Leopard - Breeding and Reproduction
Acharjyo L N and Patnaik S K (1985). Observations on some aspects of reproduction among the panthers Panthera-pardus on Nandankanan Biological Park Orissa India. Indian Journal of Forestry 8(1): 8-14. ISSN: 0250-524X.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, reproductive system, reproduction, estrus, sex ratio, matings, observations, age, litter size, receptivity, gestation.
Brown J L, Goodrowe K L, Simmons L G, Armstrong D L, and Wildt D E (1988). Evaluation of the pituitary-gonadal response to gnrh and adrenal status in the leopard Panthera pardus japonensis and tiger Panthera tigris. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 82(1): 227-236. ISSN: 0022-4251.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus japonensis, pituitary gonadal response, GnRH, evaluation, adrenal status, reproductive system, reproduction, sex differences, species differences, gonadotropin releasing hormone, cortisol luteinizing hormone, fsh testosterone.
Brown J L, Wildt D E, Phillips L G, Seidensticker J, Fernando S B U, Miththapala S, and Goodrowe K L (1989). Adrenal-pituitary-gonadal relationships and ejaculate characteristics in captive leopards Panthera pardus kotiya isolated on the island of Sri Lanka. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 85(2): 605-614. ISSN: 0022-4251.
Descriptors: captive leopard, Panthera pardus kotiya, physiology, reproductive system, reproduction, adrenal pituitary gonadal relationships, ejaculate characteristics, captive, wildlife management, conservation, testosterone, FSH, ACTH, luteinizing hormone, gonadotropin releasing hormone, electroejaculation, sperm abnormality, Sri Lanka.
Cunningham, P. and C. Gross (2000). Reproduction and development of the Arabian leopard, Panthera pardus nimr, in captivity. Zoology in the Middle East 20: 9-14. ISSN: 0939-7140.
Descriptors: Arabian leopard, Panthera pardus nimr, wildlife management, conservation, development, reproduction, captive breeding, captivity, cub number, gestation period, inter estrus period, estrus period.
de Haas van Dorsser, F.J., D.I. Green, W.V. Holt, and A.R. Pickard (2007). Ovarian activity in Arabian leopards (Panthera pardus nimr): Sexual behaviour and faecal steroid monitoring during the follicular cycle, mating and pregnancy. Reproduction, Fertility, and Development 19(7): 822-830. ISSN: 1031-3613.
Abstract: The Arabian leopard is a critically endangered subspecies endemic to the Arabian Peninsula. A fundamental understanding of the ovarian activity of the leopard is important to enhance the success with which it breeds in captivity. The objective of the present study was to characterise the endocrinology of the follicular cycle, ovulation and pregnancy in captive females using faecal steroid hormone analyses and observations of sexual behaviour. The follicular cycle of the leopard was shown to last 18-23 days based on the interval between consecutive peaks of faecal oestrogen conjugates, and the occurrence of silent heats was high. Puberty had commenced at 2 years of age, but faecal steroid profiles did not match those of the adult female until 3 years of age. No seasonal change in ovarian steroid excretion was observed, although behavioural oestrus was suppressed in summer. Significant rises in faecal progestagen concentrations were only recorded in mated leopards, indicating that these females were strictly induced ovulators. However, only 60% of these mating periods were ovulatory. Progestagen concentrations during pregnancy were significantly higher than those of the non-pregnant luteal phase. The average duration of the non-pregnant and pregnant luteal phases was 39 and 97 days, respectively. The basic features of the reproductive cycle of the Arabian leopard described here form an important foundation for further study into its reproduction.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus nimr, ovarian activity, sexual behavior, fecal steroid monitoring, follicular cycle, mating, pregnancy.
de Haas van Dorsser, F.J. and J.A. Strick (2005). Semen characteristics and sperm morphology in the Arabian leopard (Panthera pardus nimr) and how these vary with age and season. Reproduction, Fertility, and Development 17(7): 675-82. ISSN: 1031-3613.
