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Information Resources on Amphibians & Reptiles
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Annis, S.L., F.P. Dastoor, H. Ziel, P. Daszak, and J.E. Longcore (2004). A DNA-based assay identifies Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in amphibians. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 40(3): 420-428. ISSN: 0090-3558.
NAL Call Number: 41.9 W64B
Descriptors: amphibians, fungal pathogen, detection, DNA based assay, diagnostic techniques, fungal diseases, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

Baier, J. (2006). Guidelines for euthanasia of nondomestic animals. In: C.K. Baer Amphibians, American Association of Zoo Veterinarians: Lawrence, USA, p. 39-41. ISBN: 0689707266.
Descriptors: animal welfare, drugs, euthanasia, guidelines, methodology, techniques, nondomestic animals, zoo animals, amphibians, book chapter.

Bertelsen, M. and G. Crawshaw (2003). 5-Minute guide to amphibian disease. Exotic DVM 5(2): 23-26. ISSN: 1521-1363.
NAL Call Number: SF981.E96
Descriptors: amphibians, diseases, guide, diagnosis, verterinary resource.

Boyle, D.G., D.B. Boyle, V. Olsen, J.A.T. Morgan, and A.D. Hyatt (2004). Rapid quantitative detection of chytridiomycosis (Batrachochytrium dendrobatis) in amphibian samples using real-time Taqman PCR assay. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 60(2): 141-148. ISSN: 0177-5103.
Descriptors: amphibians, anura, diagnostic techniques, Batrachochytrium dendrobatis (fungus ), detection using pcr Taqman assay, fungal diseases.

Clayton, L.A. (2005). Amphibian gastroenterology. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Exotic Animal Practice 8(2): 227-245. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Descriptors: amphibians, gastroenterology, diagnostic techniques, treatment, gastrointestinal tract, anatomy, gastrointestinal diseases.

Collins, J.P., J.L. Brunner, J.K. Jancovich, and D.M. Schock (2004). A model host-pathogen system for studying infectious disease dynamics in amphibians: tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) and Ambystoma tigrinum virus. Herpetological Journal 14(4): 195-200. ISSN: 0268-0130.
Descriptors: amphibians, tiger salamanders, Ambystoma tigrinum, model host pathogen system, studying infectious disease, dynamics, virus.

Cousquer, G. (2006). Handling and restraint of exotic patients - Part 2: Reptiles and amphibians. VN Times 6(12): 18-19. ISSN: 0922-8012.
Descriptors: handling, amphibians, reptiles, methodology, pets, restraint of animals, techniques, lizards, reptiles, snakes, tortoises.

de la Navarre, B.J. (2006). Common procedures in reptiles and amphibians. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Exotic Animal Practice 9(2): 237-267. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Abstract: Reptiles and amphibians continue to be popular as pets in the United States and throughout the world. It therefore behooves veterinarians interested in caring for these exotic species to continually gather knowledge concerning both their proper husbandry and the conditions that require medical and/or surgical intervention.This article covers husbandry, physical examination, and clinical and diagnostic techniques in an effort to present guidelines for the evaluation of the reptile or amphibian patient. Gathering clinical data will aid veterinarians in arriving at the proper diagnosis,increasing the chances of success with treatment protocols, and educating the clients in proper nutrition and husbandry for their pets.
Descriptors: Amphibia, animal diseases diagnosis, therapy, reptiles, veterinary medicine methods, animal feed, animal husbandry methods, standards, animal nutrition, physiology, domestic animals, diagnosis, diagnostic services, standards, physical examination veterinary, practice guidelines, veterinary medicine standards.

De Martini, L., F. Oneto, M.V. Pastorino, S. Salvidio, E. Buriola, and F. Bona (2006). A non-lethal method to sample gastrointestinal parasites from terrestrial salamanders. Amphibia Reptilia 27(2): 278-280. ISSN: 0173-5373.
Descriptors: amphibians, gastrointestinal parasites, sample methods, non-lethal, terrestrial salamanders.

