Clouded Leopard - General
Austin, S.C. and M.E. Tewes (1999). Ecology of the clouded leopard in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. Cat News 31: 17-18. ISSN: 1027-2992.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, felidae, activity patterns, home range, distribution within habitat, habitat preference, National Park, Khao Yai National Park,Thailand.
Austin, S.C., M.E. Tewes, L.I.J. Grassman, and N.J. Silvy (2007). Ecology and conservation of the leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis and clouded leopard Neofelis nebulosa in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. Acta Zoologica Sinica 53(1): 1-14. ISSN: 0001-7302.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, Leopard cat, Prionailurus bengalensis, conservation, activity patterns, ecology, Khao Yai National Park, Biology, Conservation, Thailand.
Language of Text: Chinese and English.
Brown, J.L., D.E. Wildt, L.H. Graham, A.P. Byers, L. Collins, S. Barrett, and J.G. Howard (1995). Natural versus chorionic gonadotropin-induced ovarian responses in the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) assessed by fecal steroid analysis. Biology of Reproduction 53(1): 93-102. ISSN: 0006-3363.
NAL Call Number: QL876.B5
Abstract: The clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) is an endangered species difficult to propagate in captivity because of sexual incompatibility between paired individuals. Fecal estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) metabolites were quantified in 14 females to noninvasively monitor seasonal reproductive patterns and compare ovarian responses to natural mating vs. exogenous gonadotropins. Increased E2 excretion was associated with behavioral estrus or eCG treatment, whereas elevated P4 metabolites were observed during natural and hCG-induced pregnant and nonpregnant luteal phases. On the basis of fecal E2 profiles, duration of the estrous cycle was 24 +/- 2 days, with estrus lasting 6 +/- 1 days. Mean gestation length was 89 +/- 2 days, whereas duration of the nonpregnant luteal phase was 47 +/- 2 days. Females experienced a seasonal anestrus during the late summer and early fall. One female demonstrated a lactational anestrus after the birth of three cubs. On nine occasions, clouded leopards ovulated spontaneously (based on elevated fecal P4 metabolite concentrations) in the absence of mating. Patterns of eCG-stimulated E2 excretion were similar to those associated with natural estrus and were unaffected by eCG dosage (25, 50, or 100 IU). In contrast, post-hCG P4 metabolite profiles varied considerably, with responses including anovulation, attenuated luteal P4 metabolite production, and hyperstimulated luteal function. In some females, compromised luteal function after ovulation induction appeared to be due to the presence of mature CL from previous spontaneous (without copulation) ovulations at the time of gonadotropin treatment. Duration of post-hCG P4 metabolite excretion was reduced approximately 40% in these individuals compared to females with no evidence of active luteal activity. In sum, these are the first data describing the ovarian cycle of this endangered species. The information is important because it is based on the longitudinal assessment of multiple females using a completely atraumatic approach, thereby eliminating the potential confounding impact of stress. Data indicate that spontaneous ovulations and the presence of active luteal tissue on the ovary can profoundly affect ovarian responses to exogenous gonadotropin therapy. Therefore, fecal steroid monitoring can serve as a useful adjunct to developing assisted reproduction techniques, especially the hormonal induction of ovulation for planned artificial insemination.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, estrus, estrous cycle, ovulation , feces, estradiol, progesterone, excretion, hormone supplements, human chorionic gonadotropin, seasonal variation, anestrus, gestation period, pregnancy, endangered species, zoo animals, comparisons, chorionic gonadotropin, induced ovulation.
Brown, J.L., D.E. Wildt, and J. Howard (1995). Natural versus chorionic gonadotropin-induced ovarian responses in clouded leopards assessed by fecal steroids. Biology of Reproduction 52(SUPPL. 1): 147. ISSN: 0006-3363; online: 1529-7268.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, ovarian responses, natural and chorionic gonadotropin induced responses, fecal steroids, assessmrnt.
