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Jaguar - General

Abdulla, P.K., P.C. James, S. Sulochana, V. Jayaprakasan, and R.M. Pillai (1982). Anthrax in a jaguar (Panthera onca). Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine 13(4): 151. ISSN: 0093-4526.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, anthrax, bacterial diseases, case reports, zoo animals, Bacillus anthracis, Felidae.

Aguilar, R.F., A.M. Grooters, A. Camus, and M.M. Garner (2003). Primary pulmonary pythiosis in a Central American jaguar (Panthera onca). Proceedings of the Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin, No.5: 319.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, primary pulmonary pythiosis, case reports, clinical aspects, diagnosis, mycoses, respiratory diseases, zoo animals, Pythium insidiosum.
Notes: Meeting Information: Erkrankungen der Zootiere: Verhandlungsbericht des 41. Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo und Wildtiere, Rome, Italy, 28 May - 1 June, 2003.

Ahmed, A., M. Jahan, Z.H. Zaidi, and G. Braunitzer (1987). The primary structure of the hemoglobins of the adult jaguar (Panthera onca, Carnivora). Biological Chemistry Hoppe Seyler 368(10): 1385-1390. ISSN: 0177-3593; Discontinued. Continued as: Biological Chemistry: (P) 1431-6730; online: 1437-4315.
Abstract: The primary structure of the hemoglobins from Jaguar (Panthera onca) are presented. Electrophoretic separations without and with a dissociating agent revealed the presence of two hemoglobin components, alpha 2 beta I2 and alpha 2 beta II2. The separation of the hemoglobin components was achieved by ion-exchange chromatography. The globin chains were separated by ion-exchange chromatography and also by reversed phase HPLC. The amino-acid sequences of the native chains and peptides were determined by liquid-phase and gas-phase sequencing. N-Acetylserine was detected by FAB-mass spectroscopy as N-terminal group of the beta I chain. The sequences are compared with that of human hemoglobin (Hb A).
Descriptors: Jaguar, Panthera onca, adult, carnivora blood, hemoglobins, analysis, primary structure, amino acid sequence, chromatography, high pressure liquid, chromatography, ion exchange, oxidation reduction.

Altrichter, M., G. Boaglio, and P. Perovic (2006). The decline of jaguars Panthera onca in the Argentine Chaco. Oryx 40(3): 302-309. ISSN: 0030-6053.
Abstract: We assessed the distribution and status of jaguar Panthera onca in the Argentine Chaco, one of the least known areas within its range. Current jaguar distribution in the Chaco encompasses parts of central and western Formosa, western Chaco, eastern Salta and north-eastern Santiago del Estero Provinces. Jaguar range was reduced following colonization of the semiarid Chaco even though there has been little deforestation. Jaguars have not been observed over the last 15 years in areas where colonization occurred more than 35 years ago, probably reflecting hunting pressure. Livestock predation is lower now than when the area was first settled in the 1920s. This may indicate low jaguar densities as the livestock management system has not changed. Local people, however, continue to hunt jaguars with the intention of exterminating them. Education, enforcing jaguar hunting laws, increasing control of poaching in protected areas, and creating more protected areas may be the most efficient strategies to preserve the jaguar population of the Argentine Chaco. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, decline, deforestation, habitat destruction, population decrease, density, distribution, predation, wild animals, wildlife conservation, wildlife management, Argentine Chaco.

Azevedo, M.H., T.A. Paula, M.K. Balarini, S.L. Matta, J.V. Peixoto, F.L. Guiao Leite, J.L.J. Rossi, and E.P. da Costa (2008). Organization and quantification of the elements in the intertubular space in the adult jaguar testis (Panthera onca, LINNAEUS, 1758). Micron Oxford, England 1993 39(8): 1166-70. ISSN: 0968-4328.
Abstract: The endocrine portion of mammal testicle is represented by Leydig cells which, together with connective cells, leukocytes, blood and lymphatic vessels, form the intertubular space. The arrangement and proportion of these components vary in the different species of mammals and form mechanisms that keep the testosterone level - the main product of the Leydig cell - two to three times higher in the interstitial fluid than in the testicular blood vessels and 40-250 times higher in these than in the peripheral blood. Marked differences are observed among animal species regarding the abundance of Leydig cells, loose connective tissue, development degree and location of the lymphatic vessels and their topographical relationship with seminiferous tubules. In the jaguar about 13% of the testicular parenchyma is occupied by Leydig cells, 8.3% by connective tissue and 0.3% by lymphatic vessels. Although included in standard II, as described in the literature, concerning the arrangement of the intertubular space, the jaguar has grouped lymphatic vessels in the intertubular space instead of isolated ones. In the jaguar the average volume of the Leydig cell was 2386mum3 and its average nuclear diameter was 7.7mum. A great quantity of 2.3mum diameter lipidic drops was observed in the Leydig cell cytoplasm of the jaguar. The Leydig cells in the jaguar occupy an average 0.0036% of the body weight and the average number per gram of testicle was within the range for most mammals: between 20 and 40million.
Descriptors: jguar, Panthera onca, testis, intertubular space, elements, organization, quantification, adult, Leydig cells, lymphatic vessels, blood vessels, leukocytes.

Azevedo, M.H.F.d., T.A.R.d. Paula, S.L.P.d. Matta, C.C. Fonseca, and M.T.D.d. Neves (2006). Morfometria testicular e o tubulo seminifero da onca-pintada. [Testicular morphometry and the seminiferous tubule in adult Jaguars (Panthera onca)]. Revista Ceres 53(307): 374-381. ISSN: 0034-737X.
Abstract: The composition of the testicular parenchyma and the relative size of the testicles can provide valuable information regarding the reproductive physiology and mating strategy of an animal. Five adult jaguars were investigated using testicular biopsy to determine the relationship between the morphometry of the testicles and seminiferous tubule with their corporal mass. The median corporal weight of the jaguars used in the study was 78.5 kg, of which about 0.034% corresponded to the testicular mass and 0.022% to the seminiferous tubules, which represented about 77.7% of the testicular parenchyma. The average diameter of the seminiferous tubules was 257 micro m and the average thickness was about 90 micro m. Jaguars have about 12.2 m of seminiferous tubules by testicular gram. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, anatomy, morphology, morphometrics, seminiferous tubules, testes, testicular parenchyma, composition, reproductive physiology.
Language of Text: Portuguese, Summary in English.

Bossart, G.D. and G. Hubbell (1983). Ovarian papillary cystadenocarcinoma in a jaguar (Panthera onca). Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine 14(2): 73-76. ISSN: 0093-4526.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, neoplasms, zoo animals, cystadenocarcinoma, ovarian papillary.

Camus, A.C., A.M. Grooters, and R.E. Aquilar (2004). Granulomatous pneumonia caused by Pythium insidiosum in a central American jaguar, Panthera onca. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 16(6): 567-571. ISSN: 1040-6387.
Abstract: A 7-month-old, male jaguar presented with dyspnea and leukocytosis unresponsive to antibiotic therapy. Radiographs revealed unilateral pulmonary consolidation. An exploratory thoracotomy was performed, and the left lung, which contained a large multilobular mass with extensive fibrosis and numerous caseonecrotic foci, was removed. Microscopically, eosinophilic granulomatous inflammation surrounded broad (4.4-8.3 microm) rarely septate hyphae. A diagnosis of Pythium insidiosum infection was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, immunoblot serology, culture, and polymerase chain reaction. Dyspnea recurred despite treatment, and the animal succumbed 3 weeks after surgery. Necropsy findings indicated that death resulted from occlusion of the right main stem bronchus by a fungal granuloma. The oomycete P. insidiosum typically causes granulomatous disease of the skin or gastrointestinal tract in animals and arteritis, keratitis, or cellulitis in humans. Infection is uncommon in felines, and pulmonary involvement is rare. This report details the first case of P. insidiosum infection in an exotic felid and provides the first description of primary pulmonary pythiosis in any species.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, granulomatous pneumonia, Pythium insidiosum, dyspnea, leukocytosis, pulmonary consolidation, fibrosis, oomycete, pulmonary pythiosis.

