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You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Information Resources on Amphibians   / Thermal and Temperature  Printer Friendly Page
Information Resources on Amphibians & Reptiles
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Thermal and Temperature

Aggeli, I.K.S., C. Gaitanaki, A. Lazou, and I. Beis (2002). Hyperosmotic and thermal stresses activate p38-MAPK in the perfused amphibian heart. Journal of Experimental Biology 205(4): 443-454. ISSN: 0022-0949.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 B77
Descriptors: amphibians, Rana ridibunda, enzymes, p38 mapk activation, effects of thermal and osmotic stresses in perfused heart, functional implications, heart, salinity, temperature.

Ala Laurila, P., P. Saarinen, R. Albert, A. Koskelainen, and K. Donner (2002). Temperature effects on spectral properties of red and green rods in toad retina. Visual Neuroscience 19(6): 781-792. ISSN: 0952-5238.
Descriptors: amphibians, toad, eyes, retina, red rods, green rods, temperature effects, spectral properties.

Arendt, J. and L. Hoang (2005). Effect of food level and rearing temperature on burst speed and muscle composition of western spadefoot toad (Spea hammondii). Functional Ecology 19(6): 982-987. ISSN: 0269-8463.
NAL Call Number: QH540.F85
Descriptors: amphibians, western spadefoot toad, Spea hammondii, food level, rearing temperature, burst speed, muscle composition, effect.

Beebee, T.J.C. (2002). Amphibian phenology and climate change. Conservation Biology 16(6): 1454. ISSN: 0888-8892.
NAL Call Number: QH75.A1C5
Descriptors: amphibians, climate change, phenology, reproduction, breeding times.

Berger, L., R. Speare, H.B. Hines, G. Marantelli, A.D. Hyatt, K.R. McDonald, L.F. Skerratt, V. Olsen, J.M. Clarke, G. Gillespie, M. Mahony, N. Sheppard, C. Williams, and M.J. Tyler (2004). Effect of season and temperature on mortality in amphibians due to chytridiomycosis. Australian Veterinary Journal 82(7): 434-439. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Au72
Descriptors: amphibians, anura, fungal diseases, chytridiomycosis, season and temperature, effects on mortality, season, temperature, Australia.

Booth, D.T. (2006). Influence of incubation temperature on hatchling phenotype in reptiles. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 79(2): 274-281. ISSN: 1522-2152.
NAL Call Number: QL1.P52
Abstract: Incubation temperature influences hatchling phenotypes such as sex, size, shape, color, behavior, and locomotor performance in many reptiles, and there is growing concern that global warming might adversely affect reptile populations by altering frequencies of hatchling phenotypes. Here I overview a recent theoretical model used to predict hatchling sex of reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination. This model predicts that sex ratios will be fairly robust to moderate global warming as long as eggs experience substantial daily cyclic fluctuations in incubation temperatures so that embryos are exposed to temperatures that inhibit embryonic development for part of the day. I also review studies that examine the influence of incubation temperature on posthatch locomotion performance and growth because these are the traits that are likely to have the greatest effect on hatchling fitness. The majority of these studies used artificial constant-temperature incubation, but some have addressed fluctuating incubation temperature regimes. Although the number of studies is small, it appears that fluctuating temperatures may enhance hatchling locomotor performance. This finding should not be surprising, given that the majority of natural reptile nests are relatively shallow and therefore experience daily fluctuations in incubation temperature.
Descriptors: reptiles, newborn anatomy, histology, growth, development, reptiles anatomy, histology, growth, development, temperature, physiology, greenhouse effect, ovum physiology.

Browne, R.K. and D.L. Edwards (2003). The effect of temperature on the growth and development of the endangered green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea). Journal of Thermal Biology 28(4): 295-299. ISSN: 0306-4565.
NAL Call Number: QP82.2.T4J6
Descriptors: amphibians, green and golden bull frog, growth, development, temperature, effect, Litoria aurea.

Castaneda, L.E., P. Sabat, S.P. Gonzalez, and R.F. Nespolo (2006). Digestive plasticity in tadpoles of the chilean giant frog (Caudiverbera caudiverbera): factorial effects of diet and temperature. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 79(5): 919-926. ISSN: 1522-2152.
NAL Call Number: QL1.P52
Descriptors: amphibians, giant frog, digestive plasticity, factorial effects, diet, temperature, Caudiverbera caudiverbera.

