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Information Resources on Big Cats
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Jaguar - Veterinary

Abdulla, P.K., P.C. James, S. Sulochana, V. Jayaprakasan, and R.M. Pillai (1982). Anthrax in a jaguar (Panthera onca). Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine 13(4): 151. ISSN: 0093-4526.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, anthrax, bacterial diseases, case reports, zoo animals, Bacillus anthracis, Felidae.

Aguilar, R.F., A.M. Grooters, A. Camus, and M.M. Garner (2003). Primary pulmonary pythiosis in a Central American jaguar (Panthera onca). Proceedings of the Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin, No.5: 319.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, primary pulmonary pythiosis, case reports, clinical aspects, diagnosis, mycoses, respiratory diseases, zoo animals, Pythium insidiosum.
Notes: Meeting Information: Erkrankungen der Zootiere: Verhandlungsbericht des 41. Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo und Wildtiere, Rome, Italy, 28 May - 1 June, 2003.

Ahmed, A., M. Jahan, Z.H. Zaidi, and G. Braunitzer (1987). The primary structure of the hemoglobins of the adult jaguar (Panthera onca, Carnivora). Biological Chemistry Hoppe Seyler 368(10): 1385-1390. ISSN: 0177-3593; Discontinued. Continued as: Biological Chemistry: (P) 1431-6730; online: 1437-4315.
Abstract: The primary structure of the hemoglobins from Jaguar (Panthera onca) are presented. Electrophoretic separations without and with a dissociating agent revealed the presence of two hemoglobin components, alpha 2 beta I2 and alpha 2 beta II2. The separation of the hemoglobin components was achieved by ion-exchange chromatography. The globin chains were separated by ion-exchange chromatography and also by reversed phase HPLC. The amino-acid sequences of the native chains and peptides were determined by liquid-phase and gas-phase sequencing. N-Acetylserine was detected by FAB-mass spectroscopy as N-terminal group of the beta I chain. The sequences are compared with that of human hemoglobin (Hb A).
Descriptors: Jaguar, Panthera onca, adult, carnivora blood, hemoglobins, analysis, primary structure, amino acid sequence, chromatography, high pressure liquid, chromatography, ion exchange, oxidation reduction.

Bossart, G.D. and G. Hubbell (1983). Ovarian papillary cystadenocarcinoma in a jaguar (Panthera onca). Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine 14(2): 73-76. ISSN: 0093-4526.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, neoplasms, zoo animals, cystadenocarcinoma, ovarian papillary.

Camus, A.C., A.M. Grooters, and R.E. Aquilar (2004). Granulomatous pneumonia caused by Pythium insidiosum in a central American jaguar, Panthera onca. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 16(6): 567-571. ISSN: 1040-6387.
Abstract: A 7-month-old, male jaguar presented with dyspnea and leukocytosis unresponsive to antibiotic therapy. Radiographs revealed unilateral pulmonary consolidation. An exploratory thoracotomy was performed, and the left lung, which contained a large multilobular mass with extensive fibrosis and numerous caseonecrotic foci, was removed. Microscopically, eosinophilic granulomatous inflammation surrounded broad (4.4-8.3 microm) rarely septate hyphae. A diagnosis of Pythium insidiosum infection was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, immunoblot serology, culture, and polymerase chain reaction. Dyspnea recurred despite treatment, and the animal succumbed 3 weeks after surgery. Necropsy findings indicated that death resulted from occlusion of the right main stem bronchus by a fungal granuloma. The oomycete P. insidiosum typically causes granulomatous disease of the skin or gastrointestinal tract in animals and arteritis, keratitis, or cellulitis in humans. Infection is uncommon in felines, and pulmonary involvement is rare. This report details the first case of P. insidiosum infection in an exotic felid and provides the first description of primary pulmonary pythiosis in any species.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, granulomatous pneumonia, Pythium insidiosum, dyspnea, leukocytosis, pulmonary consolidation, fibrosis, oomycete, pulmonary pythiosis.

