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You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Information Resources on Amphibians
Information Resources on Amphibians & Reptiles

AWIC Resource Series No. 42
September 2008
Revises and Updates Information Resources on Amphibians, Fish & Reptiles Used in Biomedical Research, AWIC Resource Series No. 10 - August 2001

Table of Contents



Bullfrog sitting next to a puddle of water

Rana catesbeiana

About this Document

The citations in this bibliography pertain to the health, care and housing of amphibians and reptiles owned as pets, exhibited in zoos and aquariums, or used for research.

The Federal Animal Welfare Act defines “animal” as any live or dead dog, cat, nonhuman primate, guinea pig, hamster, rabbit, or any other warmblooded animal, which is being used, or is intended for use for research, teaching, testing, experimentation, or exhibition purposes, or as a pet. It thus excludes reptiles and amphibians from coverage. Some reptiles and amphibians are considered endangered species and are thus protected by CITES and the Endangered Species Act.

U.S. Customs and Border Protection controls the import and export of animals and animal products through US ports. Importers and exporters of all tortoises and terrapins as well as other reptiles and amphibians must obtain clearance from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Also note, the global decline in wild amphibians is of concern to scientists. Reasons for the declines are still poorly understood. This document contains numerous research papers about declining amphibian populations.

For this document, the compiler searched for citations from multiple sources published between the years 2002 to 2007. The sources of information include peer-reviewed journals, conference proceedings, theses, annual reports, dissertations, books, monographs, and reviews. Some URLs are provided for documents available as eDocuments. Readers are cautioned as to the dynamic nature of the internet and the fact that Web addresses and content are subject to change. All sites are current as of September 2008.

The National Agricultural Library (NAL) Services web page supplies information on how to request library materials that are included in its collection.

Web resources on the care and welfare of amphibians in research, exhibition, as well as those kept as pets, are provided on the AWIC Web site.


The author wishes to acknowledge Jean Larson and Kristina Adams for their participation in the final editing and Sandra Ball for the Web publishing of this document. Their support is greatly appreciated.

Compiled by:

Richard L. Crawford, D.V.M
USDA. NAL. Animal Welfare Information Center.

In cooperation with the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine

Last Modified: Wednesday, 20-Aug-2014 13:24:24 EDT

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