Chardard, D., M. Penrad Mobayed, A. Chesnel, C. Pieau and C. Dournon (2004). Thermal sex reversals in amphibians. In: N.L.V. Valenzuela (Editors), Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination in Vertebrates., Smithsonian Books: Washington, DC, p. 59-67. ISBN: 1588342034.
NAL Call Number: QP278.5 .T45 2004
Descriptors: amphibians, temperature, sex determination, temperature dependent sex reversal.

Chen, H.L. and X. Ji (2002). The effects of thermal environments on duration of incubation, hatching success and hatchlings traits in a colubrid snake, Rhabdophis tigrinus lateralis (Boie). Acta Ecologica Sinica 22(11): 1850-1858. ISSN: 1000-0933.
Descriptors: reptiles, colubrid snake, Rhabdophis tigrinus lateralis, thermal environments, effects. incubation duration, hatching success, hatching traits.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in Chinese and English.

Corn, P.S. (2005). Climate change and amphibians. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation 28(1): 59-67. ISSN: 1578-665X.
Descriptors: amphibians, climate change, population declines, temperature, effect.
Language of Text: English; Spanish.

Costanzo, J.P. and R.E.J. Lee (2005). Cryoprotection by urea in a terrestrially hibernating frog. Journal of Experimental Biology 208(21): 4079-4089. ISSN: 0022-0949.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 B77
Descriptors: frog, Rana sylvatica, hibernating, temperature, cold tolerance, urea, cryoprotection.

Currens, C.R., P.H. Niewiarowski, and H.H. Whiteman (2002). Effects of temperature and time of day on the resting metabolic rates of paedomorphic and metamorphic mole salamanders, Ambystoma talpoideum. Copeia 2002(2): 489-495. ISSN: 0045-8511.
Descriptors: salamander, Ambystoma talpoideum, oxygen consumption, resting metabolic rates, temperature and time of day, effects, paedomorphic vs metamorphic individuals, paedogenesis, metamorphosis, temperature.

Dalo, N.L., G.A. Bracho, and J.C. Pina Crespo (2007). Motor impairment and neuronal damage following hypothermia in tropical amphibians. International Journal of Experimental Pathology 88(1): 1-7. ISSN: print: 0959-9673; online: 1365-2613.
Abstract: Although the induction of mild to moderate cerebral hypothermia in mammals can have neuroprotective activity, some deleterious effects have been described when inducing deep hypothermia during cooling of the brain. In the spinal cord, rapid deep cooling can induce seizure activity accompanied by release of the excitatory neurotransmitters, glutamate and aspartate. We used cold-sensitive tropical amphibians as a model to determine (a) the critical temperature inside the central nervous system necessary to induce seizures during rapid cooling; (b) the survival rate during slow deep cooling of the whole animal; and (c) whether deep cooling can cause neuronal cell damage. Seizures induced by deep rapid (<or=3 min) cooling of the spinal cord began when a critical temperature of 10.4 degrees C was reached. During slow (>or=30 min) deep cooling of the whole animal (12 h at 2-3 degrees C), around 70% of animals died. Spinal reflexes were enhanced when temperatures within the spinal cord reached between 9.0 degrees C and 11.6 degrees C. A fivefold increase in blood glucose level was observed during slow deep cooling. Recovery after slow deep cooling was accompanied by motor impairment and the main histological findings were condensation of the cytoplasm and nuclear pyknosis. Severe neuronal cell damage was characterized by swelling, vacuolated cytoplasm with distended neuronal bodies. These results indicate that deep cooling can easily induce neuronal cell damage in the central nervous system of cold-sensitive animals. They also warn us to the potential sequels associated with the use of deep brain cooling as a neuroprotective strategy.
Descriptors: amphibians, hypothermia, motor impairment, neuronal damage, cold, cooling, brain, spinal cord, critical temperature, blood glucose.