Castro, M.B.d., K. Werther, G.S. Godoy, V.P. Borges, and A.C. Alessi (2003). Visceral mast cell tumor in a captive black jaguar (Panthera onca). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 34(1): 100-102. ISSN: 1042-7260.
Abstract: Little is known about neoplasia in the jaguar (Panthera onca), the largest American feline. A 26-year-old captive black jaguar from the county zoo in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil, was diagnosed at necropsy with a mastocytic form of visceral mast cell tumour (MCT) similar to that which occurs in domestic cats. This animal had no previous clinical disease and died during anaesthesia for a routine dental treatment. Histologically, the submucosa and muscular layers of the jejunum were diffusely infiltrated and expanded by massive numbers of monomorphic neoplastic mast cells arranged in cords or nests. The prognosis and criteria for the clinical diagnosis of MCT in the jaguar are unknown. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, visceral mast cell tumor, captive, case reports, clinical aspects, diagnosis, mast cells, neoplasms, zoo animals, Brazil.

Choi, J.H., H.S. Yoo, J.Y. Park, Y.K. Kim, E. Kim, and D.Y. Kim (2002). Morganelliasis pneumonia in a captive jaguar. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 38(1): 199-201. ISSN: 0090-3558.
Abstract: Suppurative bronchopneumonia was discovered in a 6-yr-old male jaguar (Panthera onca onca) that died after a 1 wk history of anorexia, depression, and respiratory difficulty. Morganella morganii was isolated as a pure culture from the lung, spleen, and heart blood. This is the first record of M. morganii induced pneumonia in a jaguar.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, bronchopneumonia, Carnivora, infections, Morganella morganii, isolation, purification, bronchopneumonia, pathology, Enterobacteriaceae infections, microbiology, pathology, fatal outcome, pathogenicity.

Demar, M., D. Ajzenberg, B. Serrurier, M.L. Darde, and B. Carme (2008). Atypical Toxoplasma gondii strain from a free-living jaguar (Panthera onca) in French Guiana. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 78(2): 195-197. ISSN: 0002-9637.
Abstract: Like domestic cats, wild felids are involved in the complete infective cycle of Toxoplasma gondii because they can host in their gastrointestinal tract sexually mature parasites and shed infective oocysts in their faeces. We report, to our knowledge, the first isolation and molecular characterization of a T. gondii strain from the heart tissue of a free-living jaguar (Panthera onca) in Belizon, an eastern deep forest area in French Guiana. Sequencing at 6 polymorphic markers indicated that the jaguar isolate had an atypical genotype, including an allele at TgM-A previously found only in isolates from South America, and an allele at GRA6, which was previously reported only in Californian sea otter isolates. These findings are consistent with the recent description of atypical T. gondii strains involved in severe toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients in French Guiana that seemed to be linked to a neotropical forest-based cycle involving wild cats and their prey. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, forests, genotypes, nucleotide sequences, strains, toxoplasmosis, wild animals, oocysts, feces, infective cycle, Toxoplasma gondii.

Frazier, K.S., M.E. Hines, C. Ruiz, A.J. Herron, and N.H. Altman (1994). Immunohistochemical differentiation of multiple metastatic neoplasia in a jaguar (Panthera onca). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 25(2): 286-293. ISSN: 1042-7260.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, multiple metastatic neoplasia, immunohistochemical differentiation, case report, mammary gland diseases, metastasis, neoplasms, pathology, zoo animal.

Hawkey, C.M. and M.G. Hart (1986). Haematological reference values for adult pumas, lions, tigers, leopards, jaguars and cheetahs. Research in Veterinary Science 41(2): 268-269. ISSN: 0034-5288.
Abstract: Normal haematological values and fibrinogen levels were obtained from a number of healthy adult Felidae in the collection of the Zoological Society of London. The group comprised 29 pumas (Felis concolor), 32 lions (Panthera leo), 27 tigers (P tigris), 19 leopards (P pardus), 18 jaguars (P onca) and 22 cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The values provided a basis for identifying abnormalities in the blood of sick individuals of these species and for undertaking interspecies comparisons.
Descriptors: cheetah, Acinonyx jubata, pumas, Felis concolor, lions, Panthera leo, tigers, Panthera tigris, leopards, Panthera pardus, jaguars, Panthera onca, adult, fibrinogen levels, blood, hematological reference values.