Ells, T.v., J. Stanton, A. Strieby, P. Daszak, A.D. Hyatt, and C. Brown (2003). Use of immunohistochemistry to diagnose chytridiomycosis in dying poison dart frogs (Dendrobates tinctorius). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 39(3): 742-745. ISSN: 0090-3558.
NAL Call Number: 41.9 W64B
Descriptors: poison dart frogs, Dendrobates tinctorius, Anura, dermatomycoses, Chytridiales, disease, diagnosis, Batrachochytrium dendrobatis.

Guenette, S.A., P. Helie, F. Beaudry, and P. Vachon (2007). Eugenol for anesthesia of African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 34(3): 164-170. ISSN: print: 1467-2987; online: 1467-2995.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the level of anesthesia attained in Xenopus laevis frogs with eugenol at different doses and by different routes of administration. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective experimental trial. ANIMALS: Sixty X. laevis nonbreeding female frogs weighing between 90 and 140 g. METHODS: Three different routes of administration were tested - subcutaneous injections into the dorsal lymph sacs, topical administration using a gauze patch, and immersion in a bath containing eugenol. Following the determination of the best route of administration, the acetic acid test, the withdrawal reflex, righting reflex, heart rate, and respiratory frequency were used to evaluate central nervous system depression following eugenol bath administration. In an additional group, the response to a surgical incision of the abdominal wall was evaluated. The pharmacokinetics of eugenol were determined following bath immersion administration, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated following blood concentration determination by tandem liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses. RESULTS: It was not possible to induce anethesia with subcutaneous and patch administration, independent of the eugenol dose administered. The immersion bath was the only efficacious route for anesthesia inducing surgical anesthesia for at least 30 minutes with postoperative analgesia. Histopathology of selected tissues (heart, lung, liver, kidneys, eyes) showed no evidence of lesions 24 hours following bath immersion. The elimination half-life (T(1/2)) was 4 hours. CONCLUSIONS: When administered as a single-bath immersion (dose 350 mg L(-1)) for 15 minutes, eugenol may serve as an effective anesthetic in Xenopus laevis frogs for short surgical procedures.
Descriptors: African clawed frogs, Xenopus laevis, amphibians, anesthesia, eugenol, doses, routes of administration, subcutaneous, topical, immersion bath, pharmacokinetics, blood concentration, surgical anesthesia.

Guenette, S.A. and S. Lair (2006). Anesthesia of the leopard frog, Rana pipiens: a comparative study between four different agents. Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery 16(2): 38-44. ISSN: 1529-9651.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.R4 B85
Descriptors: amphibians, leopard frog, Rana pipiens, anesthesia, anesthetics, benzocaine, drug combinations, lidocaine, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology, comparative study, clove oil.

Guenette, S.A., D. Rodrigue, and P. Vachon (2005). Utilisation des amphibiens en recherche: l'eugenol pour la gestion de la douleur chez la grenouille Xenopus laevis. [Utilization of amphibians in research: Eugenol in pain management in Xenopus laevis]. Medecin Veterinaire Du Quebec 35(1): 12-14. ISSN: 0225-9591.
Descriptors: amphibians, frogs, Xenopus laevis, analgesics, eugenol, laboratory animals, pain management, research.
Language of Text: French.
Notes: Special issue: Medecine des animaux de laboratoire.

Hadfield, C.A. and B.R. Whitaker (2005). Amphibian emergency medicine and care. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine 14(2): 79-89. ISSN: 1055-937X.
NAL Call Number: SF994.2.A1S36
Descriptors: amphibians, treatment techniques, emergency medicine and care, pets, research animals, diseases, injuries.

Harkewicz, K., A.P. Pessier, L.A. Rollins Smith, R. Speare, and C. Weldon (2005). Amphibian chytridiomycosis. Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery 15(3): 32-44. ISSN: 1529-9651.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.R4 B85
Descriptors: amphibians, fungal disease, chytridiomycosis, treatment techniques, transmission, diagnosis.