Notes: Meeting Information: Twenty-Eighth Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Davis, California, USA; July 9-12, 1995.
Cai, J. and et al (1988). Studies on viral enteritis in Neofelis nebulosa: identification of the virus. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology 1988(4): 6-8. ISSN: 1000-6419.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, Felidae, viral diseases, viral enteritis, virus identification.
Language of Text: Chinese.
Choudhury, A. (1997). The clouded leopard in Manipur and Nagaland. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 94(2): 389-391. ISSN: 0006-6982.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, wildlife management, conservation , biogeography, population studies, habitat loss, poaching , note.
Christiansen, P. (2006). Sabertooth characters in the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa griffiths 1821). Journal of Morphology 267(10): 1186-1198. ISSN: 0362-2525.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, skeletal system, movement, support, dental and oral system, ingestion, assimilation, skull morphology, sabertooth characteristics.
Citino, S.B. (1986). Transient FeLV viremia in a clouded leopard. Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine 17(1): 5-7. ISSN: 0093-4526.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, Felidae, viral diseases, feline leukemia, transient viremia.
Cooley, P.L. (2001). Phacoemulsification in a clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa). Veterinary Ophthalmology 4(2): 113-117. ISSN: 1463-5216.
NAL Call Number: SF891.V47
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, cataract, surgery, methodology, anesthesia, vision, case studies, inheritance, genetics, clinical examination, treatment.
Crissey, S.D., K.A. Slifka, K.L. Jacobsen, P.J. Shumway, R. Mathews, and J. Harper (2001). Irradiation of diets fed to captive exotic felids: microbial destruction, consumption, and fecal consistency. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 32(3): 324-328. ISSN: 1042-7260.
Descriptors: lions, tigers, leopard, caracals, bobcat, fishing cats, captive exotic felids, irradiated diets, microbial destrruction, fecal consistancy, consumption, animal care, behavior, foods, nutrition, food processing method, frozen raw horse meat, Nebraska brand canine diet.
Cunningham, A.A. and A.P. Dhillon (1998). Pleural malignant mesothelioma in a captive clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa nebulosa). Veterinary Record Journal of the British Veterinary Association 143(1): 22-24. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, mesothelioma, pleura, case studies, pathology, malignant course.
Erdakov, L.N., N.L. Chybykina, and R.A. Shilo (1983). Activity rhythms peculiarities of leopard (Pantera pardys saxicolor) and clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa). Izvestiya Sibirskogo Otdeleniya Akademii Nauk SSSR Seriya Biologicheskikh Nauk 1983(2): 98-103. ISSN: 0568-6547.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, leopard, Panthera pardus saxicolor, Felidae, diel activity pattern, in captivity, Russia.
Language of Text: Russian, Summary in English.
Graham, L.H. and J.L. Brown (1997). Non-invasive assessment of gonadal and adrenocortical function in felid species via faecal steroid analysis. Zeitschrift Fuer Saeugetierkunde 62(suppl. 2): 78-82. ISSN: 0044-3468.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, non-invasive assessment, gonadal, adrenocortical function, felid species, fecal steroid analysis, radioimmunoassays.
Grassman, L.I.J., S.C. Austin, M.E. Tewes, and N.J. Silvy (2004). Comparative immobilization of wild felids in Thailand. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 40(3): 575-578. ISSN: 0090-3558.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, leopard cat, Prionailurus bengalensis, Asiatic golden cat, Catopuma temminckii, marbled cat, Pardofelis marmorata, immobilized, ketamine hydrochloride, xylazine hydrochloride, tiletamine hydrochloride, zolazepam hydrochloride, comparison, duration, induction time, recovery time.
Hartmann, M. and M. Schiess (1997). Ropes as climbing structures for clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa Griffith 1821). B. Holst (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Environmental Enrichment, 21-25 August 1995, Copenhagen, Copenhagen Zoo. Frederiksberg. 1997, p. Chapter pagination: 62-71. ISBN: 8789431146.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, Felidae, zoos and wildlife parks, husbandry techniques, rope climbing structures, evaluation as enrichment devices, Switzerland, Zurich zoo, conference proceedings.