Junior, J.L.R., M.A. Gioso, and L.M. Domingues Falqueiro (2007). Estudo comparative sobre prevalencia de doenca periodontal em Panthera onca mantida em cativeiro e em individuos de natureza. [A comparative study about the prevalence of periodontal disease in Panthera onca, living in captivity and in the wild]. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira 27(5): 209-214. ISSN: 0100-736X.
Abstract: The aim was to survey the main oral lesions related with periodontal disease of jaguars, Panthera onca, living in captivity or in the wild, as conservation of threatened animals from extinction, as in case of the jaguar, and the preservation of such species in free life may be determined by environmental conditions which can influence oral health. Forty-two jaguars (P. onca) kept in captivity in 18 institutions in the state of Sao Paulo were studied. The animals to be examined were anesthetized by the Plan of Neotropical Handling of Felids. Additionally, 4 jaguars (P. onca) proceeding from wild life were captured for the study on Farm Sete, municipality of Miranda, Mato Grosso do Sul, in the southern Pantanal. All animals surveyed in captivity showed various degrees of oral lesions related to periodontal disease. The animals living in the wild did not present any clinical signs of oral lesions. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: jaguars, Panthera onca, periodontal disease, prevalence, dentistry, disease prevalence, disease surveys, lesions, tooth diseases, wild animals, captive zoo animals, oral lesions.
Language of Text: Portuguese, Summary in English.

Karesh, W.B. and G. Bottomley (1983). Vaccine induced anaphylaxis in a Brazilian jaguar (Panthera onca plaustrix). Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine 14(4): 133-137. ISSN: 0093-4526.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca plaustrix, vaccine induced, adverse effects, anaphylaxis, complications, zoo animals, feline herpesvirus 1, feline calicivirus, feline panleukopenia virus.

Kim JeongRae, Kim BangHyun, Yoo HanSang, Lee DeogYong, Kim KiGeun, Jean KyungSun, Hwang WooSuk, Lee ByungChun, and Kim DaeYong (2001). Concurrent infection with heartworm and Pasteurella haemolytica-induced pericarditis in a jaguar (Panthera onca onca). Journal of Veterinary Clinics 18(1): 85-87. ISSN: 1598-298X.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca onca, heartworm infection, clinical aspects, concurrent infections, diagnosis, heart, lungs, myocardium, pericarditis, pericardium, Dirofilaria, Pasteurella haemolytica.
Language of Text: Korean, Summary in English.

Kollias, G.V.J., M.B. Calderwood Mays, and B.G. Short (1984). Diabetes mellitus and abdominal adenocarcinoma in a jaguar receiving megestrol acetate. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 185(11): 1383-1386. ISSN: 0003-1488.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, abdominal neoplasms, adenocarcinoma, diabetes mellitus, megestrol acetate, derivatives, complications, complications, cat diseases chemically induced, cats, dog diseases, megestrol adverse effects, contraceptives, zoo animals.

Kumar, M.N. and M.V.A. Akbar (2001). A case of uterine inertia in Jaguar (Panthera onca). Zoos' Print Journal 16(5): 502. ISSN: 0971-6378.
Descriptors: jaguars, Panthera onca, uterine inertia, case reports, dystocia, parturition.

Ladiges, W.C., J.W. Foster, and M.H. Jones (1981). Malignant hemangioendothelioma in a jaguar (Panthera onca). Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine 12(2): 36-37. ISSN: 0093-4526.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, malignant hemangioendothelioma, neoplasms, zoo animals, Felidae.

McLaughlin, R.J. and A. Kuzma (1991). Surgical management of collapsed pelvis in a jaguar. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 198(10): 1789-91. ISSN: 0003-1488.
Abstract: An immature jaguar was surgically treated for severe constipation caused by a narrow pelvic canal. This narrowing was attributed to nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism. The ventral floor of the pelvis was widened by placing a piece of high density polyethylene between the 2 sides of the pubis after symphysiotomy and stabilizing the implant with orthopedic wires. This procedure provided stable fixation and permanent enlargement of the pelvic canal. The technique was easy to perform and could be used to treat pelvic collapse in other species.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthers onca, case study, surgery, constipation, femoral fractures, hyperparathyroidism, pelvic bones surgery, bone density, bone wires, pelvic bones injuries, surgical management.

Port, C.D., E.R. Maschgan, J. Pond, and D.G. Scarpelli (1981). Multiple neoplasia in a jaguar (Panthera onca). Journal of Comparative Pathology 91(1): 115-22. ISSN: 0021-9975.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, multiple neoplasia, adrenal gland neoplasms, multiple myeloma, pathology, multiple primary pathology, pheochromocytoma.