Hassl, A. and G. Benyr (2003). Hygienic evaluation of terraria inhabited by amphibians and reptiles: Cryptosporidia, free-living amebas, Salmonella. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift 115(Suppl.3): 68-71. ISSN: 0043-5325.
Descriptors: amphibians, reptiles, hygenic evaluation, Cryptosporidia, amebas, Salmonella, pets, disease transmission, vivarium, infectious diseases.
Language of Text: German.
Notes: Meeting Information: Vortrage der 36. jahrestagung der Osterreichischen Gesellschaft fur Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie.

Johnson, A.J. and J.F.X. Wellehan (2005). Amphibian virology. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Exotic Animal Practice 8(1): 53-65. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Descriptors: amphibian virology, virology, veterinary clinics, review, viral diseases.

Keller, C.B. and C.M. Shilton (2002). The amphibian eye. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Exotic Animal Practice 5(2): 261-274. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Descriptors: amphibians, the amphibian eye, diagnostic techniques, ophthalmic diseases, veterinary.

Kirk Baer, C.E. (2006). Proceedings Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians thirteenth annual conference. Baltimore, Maryland, April 23-27, 2006. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians 13: 1-126. ISSN: 1529-9651.
NAL Call Number: SF996.A77
Descriptors: amphibians, reptilians, veterinary conference, proceedings, diagnostic techniques, abstracts, treatment techniques, parasites, diseases, disorders.

Knapp, R.A. and J.A.T. Morgan (2006). Tadpole mouthpart depigmentation as an accurate indicator of chytridiomycosis, an emerging disease of amphibians. Copeia 2006(2): 188-197. ISSN: 0045-8511.
Descriptors: amphibians, emerging diseases, tadpole mouthpart depigmentation as accurate indicator of fungal disease, chytridiomycosis.

Kriger, K.M., H.B. Hines, A.D. Hyatt, D.G. Boyle, and J.M. Hero (2006). Techniques for detecting chytridiomycosis in wild frogs: Comparing histology with real-time taqman pcr. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 71(2): 141-148. ISSN: 0177-5103.
Descriptors: amphibians, wild frogs, chytridiomycosis, detecting techniques, PCR assay, rapid, noninvasive, swab PCR.

Li, M.h., W. Li, W. Zhou, Q. Zhang, and F.l. Li (2006). Comparative anatomy of respiratory system of three frogs and discussion on their evolutive relationship. Sichuan Journal of Zoology 25(2): 223-227. ISSN: 1000-7083.
Descriptors: amphibians, frogs, respiratory system, comparative anatomy, discussion, evolution.
Language of Text: Chinese; Summary in Chinese and English.

Maclean, B. (2006). Common dermatoses of ornamental fish and amphibians. In Practice 28(10): 604-613. ISSN: 0263-841X.
Descriptors: ornamental fish, amphibians, skin diseases, skin lesions, signs, symptoms (animals and humans), animal pathogens, disease diagnosis, clinical examination, medical treatment.

Miller, D.L., M.J. Gray, S. Rajeev, and C.A. Baldwin (2006). Preliminary pathologic findings in bullfrog (Rana catesbiana) and green frog (Rana clamitans) larvae collected from farm ponds in Tennessee. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians 13: 1-3. ISSN: 1529-9651.
NAL Call Number: SF996.A77
Descriptors: amphibians, bullfrog, Rana catesbiana, green frog, Rana clamitans, larvae pathologic findings, farm pools, Tennessee, conference proceedings.