Castro, M.B.d., K. Werther, G.S. Godoy, V.P. Borges, and A.C. Alessi (2003). Visceral mast cell tumor in a captive black jaguar (Panthera onca). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 34(1): 100-102. ISSN: 1042-7260.
Abstract: Little is known about neoplasia in the jaguar (Panthera onca), the largest American feline. A 26-year-old captive black jaguar from the county zoo in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil, was diagnosed at necropsy with a mastocytic form of visceral mast cell tumour (MCT) similar to that which occurs in domestic cats. This animal had no previous clinical disease and died during anaesthesia for a routine dental treatment. Histologically, the submucosa and muscular layers of the jejunum were diffusely infiltrated and expanded by massive numbers of monomorphic neoplastic mast cells arranged in cords or nests. The prognosis and criteria for the clinical diagnosis of MCT in the jaguar are unknown. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, visceral mast cell tumor, captive, case reports, clinical aspects, diagnosis, mast cells, neoplasms, zoo animals, Brazil.

Choi, J.H., H.S. Yoo, J.Y. Park, Y.K. Kim, E. Kim, and D.Y. Kim (2002). Morganelliasis pneumonia in a captive jaguar. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 38(1): 199-201. ISSN: 0090-3558.
Abstract: Suppurative bronchopneumonia was discovered in a 6-yr-old male jaguar (Panthera onca onca) that died after a 1 wk history of anorexia, depression, and respiratory difficulty. Morganella morganii was isolated as a pure culture from the lung, spleen, and heart blood. This is the first record of M. morganii induced pneumonia in a jaguar.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, bronchopneumonia, Carnivora, infections, Morganella morganii, isolation, purification, bronchopneumonia, pathology, Enterobacteriaceae infections, microbiology, pathology, fatal outcome, pathogenicity.

Costa, G.M., H. Chiarini Garcia, R.G. Morato, R.L. Alvarenga, and L.R. Franca (2008). Duration of spermatogenesis and daily sperm production in the jaguar (Panthera onca). Theriogenology 70(7): 1136-46. ISSN: 0093-691X.
Abstract: The jaguar, like most wild felids, is an endangered species. Since there are few data regarding reproductive biology for this species, our main goal was to investigate basic aspects of the testis and spermatogenesis. Four adult male jaguars were utilized; to determine the duration of spermatogenesis, two animals received an intratesticular injection of H(3)-thymidine. Mean (+/-SEM) testis weight and the gonadosomatic index were 17.7+/-2.2g and 0.05+/-0.01%, respectively, whereas the seminiferous tubules and the Leydig cells volume density were 74.7+/-3.8 and 16.7+/-1.6%. Eight stages of spermatogenesis were characterized, according to the tubular morphology system and acrosome development. Each spermatogenic cycle and the entire spermatogenic process (based on 4.5 cycles) lasted approximately 12.8+/-0.01 and 57.7+/-0.07 d. The number of Sertoli and Leydig cells per gram of testis was 29+/-4 x 10(6) and 107+/-12 x 10(6). Based on the number of round spermatids per pachytene spermatocyte (2.8+/-0.3:1; meiotic index); significant cell loss (30%) occurred during the two meiotic divisions. There were approximately eight spermatids for each Sertoli cell (Sertoli cell efficiency), whereas the daily sperm production per gram of testis was 16.9+/-1.2 x 10(6). We expect that in the near future, the knowledge obtained in the present investigation will facilitate, utilizing germ cell transplantation, preservation of the germinal epithelium and the ability to generate sperm from jaguars in testes of domestic cats.
Descriptors: Jaguar, Panthera onca, spermatogenesis, duration, sperm production, reproductive biology, testis, seminiferous tubules, Leydig cells, sertoli cells.

Demar, M., D. Ajzenberg, B. Serrurier, M.L. Darde, and B. Carme (2008). Atypical Toxoplasma gondii strain from a free-living jaguar (Panthera onca) in French Guiana. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 78(2): 195-197. ISSN: 0002-9637.
Abstract: Like domestic cats, wild felids are involved in the complete infective cycle of Toxoplasma gondii because they can host in their gastrointestinal tract sexually mature parasites and shed infective oocysts in their faeces. We report, to our knowledge, the first isolation and molecular characterization of a T. gondii strain from the heart tissue of a free-living jaguar (Panthera onca) in Belizon, an eastern deep forest area in French Guiana. Sequencing at 6 polymorphic markers indicated that the jaguar isolate had an atypical genotype, including an allele at TgM-A previously found only in isolates from South America, and an allele at GRA6, which was previously reported only in Californian sea otter isolates. These findings are consistent with the recent description of atypical T. gondii strains involved in severe toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients in French Guiana that seemed to be linked to a neotropical forest-based cycle involving wild cats and their prey. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, forests, genotypes, nucleotide sequences, strains, toxoplasmosis, wild animals, oocysts, feces, infective cycle, Toxoplasma gondii.

Eizirik, E., J.H. Kim, M. Menotti Raymond, P.G.J. Crawshaw, S.J. O'Brien, and W.E. Johnson (2001). Phylogeography, population history and conservation genetics of jaguars (Panthera onca, Mammalia, Felidae). Molecular Ecology 10(1): 65-79. ISSN: 0962-1083.
Abstract: The jaguar (Panthera onca), the largest felid in the American Continent, is currently threatened by habitat loss, fragmentation and human persecution. We have investigated the genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history of jaguars across their geographical range by analysing 715 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region and 29 microsatellite loci in approximately 40 individuals sampled from Mexico to southern Brazil. Jaguars display low to moderate levels of mtDNA diversity and medium to high levels of microsatellite size variation, and show evidence of a recent demographic expansion. We estimate that extant jaguar mtDNA lineages arose 280 000-510 000 years ago (95% CI 137 000-830 000 years ago), a younger date than suggested by available fossil data. No strong geographical structure was observed, in contrast to previously proposed subspecific partitions. However, major geographical barriers such as the Amazon river and the Darien straits between northern South America and Central America appear to have restricted historical gene flow in this species, producing measurable genetic differentiation. Jaguars could be divided into four incompletely isolated phylogeographic groups, and further sampling may reveal a finer pattern of subdivision or isolation by distance on a regional level. Operational conservation units for this species can be defined on a biome or ecosystem scale, but should take into account the historical barriers to dispersal identified here. Conservation strategies for jaguars should aim to maintain high levels of gene flow over broad geographical areas, possibly through active management of disconnected populations on a regional scale.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, genetics, DNA, mitochondrial genetics, population genetics, microsatellite repeats, variation genetics, geography, haplotypes, phylogeny, polymerase chain reaction, South America, Central America, Mexico.