Ramos Vara, J.A., M.A. Miller, and D. Preziosi (2000). Glucagonoma in a jaguar (Panthera onca). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians 31(4): 563-5. ISSN: 1042-7260.
Abstract: An obese adult jaguar (Panthera onca) was euthanized because of progressive lameness. Two 3-cm-diameter pancreatic nodules were identified as islet cell tumors, which were positive with immunohistochemical stains for glucagon, neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A, and synaptophysin. The jaguar did not present clinical evidence of hyperglucagonemia.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, obese adult, glucagonoma, pancreatic neoplasms, progressive lameness, euthanasia, complications, islet cell tumors.

Ritscher, D. (1989). Veterinarmedizinische Probleme bei der Haltung und Zucht von Pumas (Puma concolor) und Jaguaren (Panthera onca). [Veterinary problems associated with keeping and breeding pumas and jaguars]. In: Erkrankungen der Zootiere Verhandlungsbericht des 31 Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo und Wildtiere, Dortmund 1989,Berlin, German Democratic Republic: Akademie Verlag, p. 55-60. ISBN: 3055006518.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, zoo animals, keeping, breeding, veterinary problems, helminthoses, Felidae, conference information.
Language of Text: German, Summaries in English, French and Russian.

Rossi Junior, J.L. (2003). Estudo comparativo entre os achados clinicos de lesoes orais em onca-pintada (Panthera onca) e sucuarana (Puma concolor) mantidas em cativeiro no Estado de Sao Paulo e individuos de vida livre no Pantanal sul mato-grossense. [Comparative study between clinical findings of oral lesions in jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor) from captivity (State of Sao Paulo) and free-ranging individuals from the South Pantanal (State of Mato Grosso)]. Arquivos De Ciencias Veterinarias e Zoologia Da UNIPAR 6(1): 91-92. ISSN: 1415-8167.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, cougar, Puma concolor, oral lesions, clinical findings, dental caries, mouth diseases, periodontal diseases, tooth diseases, wild animals, zoo animals, species comparative study.
Language of Text: Portuguese, Summary in English and Spanish.

Rossi Junior, J.L., M.A. Gioso, J.C.R.d. Silva, and M.F.V. Marvulo (2003). Prevalencia de maloclusao em Panthera onca e Puma concolor mantidas em cativeiro no Estado de Sao Paulo. [Prevalence of the maloclusion in Panthera onca and Puma concolor in captivity in the State of Sao Paulo]. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science 40(1/6): 155-160. ISSN: 1413-9596.
Abstract: Some international papers on wild animal dentistry deal with animals in captivity or free-ranging animals from diverse geographic distributions. So far, none has been published on the great neotropical felines like Panthera onca and Puma concolor. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of malocclusion in neotropical felines kept in various institutions in Sao Paulo, Brazil. A total of 42 jaguars (Panthera onca) and 36 pumas (Puma concolor) kept in captivity in 18 institutions in Sao Paulo were included in the study (May 1999-October 2000). All animals were examined for malocclusion. The teeth were identified and examined using a dental explorer. Malocclusion was observed in 20 jaguars (47.61%) and 2 pumas (5.55%). The animals with malocclusion showed no signs of difficulty in apprehension or chewing, eventhough the condition was observed in the region of the teeth with more reduced interproximal space. The only sequela of this condition was the accumulation and difficult removal of dental plaques. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: jaguars, Panthera onca, cougar, Puma concolor, maloclusion, prevalence, dentistry, disease surveys, epidemiology, tooth diseases, zoo animals, captivity.
Language of Text: Portuguese, Summary in English.

Senthilkumar, K., M.G. Jayathangaraj, S. Ramesh, K. Devaki, and P.N. Khan (2006). Therapeutic approach in fungal infection in a Jaguar Panthera onca. Zoos' Print Journal 21(10): 2440-2441. ISSN: 0971-6378.
Abstract: An incidence of dermatomycosis is reported in a black jaguar (P. onca). Frequent pawing of the cheek regions was reported by an animal keeper of the Arignar Arna Zoological Park (Tamil Nadu, India) in this animal for 2 days. Closer examination of the felid revealed rubbing of both cheek regions on the fence of the enclosure along with intermittent pawing and hair loss. The jaguar was physically restrained in the squeeze cage and direct skin scrapings and faecal samples were obtained and examined. A detailed examination of the felid further revealed presence of wounds near the cheek region and the animal was treated with an injection of 500 mg of ampicillin and cloxacillin intramuscularly in the morning and orally in the evening which was continued daily for 7 days, along with local application of povidone iodine solution sprayed from a 20 ml syringe externally, from a distance, over the discoloured alopecic patch in the cheek region. Ten grams of griseofulvin was administered orally with meat, daily for 2 weeks. The animal's condition dramatically improved over this period and no pruritus or pawing was reported by the animal keeper. The skin scrapings examined revealed evidence of fungal infections and based on both macroscopic and microscopic appearance of growth in Saboraud's medium, Microsporum sp. infection was identified. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, fungal infection, therapeutic approach, ampicillin, animal diseases, antifungal agents, cloxacillin, dermatomycoses, drug therapy, griseofulvin, zoo animals, Microsporum.