Mohan, S. and C.W. Stevens (2006). Systemic and spinal administration of the mu opioid, remifentanil, produces antinociception in amphibians. European Journal of Pharmacology 534(1-3): 89-94. ISSN: 0014-2999.
Abstract: Remifentanil is a relatively new opioid analgesic related to the fentanyl family of mu opioid receptor agonists and is used clinically for its unique property of having an ultra-short duration of action. However, there is little preclinical data on the analgesic (antinociceptive) effects of remifentanil and none obtained in non-mammalian animal models. The antinociceptive effects of remifentanil were assessed by using the acetic acid test in amphibians. Systemic and spinal administration of remifentanil was made by subcutaneous and intraspinal injections in the Northern grass frog, Rana pipiens. After administration, remifentanil produced dose-dependent and long-lasting antinociceptive effects which persisted for five hours after systemic administration but gave a shorter duration of action after spinal delivery. The antinociceptive effects of remifentanil were significantly blocked by pretreatment with systemic naltrexone. Systemic and spinal administration of remifentanil produced log dose-response curves which yielded ED50 values of 7.1 nmol/g and 3.2 nmol/animal respectively. The relative antinociceptive potency of remifentanil compared to other opioids administered to amphibians is similar to that found in mammalian models.
Descriptors: Northern grass frog, Rana pipiens, analgesics, opioid pharmacology, pain prevention and control, piperidines pharmacology, acetic acid, analgesics, opioid administration and dosage, dose response relationship, drug, injections, spinal, injections, subcutaneous, models, animal, naltrexone pharmacology, narcotic antagonists pharmacology, pain measurement, piperidines administration and dosage, receptors, opioid, mu drug effects, time factors.

Monks, D.J., M.S. Carlisle, M. Carrigan, K. Rose, D. Spratt, A. Gallagher, and P. Prociv (2005). Angiostrongylus cantonensis as a cause of cerebrospinal disease in a yellow-tailed black cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus funereus) and two tawny frogmouths (Podargus strigoides). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 19(4): 289-293. ISSN: 1082-6742.
NAL Call Number: SF994.J6
Descriptors: amphibians, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, cockatoo, Calyptorhynchus funereus, tawny frogmouths, Podargus strigoides, cerebrospinal disease, Australia.

Mutschmann, F. (2004). Pathological changes in African hyperoliid frogs due to a myxosporidian infection with a new species of Hoferellus (Myxozoa). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 60(3): 215-222. ISSN: print: 0177-5103; online: 1616-1580.
Abstract: A proliferous, polycystic and sometimes fatal kidney disease due to an infection with myxosporidia is reported in 24 of 28 hyperoliid frogs (Afrixalus dorsalis, Hyperolius concolor, Hyperolius sp.) from Nigeria, Ghana and Tanzania. In line with pathological changes in fish, the disease is described as 'frog kidney enlargement disease' (FKED). Myxosporidian plasmodia, different developmental stages and spores occurred in the kidney, ureter, and urinary bladder and in the intestine of the frogs. The parasite belongs to the genus Hoferellus and is presented as a new species: H. anurae n. sp. Spores are similar in size and structure to other Hoferellus species in fish but differ by the presence of a more prominent suture line and shorter caudal appendages. This is the first report on a Hoferellus species in amphibians as well as the first report of the genus Hoferellus in African vertebrates.
Descriptors: frogs, pathological changes, infection, myxosporidian, new species, Hoferellus, fatal kidney disease, ureter, urinary bladder, intestine, parasite.

Mylniczenko, N.D. (2006). A medical health survey of diseases in captive caecilian amphibians. Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery 16(4): 120-128. ISSN: 1529-9651.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.R4 B85
Descriptors: amphibians, diseases, survey, captive, fecal examintions, antemortem, postmortem, examination, therapy, antibiotics, treatments, medical care, microbial cultures, septicemia.

O'Malley, B. (2005). Clinical Anatomy and Physiology of Exotic Species: Structure and Function of Mammals, Birds, Reptiles and Amphibians., Elsevier Saunders: Edinburgh and New York, 269 p. ISBN: 0702027820.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 O44 2005
Descriptors: amphibians, birds, reptiles, mammals, clinical anatomy, physiology, exotic animals.