Du, W.G. and X. Ji (2006). Effects of constant and fluctuating temperatures on egg survival and hatchling traits in the northern grass lizard (Takydromus septentrionalis, Lacertidae). Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Comparative Experimental Biology 305(1): 47-54. ISSN: print: 1548-8969; online: 1552-499X.
NAL Call Number: QL1.J854
Abstract: To understand how nest temperatures influence phenotypic traits of reptilian hatchlings, the effects of fluctuating temperature on hatchling traits must be known. Most investigations, however, have only considered the effects of constant temperatures. We incubated eggs of Takydromus septentrionalis (Lacertidae) at constant (24 degrees C, 27 degrees C, 30 degrees C and 33 degrees C) and fluctuating temperatures to determine the effects of these thermal regimes on incubation duration, hatching success and hatchling traits (morphology and locomotor performance). Hatching success at 24 degrees C and 27 degrees C was higher, and hatchlings derived from these two temperatures were larger and performed better than their counterparts from 30 degrees C and 33 degrees C. Eggs incubated at fluctuating temperatures exhibited surprisingly high hatching success and also produced large and well-performed hatchlings in spite of the extremely wide range of temperatures (11.6-36.2 degrees C) they experienced. This means that exposure of eggs to adversely low or high temperatures for short periods does not increase embryonic mortality. The variance of fluctuating temperatures affected hatchling morphology and locomotor performance more evidently than did the mean of the temperatures in this case. The head size and sprint speed of the hatchlings increased with increasing variances of fluctuating temperatures. These results suggest that thermal variances significantly affect embryonic development and phenotypic traits of hatchling reptiles and are therefore ecologically meaningful.
Descriptors: grass lizard, Takydromus septentrionalis, body constitution, energy metabolism, lizards growth and development, locomotion, temperature, physiological adaptation, newborn animals, embryonic development.

Finkler, M.S. (2006). Effects of temperature, sex, and gravidity on the metabolism of small-mouthed salamanders, Ambystoma texanum, during the reproductive season. Journal of Herpetology 40(1): 103-106. ISSN: 0022-1511.
NAL Call Number: QL640.J6
Descriptors: amphibians, small mouthed salamander, Ambystoma texanum, metabolism, temperature, sex, gravidity, effects, reproductive season.

Freidenburg, K. and D. Skelly (2003). Microgeographic variation in thermal preference by an amphibian. Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting Abstracts 88: 113. ISSN: 0012-9623.
Descriptors: amphibians, thermal preference, microgeographic variation, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: 88th Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of America held jointly with the International Society for Ecological Modeling - North American Chapter, Savannah, Georgia, USA; August 03-08, 2003.

Garcia, T.S., R. Straus, and A. Sih (2003). Temperature and ontogenetic effects on color change in the larval salamander species Ambystoma barbouri and Ambystoma texanum. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81(4): 710-715. ISSN: 0008-4301.
NAL Call Number: 470 C16D
Descriptors: larval salamander species, Ambystoma barbouri, Ambystoma texanum, color change, temperature, ontogenetic effects, body color, amphibians.
Language of Text: English; French.

Glen, F., A.C.G.B.J. Broderick, and G.C. Hays (2003). Incubation environment affects phenotype of naturally incubated green turtle hatchlings. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 83(5): 1183-1186. ISSN: print: 0025-3154; online: 1469-7769.
Descriptors: reptiles, green turtle hatchlings, incubation environment, phenotype, affects, body size.

Irwin, J.T., J.P. Costanzo, and R.E.J. Lee (2003). Postfreeze reduction of locomotor endurance in the freeze-tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 76(3): 331-338. ISSN: 1522-2152.
NAL Call Number: QL1.P52
Descriptors: wood frog, Rana sylvatica, freeze tolerant, locomotor endurance, post freeze reduction, physiological adaptation.

Layne, J.R.J. and S.D. Kennedy (2002). Cellular energetics of frozen wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) revealed via NMR spectroscopy. Journal of Thermal Biology 27(3): 167-173. ISSN: 0306-4565.
NAL Call Number: QP82.2.T4J6
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, Rana sylvatica, ion and water relations, intracellular ph, temperature relationships, freeze tolerance, cellular energetics, nucleic acids, ATP and creative phosphate, temperature.

Layne, J.R.J. and M.E. Rice (2003). Postfreeze locomotion performance in wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) and spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer). Canadian Journal of Zoology 81(12): 2061-2065. ISSN: 0008-4301.
NAL Call Number: 470 C16D
Descriptors: wood frogs, spring peepers, Rana sylvatica, Pseudacris crucifer, post freeze locomotion performance.
Language of Text: English; French.

Marvin, G.A. (2003). Effects of acute temperature and thermal acclimation on aquatic and terrestrial locomotor performance of the three-lined salamander, Eurycea guttolineata. Journal of Thermal Biology 28(3): 251-259. ISSN: 0306-4565.
NAL Call Number: QP82.2.T4J6
Descriptors: three lined salamander, Eurycea guttolineata, temperature, thermal acclimation, effects on aquatic and terrestrial locomotor performance.