Hast, M.H. (1989). The larynx of roaring and non-roaring cats. Journal of Anatomy 163: 117-121. ISSN: 0021-8782.
Descriptors: cats, felidae, roaring, non roaring, larynx, functional morphology, comparisons of roaring and non roaring cat taxa, sound production mechanism, sound production, larynx functional morphology comparisons.
He, G., X. Zheng, and H. Xu (1995). Determination of blood physiologycal [sic] parameter of the clouded leoperd [sic]. Chinese Journal of Zoology 30(1): 43-45. ISSN: 0250-3263.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, Felidae, blood, physiological parameters determination.
Language of Text: Chinese, Summary in Chinese.
Hildebrandt, T., R. Ippen, H.E. Kaiser, and R.J. Montali (1995). Leiomyomas in the genital tract of captive exotic mammals. Anticancer Research 15(5A): 1754. ISSN: 0250-7005.
Descriptors: captive exotic animals, leiomyomas, genital tract, reproductive system, reproduction, Asian elephant, Asian lion, cervical, lesser grison, uterine, vaginal tumors, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: Fifth International Conference of Anticancer Research, Corfu, Greece; October 17-22, 1995.
Howard, J., A.P. Byers, J.L. Brown, S.J. Barrett, M.Z. Evans, R.J. Schwartz, and D.E. Wildt (1996). Successful ovulation induction laparoscopic intrauterine artificial insemination in the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa). Zoo Biology 15(1): 55-69. ISSN: 0733-3188.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, zoo animals, endangered species, pregnant mare serum gonadotropin, human chorionic gonadotropin, dosage, ovulation, artificial insemination, pregnancy, efficacy, stimulation, captive breeding.
Howard, J.G., T.L. Roth, A.P. Byers, W.F. Swanson, and D.E. Wildt (1997). Sensitivity to exogenous gonadotropins for ovulation induction and laparoscopic artificial insemination in the cheetah and clouded leopard. Biology of Reproduction 56(4): 1059-1068. ISSN: 0006-3363.
NAL Call Number: QL876.B5
Abstract: Ovarian sensitivity to exogenous gonadotropins was assessed in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa)to help optimize artificial insemination (AI). Eighteen female cheetahs were used on 29 occasions and were given i.m. injections of 100, 200, or 400 IU eCG and 100 or 250 IU hCG 80 h later. Twenty-three female clouded leopards were treated i.m. on 27 occasions with 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, or 400 IU eCG followed 80 h later with 75, 140, or 280 IU hCG. Ovaries were examined laparoscopically at 43-48 h after hCG in cheetahs and 39-50 h in clouded leopards. All gonadotropin dosages stimulated ovarian activity in both species, but ovulation success and corpus luteum (CL) morphology varied (p < 0.03) with treatment. For both species, the highest and intermediate eCG dosages resulted in ovulation in a high proportion (72-100%) of females. The lowest eCG dosage, although capable of stimulating follicular development, compromised ovulation and resulted in few (< 26%) postovulatory females. For each species, small CL (24-mm diameter) were observed with the highest and lowest eCG dosage, and large CL (5-8 mm diameter) were associated with intermediate eCG dosages. Aged CL (10-12-mm diameter) were observed in 4 of 23 (17.4%) clouded leopards with no prior male exposure, indicating occasional spontaneous ovulation. Nineteen laparoscopic intrauterine AI procedures were performed in eCG/hCG-treated postovulatory cheetahs. Eighteen AI procedures were conducted in ecG/hCG-treated postovulatory clouded leopards. Six of the 13 cheetahs (46%), all in the 200-IU eCG/100-IU hCG group, became pregnant, in contrast to none of the clouded leopards. This study has revealed differences in ovarian activity in two wild felid species as a result of changes in exogenous gonadotropin dosage. Because of this dose-effect response, this comparative approach is necessary to identify a gonadotropin regimen that can mimic "normalcy". Even then, the relatively high AI success in the cheetah compared to the clouded leopard suggests that factors other than ovarian response can dictate the efficiency of assisted reproduction in this taxon.