Frazier, K.S., M.E. Hines, C. Ruiz, A.J. Herron, and N.H. Altman (1994). Immunohistochemical differentiation of multiple metastatic neoplasia in a jaguar (Panthera onca). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 25(2): 286-293. ISSN: 1042-7260.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, multiple metastatic neoplasia, immunohistochemical differentiation, case report, mammary gland diseases, metastasis, neoplasms, pathology, zoo animal.

Hawkey, C.M. and M.G. Hart (1986). Haematological reference values for adult pumas, lions, tigers, leopards, jaguars and cheetahs. Research in Veterinary Science 41(2): 268-269. ISSN: 0034-5288.
Abstract: Normal haematological values and fibrinogen levels were obtained from a number of healthy adult Felidae in the collection of the Zoological Society of London. The group comprised 29 pumas (Felis concolor), 32 lions (Panthera leo), 27 tigers (P tigris), 19 leopards (P pardus), 18 jaguars (P onca) and 22 cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The values provided a basis for identifying abnormalities in the blood of sick individuals of these species and for undertaking interspecies comparisons.
Descriptors: cheetah, Acinonyx jubata, pumas, Felis concolor, lions, Panthera leo, tigers, Panthera tigris, leopards, Panthera pardus, jaguars, Panthera onca, adult, fibrinogen levels, blood, hematological reference values.

Hope, K. and S.L. Deem (2006). Retrospective study of morbidity and mortality of captive jaguars (Panthera onca) in North America: 1982-2002. Zoo Biology 25(6): 501-512. ISSN: 0733-3188.
Abstract: One hundred seventy-two medical records of captive jaguars (Panthera onca) were examined from 30 American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) institutions housing jaguars between 1982-2002. The study determined common causes of morbidity and mortality, and the influence of age, gender, and melengestrol-acetate (MGA) exposure on these rates. The most common causes of morbidity in captive jaguars were found to be dental, gastrointestinal, integumentary, and musculoskeletal diseases. Prevalence of types of disease varied with age, with older animals experiencing a higher prevalence of multiple types of disease. Females developed reproductive disease more frequently than males, and the data suggest that MGA exposure increased the risk of developing female reproductive disease. The most common causes of mortality were reproductive diseases in females and musculoskeletal diseases in males. There was a high rate of neonate and pediatric mortality, primarily due to stillbirths or unexplained neonatal death, trauma, and pneumonia. Other diseases or clinical signs that seemed remarkable were a high prevalence of episodes of epistaxis among young, as well as old, jaguars. Based on these findings, management suggestions for the captive jaguar population are presented. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: jaguars, Panthera onca, morbidity, mortality, retrospective study, captive jaguars, North America, age groups, animal health, digestive disorders, medical records, musculoskeletal anomalies, newborn animals, sex differences, trauma, zoo animals.

Junior, J.L.R., M.A. Gioso, and L.M. Domingues Falqueiro (2007). Estudo comparative sobre prevalencia de doenca periodontal em Panthera onca mantida em cativeiro e em individuos de natureza. [A comparative study about the prevalence of periodontal disease in Panthera onca, living in captivity and in the wild]. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira 27(5): 209-214. ISSN: 0100-736X.
Abstract: The aim was to survey the main oral lesions related with periodontal disease of jaguars, Panthera onca, living in captivity or in the wild, as conservation of threatened animals from extinction, as in case of the jaguar, and the preservation of such species in free life may be determined by environmental conditions which can influence oral health. Forty-two jaguars (P. onca) kept in captivity in 18 institutions in the state of Sao Paulo were studied. The animals to be examined were anesthetized by the Plan of Neotropical Handling of Felids. Additionally, 4 jaguars (P. onca) proceeding from wild life were captured for the study on Farm Sete, municipality of Miranda, Mato Grosso do Sul, in the southern Pantanal. All animals surveyed in captivity showed various degrees of oral lesions related to periodontal disease. The animals living in the wild did not present any clinical signs of oral lesions. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: jaguars, Panthera onca, periodontal disease, prevalence, dentistry, disease prevalence, disease surveys, lesions, tooth diseases, wild animals, captive zoo animals, oral lesions.
Language of Text: Portuguese, Summary in English.

Karesh, W.B. and G. Bottomley (1983). Vaccine induced anaphylaxis in a Brazilian jaguar (Panthera onca plaustrix). Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine 14(4): 133-137. ISSN: 0093-4526.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca plaustrix, vaccine induced, adverse effects, anaphylaxis, complications, zoo animals, feline herpesvirus 1, feline calicivirus, feline panleukopenia virus.

Kim JeongRae, Kim BangHyun, Yoo HanSang, Lee DeogYong, Kim KiGeun, Jean KyungSun, Hwang WooSuk, Lee ByungChun, and Kim DaeYong (2001). Concurrent infection with heartworm and Pasteurella haemolytica-induced pericarditis in a jaguar (Panthera onca onca). Journal of Veterinary Clinics 18(1): 85-87. ISSN: 1598-298X.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca onca, heartworm infection, clinical aspects, concurrent infections, diagnosis, heart, lungs, myocardium, pericarditis, pericardium, Dirofilaria, Pasteurella haemolytica.
Language of Text: Korean, Summary in English.

Kollias, G.V.J., M.B. Calderwood Mays, and B.G. Short (1984). Diabetes mellitus and abdominal adenocarcinoma in a jaguar receiving megestrol acetate. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 185(11): 1383-1386. ISSN: 0003-1488.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, abdominal neoplasms, adenocarcinoma, diabetes mellitus, megestrol acetate, derivatives, complications, complications, cat diseases chemically induced, cats, dog diseases, megestrol adverse effects, contraceptives, zoo animals.

Kumar, M.N. and M.V.A. Akbar (2001). A case of uterine inertia in Jaguar (Panthera onca). Zoos' Print Journal 16(5): 502. ISSN: 0971-6378.
Descriptors: jaguars, Panthera onca, uterine inertia, case reports, dystocia, parturition.

Ladiges, W.C., J.W. Foster, and M.H. Jones (1981). Malignant hemangioendothelioma in a jaguar (Panthera onca). Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine 12(2): 36-37. ISSN: 0093-4526.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, malignant hemangioendothelioma, neoplasms, zoo animals, Felidae.

Liu, B. and X. Dong (2002). Lactobacillus pantheris sp. nov., isolated from faeces of a jaguar. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 52(Pt 5): 1745-8. ISSN: (p) 1466-5026; online: 1466-5034.
Abstract: Two novel Lactobacillus strains were isolated from the faeces of a jaguar in Beijing Zoo. They were gram-positive, non-spore-forming, non-motile, rod-shaped organisms that exhibited no catalase activity. The strains fermented cellobiose, D-fructose, galactose, D-glucose, lactose, maltose, D-mannose, salicin, trehalose, N-acetyl glucosamine, beta-gentiobiose and D-tagatose. D(-)-Lactic acid was the exclusive product from glucose fermentation. The G+C content of the DNA of strain A24-2-1T was 52.7 mol %. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequence similarity indicated that the strains represented a novel member of the genus Lactobacillus and were most closely related to Lactobacillus manihotivorans LMG 18010T, with 16S rDNA sequence similarity of 95.2%. The DNA-DNA relatedness between them was 13%. The name Lactobacillus pantheris sp. nov. is proposed for the novel strains, with strain A24-2-1T as the type strain (= AS 1.2826T = LMG 21017T).
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, Lactobacillus pantheris sp. nov, Lactobacillus classification, isolation, purification, feces, zoo microbiology, carnivora microbiology, China, DNA, bacterial chemistry, bacterial genetics, ribosomal genetics, Lactobacillus genetics, Lactobacillus metabolism, molecular sequence data, RNA.