Marvin, G.A. (2003). Aquatic and terrestrial locomotor performance in a semiaquatic plethodontid salamander (Pseudotriton ruber): Influence of acute temperature, thermal acclimation, and body size. Copeia 2003(4): 704-713. ISSN: 0045-8511.
Descriptors: plethodontid salamander, Psuedotriton ruber, aquatic and terrestrial locmotor performance, acute temperature, thermal acclimation, effect, body size.

Meek, R. and E. Jolley (2006). Body temperatures of the common toad, Bufo bufo, in the Vendee, France. Herpetological Bulletin 95: 21-24. ISSN: 1473-0928.
Descriptors: Bufo bufo, field body temperature, common toad, range, France.

Olsson, M. and T. Uller (2003). Thermal environment, survival and local adaptation in the common frog, Rana temporaria. Evolutionary Ecology Research 5(3): 431-437. ISSN: 1522-0613.
NAL Call Number: QH540.E96
Descriptors: common frog, Rana temporaria, thermal environment, survival, local adaptation.

Quinn, A.E., A. Georges, S.D. Sarre, F. Guarino, T. Ezaz, and J.A. Graves (2007). Temperature sex reversal implies sex gene dosage in a reptile. Science 316(5823): 411. ISSN: 0036-8075.
Abstract: Sex in reptiles is determined by genes on sex chromosomes or by incubation temperature. Previously these two modes were thought to be distinct, yet we show that high incubation temperatures reverse genotypic males (ZZ) to phenotypic females in a lizard with ZZ and ZW sex chromosomes. Thus, the W chromosome is not necessary for female differentiation. Sex determination is probably via a dosage-sensitive male-determining gene on the Z chromosome that is inactivated by extreme temperatures. Our data invite a novel hypothesis for the evolution of temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) and suggest that sex chromosomes may exist in many TSD reptiles.
Descriptors: reptiles, temperature, sex reversal, sex gene, dosage, sex chromosomes, incubation, temperature dependent sex deterimation.

Raffel, T.R., J.R. Rohr, J.M. Kiesecker, and P.J. Hudson (2006). Negative effects of changing temperature on amphibian immunity under field conditions. Functional Ecology 20(5): 819-828. ISSN: 0269-8463.
NAL Call Number: QH540.F85
Descriptors: amphibians, immunity, changing temperature, negative effects, field conditions, seasonal acclimation, increased susceptibility.

Reading, C.J. (2003). The effects of variation in climatic temperature (1980-2001) on breeding activity and tadpole stage duration in the common toad, Bufo bufo. Science of the Total Environment 310(1-3): 231-236. ISSN: 0048-9697.
Descriptors: amphibians, toad, Bufo bufo, breeding activity, climatic temperature, variation, effects, tadpole stage duration.

Secor, S.M. and M. Boehm (2006). Specific dynamic action of ambystomatid salamanders and the effects of meal size, meal type, and body temperature. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 79(4): 720-735. ISSN: 1522-2152.
NAL Call Number: QL1.P52
Abstract: The past decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in studies of amphibian and reptile specific dynamic action (SDA). These studies have demonstrated that SDA, the summed energy expended on meal digestion and assimilation, is affected significantly by meal size, meal type, and body size and to some extent by body temperature. While much of this attention has been directed at anuran and reptile SDA, we investigated the effects of meal size, meal type, and body temperature on the postprandial metabolic responses and the SDA of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum). We also compared the SDA responses among six species of Ambystoma salamanders representing the breadth of Ambystoma phylogeny. Postprandial peaks in VO(2) and VO(2), duration of elevated metabolism, and SDA of tiger salamanders increased with the size of cricket meals (2.5%-12.5% of body mass). For A. tigrinum, as for other ectotherms, a doubling of meal size results in an approximate doubling of SDA, a function of equal increases in peak VO(2) and duration. For nine meal types of equivalent size (5% of body mass), the digestion of hard-bodied prey (crickets, superworms, mealworms, beetles) generated larger SDA responses than the digestion of soft-bodied prey (redworms, beetle larvae). Body temperature affected the profile of postprandial metabolism, increasing the peak and shortening the duration of the profile as body temperature increased. SDA was equivalent among three body temperatures (20 degrees, 25 degrees, and 30 degrees C) but decreased significantly at 15 degrees C. Comparatively, the postprandial metabolic responses and SDA of Ambystoma jeffersonianum, Ambystoma maculatum, Ambystoma opacum, Ambystoma talpoideum, Ambystoma texanum, and the conspecific Ambystoma tigrinum mavortium digesting cricket meals that were 5% of their body mass were similar (independent of body mass) to those of A. t. tigrinum. Among the six species, standard metabolic rate, peak postprandial VO(2), and SDA scaled with body mass with mass exponents of 0.72, 0.78, and 1.05, respectively.
Descriptors: ambystomatid salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum, body temperature, feeding behavior physiology, food, Urodela physiology, Annelida, Cyprinidae, energy metabolism physiology, Gryllidae, mice, Tenebrio, time factors.

