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Jaguar - Research

Ahmed, A., M. Jahan, Z.H. Zaidi, and G. Braunitzer (1987). The primary structure of the hemoglobins of the adult jaguar (Panthera onca, Carnivora). Biological Chemistry Hoppe Seyler 368(10): 1385-1390. ISSN: 0177-3593; Discontinued. Continued as: Biological Chemistry: (P) 1431-6730; online: 1437-4315.
Abstract: The primary structure of the hemoglobins from Jaguar (Panthera onca) are presented. Electrophoretic separations without and with a dissociating agent revealed the presence of two hemoglobin components, alpha 2 beta I2 and alpha 2 beta II2. The separation of the hemoglobin components was achieved by ion-exchange chromatography. The globin chains were separated by ion-exchange chromatography and also by reversed phase HPLC. The amino-acid sequences of the native chains and peptides were determined by liquid-phase and gas-phase sequencing. N-Acetylserine was detected by FAB-mass spectroscopy as N-terminal group of the beta I chain. The sequences are compared with that of human hemoglobin (Hb A).
Descriptors: Jaguar, Panthera onca, adult, carnivora blood, hemoglobins, analysis, primary structure, amino acid sequence, chromatography, high pressure liquid, chromatography, ion exchange, oxidation reduction.

Eizirik, E., J.H. Kim, M. Menotti Raymond, P.G.J. Crawshaw, S.J. O'Brien, and W.E. Johnson (2001). Phylogeography, population history and conservation genetics of jaguars (Panthera onca, Mammalia, Felidae). Molecular Ecology 10(1): 65-79. ISSN: 0962-1083.
Abstract: The jaguar (Panthera onca), the largest felid in the American Continent, is currently threatened by habitat loss, fragmentation and human persecution. We have investigated the genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history of jaguars across their geographical range by analysing 715 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region and 29 microsatellite loci in approximately 40 individuals sampled from Mexico to southern Brazil. Jaguars display low to moderate levels of mtDNA diversity and medium to high levels of microsatellite size variation, and show evidence of a recent demographic expansion. We estimate that extant jaguar mtDNA lineages arose 280 000-510 000 years ago (95% CI 137 000-830 000 years ago), a younger date than suggested by available fossil data. No strong geographical structure was observed, in contrast to previously proposed subspecific partitions. However, major geographical barriers such as the Amazon river and the Darien straits between northern South America and Central America appear to have restricted historical gene flow in this species, producing measurable genetic differentiation. Jaguars could be divided into four incompletely isolated phylogeographic groups, and further sampling may reveal a finer pattern of subdivision or isolation by distance on a regional level. Operational conservation units for this species can be defined on a biome or ecosystem scale, but should take into account the historical barriers to dispersal identified here. Conservation strategies for jaguars should aim to maintain high levels of gene flow over broad geographical areas, possibly through active management of disconnected populations on a regional scale.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, genetics, DNA, mitochondrial genetics, population genetics, microsatellite repeats, variation genetics, geography, haplotypes, phylogeny, polymerase chain reaction, South America, Central America, Mexico.

Hope, K. and S.L. Deem (2006). Retrospective study of morbidity and mortality of captive jaguars (Panthera onca) in North America: 1982-2002. Zoo Biology 25(6): 501-512. ISSN: 0733-3188.
Abstract: One hundred seventy-two medical records of captive jaguars (Panthera onca) were examined from 30 American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) institutions housing jaguars between 1982-2002. The study determined common causes of morbidity and mortality, and the influence of age, gender, and melengestrol-acetate (MGA) exposure on these rates. The most common causes of morbidity in captive jaguars were found to be dental, gastrointestinal, integumentary, and musculoskeletal diseases. Prevalence of types of disease varied with age, with older animals experiencing a higher prevalence of multiple types of disease. Females developed reproductive disease more frequently than males, and the data suggest that MGA exposure increased the risk of developing female reproductive disease. The most common causes of mortality were reproductive diseases in females and musculoskeletal diseases in males. There was a high rate of neonate and pediatric mortality, primarily due to stillbirths or unexplained neonatal death, trauma, and pneumonia. Other diseases or clinical signs that seemed remarkable were a high prevalence of episodes of epistaxis among young, as well as old, jaguars. Based on these findings, management suggestions for the captive jaguar population are presented. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: jaguars, Panthera onca, morbidity, mortality, retrospective study, captive jaguars, North America, age groups, animal health, digestive disorders, medical records, musculoskeletal anomalies, newborn animals, sex differences, trauma, zoo animals.

