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Leopard - General

A.l Johany, A.M.H. (2007). Distribution and conservation of the Arabian Leopard Panthera pardus nimr in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Arid Environments 68(1): 20-30. ISSN: 0140-1963.
NAL Call Number: QH541.5.D4J6
Descriptors: Panthera pardus, wildlife management, population distribution, predation , wildlife habitats, mortality , animal ecology, Saudi Arabia.

Acharjyo L N and Patnaik S K (1985). Observations on some aspects of reproduction among the panthers Panthera-pardus on Nandankanan Biological Park Orissa India. Indian Journal of Forestry 8(1): 8-14. ISSN: 0250-524X.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, reproductive system, reproduction, estrus, sex ratio, matings, observations, age, litter size, receptivity, gestation.

Ahmed A, Jahan M, Braunitzer G, and Goeltenboth R (1988). Carnivora the primary structure of the major and minor hemoglobin components of adult north Persian leopard Panthera pardus sexicolor. Zeitschrift Fuer Naturforschung Section B Chemical Sciences 43(10): 1341-1346. ISSN: 0932-0776.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus sexicolor, primary structure, major and minor hemoglobin components, north Persian leopard, Hb-I, HbII, polypeptide chains, amino acid sequences.

Akhtar, N. and M.L. Narang (1998). Earthworm in the diet of leopard Panthera pardus. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 95(1): 110. ISSN: 0006-6982.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, diet, nutrition, earthworm, food, India.

Archana, D.N. Sharma, R. Rajput, R.S. Kishtwaria, R.L. Bhardwaj, and L.S. Sudhakar (2006). Anatomy of north western himalayan leopard. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 76(8): 616-617. ISSN: 0367-8318.
Descriptors: leopard, north western Himalayan, anatomy, biogeography, population studies.

Babu, N.G.R., A.J. Bragitha, M.M. Babu, C.R. Prasad, and T. Gopal (1993). Incidence of salmonellosis in leopards (Panthera pardus). Indian Veterinary Journal 70(3): 289-290. ISSN: 0019-6479.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, salmonellosis, incidence, infection, veterinary medicine, diagnosis, infection source, mortality.

Balme, G., L. Hunter, and R. Slotow (2007). Feeding habitat selection by hunting leopards Panthera pardus in a woodland savanna: prey catchability versus abundance. Animal Behaviour 74(Part 3): 589-98. ISSN: 0003-3472.
Descriptors: leopards, Panthera pardus, hunting behavior, feeding habit selection, prey catchability, woodland savanna, diet.

Berger, M., P. Schawalder, H. Stich, and A. Lussi (1995). "Neck Lesion" bei Grosskatzen: Untersuchungen beim Leoparden (Panthera pardus). ["Neck lesion" in big cats. Examinations in the leopard (Panthera pardus)]. Kleintierpraxis 40(7): 537-549. ISSN: 0023-2076.
Descriptors: leopards, Panthera pardus, tooth diseases, teeth, veterinary medicine, dental caries, radiography, microscopy, diagnosis, analytical methods, Carnivora, mouth.
Language of Text: German, Summaries in German, English and French.

Bodendorfer, T., B. Hoppe Dominik, F. Fischer, and K.E. Linsenmair (2006). Predation par le leopard (Panthera pardus) et le lion (Panthera leo) dans les parcs nationaux de la comoe et de la marahoue en cote d'lvoire (Afrique de l'ouest) [Prey of the leopard (Panthera pardus) and the lion (Panthera leo) in the Comoe and Marahoue National Parks, cote d'lvoire, West Africa]. Mammalia 70(3-4): 231-246. ISSN: 0025-1461.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, lion, Panthera leo, prey, population studies, scat analysis, applied and field techniques, Comoe and Marahoue National Parks, Ivory Coast, West Africa.
Language of Text: French.

Brown J L, Goodrowe K L, Simmons L G, Armstrong D L, and Wildt D E (1988). Evaluation of the pituitary-gonadal response to gnrh and adrenal status in the leopard Panthera pardus japonensis and tiger Panthera tigris. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 82(1): 227-236. ISSN: 0022-4251.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus japonensis, pituitary gonadal response, GnRH, evaluation, adrenal status, reproductive system, reproduction, sex differences, species differences, gonadotropin releasing hormone, cortisol luteinizing hormone, fsh testosterone.

Brown J L, Wildt D E, Phillips L G, Seidensticker J, Fernando S B U, Miththapala S, and Goodrowe K L (1989). Adrenal-pituitary-gonadal relationships and ejaculate characteristics in captive leopards Panthera pardus kotiya isolated on the island of Sri Lanka. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 85(2): 605-614. ISSN: 0022-4251.
Descriptors: captive leopard, Panthera pardus kotiya, physiology, reproductive system, reproduction, adrenal pituitary gonadal relationships, ejaculate characteristics, captive, wildlife management, conservation, testosterone, FSH, ACTH, luteinizing hormone, gonadotropin releasing hormone, electroejaculation, sperm abnormality, Sri Lanka.

Chambers M R, Santiapillai C, and Ishwaran N (1984). Tourist activity and behavior of the leopard Panthera pardus fusca in the Ruhuna National Park Sri Lanka. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 81(1): 42-48. ISSN: 0006-6982.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus fusca, behavior, tourist activity, wildlife management, conservation, stress, Ruhuna National Park, Sri Lanka.