Secor, S.M. and A.C. Faulkner (2002). Effects of meal size, meal type, body temperature, and body size on the specific dynamic action of the marine toad, Bufo marinus. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 75(6): 557-571. ISSN: 1522-2152.
NAL Call Number: QL1.P52
Descriptors: amphibians, marine toad, Bufo marinus, size, body temperature, meal size, meal type, body size, effects.

Seebacher, F. and R.a. Alford (2002). Shelter microhabitats determine body temperature and dehydration rates of a terrestrial amphibian (Bufo marinus). Journal of Herpetology 36(1): 69-75. ISSN: 0022-1511.
NAL Call Number: QL640.J6
Descriptors: amphibians, Bufo marinus, body temperature, dehydration rates, shelter microhabitats, Bufo marinus, toad, thermal conditions, seasonal changes.

Storey, K.B. and J.M. Storey (2004). Physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology of vertebrate freeze tolerance: The wood frog. In: E.E.F.B.J.L.N. Benson (Editors), Life in the Frozen State., CRC Press: Boca Raton, p. 243-274. ISBN: 0415247004.
NAL Call Number: QH324.9.C7 L545 2004
Descriptors: wood frog, vertebrate freeze tolerance, physiology, biochemistry, cryobiology.

Suominen, H., S. Nymark, K. Donner, and A. Koskelainen (2002). Temperature effects on frog cone sensitivity. ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract Search and Program Planner 2002: Abstract No. 1420. ISSN: print: 0146-0404; online: 1552-5783.
Descriptors: amphibians, frog, cone sensitivity, temperature effects, visual pigment, thermal activations, wavelength, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: Annual Meeting of the Association For Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA; May 05-10, 2002.

Talent, L.G. (2005). Effect of temperature on toxicity of a natural pyrethrin pesticide to green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 24(12): 3113-3116. ISSN: 0730-7268.
NAL Call Number: QH545.A1E58
Abstract: Metabolic rates of reptiles vary with body temperature; therefore, the sensitivity of reptiles to a particular dose level of a pesticide might be expected to vary as well. The purpose of the present study was twofold: To evaluate the effects of temperature on the toxicity to green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis) of a single concentration of a natural pyrethrin pesticide via percutaneous exposure, and to compare the effects of temperature (20 vs 35 degrees C) on the toxicity of different concentrations of pyrethrins to green anoles. When lizards were exposed to a solution that contained 300 mg/L of pyrethrins, the mortality of lizards maintained at 15 and 20 degrees C was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than the mortality of lizards maintained at 35 and 38 degrees C. In addition, the median lethal concentrations of pyrethrins for lizards maintained at 20 and 35 degrees C were 77.6 and greater than 300 mg/L, respectively. Therefore, temperature clearly influenced the sensitivity of lizards to pyrethrin pesticides.
Descriptors: lizards, Anolis carolinensis, pesticides toxicity, pyrethrins toxicity, temperature, effect, pesticide, metabolic rates, reptiles, sensitivity.

Thibodeaux, L. and T.V. Hancock (2004). The effects of developmental temperature on morphology and locomotor performance in the salamander, Ambystoma maculatum. FASEB Journal 18(4-5): Abst. 238.9. ISSN: 0892-6638.
NAL Call Number: QH301.F3
Descriptors: amphibians, salamander, Ambystoma maculatum, developmental temperature, effects, morphology, locomotor performance, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: FASEB Meeting on Experimental Biology: Translating the Genome, Washington, District of Columbia, USA; April 17-21, 2004.

Vences, M., P. Galan, D.R. Vietes, M. Puente, K. Oetter, and S. Wanke (2002). Field body temperatures and heating rates in a montane frog population: the importance of black dorsal pattern for thermoregulation. Annales Zoologici Fennici 39(3): 209-220. ISSN: 0003-455X.
NAL Call Number: 410 AN712
Descriptors: montane frog, Rana temporaria, thermoregulation, field bodsy temperatures, heating rates, black dorsal pattern, montane frog population.