Junior, J.L.R., M.A. Gioso, and L.M. Domingues Falqueiro (2007). Estudo comparative sobre prevalencia de doenca periodontal em Panthera onca mantida em cativeiro e em individuos de natureza. [A comparative study about the prevalence of periodontal disease in Panthera onca, living in captivity and in the wild]. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira 27(5): 209-214. ISSN: 0100-736X.
Abstract: The aim was to survey the main oral lesions related with periodontal disease of jaguars, Panthera onca, living in captivity or in the wild, as conservation of threatened animals from extinction, as in case of the jaguar, and the preservation of such species in free life may be determined by environmental conditions which can influence oral health. Forty-two jaguars (P. onca) kept in captivity in 18 institutions in the state of Sao Paulo were studied. The animals to be examined were anesthetized by the Plan of Neotropical Handling of Felids. Additionally, 4 jaguars (P. onca) proceeding from wild life were captured for the study on Farm Sete, municipality of Miranda, Mato Grosso do Sul, in the southern Pantanal. All animals surveyed in captivity showed various degrees of oral lesions related to periodontal disease. The animals living in the wild did not present any clinical signs of oral lesions. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: jaguars, Panthera onca, periodontal disease, prevalence, dentistry, disease prevalence, disease surveys, lesions, tooth diseases, wild animals, captive zoo animals, oral lesions.
Language of Text: Portuguese, Summary in English.

Liu, B. and X. Dong (2002). Lactobacillus pantheris sp. nov., isolated from faeces of a jaguar. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 52(Pt 5): 1745-8. ISSN: (p) 1466-5026; online: 1466-5034.
Abstract: Two novel Lactobacillus strains were isolated from the faeces of a jaguar in Beijing Zoo. They were gram-positive, non-spore-forming, non-motile, rod-shaped organisms that exhibited no catalase activity. The strains fermented cellobiose, D-fructose, galactose, D-glucose, lactose, maltose, D-mannose, salicin, trehalose, N-acetyl glucosamine, beta-gentiobiose and D-tagatose. D(-)-Lactic acid was the exclusive product from glucose fermentation. The G+C content of the DNA of strain A24-2-1T was 52.7 mol %. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequence similarity indicated that the strains represented a novel member of the genus Lactobacillus and were most closely related to Lactobacillus manihotivorans LMG 18010T, with 16S rDNA sequence similarity of 95.2%. The DNA-DNA relatedness between them was 13%. The name Lactobacillus pantheris sp. nov. is proposed for the novel strains, with strain A24-2-1T as the type strain (= AS 1.2826T = LMG 21017T).
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, Lactobacillus pantheris sp. nov, Lactobacillus classification, isolation, purification, feces, zoo microbiology, carnivora microbiology, China, DNA, bacterial chemistry, bacterial genetics, ribosomal genetics, Lactobacillus genetics, Lactobacillus metabolism, molecular sequence data, RNA.

Morato, R.G., M.G. Bueno, P. Malmheister, I.T. Verreschi, and R.C. Barnabe (2004). Changes in the fecal concentrations of cortisol and androgen metabolites in captive male jaguars (Panthera onca) in response to stress. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research; Revista Brasileira De Pesquisas Medicas e Biologicas Sociedade Brasileira De Biofisica [Et Al.] 37(12): 1903-7. ISSN: (p) 0100-879X; (E) 0034-7310.
Abstract: In the present study we determined the efficacy of the measurement of fecal cortisol and androgen metabolite concentrations to monitor adrenal and testicular activity in the jaguar (Panthera onca). Three captive male jaguars were chemically restrained and electroejaculated once or twice within a period of two months. Fecal samples were collected daily for 5 days before and 5 days after the procedure and stored at -20 degrees C until extraction. Variations in the concentrations of cortisol and androgen metabolites before and after the procedure were determined by solid phase cortisol and testosterone radioimmunoassay and feces dry weight was determined by drying at 37 degrees C for 24 h under vacuum. On four occasions, fecal cortisol metabolite levels were elevated above baseline (307.8 +/- 17.5 ng/g dry feces) in the first fecal sample collected after the procedure (100 to 350% above baseline). On one occasion, we did not detect any variation. Mean (+/- SEM) fecal androgen concentration did not change after chemical restraint and electroejaculation (before: 131.1 +/- 26.7, after: 213.7 +/- 43.6 ng/g dry feces). These data show that determination of fecal cortisol and androgen metabolites can be very useful for a noninvasive assessment of animal well-being and as a complement to behavioral, physiological, and pathological studies. It can also be useful for the study of the relationship between adrenal activity and reproductive performance in the jaguar.
Descriptors: jaguars, Panthera onca, fecal cortisol, androgen metabolites, determination, noninvasive assessment, well-being, fecal concentrations, stress response, testicular activity, adrenal activity, changes.