Chandranaik, B.M., S. Murthy, D. Das, G.S. Mamatha, C. Renukaprasad, and G. Krishnappa (2005). Helminthiasis in leopards (Panthera pardus) at Bannerghatta Biological Park. Zoos Print Journal 20(7): 1934. ISSN: 0971-6378.
Descriptors: leopards, infection, helminthiasis, veterinary medicine, animal care, parasitic disease, drug therapy, prevention, control, complications, gastroenteritis, digestive system disease, symptomss, anorexia nervosa, behavioral and mental disorders, deworming.

Chelomina, G.N., L.N. Spiridonova, M.M. Kozyrenko, E.V. Artyukova, Y.V. Chelomin, and Y.U.N. Zhuravlev (1999). Estimation of genetic polymorphism and subspecies diagnostics in the far-eastern leopard Panthera pardus orientalis by means of rapd-PCR analysis of cellular DNA. Genetika 35(5): 681-687. ISSN: 0016-6758.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus orientalis, genetic polymorphism, estimation, subspecies diagnostics, rapid-PCR analysis, DNA, wild living, captivity, breeding lines, genetic diversity.
Language of Text: Russian.

Clifford, D.H. (1958). Observations on effect of preanesthetic medication with meperidine and promazine on barbiturate anesthesia in an ocelot and a leopard. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 133(9): 459-63. ISSN: 0003-1488.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, ocelot, anesthesia, analgesia, barbiturates, meperidine, pre-anesthetic medication, observations, promazine, effect.

Cunningham, P. and C. Gross (2000). Reproduction and development of the Arabian leopard, Panthera pardus nimr, in captivity. Zoology in the Middle East 20: 9-14. ISSN: 0939-7140.
Descriptors: Arabian leopard, Panthera pardus nimr, wildlife management, conservation, development, reproduction, captive breeding, captivity, cub number, gestation period, inter estrus period, estrus period.

de Haas van Dorsser, F.J., D.I. Green, W.V. Holt, and A.R. Pickard (2007). Ovarian activity in Arabian leopards (Panthera pardus nimr): Sexual behaviour and faecal steroid monitoring during the follicular cycle, mating and pregnancy. Reproduction, Fertility, and Development 19(7): 822-830. ISSN: 1031-3613.
Abstract: The Arabian leopard is a critically endangered subspecies endemic to the Arabian Peninsula. A fundamental understanding of the ovarian activity of the leopard is important to enhance the success with which it breeds in captivity. The objective of the present study was to characterise the endocrinology of the follicular cycle, ovulation and pregnancy in captive females using faecal steroid hormone analyses and observations of sexual behaviour. The follicular cycle of the leopard was shown to last 18-23 days based on the interval between consecutive peaks of faecal oestrogen conjugates, and the occurrence of silent heats was high. Puberty had commenced at 2 years of age, but faecal steroid profiles did not match those of the adult female until 3 years of age. No seasonal change in ovarian steroid excretion was observed, although behavioural oestrus was suppressed in summer. Significant rises in faecal progestagen concentrations were only recorded in mated leopards, indicating that these females were strictly induced ovulators. However, only 60% of these mating periods were ovulatory. Progestagen concentrations during pregnancy were significantly higher than those of the non-pregnant luteal phase. The average duration of the non-pregnant and pregnant luteal phases was 39 and 97 days, respectively. The basic features of the reproductive cycle of the Arabian leopard described here form an important foundation for further study into its reproduction.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus nimr, ovarian activity, sexual behavior, fecal steroid monitoring, follicular cycle, mating, pregnancy.

de Haas van Dorsser, F.J. and J.A. Strick (2005). Semen characteristics and sperm morphology in the Arabian leopard (Panthera pardus nimr) and how these vary with age and season. Reproduction, Fertility, and Development 17(7): 675-82. ISSN: 1031-3613.
Abstract: The Arabian leopard is a critically endangered species. Since there are only an estimated 200 animals remaining in the wild, careful management of the captive population is necessary to minimise inbreeding. The objective of this study was to characterise sperm morphology and ejaculate quality in captive males. Semen was collected by electroejaculation from 8 adult captive male leopards (aged 2-16 years) during the summer and winter months, and semen parameters, including sperm morphology, were assessed. Two-year-old leopards showed lower total sperm counts per ejaculate than older animals and these counts declined at > 8 years. Ejaculates collected during the hot summer showed significantly lower sperm concentrations, total sperm counts, sperm motility and viability and percentage of spermatozoa showing normal morphology than ejaculates collected in the cooler winter. The results showed that the male leopard attains sexual maturity between 2 and 3 years of age and exhibits good semen quality until 8 years. Collection of semen for artificial breeding or banking would best be carried out in the cooler winter months.
Descriptors: Arabian leopard, Panthera pardus nimr, captive mates, semen characteristics, sperm morphology, vary, age, seasonal effects, sperm.

De Simoi, A. (2006). Complications of mandibular brachygnathism in a North African leopard. Journal of Veterinary Dentistry 23(2): 89-95. ISSN: 0898-7564.
Abstract: A 9-year-old, male North African leopard (Panthera pardus) presented with mandibular brachygnathism and lingually displaced mandibular canine teeth causing a large left oronasal fistula, rhinitis and nasal discharge, and a right orocutaneous fistula. Surgical closure of the left oronasal defect, bilateral mandibular canine tooth crown reduction, and root canal therapy resulted in a positive clinical outcome. A small recurrent left oronasal fistula and the right orocutaneous fistula healed spontaneously after alleviating the occlusal contact with the mandibular canine teeth. At 12-months postoperatively, clinical signs of oral and dental disease had resolved.
Descriptors: leopard, Panhtera pardus, mandibular brachygnathism, malocclusion, mandibular canine teeth diseases, oroantral fistula, diagnosis, complications, surgery, complications, treatment successful.