Vladimirova, I.G., T.A. Alekseeva, and M.V. Nechaeva (2005). [Effect of temperature on the rate of oxygen consumption during the second half of embryonic and early postembryonic development of European pond turtle Emys orbicularis (Reptilia: Emydidae)]. Izvestiia Akademii Nauk. Seriia Biologicheskaia Rossiiskaia Akademiia Nauk(5): 585-591. ISSN: 1026-3470.
Abstract: Oxygen consumption by eggs of European pond turtle was determined at two constant incubation temperatures of 25 and 28 degrees C during the second half of embryogenesis. During development at both temperatures, the rate of oxygen consumption initially increased to remain constant during the last quarter of embryogenesis. The difference between the rates of oxygen consumption at these temperatures decreased during the studied period. The coefficient Q10 for the rate of oxygen consumption decreased from 9 to 1.7. At an incubation temperature of 28 degrees C, the changes in the rate of oxygen consumption in response to a short-term temperature decrease to 25 degrees C or increase to 30 degrees C depended on the developmental stage and were most pronounced at the beginning of the studied period. During late embryonic and first 2.5 months of postembryonic development, the rate of oxygen consumption did not significantly differ after such temperature changes. The regulatory mechanisms formed during embryonic development are proposed to maintain the level of oxygen consumption during temperature changes.
Descriptors: pond turtle, Emys orbicularis, temperature, turtles embryology, growth, development, oxygen consumption, eggs, turtles metabolism.
Language of Text: Russian.

Voituron, Y., M. Eugene, and H. Barre (2003). Survival and metabolic responses to freezing by the water frog (Rana ridibunda). Journal of Experimental Zoology 299A(2): 118-126. ISSN: print: 0022-104X; online: 1097-010X.
NAL Call Number: 410 J825
Descriptors: water frog, Rana ridibunda, temperature, freezing, survival and metabolic responses.

Wang, L.z. and X.c. Li (2006). Effect of temperature on egg incubation of the common giant toad. Hebei Nongye Daxue Xuebao 29(3): 71-74 Sum No 126. ISSN: 1000-1573.
Descriptors: common giant toad, Rana chensinensis, egg incubation, effect of temperature.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in Chinese and English.

Wang, L.Z., X.C. Li, and T. Sun (2005). Preferred temperature, avoidance temperature and lethal temperature of tadpoles of the common giant toad (Bufo gargarizans) and the Chinese forest frog (Rana chensinensis). Chinese Journal of Zoology 40(2): 23-27. ISSN: 0250-3263.
Descriptors: tadpoles, Bufo gargarizans, frog, Rana chensinensis, preferred temperature, temperature avoidance, lethal temperature, effects, larvae.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in Chinese and English.

Watkins, T.B. and J. Vraspir (2006). Both incubation temperature and posthatching temperature affect swimming performance and morphology of wood frog tadpoles (Rana sylvatica). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 79(1): 140-149. ISSN: 1522-2152.
NAL Call Number: QL1.P52
Descriptors: wood frog, tadpoles, Rana sylvatica, temperature, affect, morphology, swimming performance, incubation, post hatching, environmental temperatures, effects, larvae.

Whiteman, H.H. and N.L. Buschhaus (2003). Behavioral thermoregulation in field populations of amphibian larvae. In: Exploring Animal Behavior in Laboratory and Field: An Hypothesis-Testing Approach to the Development, Causation, Function, and Evolution of Animal Behavior. Academic Press Inc.: London, UK, San Diego, CA, p. 79-84. ISBN: 0125583303.
Descriptors: amphibians, larvae, behavioral thermoregulation, field populations, book chapter.

Woodhams, D.C., R.A. Alford, and G. Marantelli (2003). Emerging disease of amphibians cured by elevated body temperature. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 55(1): 65-67. ISSN: 0177-5103.
Descriptors: amphibians, emerging diseases, cured, elevated body temperature.

Yang, C.j. and X.h. Xiao (2006). Study progress in freeze tolerant mechanism of amphibian. Sichuan Journal of Zoology 25(2): 430-432. ISSN: 1000-7083.
Descriptors: amphibians, temperature, cold tolerance, freeze tolerance, mechanism, review.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in Chinese and English.

Yang CuiJun (2006). Freeze tolerant mechanism of amphibian and its research strategies. Journal of Economic Animal 10(2): 121-124. ISSN: 1007-7448.
Descriptors: amphibians, freeze tolerant, mechanism, research strategies, temperature.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in English.



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