Lohse, C.L. and Y.M. Baba (1982). Comparative anatomy of intervertebral discs and related structures in the cat (Felis catus) and jaguar (Panthera onca). Anatomia Histologia Embryologia 11(4): 334-342. ISSN: 0340-2096.
Abstract: A female jaguar and 15 adult cats of both sexes were studied; of the cats, 12 were embalmed, and three perfused with heparinized saline only. All intervertebral disks cranial to the sacrum were examined, and the craniocaudal lengths of individual disks and vertebrae were recorded. The surface areas of nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus of disks sectioned transversely were measured in four cats and the jaguar. In the jaguar, the total disk length represented about 25% of the total vertebral column length (as it does in man) while the corresponding value for cats was 17.3-19.8%. The variations in area of the nucleus and annulus are also tabulated, and the relevance of the findings to the frequency of disk prolapse is discussed. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, cats, Felis catus, intervertebral discs, related structures, comparative anatomy, disks, vertebrae, vertebral column.
Language of Text: German, Spanish, and French.

McCain, E.B. and J.L. Childs (2008). Evidence of resident jaguars (Panthera onca) in the southwestern United States and the implications for conservation. Journal of Mammalogy 89(1): 1-10. ISSN: 0022-2372.
Abstract: Jaguars (Panthera onca) remain virtually unstudied in the desert environments at the northern extent of their range. Historic sightings from the United States indicate a declining population of resident jaguars from the late 1800s into the 1940s, after which only occasional jaguars were reported until the present. After 2 sightings of jaguars in 1996, we established a camera monitoring program in southeastern Arizona. From March 2001 to July 2007, we maintained 9-44 trail cameras and conducted opportunistic track surveys. We documented 2 adult males and a possible 3rd unidentified jaguar with 69 photographs and 28 sets of tracks. One jaguar, originally photographed in 1996, was resighted 64 times during 2004-2007. This >=13-year-old male used habitats from the Sonoran lowland desert at 877 m above sea level to pine-oak woodlands at 1,577 m, and covered 1,359 km2 in 2 mountain complexes. Despite speculation that recent sightings of jaguars in the United States represented dispersing transients on sporadic forays from Mexico, we documented jaguars in Arizona frequently, continuously, and year-round, and videotaped several scent-marking behaviors, indicating the residency of adult jaguars within Arizona. We outline the importance of maintaining cross-border connectivity for long-term survival of the wide-ranging and thinly distributed binational population of jaguars. We recommend further research and we stress the fragmentation consequences of the proposed United States-Mexico border fence to the northernmost jaguar population, and particularly to jaguars in the United States. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, resident jaguars, evidence, southwestern United States, camera monitoring, conservation.

McLaughlin, R.J. and A. Kuzma (1991). Surgical management of collapsed pelvis in a jaguar. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 198(10): 1789-91. ISSN: 0003-1488.
Abstract: An immature jaguar was surgically treated for severe constipation caused by a narrow pelvic canal. This narrowing was attributed to nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism. The ventral floor of the pelvis was widened by placing a piece of high density polyethylene between the 2 sides of the pubis after symphysiotomy and stabilizing the implant with orthopedic wires. This procedure provided stable fixation and permanent enlargement of the pelvic canal. The technique was easy to perform and could be used to treat pelvic collapse in other species.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthers onca, case study, surgery, constipation, femoral fractures, hyperparathyroidism, pelvic bones surgery, bone density, bone wires, pelvic bones injuries, surgical management.

Morato, R.G., M.G. Bueno, P. Malmheister, I.T. Verreschi, and R.C. Barnabe (2004). Changes in the fecal concentrations of cortisol and androgen metabolites in captive male jaguars (Panthera onca) in response to stress. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research; Revista Brasileira De Pesquisas Medicas e Biologicas Sociedade Brasileira De Biofisica [Et Al.] 37(12): 1903-7. ISSN: (p) 0100-879X; (E) 0034-7310.
Abstract: In the present study we determined the efficacy of the measurement of fecal cortisol and androgen metabolite concentrations to monitor adrenal and testicular activity in the jaguar (Panthera onca). Three captive male jaguars were chemically restrained and electroejaculated once or twice within a period of two months. Fecal samples were collected daily for 5 days before and 5 days after the procedure and stored at -20 degrees C until extraction. Variations in the concentrations of cortisol and androgen metabolites before and after the procedure were determined by solid phase cortisol and testosterone radioimmunoassay and feces dry weight was determined by drying at 37 degrees C for 24 h under vacuum. On four occasions, fecal cortisol metabolite levels were elevated above baseline (307.8 +/- 17.5 ng/g dry feces) in the first fecal sample collected after the procedure (100 to 350% above baseline). On one occasion, we did not detect any variation. Mean (+/- SEM) fecal androgen concentration did not change after chemical restraint and electroejaculation (before: 131.1 +/- 26.7, after: 213.7 +/- 43.6 ng/g dry feces). These data show that determination of fecal cortisol and androgen metabolites can be very useful for a noninvasive assessment of animal well-being and as a complement to behavioral, physiological, and pathological studies. It can also be useful for the study of the relationship between adrenal activity and reproductive performance in the jaguar.
Descriptors: jaguars, Panthera onca, fecal cortisol, androgen metabolites, determination, noninvasive assessment, well-being, fecal concentrations, stress response, testicular activity, adrenal activity, changes.

Morato, R.G., V.A. Conforti, F.C. Azevedo, A.T. Jacomo, L. Silveira, D. Sana, A.L. Nunes, M.A. Guimaraes, and R.C. Barnabe (2001). Comparative analyses of semen and endocrine characteristics of free-living versus captive jaguars (Panthera onca). Reproduction Cambridge, England 122(5): 745-51. ISSN: 1470-1626.
Abstract: Semen and blood samples were obtained from free-living (n = 6) and captive (n = 8) jaguars (Panthera onca) to compare reproductive characteristics between the two populations. Semen samples were analysed for volume (ml), percentage of motile spermatozoa, rate of forward progression (0-5), concentration (10(6) ml(-1)), total sperm count (10(6)) and sperm morphology. Serum testosterone concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay. Although ejaculate volume was greater in captive jaguars (n = 47 samples) than in free-living jaguars (n = 7 samples) (P < 0.05), the free-living jaguars produced more total spermatozoa (59.3 +/- 12.8 versus 152.0 +/- 88.0 x 10(6), respectively; not significant) with better viability and forward progression (2.8 +/- 0.1 versus 3.5 +/- 0.2, respectively; P < 0.05) and more spermatozoa with normal morphology (73.5 +/- 3.9 versus 5.0 +/- 1.1%, respectively; P < 0.05). Serum testosterone concentrations were similar for captive and free-living male jaguars (3.1 +/- 0.7 and 2.1 +/- 0.8 ng ml(-1), respectively). In summary, the data showed that semen may be collected successfully from free-living jaguars and evaluated under field conditions to establish normative reproductive values in this species. The results also indicate that jaguars maintained in zoos show inferior seminal characteristics compared with free-living animals.
Descriptors: jaguars, Panthera onca, free living and captive animals, semen samples, endocrine characteristics, comparative analysis, blood samples, collection, field conditions, normal reproductive values, inferior seminal characteristics in zoo animals.

