Arthington, J.D.; Eicher, S.D.; Kunkle, W.E.; Martin, F.G. (2003). Effect of transportation and commingling on the acute-phase protein response, growth, and feed intake of newly weaned beef calves. Journal of Animal Science 81 (5): 1120-1125, ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call Number: 49 J82

Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of transportation and commingling on measures of the acute-phase protein response in newly weaned beef calves. Thirty-two (Exp. 1; average BW=266 plus or minus 20.8 kg) and thirty-six (Exp. 2; average BW=222 plus or minus 34.6 kg) Brahman-crossbred calves were randomly allotted to one of four treatments (2x2 factorial arrangement (transportation x commingling) in a completely randomized design). Body weight and jugular blood were collected at weaning, after shipment, and 1, 3, and 7 d after transport for Exp. 1, and at weaning and 1, 5, 9, 13, 17, and 21 d after transport for Exp. 2. Feed intake within pen was recorded daily for Exp. 2. Plasma fibrinogen, ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, and cortisol concentrations were determined for all collection times. Additionally, serum amyloid-A and alpha -acid glycoprotein concentrations were determined in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. In Exp. 2, commingled calves tended (P=0.13) to have a higher DMI than noncommingled calves (5.3 and 4.8 kg/d, respectively). Transported calves lost more BW than nontransported calves from the time of weaning to d 1 (2.0 and 3.1% more BW loss for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively). With the exception of haptoglobin in Exp. 1, each of the acute-phase proteins measured in these studies increased over each sampling day. In Exp. 1, transported calves had higher (P<0.05) mean serum amyloid-A concentrations than nontransported calves (48.9 vs. 33.4 micro g/mL). There was a significant sampling day x transportation interaction (P<0.01) for fibrinogen, ceruloplasmin, and haptoglobin in Exp. 1; transported calves had higher concentrations of fibrinogen following transport and on d 2 and 3, and ceruloplasmin on d 3. Haptoglobin concentrations were higher (P=0.04) in nontransported calves on d 1 and 2 of Exp. 1. In Exp. 2, overall mean haptoglobin concentrations were higher in nontransported vs. transported calves. The results of these studies indicate that stressors associated with transportation affect the acute-phase protein response in newly weaned beef calves. More research is needed to determine whether these proteins might be valuable indicators of stress following the weaning process.

Keywords: beef cattle, acute phase proteins, blood chemistry, body weight, calves, ceruloplasmin, feed intake, fibrinogen, growth rate, haptoglobins, interactions, stress response, transport of animals.


Barham, A.R.; Barham, B.L.; Johnson, A.K.; Allen, D.M.; Blanton, J.R., Jr.; Miller, M.F. (2002). Effects of the transportation of beef cattle from the feedyard to the packing plant on prevalence levels of Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella spp. Journal of Food Protection 65 (2): 280-283, ISSN: 0362-028X.

NAL Call Number: 44.8 J824

Abstract: Two hundred steers and heifers from a large feedyard (65 000-head capacity) were used to determine the prevalence levels of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 (EHEC O157) and Salmonella spp. prior to and after shipping to a commercial packing facility. Two samples, a ventral midline hide swab and a faecal sample, were aseptically collected from each animal 2 weeks prior to the date of transportation and at the packing plant immediately after exsanguination. Samples were collected from all trailers (n=46) before animals were loaded for transport to the packing facility. The average prevalence levels of EHEC O157 on hides (18%) and in faeces (9.5%) at the feedyard decreased (P>0.05) at the packing plant to 4.5 and 5.5%, respectively. The average prevalence levels of Salmonella spp. on hides (6%) and in faeces (18%) at the feedyard increased to 89 and 46%, respectively, upon arrival at the packing plant. Average prevalence levels for EHEC O157 and Salmonella spp. on the trailers were 5.43 and 59%, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate that transportation may be a potential stressor for cattle, as evidenced by the increased shedding of Salmonella spp.

Keywords: beef cattle, heifers, steers, disease prevalence, feces, food contamination, food safety, foodborne diseases, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, hides, skins, stress factors, transport of animals. Copyright© 2003, CAB International


Beach, J.C.; Murano, E.A.; Acuff, G.R.; et al. (2002). Prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in beef cattle from transport to slaughter. Journal of Food Protection 65 (11): 1687-93, ISSN 0362-028X.

