0.05-0.7 W/cm2 for 1-5 min did not change their survival. Increasing the intensity of ultrasound (2.64 MHz) to 1.0 W/cm2 and the duration of its action to 5 min decreased the number of normal developing embryos (by 35%).
Descriptors: Rana temporaria embryology, ultrasonics adverse effects, blastula physiology, embryo, nonmammalian physiology, embryonic development, time factors.
Language of Text: Russian.

Vasilakos, K., N. Kimura, R.J.A. Wilson, and J.E. Remmers (2006). Lung and buccal ventilation in the frog: uncoupling coupled oscillators. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 79(6): 1010-1018. ISSN: 1522-2152.
NAL Call Number: QL1.P52
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, lung, buccal, ventilation, uncoupling, coupled oscillators, model, respiratory rhythm, opioid, inhibits.

Vega, R., A. Ortega, A. Almanza, and E. Soto (2006). Nitric oxide in the amphibian (Ambystoma tigrinum) lateral line. Neuroscience Letters 393(1): 65-69. ISSN: 0304-3940.
Descriptors: amphibian, Ambystoma tigrinum, lateral line, nitric oxide.

Venturino, A., E. Rosenbaum, A. Caballero de Castro, O.L. Anguiano, L. Gauna, T. Fonovich de Schroeder, and A.M. Pechen de d'Angelo (2003). Biomarkers of effect in toads and frogs. Biomarkers 8(3-4): 167-186. ISSN: 1354-750X.
Descriptors: toads, frogs, Bufo, biomarkers of effect.

Vitanova, L. (2006). Immunocytochemical study of glycine receptors in the retina of the frog Xenopus laevis. Anatomy and Embryology 211(3): 237-245. ISSN: 0340-2061.
Abstract: The expression of glycine receptors in the retina of clawed frog, Xenopus laevis was studied immunocytochemically. Glycine receptors (GlyRs), as revealed by means of several different antibodies, were mainly distributed in the inner (IPL) and the outer plexiform layers. Their composition was determined to include alpha2 and alpha3 subunits. Typical punctate appearance and specific lamination in the IPL were seen with each of the antibodies directed against the different GlyRs' subunits. A notion for diversity of the glycine receptors was put forward, according to which the alpha2 and alpha3 subunits are located in different subtypes of glycine synapses.
Descriptors: frog, Xenopus laevis, receptors, glycine metabolism, retina metabolism, immunohistochemistry, protein subunits biosynthesis, protein subunits chemistry, protein subunits metabolism, glycine biosynthesis, glycine chemistry, retina anatomy, histology, retina chemistry.

Weick, S.E., M.G. Knutson, B.C. Knights, and B.C. Pember (2005). A comparison of internal and external radio transmitters with northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens). Herpetological Review 36(4): 415-421. ISSN: 0018-084X.
NAL Call Number: QL640.H47
Descriptors: leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, radio telemetry, internal and external radio transmitters, comparison, radio tracking.

Wilczynski, W. and H. Endepols (2007). Central auditory pathways in anuran amphibians: the anatomical basis of hearing and sound communication. In: Springer Handbook of Auditory Research. Vol. 28, Springer: New York, NY, p. 221-249. ISBN: 0387325212.
Descriptors: amphibians, hearing, sound communication, central auditory pathways, anatomical basis, book chapter.

Wilczynski, W., K.S. Lynch, and E.L. O'Bryant (2005). Current research in amphibians: Studies integrating endocrinology, behavior, and neurobiology. Hormones and Behavior 48(4): 440-450. ISSN: 0018-506X.
NAL Call Number: QP801.H7H64
Descriptors: amphibians, current research, endocrinology, behavior, neurobiology.

Wright, M.L. (2002). Melatonin, diel rhythms, and metamorphosis in anuran amphibians. General and Comparative Endocrinology 126(3): 251-254. ISSN: 0016-6480.
NAL Call Number: 444.8 G28
Descriptors: amphibians, anuran tadpoles, hormones, melatonin, diel rhythms, metamorphosis relationships, metamorphosis, literature review.

Yanchurevich, O.V. and S.V. Emelianchic (2005). Definition of age an amphibians by a method skeletochronology. Vyestsi Natsyyanal'Nai Akademii Navuk Byelarusi Syeryya Biyalahichnykh Navuk 3: 113-117. ISSN: 1029-8940.
Descriptors: amphibians, definition of age, method, skeletochronology.
Language of Text: Russian; Summary in English.

Yang CuiJun (2006). Freeze tolerant mechanism of amphibian and its research strategies. Journal of Economic Animal 10(2): 121-124. ISSN: 1007-7448.
Descriptors: amphibians, freeze tolerant, mechanism, research strategies, temperature.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in English.