Morato, R.G., E. Crichton, R.C.R. Paz, R.M. Zuge, C.A. Moura, A.L.V. Nunes, R.H. Teixeira, M.A.B.V. Guimaraes, V.H. Barnabe, R.C. Barnabe, D. Armstrong, and N. Loskutoff (2002). Superovulacao, recuperacao de oocitos e fecundacao in vitro em onca pintada (Panthera onca). [Ovarian stimulation, oocyte recovery and in vitro fertilization in the jaguar (Panthera onca)]. Revista Brasileira De Reproducao Animal 26(4): 317-324. ISSN: 0102-0803.
Abstract: This study was designed to examine the ovarian responsiveness to a gonadotropin regimen in the jaguar, to determine the best time of oocyte recovery, and to investigate the feasibility of using in vitro fertilization to produce jaguar embryos. Jaguars (n=3) were treated with 50 IU porcine FSH in a decreasing regimen over 3 days, followed 24 h later by a single dose of 25 IU porcine LH. Laparoscopy was performed 20-22 h or 24-26 h post-pLH, and ovaries were examined for the presence of follicles (>=2 mm in diameter). Oocyte recoveries were attempted from 165 follicles. Of the 91 COC recovered, 74 were classified as A quality (81%), 6 as B quality (7%), 4 as C quality (4%), and 7 as degenerated (8%). Oocyte recovery rate was high (75%; 86/114) when follicles were aspirated 20-22 h post-pLH. A total of 26 oocytes were co-incubated overnight with 1.0x106/ml fresh sperm. Presumptive zygotes were washed and transferred to culture medium and returned to incubator for 24 h at which time six 2- to 4-cell embryos were observed. The data indicated that jaguars respond to exogenous porcine gonadotropins by producing multiple antral ovarian follicles, laparoscopic retrieval was effectively performed 20-22 h than at 24-26 h post-pLH, and embryos could be produced by IVF. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: jaguars, Panthera onca, ovarian stimulation, oocyte recovery, in vitro fertilization, gonadotropin regimen, ovarian responsiveness, FSH, embryos.
Language of Text: Portuguese, Summary in English.

Morato, R.G., M.A.B.d.V. Guimaraes, F. Ferreira, I.T.d.N. Verreschi, and R.C. Barnabe (1999). Reproductive characteristics of captive male jaguars (Panthera onca). Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science 36(4/6): 262-266. ISSN: 1413-9596.
Abstract: Ejaculate traits, testicular volume and plasma testosterone levels were determined once every two months for one year in 4 adult male jaguars (Panthera onca) housed at the Sao Paulo Zoo, SP, Brazil. Semen samples was collected by electroejaculation and analyzed for pH, total volume, motility (0-100%), status (0-5), total spermatozoa count and morphology. Blood samples was obtained by cephalic venipuncture immediately before the onset of electroejaculation and stored at -20 degrees C until assay of testosterone by RIA. Using a calliper, the length and width of each testis was measured and the values were combined to determine the testicular volume. Semen analyses demonstrated a high percentage of structurally abnormal sperm (mean=51%) and low rates of motility (50.6%) and status (2.2). No correlation was found between semen traits, plasma testosterone and testicular volume (Spearman's test). No season variation was detected throughout the year for semen traits, plasma testosterone and testicular volume (p>0.05, Friedman's test). The results of this study suggest that the captive jaguars in Brazil are not seasonal, and that semen collections can be performed throughout the year without a perturbation in overall ejaculate quality. However, underlying causes of high percentages of structurally abnormal sperm, found in captive jaguars, need to be investigated mainly to improve semen quality. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: jaguars, Panthera onca, captive, reproductive characteristics, abnormalities, blood chemistry, morphology, motility, pH, seasons, semen, ejaculation traits, testosterone levels.
Language of Text: Portuguese.

Morato, R.G., I.T. Verreschi, M.A. Guimaraes, K. Cassaro, C. Pessuti, and R.C. Barnabe (2004). Seasonal variation in the endocrine-testicular function of captive jaguars (Panthera onca). Theriogenology 61(7-8): 1273-81. ISSN: 0093-691X.
Abstract: Captive adult male jaguars (Panthera onca) from two locations in southeast Brazil were studied to evaluate the effects of season on endocrine and testicular function. For assessment of testicular steroidogenic activity, androgen metabolite concentrations were measured in fecal samples collected one to three times per week over 14 ( n=14 ), 9 ( n=1 ) or 7 months ( n=1 ). To assess seasonality, data were grouped by season (summer: December-February; autumn: March-May; winter: June-August; spring: September-November). Additionally, samples collected in the dry season (March-August) were compared with those collected in the wet season (September-February). There were no differences ( P>0.05 ) in fecal androgen concentrations in samples collected in spring, summer, autumn, and winter ( 480.8+/-50.4 ng/g, 486.4+/-42.0 ng/g, 335.4+/-37.7 ng/g, and 418.6+/-40.4 ng/g dry feces). However, there were differences ( P<0.05 ) in fecal androgen concentrations between the dry and wet seasons ( 380.5+/-28.0 ng/g versus 483.9+/-32.3 ng/g dry feces). Sperm samples, collected from all males twice (approximately 6 months apart) were similar; mean (+/-S.E.M.) motility, concentration and morphology were 57.0 %4.5%, 6.3+/-2.4 x 10(6) ml(-1), and 60.8+/-3.1 %, respectively. In conclusion, androgen metabolite concentrations in the captive male jaguar were not affected by season, but there was a difference between the wet and dry periods. Further research is needed to verify these results.
Descriptors: jaguars, Panthera onca, captive, seasonal variation, endocrine testicular function, androgen metabolite concentrations, wet periods, dry periods.

Paz, R.C.R.d., D.P. Leme, R.M. Zuge, C. Pessuti, E.F. Santos, and R.C. Barnabe (2003). Citologia aspirativa por agulha fina (CAAF), em testiculo de onca pintada (Panthera onca), utilizada como ferramenta no diagnostico de infertilidade. [Testicular fine needle aspiration cytology as a diagnostic tool for jaguar (Panthera onca) infertility]. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science 40(1/6): 100-107. ISSN: 1413-9596.
Abstract: Several methods of testicular punch biopsy were proposed for obtaining materials for histological or cytological evaluation, but did not receive enough clinical acceptance because it was considered to be too traumatic. The fine needle aspiration technique (FNA) is considered a useful, simple and fast method to obtain samples from tissues. The FNA technique was evaluated in captive adult jaguar (Panthera onca) to determine the possible causes of infertility. Using a needle and disposable syringe, the testis were aspirated. The whole aspirate was smeared on a microscope slide and stained using the Diff-quick method. Semen samples were collected by electroejaculation and analysed for pH, total volume, motility, status, total spermatozoa count and morphology. Evaluation of sperm volume, pH, motility vigour and morphology were normal. Cytological examination revealed germinative cells in all testicles. Abnormal forms of double final spermatids were found. These anomalous forms of final spermatids have not yet been noticed in other literatures on FNA. It was concluded that FNA together with other techniques, provide a useful tool in male infertility diagnostics, mainly in endangered species. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, male infertility, diagnostic tool, testicular fine needle aspiration, cytology, FNA, captive adult, pH, total volume, motility.
Language of Text: Portuguese, Summary in English.