NAL Call Number: 44.8 J824

Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of typical production practices during the transport of cattle on the resulting incidence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in the feces, on the hides, and on the carcasses of these cattle and in the environment (trucks, holding pens, and knock boxes). Various factors were evaluated, including the type of animal (feedlot cattle vs. adult pasture cattle), the breed of cattle, the body condition of the animal, the age of the animal, the time of feed and water withdrawal, the contamination level of the transport vehicle at the feedlot or farm, the transport time, the time cattle were held in the holding pen at the plant, and the contamination level of the holding pen. Four groups of each type of animal were sampled on different days. Samples were collected from cattle prior to transport and after transport (rectal and hide swabs) as well as from the carcasses of these cattle. Pre- and posttransit samples were also taken from the transport vehicle and from the holding pen and knock box at the slaughter facility. For feedlot cattle, fecal shedding stayed fairly constant for both organisms before and after transport (3 to 5% for Salmonella and 64 to 68% for Campylobacter). However, the shedding rate for adult cattle increased from 1 to 21% for Salmonella but stayed constant for Campylobacter (6 to 7%). Contamination of hides with Salmonella increased for both animal types from a level of 18 to 20% to a level 50 to 56%. For Campylobacter, the contamination level decreased from 25 to 13% for feedlot cattle but remained unchanged for adult animals (1 to 2%). Nineteen percent of feedlot cattle carcasses and 54% of adult cattle carcasses tested positive for Salmonella, while only 2% of feedlot cattle carcasses and none of the adult cattle carcasses tested positive for Campylobacter. Thus, for feedlot cattle, the factors considered in this study did not affect the shedding of either organism but did affect the contamination of hides with both. For adult animals, the factors increased both shedding of and hide contamination with Salmonella only, not Campylobacter.

Keywords: campylobacter, salmonella, isolation and purification, food contamination, abattoirs, feces, transport of cattle.


Booth, M.E.; SchwartzkopfGenswein, K.S.; McAllister, T.A.; Mears, G.J.; Schaefer, A.L.; Cook, N.; Church, J.S.; Crews, D.H. Jr. (2002). Effects of pre-haul management and transport distance on beef calf performance and welfare. Journal of Dairy Science 85 (Suppl. 1): 27, ISSN: 0022-0302.

NAL Call Number: 44.8 J822

Keywords: calf, steer, animal welfare, average daily gain, dry matter intake, feedlot, growth performance, heart rate, morbidity, preconditioning, stress, transport distance.


Dell’Orto, V.; Rossi, C.A.S. (1998). The adaptation phase in replacement beef cattle. [La fase di adattamento del bovino da carne da ristallo.] Informatore Agrario 54 (40): 35-53, ISSN: 0020-0689.

NAL Call Number: 281.8 IN32

Keywords: livestock transporters, transport, nutritional state, new environment, stress, minerals, energy balance, immune response, feeding, systems, transport of animals, Italian language, Italy.


Duff, G.C.; Walker, D.A.; Malcolm-Callis, K.J.; Wiseman, M.W.; Hallford, D.M. (2000). Effects of preshipping vs. arrival medication with tilmicosin phosphate and feeding chlortetracycline on health and performance of newly received beef cattle. Journal of Animal Science 78 (2): 267-74.ISSN: 0021-8812.

NAL Call Number: 49 J82

Keywords: beef calves, feedlot, tilmicosin phosphate, feeding chlortetracycline, health, average daily gain, daily dry matter intake, bovine respiratory disease (BRD).


Gallo, C.; Lizondo, G.; Knowles, T.G. (2003). Effects of journey and lairage time on steers transported to slaughter in Chile. Veterinary Record 152 (12): 361-364. ISSN: 0042-4900.

NAL Call Number: SF601 I4

Abstract: Steers representative of the most common type, weight, and conformation slaughtered in Chile (between December 1999 and January 2000) were transported for either 3 or 16 h and held in lairage for 3, 6, 12, or 24 h. Measurements of liveweight, carcass weight, and postmortem pH and colour of muscle were made to assess the economic and welfare effects of the different transport and lairage times. Compared with the short journey, the longer journey was associated with a mean (se) reduction in liveweight of 8.5 (2.8) kg, which was further decreased by 0.42 (0.18) kg for every hour that the animals were kept in lairage after 16 h of transport, an increase in final muscle pH, a decrease in muscle luminosity, and an increase in the proportion of carcasses downgraded because they were classified as dark cutting. The carcass weights also tended to be lower after the longer journey and after longer periods in lairage.