Yu, Z.L., Q. Qiu, Z.M. Xu, and J.X. Shen (2006). Auditory response characteristics of the piebald odorous frog and their implications. Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology 192(8): 801-806. ISSN: 0340-7594.
NAL Call Number: QP33.J68
Abstract: The piebald odorous frog (Odorrana schmackeri), the large odorous frog (Odorrana livida) and the concave-eared torrent frog (Amolops tormotus) are sympatric species living near the same torrent streams in the vicinity of Mt. Huangshan, China. A recent study demonstrated that A. tormotus can use sound signals involving ultrasonic components for communication in a noisy environment, and another sympatric species, O. livida, can also perceive ultrasonic sound. Here we report data on the hearing range of O. schmackeri by studying auditory evoked potentials and single-unit data from the torus semicircularis. This frog exhibits its two most sensitive peaks at 2 kHz and 3.5-4.0 kHz with thresholds <42 dB SPL, with an upper frequency limit of hearing at 8.5 kHz with threshold of 87 dB SPL. The upper limit is much lower than those of O. livida and A. tormotus, at 22 and 34 kHz, respectively. It suggests that sympatric species may respond differently to similar environmental selection pressures sculpting auditory communication systems.
Descriptors: frogs, Odorrana schmackeri, Odorrana livida, Amolops tormotus, auditory perception physiology, threshold physiology, hearing physiology, ranidae physiology, acoustic stimulation, action potentials drug effects, auditory perception radiation effects, brain stem cytology, physiology, dose response relationship, radiation, evoked potentials, auditory physiology, evoked potentials, auditory radiation effects, noise, reaction time physiology, reaction time radiation effects, vocalization, animal physiology, China.

Yue, X.j., Y.g. Zhang, and Z.j. Wang (2002). The histology and histo-chemistry studies of the digestive tract of the toad in China, Bufo gargariizans. Journal of Southwest China Normal University Natural Science 27(3): 383-389; No 120. ISSN: 1000-5471.
Descriptors: toad, Bufo gargariizans, biochemistry, digestive system, digestive tract, anatomy, histology and histochemistry.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in Chinese and English.

Zardoya, R., E. Malaga Trillo, M. Veith, and A. Meyer (2003). Complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of a salamander, Mertensiella luschani. Gene 317(1-2): 17-27. ISSN: 0378-1119.
Descriptors: salamander, Mertensiella luschani, mitochondrial genome, complete nucleotide sequence.

Zayas, J.G., D.W. O'Brien, S. Tai, J. Ding, L. Lim, and M. King (2004). Adaptation of an amphibian mucociliary clearance model to evaluate early effects of tobacco smoke exposure. Respiratory Research 5: 9. ISSN: 1465-9921.
Abstract: RATIONALE: Inhaled side-stream tobacco smoke brings in all of its harmful components impairing mechanisms that protect the airways and lungs. Chronic respiratory health consequences are a complex multi-step silent process. By the time clinical manifestations require medical attention, several structural and functional changes have already occurred. The respiratory system has to undergo an iterative process of injury, healing and remodeling with every exposure. METHODS: To have a better understanding of the initial changes that take place when first exposed to environmental tobacco smoke, we have developed an exposure model, using the frog palate that closely represents the features of obstructive airways where ciliary dysfunction and mucus hypersecretion occur. RESULTS: Mucus transport was significantly reduced, even after exposure to the smoke of one cigarette (p < 0.05) and even further with 4-cigarettes exposure (p < 0.001). Morphometric and ultrastructural studies by SEM show extensive areas of tissue disruption. Gelatinase zymography shows activation of MMP9 in mucus from palates exposed to tobacco smoke. CONCLUSIONS: The clearance of mucus on the frog palate is significantly reduced after exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Cilia and the extracellular matrix are anatomically disrupted. Tobacco smoke triggers an increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases associated with a substantial defoliation of ciliated epithelium. These studies enhance the knowledge of the changes in the mucociliary apparatus that occur initially after exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, with the goal of understanding how these changes relate to the genesis of chronic airway pathologies in humans.
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, Rana catesbeiana, environmental exposure adverse effects, tobacco smoke exposure, animal models, mucociliary clearance, palate pathology, anatomy, histology, palate drug effects.

Zhang, P., Y.Q. Chen, Y.F. Liu, H. Zhou, and L.H. Qu (2003). The complete mitochondrial genome of the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus (Amphibia: Caudata). Gene 311: 93-98. ISSN: 0378-1119.
Descriptors: Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus, the complete mitochondrial genome, amphibians.

Zhang, P., Y.Q. Chen, H. Zhou, X.L. Wang, and L.H. Qu (2003). The complete mitochondrial genome of a relic salamander, Ranodon sibiricus (Amphibia: Caudata) and implications for amphibian phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 28(3): 620-626. ISSN: 1055-7903.
NAL Call Number: QH367.5.M56
Descriptors: relic salamander, Ranodon sibiricus, amphibian, complete mitochondrial genome, implications, amphibian phylogeny.

Zhang, P., H. Zhou, D. Liang, Y.F. Liu, Y.Q. Chen, and L.H. Qu (2005). The complete mitochondrial genome of a tree frog, Polypedates megacephalus (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae), and a novel gene organization in living amphibians. Gene 346: 133-143. ISSN: 0378-1119.
Descriptors: tree frog, Polypedates megacephalus, amphibians, Anura, mitochondrial genome, complete, gene organization.

Zhang, Y. (2006). Amphibian skin secretions and bio-adaptive significance - implications from Bombina maxima skin secretion proteome. Zoological Research 27(1): 101-112. ISSN: 0254-5853.
NAL Call Number: QL1.T85
Descriptors: amphibians, Bombina maxima, skin secretions, bio-adaptive significance, skin secretion proteome, antimicrobial properties, study model.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in Chinese and English.



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