Timm, R.M. and R.D. Price (1994). A new species of Felicola (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) from a Costa Rican jaguar, Panthera onca (Carnivora: Felidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 107(1): 114-118. ISSN: 0006-324X.
Abstract: A new species of chewing louse, Felicola (Lorisicola) oncae sp. nov. is described from a jaguar, Panthera onca taken in Costa Rica. Although this louse is based only on a single male specimen, its morphological distinctiveness and occurrence on a big cat of the genus Panthera make its discovery and description of special significance. The genus Felicola now contains 55 species, which can be grouped into 4 subgenera: Felicola, Lorisicola, Paradoxuroecus and Suricatoecus. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, ectoparasites, new species, chewing louse, Felicola (Lorisicola) oncae, taxonomy, wild animals, carnivores, Felidae, Mallophaga, mammals, Phthiraptera, Trichodectidae, Costa Rica.
Language of Text: Spanish.

Toniollo, G.H., D.d. Faria Junior, E. Lega, C.M. Batista, and N. Nunes (2000). Piometra na especie felina - relato de um caso em. [Pyometra in feline species - report of a case in Panthera onca.]. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science 37(1/6): 166-168. ISSN: 1413-9596.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, pyometra, case report, medical treatment, surgery.
Language of Text: Portuguese, Summary in English.

Ulehlova, L., H. Burda, and L. Voldrich (1984). Involution of the auditory neuro-epithelium in a tiger (Panthera tigris) and a jaguar (Panthera onca). Journal of Comparative Pathology 94(1): 153-7. ISSN: 0021-9975.
Abstract: Numerical atrophy of the hair cells of the organ of Corti of the inner ear in a 14-year-old tiger and a 17-year-old jaguar is described. The decrease in number of sensory hair cells is considered to represent physiological atrophy caused by the process of ageing. The findings are compared with previous observations on man, guinea-pigs, shrews, and bats. The development of the physiological involution of the hearing neuro-epithelium is discussed.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, tiger, Panthera tigris, carnivora anatomy, histology, organ of Corti, hair cells, inner ear, auditory neuro epithelium, aging, atrophy, cell survival, man, guinea pigs, shrew, bats, atrophy.

Villoldo, A. (2007). Jaguar Medicine. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 13(5): 14-6. ISSN: 1078-6791.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, medicine, veterinary care, treatment, therapies, diesease, injury, health.

Waelbers, T., T. Bosmans, M. Risselada, P. Verleyen, and I. Polis (2007). Inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane in a black jaguar (Panthera onca) for surgical repair of a fractured mandible. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 76(2): 138-145. ISSN: 0303-9021.
Abstract: A black jaguar (Panthera onca) was anesthetized with a combination of medetomidine, ketamine and isoflurane in oxygen for radiological examination and surgical repair of a fractured mandible. Since a non-domesticated cat is potentially dangerous, induction of anesthesia was performed by intramuscular injection using a mechanical squeeze cage. The cardiopulmonary parameters during anesthesia remained within normal ranges; only a small increase in the respiration rate was recorded 75 minutes after intubation. This hyperventilation was treated with buprenorphine (for additional analgesia) and an increased inspiratory fraction of isoflurane. Recovery was rather slow after 165 minutes of general anesthesia, so atipamezole was administered. Ten minutes after the intramuscular injection of atipamezole, the animal started to recover. Meloxicam and buprenorphine were used for post-operative analgesia. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: jaguar, Panthera onca, fractured mandible, surgical repair, anesthesia, anesthetics, bone fractures, clinical aspects, diagnosis, fracture fixation, inhaled anesthetics, isoflurane, ketamine, mandible, medetomidine, pharmacodynamics, respiration rate.
Language of Text: Dutch.



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