Dong H, Chen S, Zhao Q, Yu H, and Hao Y (1988). The fine structure of the spermatozoa of the Panthera pardus. Acta Zoologica Sinica 34(4): 384. ISSN: 0001-7302.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, spermatazoa, fine structure, morphology, reproductive system, reproduction, oogonia follicle, oocyte lipid, yolk, ovulation.
Language of Text: Chinese.

Edgaonkar, A. and R. Chellam (2002). Food habit of the leopard, Panthera pardus, in the Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Maharashtra, India. Mammalia 66(3): 353-360. ISSN: 0025-1461.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, domestic dog, primates, cervids, pigs, birds, buffaloes, domestic animals, food habit, scat analysis, India.

Gavashelishvili, A. and V. Lukarevskiy (2008). Modelling the habitat requirements of leopard Panthera pardus in west and central Asia. Journal of Applied Ecology 45(2): 579-588. ISSN: 0021-8901.
NAL Call Number: 410 J828
Abstract: 1. Top predators are seen as keystone species of ecosystems. Knowledge of their habitat requirements is important for their conservation and the stability of the wildlife communities that depend on them. The goal of our study was to model the habitat of leopard Panthera pardus in west and central Asia, where it is endangered, and analyse the connectivity between different known populations in the Caucasus to enable more effective conservation management strategies to be implemented. 2. Presence and absence data for the species were evaluated from the Caucasus, Middle East and central Asia. Habitat variables related to climate, terrain, land cover and human disturbance were used to construct a predictive model of leopard habitat selection by employing a geographic information system (GIS) and logistic regression. 3. Our model suggested that leopards in west and central Asia avoid deserts, areas with long-duration snow cover and areas that are near urban development. Our research also provides an algorithm for sample data management, which could be used in modelling habitats for similar species. 4. Synthesis and applications. This model provides a tool to improve search effectiveness for leopard in the Caucasus, Middle East and central Asia as well as for the conservation and management of the species. The model can predict the probable distribution of leopards and the corridors between various known populations. Connectivity patterns can be used to facilitate corridor planning for leopard conservation, especially in the Caucasus, where the leopard is a top priority conservation species. Also, as top predators are often associated with high biodiversity, the leopard habitat model could help to identify biodiversity hotspots. The protection of biodiversity hotspots is seen as the most effective way to conserve biodiversity globally.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, habitat requirements, modelling, ecosystems, conservation management, climate, terrain, land cover, human disturbances, Asia.

Grassman, L.I. (1999). Ecology and behavior of the indochinese leopard in Kaeng Krachan National Park, Thailand. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 47(1): 77-93. ISSN: 0080-9462.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus delacouri, ecology, berhavior, radio collared, feces, scat, badger, barking deer, wild pig, seasonal changes, environmental stress, fire, floods, Thailand.

Hao Yifeng (1993). Morphological observations and functional analysis of semen of leopard (Panthera pardus). Chinese Wildlife (China)(no. 1): 40-42. ISSN: 1000-0127.
Descriptors: leopards, Panthera pardus, semen, morphological observations, functional analysis, carnivora, Felidae, male genital system, urogenital system.
Language of Text: Chinese.

Hart, J.A., M. Katembo, and K. Punga (1996). Diet, prey selection and ecological relations of leopard and golden cat in the Ituri forest, Zaire. African Journal of Ecology 34(4): 364-379. ISSN: 0141-6707.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, diet, prey selection, ecological relations, behavior, nutrition, feeding behavior, Ituri forest, predator.

Hartley, A., F. Goeritz, T. Arzhanova, S. Christie, P. Kertesz, J. Lewis, G. Maksudov, and K. Jewgenow (2000). Semen collection and reproductive health assessment of pure bred amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) within the eep breeding programme. Advances in Ethology(35): 88. ISSN: 0931-4202.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus orientalis, conservation, reproductive system, reproduction, genetic analysis, semen collection, health assessment, DNA technology, genome banking, preservation method, eep breeding program, ssp breeding program, Berlin Tierpark, Moscow zoo, Prague zoo.
Notes: Meeting Information: 3rd International Symposium on Physiology and Ethology of Wild and Zoo Animals, Berlin, Germany; October 04-07, 2000.

Hawkey, C.M. and M.G. Hart (1986). Haematological reference values for adult pumas, lions, tigers, leopards, jaguars and cheetahs. Research in Veterinary Science 41(2): 268-269. ISSN: 0034-5288.
Abstract: Normal haematological values and fibrinogen levels were obtained from a number of healthy adult Felidae in the collection of the Zoological Society of London. The group comprised 29 pumas (Felis concolor), 32 lions (Panthera leo), 27 tigers (P tigris), 19 leopards (P pardus), 18 jaguars (P onca) and 22 cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The values provided a basis for identifying abnormalities in the blood of sick individuals of these species and for undertaking interspecies comparisons.
Descriptors: cheetah, Acinonyx jubata, pumas, Felis concolor, lions, Panthera leo, tigers, Panthera tigris, leopards, Panthera pardus, jaguars, Panthera onca, adult, fibrinogen levels, blood, hematological reference values.

Hayward, M.W., P. Henschel, J. O'brien, M. Hofmeyr, G. Balme, and G.I.H. Kerley (2006). Prey preferences of the leopard (Panthera pardus). Journal of Zoology (London) 270(2): 298-313. ISSN: 0952-8369.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, behavior, prey preferences, impala, bushbuck, common duiker, weight range, open vegetation, body mass.