Descriptors: cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, human chorionic gonadotropin, ovulation, dosage, artificial insemination, laparoscopy, Graafian follicles, corpus luteum, anatomy, morphology, progesterone, estradiol, pregnancy, zoo animals, equine chorionic gonadotropin, species differences, induction, chorionic gonadotropin.
Howard, J., A.P. Byers, J.L. Brown, S.J. Barrett, M.Z. Evans, R.J. Schwartz, and D.E. Wildt (1996). Successful ovulation induction and laparoscopic intrauterine artificial insemination in the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa). Zoo Biology 15(1): 55-69. ISSN: 0733-3188.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, succesful ovulation induction, breeding programs, laparoscopic intrauterine artificial insemination, reproductive techniques, hormones, exogenous gonadotropin treatment, ovulation induction responses, ovary.
Hubbard, C.J. and V.L. Naples (2007). Comparative analysis of hind limb muscles in the clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, and domestic cat (Felis catus). FASEB Journal 21(6): A967. ISSN: 0892-6638.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, domestic cat, Felis catus, comparative analysis, hind limb muscles, skeletal system, movement, support, muscular system, muscle attachment.
Notes: Meeting Information: Experimental Biology 2007 Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, USA; April 28 -May 02, 2007.
Irven, P. (1993). The clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa). A short review of the species' desperate situation at present. Ratel 20(3): 93-98. ISSN: 0305-1218.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, breeding programmes, endangered status, species desperate situation, reduced populations, review.
Johnson, K. (2000). The clouded leopard: the "littlest" big cat. Endangered Species Update 17(2): 40-43. ISSN: 1081-3705.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, disturbance by humans, conservation measures, endangered status, threats, mammalian prey, distribution, biology, research, conservation, China, oriental region.
Kitchener, A.C. (1999). Mate killing in clouded leopards: a hypothesis. IZN (International Zoo News) 46(4): 221-224; No 293. ISSN: 0020-9155.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, Felidae, care in captivity, mate killing by males in captivity, misdirected predatory behavior, hypothesis, management suggestions, instinctive behavior, misdirected predatory behavior, hypothesis for mate killing in captivity, abnormal behavior.
Kitchener, A.C., M.A. Beaumont, and D. Richardson (2006). Geographical variation in the clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, reveals two species. Current Biology 16(23): 2377-2383. ISSN: 0960-9822.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, geographical variation, two species, morphological variation, genetic analysis, Sumatra, Borneo, southeast Asia.
Law, G. and P. Tatner (1998). Behaviour of a captive pair of clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa): introduction without injury. Animal Welfare 7(1): 57-76. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, zoo animals, endangered species, animal behavior, animal welfare, behavior, sexual reproduction, mating, introduction, behavior patterns, captive breeding.
Long, J.A., B.S. Pukazhenthi, D.E. Wildt, S. Murray, S. Barrett, and J.G. Howard (1996). Capacitation of clouded leopard sperm: i. Effect of protein on acrosome reaction and zona penetration. Journal of Andrology 0(SUPPL.): P46. ISSN: 0196-3635.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, capacitation of clouded leopard sperm, effect of protein on acrosome, zona penetration, reproductive system, reproduction, electrophysiology, meeting abstract, sperm motility.
Notes: 21st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Andrology, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; April 25-29, 1996.
McGovern, I.M. (1998). Bringing out the reclusive leopard: hand-rearing clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa). Animal Keepers' Forum 25(7): 275-279. ISSN: 0164-9531.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, rearing techniques, young development, Florida, zoological park, hand rearing, case notes.
