Leopard - Diet and Nutrition
Akhtar, N. and M.L. Narang (1998). Earthworm in the diet of leopard Panthera pardus. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 95(1): 110. ISSN: 0006-6982.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, diet, nutrition, earthworm, food, India.
Bodendorfer, T., B. Hoppe Dominik, F. Fischer, and K.E. Linsenmair (2006). Predation par le leopard (Panthera pardus) et le lion (Panthera leo) dans les parcs nationaux de la comoe et de la marahoue en cote d'lvoire (Afrique de l'ouest) [Prey of the leopard (Panthera pardus) and the lion (Panthera leo) in the Comoe and Marahoue National Parks, cote d'lvoire, West Africa]. Mammalia 70(3-4): 231-246. ISSN: 0025-1461.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, lion, Panthera leo, prey, population studies, scat analysis, applied and field techniques, Comoe and Marahoue National Parks, Ivory Coast, West Africa.
Language of Text: French.
Edgaonkar, A. and R. Chellam (2002). Food habit of the leopard, Panthera pardus, in the Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Maharashtra, India. Mammalia 66(3): 353-360. ISSN: 0025-1461.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, domestic dog, primates, cervids, pigs, birds, buffaloes, domestic animals, food habit, scat analysis, India.
Hart, J.A., M. Katembo, and K. Punga (1996). Diet, prey selection and ecological relations of leopard and golden cat in the Ituri forest, Zaire. African Journal of Ecology 34(4): 364-379. ISSN: 0141-6707.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, diet, prey selection, ecological relations, behavior, nutrition, feeding behavior, Ituri forest, predator.
Hayward, M.W., P. Henschel, J. O'brien, M. Hofmeyr, G. Balme, and G.I.H. Kerley (2006). Prey preferences of the leopard (Panthera pardus). Journal of Zoology (London) 270(2): 298-313. ISSN: 0952-8369.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, behavior, prey preferences, impala, bushbuck, common duiker, weight range, open vegetation, body mass.
Henschel, P., K.A. Abernethy, and L.J.T. White (2005). Leopard food habits in the Lope National Park, Gabon, central Africa. African Journal of Ecology 43(1): 21-28. ISSN: 0141-6707.
Abstract: To determine leopard Panthera pardus (Linnaeus) food habits in the Lope National Park in Gabon, Central Africa, 196 leopard scats were collected and analysed. Prey items were determined using undigested matter isolated from the scats, and a reference collection of hairs and bones from potential prey species. A minimum of 30 different prey species were identified, 27 of which were mammalian. Leopards preyed mainly on ungulates, which made up 59%, of the biomass consumed. Diurnal primates (18%) and large rodents (17%) were also heavily preyed upon. The mean prey weight estimated from scats was 29.2 kg. The most important single prey species was found to be red river hog Potamochoerus porcus (Linnaeus), making up 20% of the biomass consumed, followed by forest buffalo Syncerus caffer nanus (Boddaert) and cane rat Thryonomys swinderianus (Temminck), each comprising 13% of biomass consumed.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, food habits, scats, prey, ungulates, primates, large rodents, prey weight, red river hog, buffalo, cane rat, Africa, Loops National Park.
Hoppe Dominik B (1984). Prey frequency of the leopard Panthera pardus in the Tai National Park of the Ivory Coast. Mammalia 48(4): 477-488. ISSN: 0025-1461.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, diet, nutrition, prey frequency, monkey, bovid, rodent, feces, scat hair, opportunist, Ivory Coast. Africa.
Language of Text: French.
Johnson, K.G., W. Wei, and D.G. Reid (1993). Food habits of Asiatic leopards (Panthera pardus fusea) in Wolong Reserve, Sichuan, China. Journal of Mammalogy 74(3): 646-50. ISSN: 0022-2372.
Abstract: Analysis of feces showed Asiatic leopards (Panthera pardus fusea) to consume a varied diet over a 7-year period. Tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus) was replaced as the most frequent prey by bamboo rats (Rhizomys sinense). Fifteen species of large and medium-sized mammals composed the majority of the diet with pheasants, livestock, grass, and soil being eaten occasionally. Reasons for dietary shifts were unclear and may reflect leopards hunting for any readily captured prey by opportunistic encounter and perhaps by changes in hunting behavior, prey availability, or prey vulnerability associated with a bamboo die-off. Reprinted by permission of the American Society of Mammalogists, 1993.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus fusea, food habits, Asiatic leopards, feces analysis, varied diet, tufted deer, bamboo rats, pheasants, livestock, hunting behavior, prey selection, China.
Karanth, K.U. and M.E. Sunquist (1995). Prey selection by tiger, leopard and dhole in tropical forests. The Journal of Animal Ecology 64(4): 439-50. ISSN: 0021-8790.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, tiger, Panthera tigris, dhole, Cuon alpinus, prey selection, tropical forest, India.
Karanth, K.U. and M.E. Sunquist (2000). Behavioural correlates of predation by tiger (Panthera tigris), leopard (Panthera pardus) and dhole (Cuon alpinus) in Nagarahole, India. Journal of Zoology 250(2): 255-265. ISSN: 0952-8369.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, tiger, Panthera tigris, dhole, Cuon alpinus, predation, behavioral correlates, predator scats, predators, habitat specificity, prey size, cover, behavioral factors, Nagarahole, India.
Mehta, P. (1997). Leopard (Panthera pardus) attempting to prey on Indian giant squirrel (Ratufa indica centralis). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 94(3): 555-556. ISSN: 0006-6982.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, behavior, predation, Indian giant squirrel, Ratufa indica centralis, diet, food, India.
Mukherjee, S., S.P. Goyal, and R. Chellam (1994). Standardisation of scat analysis techniques for leopard (Panthera pardus) in Gir National Park, western India. Mammalia 58(1): 139-143. ISSN: 0025-1461.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, digestive system, ingestion, assimilation, scat analysis, nutrition, diet analysis, hair, technique standardization.
Ott, T., G.I.H. Kerley, and A.F. Boshoff (2007). Preliminary observations on the diet of leopards (Panthera pardus) from a conservation area and adjacent rangelands in the Baviaanskloof region, South Africa. African Zoology 42(1): 31-37. ISSN: 1562-7020.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, diet, observations, wildlife management, conservation, ingestion, assimilation, scats, ungulates, rodents, birds, felid, mountain buck, vlei rat, bushbuck, rock hyrax, grysbok, conservation area, prey category, South Africa.
Roedel, H.G., W.W.A. Scholze, and A. Paulsch (2004). Notes on the feeding habits of the leopard in the alpine zone of Mount Kenya. Mammalia 68(1): 61-63. ISSN: 0025-1461.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, behavior, feeding habits, digestive system, ingestion, assimilation, alpine zone, diet, feeding habits, prey, scat analysis, alpine zone of Mount Kenya.
Sankar, K. and A.J.T. Johnsingh (2002). Food habits of tiger (Panthera tigris) and leopard (Panthera pardus) in Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India, as shown by scat analysis. Mammalia 66(2): 285-289. ISSN: 0025-1461.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, behavior, food habits, prey selection, scat analysis, microscopy, examination method, body weight, food consumption, fruits, predation, prey biomass, Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India.