Hayward, M.W., J. Adendorff, L. Moolman, G.J. Hayward, and G.I.H. Kerley (2007). The successful reintroduction of leopard Panthera pardus to the Addo Elephant National Park. African Journal of Ecology 45(1): 103-104. ISSN: 0141-6707.
NAL Call Number: 409.6 Ea7
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, successful reintroduction, Addo Elephant National Park, conservation, South Africa.

Henschel, P., K.A. Abernethy, and L.J.T. White (2005). Leopard food habits in the Lope National Park, Gabon, central Africa. African Journal of Ecology 43(1): 21-28. ISSN: 0141-6707.
Abstract: To determine leopard Panthera pardus (Linnaeus) food habits in the Lope National Park in Gabon, Central Africa, 196 leopard scats were collected and analysed. Prey items were determined using undigested matter isolated from the scats, and a reference collection of hairs and bones from potential prey species. A minimum of 30 different prey species were identified, 27 of which were mammalian. Leopards preyed mainly on ungulates, which made up 59%, of the biomass consumed. Diurnal primates (18%) and large rodents (17%) were also heavily preyed upon. The mean prey weight estimated from scats was 29.2 kg. The most important single prey species was found to be red river hog Potamochoerus porcus (Linnaeus), making up 20% of the biomass consumed, followed by forest buffalo Syncerus caffer nanus (Boddaert) and cane rat Thryonomys swinderianus (Temminck), each comprising 13% of biomass consumed.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, food habits, scats, prey, ungulates, primates, large rodents, prey weight, red river hog, buffalo, cane rat, Africa, Loops National Park.

Hoppe Dominik B (1984). Prey frequency of the leopard Panthera pardus in the Tai National Park of the Ivory Coast. Mammalia 48(4): 477-488. ISSN: 0025-1461.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, diet, nutrition, prey frequency, monkey, bovid, rodent, feces, scat hair, opportunist, Ivory Coast. Africa.
Language of Text: French.

Jani, R.G., D.R. Patil, and P.R. Patel (2003). A case study of epilepsy in a captive leopard (Panthera pardus). Indian Veterinary Journal 80(5): 464. ISSN: 0019-6479.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, nervous system condition, epilepsy, case study, neural coordination, pharmacology, nervous system disease, seizures, Sayajibaug zoo, India.

Jayakumar S R, Babu M M, Gopal T, and Keshavamurthy B S (1989). Rabies in a wild leopard Felis pardus. Indian Veterinary Journal 66(11): 1076-1077. ISSN: 0019-6479.
Descriptors: wild leopard, rabies, Felis pardus, infection, nervous system, neural coordination, wildlife management, conservation, India.

Jayaprakash, D., S.B. Patil, M.N. Kumar, K.C. Majumdar, and S. Shivaji (2000). Semen characteristics of the captive indian leopard, Panthera pardus. Biology of Reproduction 62(Supplement 1): 147-148. ISSN: 0006-3363.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, semen characteristics, reproductive system, reproduction, computer aided semen analysis, cryopreservation, methods, preservation, captive breeding programs, meeting abstract.
Notes: Thirty-Third Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Madison, Wisconsin, USA; July 15-18, 2000.

Jayaprakash, D., S.B. Patil, M.N. Kumar, K.C. Majumdar, and S. Shivaji (2001). Semen characteristics of the captive Indian leopard, Panthera pardus. Journal of Andrology 22(1): 25-33. ISSN: 0196-3635.
Descriptors: captive leopard, Panthera pardus, semen characteristics, sperm motility, density, spermatazoa, motile, morphological normal, cryopreservation, hamester oocyte, penetrated, breeding programs.

Jenny, D. (1996). Spatial organization of leopards Panthera pardus in Tai National Park, Ivory Coast: is rainforest habitat a 'tropical haven'?. Journal of Zoology (United Kingdom) 240(3): 427-440. ISSN: 0952-8369.
Descriptors: leopards, Panthera pardus, spatial organization, rainforest habitat, Tia National Park, Ivory Coast.

Johnson, K.G., W. Wei, and D.G. Reid (1993). Food habits of Asiatic leopards (Panthera pardus fusea) in Wolong Reserve, Sichuan, China. Journal of Mammalogy 74(3): 646-50. ISSN: 0022-2372.
Abstract: Analysis of feces showed Asiatic leopards (Panthera pardus fusea) to consume a varied diet over a 7-year period. Tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus) was replaced as the most frequent prey by bamboo rats (Rhizomys sinense). Fifteen species of large and medium-sized mammals composed the majority of the diet with pheasants, livestock, grass, and soil being eaten occasionally. Reasons for dietary shifts were unclear and may reflect leopards hunting for any readily captured prey by opportunistic encounter and perhaps by changes in hunting behavior, prey availability, or prey vulnerability associated with a bamboo die-off. Reprinted by permission of the American Society of Mammalogists, 1993.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus fusea, food habits, Asiatic leopards, feces analysis, varied diet, tufted deer, bamboo rats, pheasants, livestock, hunting behavior, prey selection, China.

Kalita, A., M. Sarma, P. Roychoudhury, and G. Baishya (2001). Comparative anatomy of the skull of adult domestic cat and Indian leopard. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 71(11): 1014-1015. ISSN: 0367-8318.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, comparative skull anatomy, adult domestic cat, morphology, gross anatomical comparisons.