Okada, R., S. Imai, and T. Ishii (1983). Clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, new host for Dirofilaria immitis. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Science 45(6): 849-852. ISSN: 0021-5295.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, Dirofilaria immitis, nematoda, general morphology, mammalian hosts, Panthera, new host record, Ueno zoo, Japan, Tokyo.
Language of Text: Japanese.
Patton, S. and A.R. Rabinowitz (1994). Parasites of wild felidae in Thailand: a coprological survey. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 30(3): 472-475. ISSN: 0090-3558.
Descriptors: Clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, wild Felidae, parasites, coprological survey, leopards, tigers, leopard cats, Thailand.
Pelican, K.M., D.E. Wildt, and J.G. Howard (2001). Short-term inhibition of ovarian activity using the GnRH agonist, leuprolide acetate, in the clouded leopard. Theriogenology 55(1): 394. ISSN: 0093-691X.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, ovarian activity, short term inhibition, gnrh agonist, leuprolide acetate, reproductive system, intrauterine artificial insemination, assisted reproduction, fertilization method, meeting abstract.
Notes: Annual Conference of the International Embryo Transfer Society, Omaha, Nebraska, USA; January 13-16, 2001.
Pelican, K.M., D.E. Wildt, and J.G. Howard (2006). GnRH agonist lupron (r) (leuprolide acetate) pre-treatments prevent ovulation in response to gonadotropin stimulation in the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa). Theriogenology 66(6-7, Sp. Iss. SI): 1768-1777. ISSN: 0093-691X.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, GnRH agonist, leuprolide acetate, pre treatments, prevents ovulation, gonadotropin stimulation, reproductive system, artificial insemination, laboratory techniques, ovulation.
Penny, G. (1984). Rimau-dahan, tree tiger, clouded leopard. Zoonooz 57(8): 11-13. ISSN: 0044-5282.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Panthera, Neofelis nebulosa, Felidae, oriental region, distribution, natural history account.
Pospisil J, Kase F, and Vahala J (1987). Basic hematological values in carnivores ii. The Felidae. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 87(2): 387-392. ISSN: 0300-9629.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, carnivores, Felidae, basic hematological values, Lynx, Lynx lynx lynx, Cougar, Puma concolor missolensis, Jaguar, Panthera onca, Lion, Panthera leo leo, Leopard, Panthera pardus saxicolor, Tiger, Panthera tigris corbetti, Tiger, Panthera tigris altaica, Cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus jubatus, erythrocyte count hematocrit hemoglobin leukocyte count.
Pukazhenthi, B.S., J.A. Lond, D.E. Wildt, M. Bush, and J.G. Howard (1996). Capacitation of clouded leopard sperm: ii. Effect of calcium and cyclic amp on acrosome reaction and zona penetration. Journal of Andrology 0(SUPPL.): P46. ISSN: 0196-3635.
Descriptors: clouded leopard sperm, capacitation, effect of calcium, cyclic amp, acrosime reaction, zona penetration, reproductive system, reproduction, Neofelis nebulosa, meeting abstract, sperm motility.
Notes: Meeting Information: 21st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Andrology, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; April 25-29, 1996.
Pukazhenthi, B., D. Laroe, A. Crosier, L.M. Bush, R. Spindler, K.M. Pelican, M. Bush, J.G. Howard, and D.E. Wildt (2006). Challenges in cryopreservation of clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) spermatozoa. Theriogenology 66(6-7): 1790-1796. ISSN: 0093-691X.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, spermatazoa, cryopreservation, challenges, semen collection, techniques evaluation, seminal fluid, semen.
Pukazhenthi, B., R. Spindler, D. Wildt, L.M. Bush, and J. Howard (2002). Osmotic properties of spermatozoa from felids producing different proportions of pleiomorphisms: Influence of adding and removing cryoprotectant. Cryobiology 44(3): 288-300. ISSN: 0011-2240.