Pare, J.A. (2004). Un apercu de la medecine des amphibiens. [General survey of amphibian medicine]. Medecin Veterinaire Du Quebec 34(4): 275-280. ISSN: 0225-9591.
Descriptors: amphibians, pets, diseases, medicine, survey, Quebec.
Language of Text: French.

Parker, J.M., I. Mikaelian, N. Hahn, and H.E. Diggs (2002). Clinical diagnosis and treatment of epidermal chytridiomycosis in African clawed frogs (Xenopus tropicalis). Comparative Medicine 52(3): 265-268. ISSN: 1532-0820.
NAL Call Number: SF77.C65
Abstract: An investigation was conducted to determine the cause of morbidity and mortality in a collection of 55 adult male Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis at the University of California, Berkeley. More than 80% of affected frogs died during the epizootic. All frogs were anorectic and lethargic, had dark pigmentation and excess skin sloughing, and lacked a slime layer. Histologic examination revealed severe hyperplastic and spongiotic dermatitis associated with colonization of the stratum corneum by large numbers of zoosporangia diagnostic of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Treatment with a commercial formalin/malachite green solution at a dilution of 0.007 ml/L of tank water for 24 h, repeated every other day for four treatments, eliminated the organism and was curative. These findings are indicative of epidermal chytridiomycosis as a primary cause of death in this collection of X. tropicalis.
Descriptors: Xenopus, laboratory animals, mortality, Chytridiales, dermatomycoses, epidemiology, histopathology, case studies, Silurana tropicalis, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

Pessier, A.P. (2007). Cytologic diagnosis of disease in amphibians. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Exotic Animal Practice 10(1): 187-206. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Abstract: Cytology is an inexpensive yet powerful diagnostic tool that allows for rapid diagnosis of many common disease conditions in amphibian patients. Although the emphasis of this article is on infectious diseases, there is great potential for application of cytologic diagnosis to variety of medical conditions as the knowledge base in amphibian medicine and pathology continues to grow. Routine methods used that may fall under the umbrella of cytology range from wet mount examination of skin scrapings (or gill biopsies of larvae) to examination of stained impression smears. Routine Romanowsky's-type stains work well for amphibian samples. Preparation of multiple smears is always recommended to allow for use of special staining procedures.
Descriptors: amphibians, parasitology, cytodiagnosis, veterinary, skin diseases, animal diseases, pathology, body fluids, cytology, microbiology, parasitology.

Pessier, A.P. and M. Pinkerton (2003). Practical gross necropsy of amphibians. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine 12(2): 81-88. ISSN: 1055-937X.
NAL Call Number: SF994.2.A1S36
Descriptors: amphibians, practical gross necropsy, methods, veterinary.

Skalka, P. (2002). Diagnostika a leceni zab v ustecke Zoo. Diagnostics and treatment of frogs at the Usti nad Labem Zoo. Fauna Bohemiae Septentrionalis 27: 31-35. ISSN: 0231-9861.
Descriptors: amphibians, Anura, diagnostics, zoo, treatment, parasites, frogs, usti nad labem zoo.
Language of Text: Czech; Summary in Czech and English.

Skalka, P. (2003). Diagnostika a leceni zab. [Diagnosis and treatment of frogs.]. Akvarium Terarium 46(2): 64-67. ISSN: 0002-3930.
Descriptors: amphibians, Anura, frogs, diagnosis, parasites, diseases, disorders, captivity, treatment.
Language of Text: Czech.

Smith, K.G. (2007). Use of quantitative PCR assay for amphibian chytrid detection: Comment on Kriger et al. (2006a,b). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 73(3): 253-255. ISSN: print: 0177-5103; online: 1616-1580.
Descriptors: amphibians, parasitology, chytridiomycota, isolation, purification, mycoses, assay, polymerase chain reaction, chytridiomycota genetics, diagnosis, spores, fungal isolation.
Notes: Comment On: Dis Aquat Organ. 2006 Jul 25;71(2):141-8.