Kalita, A., M. Sarma, and K.K. Sarma (2001). Anatomy of the mandible of Indian leopard. Indian Veterinary Journal 78(12): 1138-1140. ISSN: 0019-6479.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, mandible, dental and oral system, ingestion, assimilation, ramus, body, condyles, coronoid process, anatomy.

Kalita, A., M. Sarma, K.K. Sarma, and R.N. Gowsami (2002). Craniometrical study in leopard. Indian Veterinary Journal 79(5): 477-480. ISSN: 0019-6479.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, craniometrical study, skull, cephalic index, length, width, morphology, skeletal system, movement, support, cranial capacity.

Karanth, K.U. and M.E. Sunquist (1995). Prey selection by tiger, leopard and dhole in tropical forests. The Journal of Animal Ecology 64(4): 439-50. ISSN: 0021-8790.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, tiger, Panthera tigris, dhole, Cuon alpinus, prey selection, tropical forest, India.

Karanth, K.U. and M.E. Sunquist (2000). Behavioural correlates of predation by tiger (Panthera tigris), leopard (Panthera pardus) and dhole (Cuon alpinus) in Nagarahole, India. Journal of Zoology 250(2): 255-265. ISSN: 0952-8369.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, tiger, Panthera tigris, dhole, Cuon alpinus, predation, behavioral correlates, predator scats, predators, habitat specificity, prey size, cover, behavioral factors, Nagarahole, India.

Kearns, K.S., M.P. Jones, R.M. Bright, R. Toal, R. Denovo, and S. Orosz (2000). Hiatal hernia and diaphragmatic eventration in a leopard (Panthera pardus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 31(3): 379-382. ISSN: 1042-7260.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, hiatal hernia, ultrasonography, diaphragmatic eventration, intermittent anorexia, emaciation, exporatory laparotomy, surgical repair.

Khorozyan, I.G., A. Cazon, A.G. Malkhasyan, and A.V. Abramov (2007). Using thin-layer chromatography of fecal bile acids to study the leopard (Panthera pardus ciscaucasica) population. Biology Bulletin 34(4): 361-366. ISSN: 1062-3590.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus ciscaucasica, chromatography, fecal bile acids, populations, study, wildlife management, conservation, visual identification, Armenia.

Khorozyan, I. (2003). Habitat preferences by the persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor pocock, 1927) in Armenia. Zoology in the Middle East 30: 25-36. ISSN: 0939-7140.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus saxicolor, habitat preferences, Armenia, human activities, forest, pastures, conservation, livestock grazing, spatial distribution.

Khorozyan, I.G. and A.V. Abrarnov (2007). The leopard, Panthera pardus, (Carnivora : Felidae) and its resilience to human pressure in the Caucasus. Zoology in the Middle East 41: 11-24. ISSN: 0939-7140.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, human pressure, population, resilience, habitats, conservation, Caucasus.

Laman, T.G. and C.D. Knott (1997). An observation of leopard ( Panthera pardus linnaeus) mating behaviour in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology 35(2): 165-167. ISSN: 0141-6707.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus linnaeus, behavior, reproductive system, reproduction, copulation, mating behavior, Serengeti National Park, Tanzania.

Leonard, A., D. Tonkyn, and A. Shoemaker (1996). Measuring the full costs of inbreeding to captive, endangered leopards Panthera pardus. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 77(3 Suppl. Part 2): 260. ISSN: 0012-9623.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, captive, inbreeding, conservation , reproductive system, reproduction, measuring full costs, systematics, taxonomy, wildlife management, conservation, adult mortality, meeting abstract, reintroduction.
Notes: 1996 Annual Combined Meeting of the Ecological Society of America on Ecologists/Biologists as Problem Solvers, Providence, Rhode Island, USA; August 10-14, 1996.

Mallapur, A. and R. Chellam (2002). Environmental influences on stereotypy and the activity budget of Indian leopards (Panthera pardus) in four zoos in southern India. Zoo Biology 21(6): 585-595. ISSN: 0733-3188.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, zoo animals, stereotyped behavior, environmental enrichment, animal behavior, cage size, animal housing, animal technicians, visitors, physical activity, animal feeding, enclosure size, resting, feeding time, India.

Mallapur, A., Q. Qureshi, and R. Chellam (2002). Enclosure design and space utilization by Indian leopards (Panthera pardus) in four zoos in southern India. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science JAAWS 5(2): 111-124. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: leopards, Panthera pardus, zoo animals, cages, animal behavior, abnormal behavior, physical activity, animal welfare, stereotyped behavior, animal use refinement, enrichment, enclosure design, space utilization, India.

Marker, L.L. and A.J. Dickman (2005). Factors affecting leopard (Panthera pardus) spatial ecology, with particular reference to Namibian farmlands. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 35(2): 105-115. ISSN: 0379-4369.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, spatial ecology, wildlife management, terrestrial ecology, conservation, habitat degradation, farmland, home range size, prey biomass, long term viability.

Markowitz, H., C. Aday, and A. Gavazzi (1995). Effectiveness of acoustic "prey": environmental enrichment for a captive African leopard (Panthera pardus). Zoo Biology 14(4): 371-379. ISSN: 0733-3188.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, environmental enrichment, zoos, feeding behavior, acoustic prey, effectiveness, predation, predator prey relationships, behavior, stimulation, behavior patterns, audiovisual aids, California.

Mehta, P. (1997). Leopard (Panthera pardus) attempting to prey on Indian giant squirrel (Ratufa indica centralis). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 94(3): 555-556. ISSN: 0006-6982.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, behavior, predation, Indian giant squirrel, Ratufa indica centralis, diet, food, India.