Abstract: The Arabian leopard is a critically endangered species. Since there are only an estimated 200 animals remaining in the wild, careful management of the captive population is necessary to minimise inbreeding. The objective of this study was to characterise sperm morphology and ejaculate quality in captive males. Semen was collected by electroejaculation from 8 adult captive male leopards (aged 2-16 years) during the summer and winter months, and semen parameters, including sperm morphology, were assessed. Two-year-old leopards showed lower total sperm counts per ejaculate than older animals and these counts declined at > 8 years. Ejaculates collected during the hot summer showed significantly lower sperm concentrations, total sperm counts, sperm motility and viability and percentage of spermatozoa showing normal morphology than ejaculates collected in the cooler winter. The results showed that the male leopard attains sexual maturity between 2 and 3 years of age and exhibits good semen quality until 8 years. Collection of semen for artificial breeding or banking would best be carried out in the cooler winter months.
Descriptors: Arabian leopard, Panthera pardus nimr, captive mates, semen characteristics, sperm morphology, vary, age, seasonal effects, sperm.
Hao Yifeng (1993). Morphological observations and functional analysis of semen of leopard (Panthera pardus). Chinese Wildlife (China)(no. 1): 40-42. ISSN: 1000-0127.
Descriptors: leopards, Panthera pardus, semen, morphological observations, functional analysis, carnivora, Felidae, male genital system, urogenital system.
Language of Text: Chinese.
Hartley, A., F. Goeritz, T. Arzhanova, S. Christie, P. Kertesz, J. Lewis, G. Maksudov, and K. Jewgenow (2000). Semen collection and reproductive health assessment of pure bred amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) within the eep breeding programme. Advances in Ethology(35): 88. ISSN: 0931-4202.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus orientalis, conservation, reproductive system, reproduction, genetic analysis, semen collection, health assessment, DNA technology, genome banking, preservation method, eep breeding program, ssp breeding program, Berlin Tierpark, Moscow zoo, Prague zoo.
Notes: Meeting Information: 3rd International Symposium on Physiology and Ethology of Wild and Zoo Animals, Berlin, Germany; October 04-07, 2000.
Jayaprakash, D., S.B. Patil, M.N. Kumar, K.C. Majumdar, and S. Shivaji (2000). Semen characteristics of the captive indian leopard, Panthera pardus. Biology of Reproduction 62(Supplement 1): 147-148. ISSN: 0006-3363.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, semen characteristics, reproductive system, reproduction, computer aided semen analysis, cryopreservation, methods, preservation, captive breeding programs, meeting abstract.
Notes: Thirty-Third Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Madison, Wisconsin, USA; July 15-18, 2000.
Jayaprakash, D., S.B. Patil, M.N. Kumar, K.C. Majumdar, and S. Shivaji (2001). Semen characteristics of the captive Indian leopard, Panthera pardus. Journal of Andrology 22(1): 25-33. ISSN: 0196-3635.
Descriptors: captive leopard, Panthera pardus, semen characteristics, sperm motility, density, spermatazoa, motile, morphological normal, cryopreservation, hamester oocyte, penetrated, breeding programs.
Laman, T.G. and C.D. Knott (1997). An observation of leopard ( Panthera pardus linnaeus) mating behaviour in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology 35(2): 165-167. ISSN: 0141-6707.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus linnaeus, behavior, reproductive system, reproduction, copulation, mating behavior, Serengeti National Park, Tanzania.
Schmidt A M, Hess D L, Schmidt M J, Smith R C, and Lewis C R (1988). Serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone and sexual behavior during the normal estrous cycle in the leopard Panthera pardus. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 82(1): 43-50. ISSN: 0022-4251.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, normal estrous cycle, sexual behavior, estradiol, serum concentrations, progesterone, reproductive behavior.
Zhang Zhihe, Lu Wenqi, Wang Xingliang, Wang Chengdong, Hou Rong, Song Yunfang, and He Guangxin (1999). The captive breeding of Chinese leopard (Panthera pardus). Acta Theriologica Sinica 19(3): 233-236. ISSN: 1000-1050.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, captive breeding, behavior, wildlife management, conservation, reproduction, conservation, estrus, gestation, litter size, mating.
Language of Text: Chinese.