Morato, R.G., V.A. Conforti, F.C. Azevedo, A.T. Jacomo, L. Silveira, D. Sana, A.L. Nunes, M.A. Guimaraes, and R.C. Barnabe (2001). Comparative analyses of semen and endocrine characteristics of free-living versus captive jaguars (Panthera onca). Reproduction Cambridge, England 122(5): 745-51. ISSN: 1470-1626.
Abstract: Semen and blood samples were obtained from free-living (n = 6) and captive (n = 8) jaguars (Panthera onca) to compare reproductive characteristics between the two populations. Semen samples were analysed for volume (ml), percentage of motile spermatozoa, rate of forward progression (0-5), concentration (10(6) ml(-1)), total sperm count (10(6)) and sperm morphology. Serum testosterone concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay. Although ejaculate volume was greater in captive jaguars (n = 47 samples) than in free-living jaguars (n = 7 samples) (P < 0.05), the free-living jaguars produced more total spermatozoa (59.3 +/- 12.8 versus 152.0 +/- 88.0 x 10(6), respectively; not significant) with better viability and forward progression (2.8 +/- 0.1 versus 3.5 +/- 0.2, respectively; P < 0.05) and more spermatozoa with normal morphology (73.5 +/- 3.9 versus 5.0 +/- 1.1%, respectively; P < 0.05). Serum testosterone concentrations were similar for captive and free-living male jaguars (3.1 +/- 0.7 and 2.1 +/- 0.8 ng ml(-1), respectively). In summary, the data showed that semen may be collected successfully from free-living jaguars and evaluated under field conditions to establish normative reproductive values in this species. The results also indicate that jaguars maintained in zoos show inferior seminal characteristics compared with free-living animals.
Descriptors: jaguars, Panthera onca, free living and captive animals, semen samples, endocrine characteristics, comparative analysis, blood samples, collection, field conditions, normal reproductive values, inferior seminal characteristics in zoo animals.

Morato, R.G., I.T. Verreschi, M.A. Guimaraes, K. Cassaro, C. Pessuti, and R.C. Barnabe (2004). Seasonal variation in the endocrine-testicular function of captive jaguars (Panthera onca). Theriogenology 61(7-8): 1273-81. ISSN: 0093-691X.
Abstract: Captive adult male jaguars (Panthera onca) from two locations in southeast Brazil were studied to evaluate the effects of season on endocrine and testicular function. For assessment of testicular steroidogenic activity, androgen metabolite concentrations were measured in fecal samples collected one to three times per week over 14 ( n=14 ), 9 ( n=1 ) or 7 months ( n=1 ). To assess seasonality, data were grouped by season (summer: December-February; autumn: March-May; winter: June-August; spring: September-November). Additionally, samples collected in the dry season (March-August) were compared with those collected in the wet season (September-February). There were no differences ( P>0.05 ) in fecal androgen concentrations in samples collected in spring, summer, autumn, and winter ( 480.8+/-50.4 ng/g, 486.4+/-42.0 ng/g, 335.4+/-37.7 ng/g, and 418.6+/-40.4 ng/g dry feces). However, there were differences ( P<0.05 ) in fecal androgen concentrations between the dry and wet seasons ( 380.5+/-28.0 ng/g versus 483.9+/-32.3 ng/g dry feces). Sperm samples, collected from all males twice (approximately 6 months apart) were similar; mean (+/-S.E.M.) motility, concentration and morphology were 57.0 %4.5%, 6.3+/-2.4 x 10(6) ml(-1), and 60.8+/-3.1 %, respectively. In conclusion, androgen metabolite concentrations in the captive male jaguar were not affected by season, but there was a difference between the wet and dry periods. Further research is needed to verify these results.
Descriptors: jaguars, Panthera onca, captive, seasonal variation, endocrine testicular function, androgen metabolite concentrations, wet periods, dry periods.

Ruiz Garcia, M., E. Payan, A. Murillo, and D. Alvarez (2006). DNA microsatellite characterization of the jaguar (Panthera onca) in Colombia. Genes and Genetic Systems 81(2): 115-27. ISSN: 1341-7568.
Abstract: The Colombian jaguar population is thought to contain two different subspecies, Panthera onca centralis and Panthera onca onca. The genetic structure of this population was evaluated using 12 microsatellite loci (n = 62 samples). In addition, 22 jaguar DNA samples from Guatemala, Paraguay, Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela and Brazil were analyzed for these microsatellite loci (n = 84 samples). The results of this study indicate six primary themes. First, the levels of gene diversity were very high. Second, the majority of the loci analyzed showed an absence of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, probably due to the Wahlund effect (= population subdivision). Third, several microsatellite loci showed significant heterogeneity between the two supposed subspecies in the country. Nevertheless, gene flow was present between them, and heterogeneity was relatively low, although the assignment analyses showed good classification of the jaguars studied into their respective subspecies. Fourth, the long-term historical effective population sizes were calculated through a maximum likelihood procedure for single and multi-step mutation models. Fifth, seven out of twelve DNA microsatellites studied significantly deviated from a single-step mutation model. However, the overall mean multi-step mutation percentage for these 12 DNA microsatellites was only 6%. Therefore, 94% of mutations were uni-step. Sixth, no bottleneck events were detected in the Colombian jaguar population overall.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, DNA microsatellite characterization, population genetic structure, subspecies, heterogeneity, gene flow, Guatemala, Paraguay, Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela, Brazil, Columbia.



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