Paz, R.C.R.d., R.M. Zuge, and V.H. Barnabe (2007). Frozen Jaguar (Panthera onca) sperm capacitation and ability to penetrate zona free hamster oocytes. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science 44(5): 337-344. ISSN: 1413-9596.
Abstract: Assisted reproductive technologies in endangered species, such as artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, can be viewed as one potential approach for safeguarding species. Toward this aim, the objective of this study was to evaluate the fertility of frozen jaguar (Panthera onca) sperm and Tyrod's Talp PVA capacitation medium using the hamster zona free oocyte penetration assay. Ejaculates were collected from nine animals using electroejaculation and cryopreserved. Sperm capacitation was performed by swim-up technique using Tyrod's Talp PVA medium at room temperature. Penetration was considered when the spermatozoa head decondensation was visualized within the oocyte. This assay showed 15.4% penetrations (350/2275 oocytes). Results of this study showed high sperm abnormalities, low sperm quality after cryopreservation, and low percentage of penetrations. However, the penetration results showed that the cryopreserved jaguar's semen can be used for artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization and intra cytoplasmatic sperm injection, supporting the semen bank creation for this specie. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, sperm capacitation, frozen sperm, ability to penetrate, zona free hamster oocytes, artificial insemination, cryopreservation, culture media, ejaculate volume, electroejaculation.
Language of Text: Portuguese.

Paz, R.C.R.d., R.M. Zuge, V.H. Barnabe, R.G. Morato, P.A.N. Felippe, and R.C. Barnabe (2000). Avaliacao da capacidade de penetracao de semen congelado de onca pintada (Panthera onca) em oocitos heterologos. [Penetration assay of frozen jaguar (Panthera onca) sperm in heterologous oocytes]. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science 37(1/6): 462-466. ISSN: 1413-9596.
Abstract: Assisted reproductive technologies can be viewed as one potential approach for safeguarding wild species. In this study, the fertility of captivity male jaguars (P. onca) and different capacitation media using the golden hamster zona free oocyte penetration assay were evaluated. We used frozen/thawed semen from 3 animals housed at Bosque dos Jequitibas, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil to test the Percoll gradient, Swim-up and Swim-up+1 h incubation (5% CO< sub>2</ sub>/38 degrees C), considering as penetration of spermatozoa head decondensation was visualized within the oocyte. It was shown that the results rate was greater for Percoll (26.5%) as compared to Swim-up (8.1%) (X< sub>2</ sub>=19.93; P<0.05). Penetration with Swim-up+1 h incubation (5% CO< sub>2</ sub>/38 degrees C) was not observed. In conclusion, Percoll and Swim-up are efficient methods to perform the golden hamster zona free oocyte penetration assay using frozen/thawed jaguar spermatozoa. The low rate of penetration could be related to the high rate of morphological abnormal spermatozoa observed in the samples examined. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, frozen sperm, penetration assay, heterologous oocytes, captive males, golden hamster, capacitation, oocyte penetration.
Language of Text: Portuguese, Summary in English.

Port, C.D., E.R. Maschgan, J. Pond, and D.G. Scarpelli (1981). Multiple neoplasia in a jaguar (Panthera onca). Journal of Comparative Pathology 91(1): 115-22. ISSN: 0021-9975.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, multiple neoplasia, adrenal gland neoplasms, multiple myeloma, pathology, multiple primary pathology, pheochromocytoma.

Ramos Vara, J.A., M.A. Miller, and D. Preziosi (2000). Glucagonoma in a jaguar (Panthera onca). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians 31(4): 563-5. ISSN: 1042-7260.
Abstract: An obese adult jaguar (Panthera onca) was euthanized because of progressive lameness. Two 3-cm-diameter pancreatic nodules were identified as islet cell tumors, which were positive with immunohistochemical stains for glucagon, neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A, and synaptophysin. The jaguar did not present clinical evidence of hyperglucagonemia.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, obese adult, glucagonoma, pancreatic neoplasms, progressive lameness, euthanasia, complications, islet cell tumors.

Ritscher, D. (1989). Veterinarmedizinische Probleme bei der Haltung und Zucht von Pumas (Puma concolor) und Jaguaren (Panthera onca). [Veterinary problems associated with keeping and breeding pumas and jaguars]. In: Erkrankungen der Zootiere Verhandlungsbericht des 31 Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo und Wildtiere, Dortmund 1989,Berlin, German Democratic Republic: Akademie Verlag, p. 55-60. ISBN: 3055006518.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, zoo animals, keeping, breeding, veterinary problems, helminthoses, Felidae, conference information.
Language of Text: German, Summaries in English, French and Russian.

Rossi Junior, J.L. (2003). Estudo comparativo entre os achados clinicos de lesoes orais em onca-pintada (Panthera onca) e sucuarana (Puma concolor) mantidas em cativeiro no Estado de Sao Paulo e individuos de vida livre no Pantanal sul mato-grossense. [Comparative study between clinical findings of oral lesions in jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor) from captivity (State of Sao Paulo) and free-ranging individuals from the South Pantanal (State of Mato Grosso)]. Arquivos De Ciencias Veterinarias e Zoologia Da UNIPAR 6(1): 91-92. ISSN: 1415-8167.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, cougar, Puma concolor, oral lesions, clinical findings, dental caries, mouth diseases, periodontal diseases, tooth diseases, wild animals, zoo animals, species comparative study.
Language of Text: Portuguese, Summary in English and Spanish.

Rossi Junior, J.L., M.A. Gioso, J.C.R.d. Silva, and M.F.V. Marvulo (2003). Prevalencia de maloclusao em Panthera onca e Puma concolor mantidas em cativeiro no Estado de Sao Paulo. [Prevalence of the maloclusion in Panthera onca and Puma concolor in captivity in the State of Sao Paulo]. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science 40(1/6): 155-160. ISSN: 1413-9596.
Abstract: Some international papers on wild animal dentistry deal with animals in captivity or free-ranging animals from diverse geographic distributions. So far, none has been published on the great neotropical felines like Panthera onca and Puma concolor. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of malocclusion in neotropical felines kept in various institutions in Sao Paulo, Brazil. A total of 42 jaguars (Panthera onca) and 36 pumas (Puma concolor) kept in captivity in 18 institutions in Sao Paulo were included in the study (May 1999-October 2000). All animals were examined for malocclusion. The teeth were identified and examined using a dental explorer. Malocclusion was observed in 20 jaguars (47.61%) and 2 pumas (5.55%). The animals with malocclusion showed no signs of difficulty in apprehension or chewing, eventhough the condition was observed in the region of the teeth with more reduced interproximal space. The only sequela of this condition was the accumulation and difficult removal of dental plaques. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: jaguars, Panthera onca, cougar, Puma concolor, maloclusion, prevalence, dentistry, disease surveys, epidemiology, tooth diseases, zoo animals, captivity.
Language of Text: Portuguese, Summary in English.

Ruiz Garcia, M., E. Payan, A. Murillo, and D. Alvarez (2006). DNA microsatellite characterization of the jaguar (Panthera onca) in Colombia. Genes and Genetic Systems 81(2): 115-27. ISSN: 1341-7568.
Abstract: The Colombian jaguar population is thought to contain two different subspecies, Panthera onca centralis and Panthera onca onca. The genetic structure of this population was evaluated using 12 microsatellite loci (n = 62 samples). In addition, 22 jaguar DNA samples from Guatemala, Paraguay, Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela and Brazil were analyzed for these microsatellite loci (n = 84 samples). The results of this study indicate six primary themes. First, the levels of gene diversity were very high. Second, the majority of the loci analyzed showed an absence of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, probably due to the Wahlund effect (= population subdivision). Third, several microsatellite loci showed significant heterogeneity between the two supposed subspecies in the country. Nevertheless, gene flow was present between them, and heterogeneity was relatively low, although the assignment analyses showed good classification of the jaguars studied into their respective subspecies. Fourth, the long-term historical effective population sizes were calculated through a maximum likelihood procedure for single and multi-step mutation models. Fifth, seven out of twelve DNA microsatellites studied significantly deviated from a single-step mutation model. However, the overall mean multi-step mutation percentage for these 12 DNA microsatellites was only 6%. Therefore, 94% of mutations were uni-step. Sixth, no bottleneck events were detected in the Colombian jaguar population overall.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, DNA microsatellite characterization, population genetic structure, subspecies, heterogeneity, gene flow, Guatemala, Paraguay, Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela, Brazil, Columbia.