Abstract: The spermatozoon of felids (cats) survives cryopreservation inconsistently. Using ejaculates from three species (domestic cat [normospermic versus teratospermic], the normospermic serval and the teratospermic clouded leopard), this study (1) determined the influence of adding and removing two permeating cryoprotectants (glycerol and dimethylsulfoxide) and (2) assessed the impact of one-step versus multi-step cryoprotectant removal on sperm motility and membrane integrity. Spermatozoa were exposed in a single step to various anisotonic solutions or to 1 M solutions of glycerol or dimethyl-sulfoxide. In both cases, sperm then were returned to near isotonic conditions in a single or multi-step with de-ionized water, Ham's F10 medium or saline. Percentage of sperm motility was measured subjectively, and plasma membrane integrity was assessed using a dual fluorescent stain and flow cytometry. Sperm motility was more sensitive to anisotonic conditions than membrane integrity. Rapid dilution into various test solutions and removal of cryoprotectant with de-ionized water reduced (P<0.01) sperm motility compared to control spermatozoa maintained in Ham's F10. Exposing sperm from all species to a 1 M solution of either cryoprotectant resulted in >85% spermatozoa retaining intact membranes. However, return to isotonicity with de-ionized water in a single step or multiple steps always caused severe plasma membrane disruption. In contrast, sperm motility and membrane integrity in all species and populations remained unaffected (P>0.05) when spermatozoa were returned to isotonicity in multiple steps with Ham's F10 medium or 0.9% sodium chloride. Results demonstrate that: (1) felid spermatozoa are resistant to hypertonic stress; (2) sperm motility is more sensitive to changes in osmolality than membrane integrity; and (3) removal of cryoprotectant in multiple steps with an isotonic solution minimizes loss of sperm motility and membrane disruption in both normospermic and teratospermic males.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, serval, felis serval, Felidae, semen collection, sperm cryopreservation, cryoprotectant addition, removal, effects on sperm motility, membrane integrity.
Singh, S., C. Singh, A. Kumar, K.K. Sinha, and P.C. Mishra (1999). Hematology of tigers (Panthera tigris tigris), leopards (Panthera pardus) and clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa) in captivity. Zoos' Print Journal 14(4): 7-8. ISSN: print: 0971-6378; online: 0973-2543.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, leopards, Panthera pardus, tigers, Panthera tigris tigris, Felidae, blood, normal hematological values in captivity.
Spencer, J.A., M.J. Higginbotham, and B.L. Blagburn (2003). Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in captive and free-ranging nondomestic felids in the United States. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 34(3): 246-249. ISSN: 1042-7260.
Descriptors: nondomestic felids, captive, free ranging, seroprevalence, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, indirect fluorescent antibody, pathogens.
Volf, J. (1997). Some remarks on rearing and breeding of clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa (griffith, 1821), at the Prague zoo. Zoologische Garten 67(3): 153-163. ISSN: 0044-5169.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, rearing, breeding, animal care, captive, disease, life span, Prague zoo, reproduction, husbandry.
Language of Text: German.
Wada, Y., H. Kondo, G. Bando, M. Kosuge, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Kadota (1996). Intestinal adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine cells in a clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa). Journal of Comparative Pathology 115(3): 305-310. ISSN: 0021-9975.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J82
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, intestinal adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine cells, small intestine, histopathology, case studies, goblet cells.
Wielebnowski, N.C., N. Fletchall, K. Carlstead, J.M. Busso, and J.L. Brown (2002). Noninvasive assessment of adrenal activity associated with husbandry and behavioral factors in the North American clouded leopard population. Zoo Biology 21(1): 77-98. ISSN: 0733-3188.