Meijaard, E. (2004). Biogeographic history of the Javan leopard Panthera pardus Based on a craniometric Analysis. Journal of Mammalogy P.: 302-10. ISSN: 0022-2372.
Descriptors: Javan leopard, Panthera pardus, biogeographic history, Craniometric analysis.

Miththapala, S., J. Seidensticker, and L.G. Phillips (1989). Identification of individual leopards (Panthera pardus kotiya) using spot pattern variation. Journal of Zoology 218(4): 527-36. ISSN: 0952-8369.
Descriptors: leopard, spot pattern variation, visual identification method, individual leopards, Panthera pardus kotiya.

Miththapala, S., J. Seidensticker, and S.J. O'brien (1996). Phylogeographic subspecies recognition in leopards (Panthera pardus): Molecular genetic variation. Conservation Biology 10(4): 1115-1132. ISSN: 0888-8892.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, phylogeographic subspecies recognition, molecular genetic variation, wildlife, endangered species, taxonomy, genetic divergence.

Mizutani, F. and P.A. Jewell (1998). Home-range and movements of leopards (Panthera pardus) on a livestock ranch in Kenya. Journal of Zoology (United Kingdom) 244(2): 269-286. ISSN: 0952-8369.
Descriptors: leopards, Panthera pardus, home range, movements, livestock ranch, Kenya, conservation.

Mohanty, J., L.N. Acharya, and A.K. Mohanty (1985). Obstipation in a Leopard (Panthera pardus). Indian Veterinary Journal (India) 62(10): 899-902. ISSN: 0019-6479.
Abstract: A female leopard suffered from obstipation due to faecal concretion in the region of colon. There was no response to medicinal treatment. Enterotomy was performed after 15 days of obstruction. Satisfactory recovery occurred in 17 days.
Descriptors: leopards, Panthera pardus, obstipation, female, fecal concretion, colon, enterotomy, medicinal treatment, recovery, veterinary care, India.
Language of Text: Summary in English.

Mukherjee, S., S.P. Goyal, and R. Chellam (1994). Standardisation of scat analysis techniques for leopard (Panthera pardus) in Gir National Park, western India. Mammalia 58(1): 139-143. ISSN: 0025-1461.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, digestive system, ingestion, assimilation, scat analysis, nutrition, diet analysis, hair, technique standardization.

Nagata, J., V.V. Aramilev, A. Belozor, T. Sugimoto, and D.R. McCullough (2005). Fecal genetic analysis using PCR RFLP of cytochrome b to identify sympatric carnivores, the tiger Panthera tigris and the leopard Panthera pardus, in far eastern Russia. Conservation Genetics 6(5): 863-866. ISSN: 1566-0621.
NAL Call Number: QH75.A1 C56
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, tiger, Panthera tigris, fecal genetic analysis, PCR RFLP, cytochrome B, sympatric carnivores, mtDNA, Russia.

Nath, I., T.K. Pattanaik, N. Sahoo, V.S.C. Bose, H.K. Mohapatra, and P.K. Roy (2006). A case of histiocytoma in a leopard Panthera pardus. Zoos Print Journal 21(6): 2302. ISSN: (p) 0973-2535 - (E) 0973-2551.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, histiocytoma, pharmacology, tumor biology, respiratory system, respiratory distress, drug therapy, neoplastic disease.

Neiffer, D.L. (2001). Clostridium perfringens enterotoxicosis in two Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 32(1): 134-135. ISSN: 1042-7260.
Abstract: Two 6-yr-old male sibling Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) housed together at the Pittsburgh Zoo presented for acute onset of diarrhea with no changes in appetite or behavior. Heat-fixed modified Wright-stained and Gram-stained fecal smears revealed a mixed bacterial population with a large number of gram-positive Clostridium perfringens-like spores (>20 per high-power oil immersion field). In addition, C. perfringens enterotoxin was isolated from one leopard at 1:256, confirming the presence of C. perfringens enterotoxicosis. Treatment with oral metronidazole, tylosin tartrate, and psyllium fiber was prescribed, with return of more normal stool by the third day of treatment. Fecal consistency steadily improved and was considered normal by the time all prescribed treatments were complete. Diarrhea has not recurred. Partially thawed meat in the leopards' diet may have precipitated the production of an endogenous clostridial enterotoxicosis by disrupting digestive tract flora with resultant clostridial overgrowth and sporulation.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus orientalis, enterotoxicosis, Clostridium perfringens, zoo, diarrhea, fecal smears, treatment.

Ott, T., G.I.H. Kerley, and A.F. Boshoff (2007). Preliminary observations on the diet of leopards (Panthera pardus) from a conservation area and adjacent rangelands in the Baviaanskloof region, South Africa. African Zoology 42(1): 31-37. ISSN: 1562-7020.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, diet, observations, wildlife management, conservation, ingestion, assimilation, scats, ungulates, rodents, birds, felid, mountain buck, vlei rat, bushbuck, rock hyrax, grysbok, conservation area, prey category, South Africa.

Penzhorn, B.L., E. Stylianides, M. Van Vuuren, K.M.D.G.A. Alexander, and N. Mukarati (2002). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging lion and leopard populations in southern Africa. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 32(2): 163-165. ISSN: 0379-4369.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, Toxoplasma gondii, seroprevalence, free ranging, lion, leopard, population studies, parasitology, toxoplasmosis, infectious disease, parasitic disease, antibodies.