Sellinger, R.L. and J.C. Ha (2005). The effects of visitor density and intensity on the behavior of two captive jaguars (Panthera onca). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science JAAWS 8(4): 233-44. ISSN: 1088-8705.
Abstract: Several researchers have reported significant effects of visitor density and intensity on captive animal behavior. This study determined whether this was the case for 2 captive jaguars housed at the Woodland Park Zoo, Seattle, WA. Subjects were monitored for changes in behavior as a function of visitor density and intensity. The jaguars were observed for 8 hr per week for 29 weeks--March 31 until October 11, 1998--for a total of 230 hr. Continuous frequency sampling was used, and visitor density and intensity were recorded every minute. Parametric statistics were used to test for correlations between behavior and density, intensity, or a combination of the two. Both density and intensity were significant for time spent non-visible for both cats, and intensity showed a significant effect on the female's pacing behavior. In addition, the male cat exhibited a trend for increased aggression based on both visitor density and intensity and a trend of intensity affecting his social behavior. In conclusion, both density and intensity had a significant effect on behavior, with intensity showing a larger effect.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, animal welfare, behavior, visitor density, visitor intensity, effects, behavior, captive, zoo animals, housing, aggression, population density, time factors, pacing behavior, social behavior, Woodland Park Zoo, Seattle, WA. U.S.

Selvam, N.P., B.S. Bonal, and R.K. Sharma (2005). Successful breeding and hand rearing of jaguar cub Panthera onca in the National Zoological Park, New Delhi. Zoos' Print 20(11): 23-25. ISSN: 0971-6378.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, cub, hand rearing, successful breeding, artificial rearing, zoological gardens, National Zoological Park.,New Delhi, India.

Senthilkumar, K., M.G. Jayathangaraj, S. Ramesh, K. Devaki, and P.N. Khan (2006). Therapeutic approach in fungal infection in a Jaguar Panthera onca. Zoos' Print Journal 21(10): 2440-2441. ISSN: 0971-6378.
Abstract: An incidence of dermatomycosis is reported in a black jaguar (P. onca). Frequent pawing of the cheek regions was reported by an animal keeper of the Arignar Arna Zoological Park (Tamil Nadu, India) in this animal for 2 days. Closer examination of the felid revealed rubbing of both cheek regions on the fence of the enclosure along with intermittent pawing and hair loss. The jaguar was physically restrained in the squeeze cage and direct skin scrapings and faecal samples were obtained and examined. A detailed examination of the felid further revealed presence of wounds near the cheek region and the animal was treated with an injection of 500 mg of ampicillin and cloxacillin intramuscularly in the morning and orally in the evening which was continued daily for 7 days, along with local application of povidone iodine solution sprayed from a 20 ml syringe externally, from a distance, over the discoloured alopecic patch in the cheek region. Ten grams of griseofulvin was administered orally with meat, daily for 2 weeks. The animal's condition dramatically improved over this period and no pruritus or pawing was reported by the animal keeper. The skin scrapings examined revealed evidence of fungal infections and based on both macroscopic and microscopic appearance of growth in Saboraud's medium, Microsporum sp. infection was identified. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, fungal infection, therapeutic approach, ampicillin, animal diseases, antifungal agents, cloxacillin, dermatomycoses, drug therapy, griseofulvin, zoo animals, Microsporum.

Silver, S.C., L.E.T. Ostro, L.K. Marsh, L. Maffei, A.J. Noss, M.J. Kelly, R.B. Wallace, H. Gomez, and G. Ayala (2004). The use of camera traps for estimating jaguar Panthera onca abundance and density using capture/recapture analysis. Oryx 38(2): 148-154. ISSN: 0030-6053.
Abstract: Across their range jaguars Panthera onca are important conservation icons for several reasons: their important role in ecosystems as top carnivores, their cultural and economic value, and their potential conflicts with livestock. However, jaguars have historically been difficult to monitor. This paper outlines the first application of a systematic camera trapping methodology for abundance estimation of jaguars. The methodology was initially developed to estimate tiger abundance in India. We used a grid of camera traps deployed for 2 months, identified individual animals from their pelage patterns, and estimated population abundance using capture-recapture statistical models. We applied this methodology in a total of five study sites in the Mayan rain forest of Belize, the Chaco dry forest of Bolivia, and the Amazonian rain forest of Bolivia. Densities were 2.4-8.8 adult individuals per 100 km2, based on 7-11 observed animals, 16-37 combined 'captures' and 'recaptures', 486-2,280 trap nights, and sample areas of 107-458 km2. The sampling technique will be used to continue long-term monitoring of jaguar populations at the same sites, to compare with further sites, and to develop population models. This method is currently the only systematic population survey technique for jaguars, and has the potential to be applied to other species with individually recognizable markings. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: jaguars, Panthera onca, camera traps, use, analysis, estimating, abundance, density, population monitoring, identify individuals, conservation.

Sims, C. (2001). Morphological distinctions in skulls of five felids (Puma concolor, Panthera onca, Panthera pardus, Uncia uncia, and Acinonyx jubatus). Journal of Morphology 248(3): 285. ISSN: 0362-2525.
Descriptors: cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, skull, morphological distinctions, skeletal system, cougar, jaguar, leopard, snow leopard, species comparison study.
Notes: Sixth International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Jena, Germany; July 21-26, 2001.

Timm, R.M. and R.D. Price (1994). A new species of Felicola (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) from a Costa Rican jaguar, Panthera onca (Carnivora: Felidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 107(1): 114-118. ISSN: 0006-324X.
Abstract: A new species of chewing louse, Felicola (Lorisicola) oncae sp. nov. is described from a jaguar, Panthera onca taken in Costa Rica. Although this louse is based only on a single male specimen, its morphological distinctiveness and occurrence on a big cat of the genus Panthera make its discovery and description of special significance. The genus Felicola now contains 55 species, which can be grouped into 4 subgenera: Felicola, Lorisicola, Paradoxuroecus and Suricatoecus. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, ectoparasites, new species, chewing louse, Felicola (Lorisicola) oncae, taxonomy, wild animals, carnivores, Felidae, Mallophaga, mammals, Phthiraptera, Trichodectidae, Costa Rica.
Language of Text: Spanish.

Toniollo, G.H., D.d. Faria Junior, E. Lega, C.M. Batista, and N. Nunes (2000). Piometra na especie felina - relato de um caso em. [Pyometra in feline species - report of a case in Panthera onca.]. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science 37(1/6): 166-168. ISSN: 1413-9596.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, pyometra, case report, medical treatment, surgery.
Language of Text: Portuguese, Summary in English.