Abstract: The North American clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) population is far from self-sustaining. Breeding success is poor and behavioral problems (i.e., fur-plucking, tail-chewing, excessive hiding or pacing, and intersexual aggression that results in mate killing) are common. This study was undertaken to investigate whether some of these problems may be indicators of chronic stress (as reflected by persistently elevated glucocorticoid levels) and whether they are associated with specific management factors. A fecal corticoid metabolite assay was validated to monitor adrenal activity in clouded leopards. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges conducted in four clouded leopards established the biological relevance of the assay system. Fecal corticoid concentrations increased 14-fold above baseline within 24 hours after ACTH administration. Adrenal activity then was monitored in 72 (36 males; 36 females) clouded leopards (65% of the North American Species Survival Plan population) during a 6-week period and compared to husbandry and behavior data. There was a significant (P<0.01) gender difference in fecal corticoid concentrations, with females producing higher concentrations than males. Multiple regression analyses revealed negative associations (P<0.01) between enclosure height, number of hours keepers spent with each animal per week, and corticoid concentrations. A positive correlation (P<0.001) was found between the number of keepers caring for an individual and corticoid concentrations. Higher fecal corticoid concentrations (P[ltoreq]0.05) were measured in clouded leopards kept on public display or near potential predators compared to individuals maintained off exhibit or in the absence of predators. Individuals that performed self-injuring behaviors also had elevated fecal corticoids (P<0.01). Spearman-rank correlation analysis of keeper ratings and hormone data revealed positive associations (P[ltoreq]0.05) between some behaviors (pace, sleep, hide, and fearful/tense) and fecal corticoid concentrations. Overall these results indicate that noninvasive fecal corticoid monitoring has enormous potential for investigating how management and behavioral problems are related to animal well-being. If conducted under carefully controlled experimental paradigms, this technique could allow researchers and managers to identify problem areas of captive management for clouded leopards (e.g., enclosure height, keeper time) and evaluate the efficacy of strategies designed to promote animal welfare and increased reproductive success.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, Felidae, physiological techniques, adrenal activity, assessment, physiological condition, stress, adrenal activity, non- invasive assessment, association with husbandry, behavior, captivity, feces, adrenal gland, behaviour, abnormal behavior.
Wildt, D.E., J. Howard, and M. Bush (1985). Ejaculate characteristics and adrenal-pituitary-gonadal relationships in clouded leopards evaluated throughout the year. American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Annual Proceedings 1985: 33-34. ISSN: 0095-0610.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, seasonal functions, ejaculate characteristics, adrenal pituitary gonadal relationships, hormone levels, sperm counts, quality, seasonal levels.
Wildt, D.E., J.G. Howard, P.K. Chakraborty, and M. Bush (1986). Reproductive physiology of the clouded leopard. 2. A circannual analysis of adrenal-pituitary-testicular relationships during electroejaculation or after an adrenocorticotropin hormone challenge. Biology of Reproduction 34(5): 949-959. ISSN: 0006-3363.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, seasonal functions, LH and testosterone levels, hormones, cortisol, circannual analysis, adrenal pituitary testicular relationships, during ejaculation, after adrenocorticotrophin hormone challenge.
Wildt, D.E., J.G. Howard, L.L. Hall, and M. Bush (1986). Reproductive physiology of the clouded leopard: 1. Electroejaculates contain high proportions of pleiomorphic spermatozoa throughout the year. Biology of Reproduction 34(5): 937-947. ISSN: 0006-3363.
Descriptors: clouded leopards, Neofelis nebulosa, physiological condition, stress in captivity, seasonal functions, sperm abnormalities, breeding, reproductive physiology, electroejaculates, pleiomorphic spematozoa, high proportions.
Wildt, D., B. Pukazhenthi, J. Brown, S. Monfort, J. Howard, and T. Roth (1995). Spermatology for understanding, managing and conserving rare species. Reproduction Fertility and Development 7(4): 811-824. ISSN: 1031-3613.
Descriptors: mammalia, breeding programes, reproductive techniques, spermatology studies, endocrinology, reproduction, reproductive biology, conservation, review.
Wilting, A., F. Fischer, S. Abu Bakar, and K.E. Linsenmair (2006). Clouded leopards, the secretive top-carnivore of south-east asian rainforests: their distribution, status and conservation needs in Sabah, Malaysia. BMC Ecology 6 ISSN: 1472-6785.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, souteast Asian rainforests, distribution, status, conservation needs, Sahah Malaysia.