Keywords: steers, animal welfare, beef quality, carcass quality, carcass weight, carcasses, color, liveweight, pH, stress, transport of animals, Chile. Copyright© 2003, CAB International


Grandin, T. (1999). Easy tips for low stress cattle handling. Large Animal Practice 20 (5): 28, 30-33.

NAL Call Number: SF601 B6

Keywords: beef cattle, dairy cattle, handling, transport, stress, trauma, milk, milking, reproduction, techniques, immune response.


Lambert, M.G.; Knight, T.W.; Cosgrove, G.P.; Death, A.F.; Anderson, C.B. (2000). Effects of yarding and transport on muscle glycogen concentration in beef cattle. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 60: 124-125, ISSN: 0370-2731.

NAL Call Number: 49.9 N483

Keywords: glycogen, muscles, pH, beef, meat quality, stress, animal husbandry, transport of animals, handling.


Villarroel, M.; Maria, G.A.; Sanudo, C.; Olleta, J.L.; Gebresenbet, G. (2003). Effect of transport time on sensorial aspects of beef meat quality. Meat Science 63 (3): 353-357, ISSN: 0309-1740.

NAL Call Number: TX373 M4

Keywords: beef cattle, slaughter bulls, transport time effects, sensory panelist, longissimus dorsi thoracis analysis, consumer preferences, muscular system, tenderness, meat product, quality parameters, transport times.


Villarroel, M.; Maria, G.A.; Sierra, I.; Sanudo, C.; Garcia-Belenguer, S.; Gebresenbet, G. (2001). Critical points in the transport of cattle to slaughter in Spain that may compromise the animals’ welfare. Veterinary Record 149 (6): 173-176, ISSN: 0042-4900.

NAL Call Number: SF601 I4

Abstract: The welfare of cattle depends greatly on the attitudes and training of stockpersons and on the availability of appropriate facilities. Much has been learned about stress during transport, but less attention has been paid to identifying and correcting critical points, partly because these vary widely both nationally and internationally. A survey of cattle transport in Spain was made in an effort to determine which parts of the process most compromised the welfare of the animals. Data were collected on the methods and facilities for loading and unloading, transport times, types of vehicle and slaughter house practices. Loading facilities were adequate and loading times generally short, but some farms continued to use an electric goad and weather-proofing was generally poor. The average journey time within Spain was three-and-a-half hours, but many trips were made abroad (especially to Italy), few drivers received specific training courses and the types and quality of vehicles varied widely. The average unloading time was very short but the animals were not always inspected for injuries or dirtiness. Lairage times were normally more than 8 h but few slaughter houses had air conditioning equipment to prevent excessive heat or dehydration. Almost all stockpersons avoided either regrouping animals, or housing or transporting animals at high densities.

Keywords: animal husbandry, animal welfare, attitudes and training of stock persons, survey data, methods and facilities for loading and unloading, transport times, types of vehicle, slaughterhouse practices, electric goad, stocking density, stress factors, transport of animals, injuries, cleanliness, Spain. Copyright© 2003, CAB International


Whiting, T. L. (2000). Comparison of minimum space allowance standards for transportation of cattle by road from 8 authorities. Canadian Veterinary Journal 41 (11): 855-860, ISSN: 0008-5286.

NAL Call Number: 41.8 R3224

Abstract: Space allowance for animals in transit is a consistent concern in many countries developing codes of practice and regulations to assure humane treatment of food producing animals. Describing minimum space allowance requirements for cattle in transit has proven to be difficult, as the space required increases as the animal grows. Loading pressure, defined as weight of live animal per unit area, has proven to be a clear method of communicating with transporters and inspection staff what the maximum safe stocking limit is based on individual animal weight. The loading density recommendations in the Canadian code of practice for beef cattle are compared with other standards by using loading pressure charts as a visual aid. Loading pressure charts are recommended in preference to a tabular format to describe the minimal space allowed per animal for cattle transported by road.

Keywords: transport of animals, road transport, animal welfare, legislation, codes of practice, minimal space allowance, loading density, Canada. Copyright© 2003, CAB International


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