Ulehlova, L., H. Burda, and L. Voldrich (1984). Involution of the auditory neuro-epithelium in a tiger (Panthera tigris) and a jaguar (Panthera onca). Journal of Comparative Pathology 94(1): 153-7. ISSN: 0021-9975.
Abstract: Numerical atrophy of the hair cells of the organ of Corti of the inner ear in a 14-year-old tiger and a 17-year-old jaguar is described. The decrease in number of sensory hair cells is considered to represent physiological atrophy caused by the process of ageing. The findings are compared with previous observations on man, guinea-pigs, shrews, and bats. The development of the physiological involution of the hearing neuro-epithelium is discussed.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, tiger, Panthera tigris, carnivora anatomy, histology, organ of Corti, hair cells, inner ear, auditory neuro epithelium, aging, atrophy, cell survival, man, guinea pigs, shrew, bats, atrophy.

Viau, P., E.C.G. Felippe, and C.A.d. Oliveira (2005). Quantificacao de esteroides fecais de femeas de onca-pintada (Panthera onca) mantidas em cativeiro: validacao da tecnica. [Fecal steroid and quantification in captive jaguars (Panthera onca): validation of a method]. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science 42(4): 262-270. ISSN: 1413-9596.
Abstract: The ovarian function of captive jaguars (2 adults and 3 prepubertals) was assessed by extraction and quantification of faecal oestrogens and progestins. Faecal samples were obtained from the jaguars 2-7 times per week for 16-18 months. The validation of the solid phase radioimmunoassay for progesterone and 17 beta -estradiol was performed using the faecal extracts. The mean concentrations of faecal oestrogen (ng/g of dry faeces) in prepubertal and adult jaguars were 10.97 (ranged from 0.28 to 59.16) and 68.99 (ranged from 3.50 to 609.37), respectively. The faecal progestins ( micro g/g of dry faeces) had mean concentrations of 0.26 (ranged from 0.02 to 4.44) and 0.85 (ranged from 0.08 to 6.51) in prepubertal and adult jaguars, respectively. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, ovarian function, fecal steroid, quantification, method, validation, fecal estrogens, progesterones, concentration, captive.
Language of Text: Portuguese, Summary in English.

Villoldo, A. (2007). Jaguar Medicine. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 13(5): 14-6. ISSN: 1078-6791.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, medicine, veterinary care, treatment, therapies, diesease, injury, health.

Waelbers, T., T. Bosmans, M. Risselada, P. Verleyen, and I. Polis (2007). Inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane in a black jaguar (Panthera onca) for surgical repair of a fractured mandible. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 76(2): 138-145. ISSN: 0303-9021.
Online: Abstract: A black jaguar (Panthera onca) was anesthetized with a combination of medetomidine, ketamine and isoflurane in oxygen for radiological examination and surgical repair of a fractured mandible. Since a non-domesticated cat is potentially dangerous, induction of anesthesia was performed by intramuscular injection using a mechanical squeeze cage. The cardiopulmonary parameters during anesthesia remained within normal ranges; only a small increase in the respiration rate was recorded 75 minutes after intubation. This hyperventilation was treated with buprenorphine (for additional analgesia) and an increased inspiratory fraction of isoflurane. Recovery was rather slow after 165 minutes of general anesthesia, so atipamezole was administered. Ten minutes after the intramuscular injection of atipamezole, the animal started to recover. Meloxicam and buprenorphine were used for post-operative analgesia. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, fractured mandible, surgical repair, anesthesia, anesthetics, bone fractures, clinical aspects, diagnosis, fracture fixation, inhaled anesthetics, isoflurane, ketamine, mandible, medetomidine, pharmacodynamics, respiration rate.
Language of Text: Dutch.

Weckel, M., W. Giuliano, and S. Silver (2006). Jaguar (Panthera onca) feeding ecology: distribution of predator and prey through time and space. Journal of Zoology 270(1): 25-30. ISSN: 0952-8369.
Abstract: Jaguars Panthera onca inhabiting tropical or subtropical evergreen moist forest have often been classified as opportunistic predators because they consume prey relative to its availability. However, these studies failed to address simultaneously the distribution of predator and prey through time and space, which may lead to an incomplete or erroneous understanding of jaguar foraging strategies. In this study, we reconstructed jaguar diet from scat, and used camera traps to investigate jaguar prey availability and the distribution of jaguar and its prey through space and time. The study was conducted in the northeast region of the Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary, Belize, from 1 June to 24 November 2002. We focused our examination of predator-prey temporal and spatial relations on forest infrastructure comprising man-made paths, small mammal trails, tapir Tapirus bairdi trail and trail-less, forested areas as they represent distinct habitats for prey selection. Overall, we observed high overlap between the prey used and available, suggestive of opportunistic foraging. However, jaguars exhibited selective tendencies in discriminating between larger prey. Jaguars used collared peccary Tayassu tajacu greater than its availability, while preying upon the equally abundant and similarly distributed white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari and tapir less than predicted based upon availability. Armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus and paca Agouti paca, 56.6% of total consumption, were consumed relative to availability but exhibited low spatial overlap with jaguar. Armadillo and paca used trail-less, forested areas and small mammal trails not used by jaguar and were photographed more frequently at greater distances from man-made paths, major thoroughfares for jaguars. This study suggests that although forest jaguars use prey relative to its abundance, jaguars may rely on foraging strategies other than chance encounters for exploiting prey. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, behaviour, diet, feeding behaviour, foraging strategies, predators, prey, small mammals, spatial distribution, tropical rain forests, Agouti, Dasypus novemcinctus, Tayassu tajacu, Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary, Belize.

Weissengruber, G.E., G. Forstenpointner, G. Peters, A. Kubber Heiss, and W.T. Fitch (2002). Hyoid apparatus and pharynx in the lion (Panthera leo), jaguar (Panthera onca), tiger (Panthera tigris), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and domestic cat (Felis silvestris f. catus). Journal of Anatomy 201(3): 195-209. ISSN: 0021-8782.
Abstract: Structures of the hyoid apparatus, the pharynx and their topographical positions in the lion, tiger, jaguar, cheetah and domestic cat were described in order to determine morphological differences between species or subfamilies of the Felidae. In the lion, tiger and jaguar (species of the subfamily Pantherinae) the Epihyoideum is an elastic ligament lying between the lateral pharyngeal muscles and the Musculus (M.) thyroglossus rather than a bony element like in the cheetah or the domestic cat. The M. thyroglossus was only present in the species of the Pantherinae studied. In the lion and the jaguar the Thyrohyoideum and the thyroid cartilage are connected by an elastic ligament, whereas in the tiger there is a synovial articulation. In adult individuals of the lion, tiger and jaguar the ventral end of the tympanohyal cartilage is rotated and therefore the ventral end of the attached Stylohyoideum lies caudal to the Tympanohyoideum and the cranial base. In newborn jaguars the Apparatus hyoideus shows a similar topographical position as in adult cheetahs or domestic cats. In adult Pantherinae, the Basihyoideum and the attached larynx occupy a descended position: they are situated near the cranial thoracic aperture, the pharyngeal wall and the soft palate are caudally elongated accordingly. In the Pantherinae examined the caudal end of the soft palate lies dorsal to the glottis. Differences in these morphological features between the subfamilies of the Felidae have an influence on specific structural characters of their vocalizations.
Descriptors: cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, lion, Panthera leo, jaguar, Panthera onca, tiger, Panthera tigris, domestic cat, Felis silvestris f. catus, anatomy, histology, hyoid apparatus, pharynx, anatomy, histology, hyoid bone growth, development, pharyngeal muscles anatomy, histology, pharyngeal muscles growth, development, pharynx, growth, development.



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