Stacy, B.A. and J.M. Parker (2004). Amphibian Oncology. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Exotic Animal Practice 7(3): 673-695. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Abstract: Spontaneous neoplasia is rare in all three orders of Amphibia.Tumors are documented in most major organ systems, and some have various underlying etiologies, including viral infection, environmental contaminants, and genetic predisposition. Currently,treatment options are limited to removal of the predisposing condition(s), palliative care, surgical excision, and, when necessary,humane euthanasia may be elected. Neoplasia must be distinguished from common infectious, nonneoplastic conditions that can negatively impact population health. This article is a review of the more common types of neoplasia in amphibians, and includes clinically relevant information, such as biologic behavior,anatomy, associated etiologies, major differential diagnoses, and clinical management.
Descriptors: amphibians, neoplasia, tumors, differential diagnosis, viral infection, anatomy, clinical management, surgical excision, palliative care.

Sykes, J.M. and C.B. Greenacre (2006). Techniques for drug delivery in reptiles and amphibians. Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine 15(3): 210-217. ISSN: 1557-5063.
NAL Call Number: SF994.2.A1 S36
Descriptors: amphibians, reptilies, techniques for drug delivery, treatment.

Tarigo, J., K. Linder, J. Neel, S. Harvey, A. Remick, and C. Grindem (2006). Reluctant to dive: coelomic effusion in a frog. Veterinary Clinical Pathology 35(3): 341-344. ISSN: 0275-6382.
NAL Call Number: SF601.A54
Abstract: An adult female, albino South African Clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) from a research colony at the Biological Resources Facility of the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at North Carolina State University (NCSU) was presented with depression, lethargy, loss of diving reflex, and a distended abdomen. Cytologic examination of coelomic effusion fluid at the NCSU veterinary teaching hospital revealed a mixed population of inflammatory cells, including heterophils and a predominance of large mononuclear cells (macrophages) that often contained intracytoplasmic, negatively-stained, rod-shaped to filamentous organisms consistent with Mycobacterium sp. Ziehl-Neelsen stain revealed bright pink to red, acid-fast organisms with a beaded appearance. Histopathologic findings in tissues obtained at necropsy included marked, multifocal to coalescing, heterophilic, granulomatous and fibrinous coelomitis as well as severe multifocal heterophilic and granulomatous hepatitis, interstitial pneumonia and sinusitis/rhinitis. Slender gram-positive, acid-fast bacterial rods were identified in sections of coelomic pleura, kidneys, nasal cavities, spleen, liver, and pulmonary interstitium, indicative of systemic mycobacteriosis. Based on mycobacterial culture, the organism was identified as M marinum complex. Mycobacteria are variably gram-positive, often acid-fast, small rods that are ubiquitous in aquatic environments. The clinical and pathologic spectrum of disease in amphibians depends on host and pathogen status. Xenopus sp and several other frogs are good models for studying the pathogenesis of M tuberculosis infection. In addition to culture, polymerase chain reaction assays may be used for definitive identification of the organisms; accurate speciation may require further genetic investigation.
Descriptors: frog, Xenopus laevis, mycobacterium infections, atypical infection, veterinary, Mycobacterium marinum isolation and purification, Xenopus laevis microbiology, fatal outcome, atypical diagnosis, atypical pathology, polymerase chain reaction veterinary, staining and labeling methods.