Perez, I., E. Geffen, and O. Mokady (2006). Critically endangered Arabian leopards Panthera pardus nimr in Israel: estimating population parameters using molecular scatology. Oryx 40(3): 295-301. ISSN: 0030-6053.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus nimr, population studies, wildlife management, conservation, survey, critically endangered, population parameters, molecular scatology, laboratory techniques, Israel.

Poddar Sarkar, M. and R.L. Brahmachary (2004). Putative chemical signals of leopard. Animal Biology (Leiden) 54(3): 255-259. ISSN: (p) 1570-7555; (E) 1570-7563.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, behavior, putative chemical signals, biochemistry, marking fluid, communication, molecular biophysics, chemical analysis, laboratory techniques, marking behavior, scent marking.

Pythal, C., K.M. Pillai, C.G. Varghese, and T. Surendranathan (1993). Death of a wild Indian leopard Panthera pardus fusca (meyer) due to parasitism with the lung fluke Paragonimus westermanii (Kerbert, 1878) and the hookworm Galoncus perniciosus (Linstow, 1885). Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 24(1): 44-46. ISSN: 0971-0701.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus fusca, parasitism, lung fluke, Paragonimus westermanii, hookworm, Galoncus perniciosus, death, free living, reservoir host.

Rameshkumar B, Ramasamy V, and Gopal M S (1989). Use of ketamine hydrochloride as general anesthetic in combination with triflupromazine hydrochloride in a black panther Panthera pardus. Indian Veterinary Journal 66(7): 667-668. ISSN: 0019-6479.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, general anesthetic drug, tail amputation, drug interactions, ketamine hydrochloride, triflupromazine, combination of drugs.

Ranganath, L., B.N. Ranganath, C.L. Srinivas, R. Nagaraja, and S.M. Jayadevappa (1997). Treatment of fracture of tibia and fibula in a male panther (Panthera pardus). Indian Veterinary Journal 74(9): 783-784. ISSN: 0019-6479.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, fracture, tibia, fibula, fracture treatment, movement support, injury, cerclage wire, Steinman pin, anesthesia, ketamine, xylazine, halothane.

Rao, M.R.K.M., Ch. Choudhary, and S. Ali (1984). Case of sudden death in a panther (Panthera pardus) with choke. Indian Veterinary Journal (India) 61(7): 618. ISSN: 0019-6479.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, sudden death, choke.
Language of Text: Summary in English.

Ray, S., G.K. Dutta, and M. Ray (1997). Anatomy of the mandible of leopard (Panthera pardus). Indian Veterinary Journal 74(9): 765-767. ISSN: 0019-6479.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, skeletal system, mandible, movement, support, teeth, mental foramina, mandibular foramina, coronoid process, mandibular notch.

Ray, S., M. Ray, S.C. Mandal, and G.K. Dutta (1997). Anatomy of the humerus of leopard (Panthera pardus). Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 67(2): 131. ISSN: 0367-8318.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, humerus, anatomy, skeletal system, movement, leg support, gross anatomy.

Ray, S., M. Ray, S.C. Mandal, G.K. Dutta, and K. Das (1996). Anatomical study of the femur (os femoris) of leopard (Panthera pardus). Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 66(2): 147-148. ISSN: 0367-8318.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, femur, os femoris, anatomy, skeletal system, movement, support, caudal surface, cranial surface, length.

Roedel, H.G., W.W.A. Scholze, and A. Paulsch (2004). Notes on the feeding habits of the leopard in the alpine zone of Mount Kenya. Mammalia 68(1): 61-63. ISSN: 0025-1461.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, behavior, feeding habits, digestive system, ingestion, assimilation, alpine zone, diet, feeding habits, prey, scat analysis, alpine zone of Mount Kenya.

Rosen, S., I. Horowitz, Y. Braverman, M.J.R. Hall, and N.P. Wyatt (1998). Dual infestation of a leopard by Wohlfahrtia magnifica and Lipoptena chalcomelaena. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 12(3): 313-314. ISSN: 0269-283X.
NAL Call Number: RA639.M44
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, Lipoptena chalcomelaena, myiasis, new host records, case studies, infestation, Wohlfahrtia magnifica, duel infestation.

Roychoudhury A K and Acharjyo L N (1984). Genetics of coat color in the leopard Panthera pardus. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 22(6): 308-311. ISSN: 0019-5189.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, coat color, genetics, autosomal alleles, pair, black recessive genes, spotted normal coat, genealogical data, analysis.

Sabapara, R.H. (1995). Chemical restraint and sedation of leopards (Panthera pardus). Indian Veterinary Journal 72(6): 655-657. ISSN: 0019-6479.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, chemical restraint, sedation, nervous system, pharmacology , veterinary medicine, wildlife management, conservation, handling technique.

Sabapara, R.H., R.G. Jani, and P.R. Patel (2003). Squamous cell carcinoma of lungs in an Indian leopard Panthera pardus. Zoos' Print Journal 18(3): 1056. ISSN: (p) 0973-2535; (E) 0973-2551.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, squamous cell carcinoma, lungs, respiratory system, respiration, tumor biology, lung neoplasms, neoplastic disease, mortality, symptoms.

Sankar, K. and A.J.T. Johnsingh (2002). Food habits of tiger (Panthera tigris) and leopard (Panthera pardus) in Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India, as shown by scat analysis. Mammalia 66(2): 285-289. ISSN: 0025-1461.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, behavior, food habits, prey selection, scat analysis, microscopy, examination method, body weight, food consumption, fruits, predation, prey biomass, Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India.