Wu, J. and et al (1988). Investigations of hemorrhagic enteritis in Panthera uncia and Neofelis nebulosa. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology 1988(6): 22-23. ISSN: 1000-6419.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, snow leopard, Panthera uncia, felidae, viral diseases, hemorrhagic enteritis, investigations.
Language of Text: Chinese.
Wu, X., T. Zheng, and Z. Jiang (2007). The mitochondrial genome structure of the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa). Genome 50(2): 252-7. ISSN: (p) 0831-2796; online: 1480-3321.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, mitochondrial genome structure.
Yamada, J.K. and B.S. Durrant (1989). Reproductive parameters of clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa). Zoo Biology 8(3): 223-231. ISSN: 0733-3188.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, Felidae, age, sexual maturation in captivity, seasonal functions, breeding in captivity, reproductive parameters, gestation period, ovarian cycle, duration, captive observations.
Language of Text: .
Yanai, T., T. Tomita, H. Sakai, K. Isowa, H. Takeda, Y. Yamamoto, H. Hori, and T. Masegi (1996). Lung carcinoma in a clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa). Japanese Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 1(1): 45-48. ISSN: 1342-6133.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, neoplastic diseases, lung carcinoma.
Language of Text: English and Japanese.
Yang, L. and J. Zhang (1993). Studies on serum protein and ldh isoenzymes in Panthera tigris amoyensis, Panthera pardus and Neofelis nebulosa. Acta Theriologica Sinica 13(2): 151. ISSN: 1000-1050.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, tiger, Panthera tigris amoyensis, panther, Panthera pardus, studies, serum protein, 1dh isoenzymes.
Language of Text: Chinese.
Zahedi, M., S. Vellayan, J. Jeffery, and M. Krishnasamy (1986). A case of double infection with Brugia pahangi Buckley and Edeson 1956, and Dirofilaria immitis Leidy 1856, in a Malaysian clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa. Veterinary Parasitology 21(2): 135-137. ISSN: 0304-4017.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, nematoda, mammalian hosts, panthera, new host record, Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, zoological garden.
Zhang, D., S. Chen, J. Li, R. Wu, G. Chen, and X. Hu (1993). Determination of the erythrocytic C3b receptors of Panthera tigris amurensis, Neofelis nebulosa and Felis temmincki. Acta Theriologica Sinica 13(4): 256-259. ISSN: 1000-1050.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, tiger, Panthera tigris amurensis, Felis temmincki, felidae, blood cells, erythrocytes, immune response, rosetting ratio, erythrocytic C3b receptors.
Language of Text: Chinese, Summaries in Chinese and English.
Zhang, K. (1993). Study on electrocardiogram of clouded leopard. Chinese Wildlife 3: 37-39. ISSN: 1000-0127.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, felidae, heart beat, ecg analysis, electocardiogram.
Language of Text: Chinese.
Zhang, K., X. Jin, X. Yang, W. Zeng, and H. Xu (1994). Determination on electrocardiogram of cloudy leopard. Acta Theriologica Sinica 14(1): 69-70. ISSN: 1000-1050.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, nervous system, neural coordination, systematics, taxonomy, electrocardiogram.
Language of Text: Chinese.
Zhang, Z. and et al (1988). Studies on viral enteritis in Neofelis nebulosa: animal experimental infection. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology 1988(5): 18-20. ISSN: 1000-6419.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, Felidae, viral diseases, enteritis, experimental infection.
Language of Text: Chinese.
Zhang, Z. and et al (1988). Studies on viral enteritis in Neofelis nebulosa: properties of the disease. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology 1988(3): 3-5. ISSN: 1000-6419.
Descriptors: clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, Felidae, viral diseases, enteritis, properties.
Language of Text: Chinese.