Trott, K.A., B.A. Stacy, B.D. Lifland, H.E. Diggs, R.M. Harland, M.K. Khokha, T.C. Grammer, and J.M. Parker (2004). Characterization of a Mycobacterium ulcerans-like infection in a colony of African tropical clawed frogs (Xenopus tropicalis). Comparative Medicine 54(3): 309-317. ISSN: 1532-0820.
NAL Call Number: SF77.C65
Abstract: A nontuberculous Mycobacterium ulcerans-like organism was identified as the causative agent of an epizootic of mycobacteriosis in a colony of African tropical clawed frogs, Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis, at the University of California, Berkeley. Diverse clinical signs of disease were observed, including lethargy, excess buoyancy, coelomic effusion, cutaneous ulcers, and granulomas. Visceral granulomas, ulcerative and granulomatous dermatitis, coelomitis, and septicemia were common findings at necropsy. Identification of M. ulcerans-like organisms was based on molecular and phenotypical characteristics. The findings of this investigation indicate that this M. ulcerans-like organism is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in aquatic anurans and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of coelomic effusion in amphibians. Furthermore, if this Mycobacterium species ultimately is identified as M. ulcerans, X. tropicalis should be considered a potential source of this important public health pathogen.
Descriptors: amphibians, African tropicalclawed frogs, mycobacterium infections, atypical diagnosis, Mycobacterium ulcerans genetics, isolation, purification, Xenopus microbiology, liver microbiology, pathology, atypical pathology, differential diagnosis.

Tuttle, A.D., J.M. Law, C.A. Harms, G.A. Lewbart, and S.B. Harvey (2006). Evaluation of the gross and histologic reactions to five commonly used suture materials in the skin of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis). Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 45(6): 22-26. ISSN: 1559-6109.
NAL Call Number: SF405.3.A23
Descriptors: African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, suture materials evaluation, gross, histologic, reactions, five commonly used, nylon, oedema, oocytes, silk, skin, surgery, surgical equipment.

Uteshev, V.K., T.N. Pashovkin, A.N. Sevirov, E.V. Mel'nikova, D.G. Sadikova, V.N. Karnaukhov, and E.N. Gakhova (2006). [Survival of amphibian embryos after continuous ultrasound treatment]. Biofizika 51(3): 539-544. ISSN: 0006-3029.
Abstract: The influence of continuous ultrasound on the embryonic development of grass frog Rana temporaria has been investigated. Intact embryos at the blastula stage were treated by ultrasound of different frequency (0.88 and 2.64 MHz), intensity (0.05-1.0 W/cm2), and duration (1-15 min). The treatment with ultrasound of frequency 0.88 MHz and intensity 0.05 W/cm2 for 1-5 min tended to increase the proportion of normally developing embryos up to hatch (10-25% of control). Increasing the intensity of ultrasound (0.88 MHz) to 0.7-1.0 W/cm2 and the duration of its action to 5-15 min induced the death of almost all of treated embryos. No significant differences were found between the development of control embryos and embryos treated with ultrasound of middle intensity (0.2-0.7 W/cm2) for 1-5 min. The exposure of amphibian embryos to ultrasound of frequency 2.64 MHz and intensity 0.05-0.7 W/cm2 for 1-5 min did not change their survival. Increasing the intensity of ultrasound (2.64 MHz) to 1.0 W/cm2 and the duration of its action to 5 min decreased the number of normal developing embryos (by 35%).
Descriptors: Rana temporaria embryology, ultrasonics adverse effects, blastula physiology, embryo, nonmammalian physiology, embryonic development, time factors.
Language of Text: Russian.

Webb, R., D. Mendez, L. Berger, and R. Speare (2007). Additional disinfectants effective against the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 74(1): 13-16. ISSN: print: 0177-5103; online: 1616-1580.
Abstract: Chytridiomycosis, a disease contributing to amphibian declines worldwide, is caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Identifying efficient and practical disinfectants effective against B. dendrobatidis is important to reduce the spread of the disease both in the wild and captivity. Previous studies identified a range of suitable disinfectant strategies. We evaluated the suitability of 3 additional disinfectants: two of these (TriGene Virucidal Disinfectant Cleaner and F10 Super Concentrate Disinfectant) are mixtures of chemicals and one (Betadine Antiseptic Liquid) contains a single active ingredient, povidone iodine. The disinfectants were tested using a range of concentrations for 1,5 and 10 min to determine their ability to kill B. dendrobatidis in vitro. The measure of effectiveness was 100% kill of zoosporangia grown in multiwell plates. All disinfectants had a 100% efficacy at concentrations recommended by the manufacturers. The lowest concentrations capable of 100% kill after exposure for 1 min were 0.1 ml l(-1) for TriGene, 0.33 ml l(-1) for F10 and 100 ml l(-1) for Betadine. TriGene is the most effective disinfectant yet to be found, and both TriGene and F10 are more effective than various disinfectants tested in previous studies. TriGene and F10 are considered suitable for use in the field, as only small amounts of concentrate are needed.
Descriptors: decline of amphibians, chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, effective disinfectants, chytridomycosis, disinfectant strategies, reduce spread, kill of zoosporangia, lowest concentrations, TriGene most effective.

Weldon, C. and L.H. Du Preez (2006). Quantitative measurement of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in amphibian skin. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 72(2): 153-161. ISSN: 0177-5103.
Descriptors: amphibians, disease, skin, Batrachytrium dendrobatidis, quantitative measurement, pathological research, skin sloughs, examination.

Wright, K. (2003). Cholesterol, corneal lipidosis, and xanthomatosis in amphibians. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Exotic Animal Practice 6(1): 155-167. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Abstract: Many captive amphibians have high serum or plasma cholesterol and concomittant lesions such as corneal lipidosis and xanthomas. The underlying cause of this disorder is unknown, but it is likely that a diet high in cholesterol plays a role. The metabolism of lipids in healthy amphibians remains poorly documented, which makes it challenging to interpret the findings in affected specimens. Affected amphibians should be maintained on a low-cholesterol diet and fed sparingly, and their captive environment modified to provide an optimal temperature gradient for thermoregulation.
Descriptors: amphibians, corneal lipidosis, xanthomatosis, cholesterol, captive, diet, low cholesterol, thermoreglation.

Wright, K. (2006). Veterinary advances that impact amphibian conservation. Small Animal and Exotics Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference. 20: 1783-1785. ISSN: 0003-1488.
Descriptors: amphibians, veterinary advances, drugs, treatment, conservation, diagnosis, conference proceedings.

Wright, K. (2006). Common medical problems of amphibians. Small Animal and Exotics Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference. 20: 1689-1691. ISSN: 0003-1488.
Descriptors: amphibians, common medical problems, exotics, veterinary conference.

Wright, K. (2006). Important clinical aspects of amphibian physiology. Small Animal and Exotics Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference. 20: 1686-1688. ISSN: 0003-1488.
Descriptors: anatomy, animal physiology, body temperature, calcium, dehydration, energy metabolism, exotics, homeostasis, morphology, pets, rehydration, amphibians, clinical aspects.
Notes: Meeting Information: The North American Veterinary Conference, Gainesville, USA, Orlando, Florida, USA. January 7-11, 2006.

Wright, K. (2005). Advances that impact every amphibian patient. Exotic DVM 7(3): 82-86. ISSN: 1521-1363.
NAL Call Number: SF981.E96
Descriptors: amphibian patient, advances, impact.

Xie Jian, Li Zheng Qiu, Zhang Qi Ya, and Li Wen Xin (2002). Detection of Rana grylio virus (rgv) in host frog tissues by using immunohistochemistry assay. Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica 26(5): 438-443. ISSN: 1000-3207.
NAL Call Number: QH540
Descriptors: amphibians, frogs, Rana grylio virus, infection, detection, frog tissues, immunohistochemistry assay, heart, lung, spleen, liver, RGV.
Language of Text: Chinese.

Zaias, J. and C. Cray (2002). Protein electrophoresis: a tool for the reptilian and amphibian practitioner. Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery 12(1): 30-32. ISSN: 1529-9651.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.R4 B85
Descriptors: amphibians, reptiles, diagnostic techniques, protein electrophoresis, diagnostic potential, veterinary care.



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