Santiapillai, C., M.R.1. Chambers, and N.O. Ishwaran (1982). The leopard (Meyer 1794) in the Ruhuna National Park, Sri Lanka, and observations relevant to its conservation endangered species. Biological Conservation 23(1): 5-14. ISSN: 0006-3207.
NAL Call Number: S900.B5
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus fusca, observations, conservation, endangerd species, Ruhuna National Park, Sri Lanka.

Santiapillai, C. and W.S. Ramono (1992). Status of the leopard (Panthera pardus) in Java, Indonesia. Tigerpaper (FAO) 19(2): 1-5. ISSN: 1014-2789.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, status, conservation, endangerd species, Java, Indonesia.

Sarma, K., M.M.S. Zama, S. Surp, and A. Kalita (2004). Macromorphological study on the kidney of leopard (Panthara pardus). Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 74(11): 1137-1138. ISSN: 0367-8318.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthara pardus, kidney, macromorphological study, urinary system, chemical coordination, homeostasis, India.

Schmidt A M, Hess D L, Schmidt M J, Smith R C, and Lewis C R (1988). Serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone and sexual behavior during the normal estrous cycle in the leopard Panthera pardus. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 82(1): 43-50. ISSN: 0022-4251.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, normal estrous cycle, sexual behavior, estradiol, serum concentrations, progesterone, reproductive behavior.

Shang Jian Ke, Chen Yu Qin, Shang Zhi Feng, Yu Shi Yuan, Han Guo Juan, Jia Zong Ping, Zhang Jing, Zhang Hu Lin, and Xie Ming Ren (2008). Renal histology and microvasculature in the Panthera pardus. Chinese Journal of Zoology 43(1): 155-158. ISSN: 0250-3263.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, renal histology, microvasculature, urinary system, light microscopy, laboratory techniques, imaging and microscopy techniques, scanning electron microscopy, microvascular casting technique.
Language of Text: Chinese.

Shoemaker and A H (1985). 1983 studbook for rare leopards Panthera pardus ssp. Zoo Biology 4(2): 169-196. ISSN: 0733-3188.
Descriptors: rare leopards, Panthera pardus ssp, studbook, reproductive system, reproduction, taxonomy, veterinary medicine, wildlife management, conservation, Panthera pardus saxicolor, Panthera pardus kotiya, Panthera pardus japonensis, Panthera pardus orientalis.

Shrivastav, A.B., A.K. Katiyar, and P.K. Malik (1999). Ascending duodenal invagination in a leopard. Veterinary Record. 144(26): 736. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Descriptors: leopard, ascending duodenal invagination, intussusception, pathology, duodenal pathology, edema.

Shukla, B.B., R. Kumar, A.K. Upadhyay, S.K. Shukla, V.P. Dixit, and M. Kumar (2003). Relationship of age with body weight in orphaned leopard cubs. Zoos' Print Journal 18(3): 1058. ISSN: (p) 0971-6378; online: 0973-2543.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, orphaned newborn cubs, animal care, nutrition, age body weight relationship, diet, feeding frequency.

Siegal Willott, J.L., T. Henrikson, J.W. Carpenter, and G.A. Andrews (2005). Chronic obstipation in a leopard (Panthera pardus) caused by intrapelvic uterine leiomyoma compression of the distal colon. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 36(3): 534-537. ISSN: 1042-7260.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, chronic obstipation, intrapelvic uterine leiomyoma, compression, distal colon, constipation, imaging modalities, diagnostic.

Sims, C. (2001). Morphological distinctions in skulls of five felids (Puma concolor, Panthera onca, Panthera pardus, Uncia uncia, and Acinonyx jubatus). Journal of Morphology 248(3): 285. ISSN: 0362-2525.
Descriptors: cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, skull, morphological distinctions, skeletal system, cougar, jaguar, leopard, snow leopard, species comparison study.
Notes: Sixth International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Jena, Germany; July 21-26, 2001.

Singh, B., P.N. Dhingra, N. Singh, and M. Chandra (1983). Infectious feline enteritis in panther cubs (Panthera pardus). Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 53(8): 921-924. ISSN: 0367-8318.
Descriptors: leopards, Panthera pardus, cubs, infectious feline enteritis, India.

Singh, H.S. (2005). Status of leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) in India. Indian Forester 131(10): 1353-1362. ISSN: 0019-4816.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus fusca, population studies, wildlife management, conservation, habitat fragmentation, species extinction, India.

Singh, L.A.K. and D. Swain (2005). The implications of increase in leopard numbers. Indian Forester 131(10): 1383-1385. ISSN: 0019-4816.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, population studies, terrestrial ecology, environmental sciences, wildlife management, conservation, India.

Somvanshi, R., G.L. Koul, and J.C. Biswas (1987). Sarcocystis in a leopard (Panthera pardus). Indian Veterinary Medical Journal 11(3): 174-175. ISSN: 0250-5266.
NAL Call Number: SF601.I45
Descriptors: leopards, sarcocystis, myocardium, postmortem-examinations, India.

Sugimoto, T., J. Nagata, V.V. Aramilev, A. Belozor, S. Higashi, and D.R. Mccullough (2006). Species and sex identification from faecal samples of sympatric carnivores, Amur leopard and Siberian tiger, in the Russian far east. Conservation Genetics 7(5): 799-802. ISSN: 1566-0621.
Descriptors: leopard, carnivors, amur leopard, Siberian tiger, Panthera, molecular genetics, fecal samples, species identification, sex identification, Russian far east.

Tehsin, R.H. (1996). Panther, Panthera pardus (Linnaeus) with guinea worm infection. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 93(1): 79-80. ISSN: 0006-6982.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, guina worm infection, parasitology, physiology, note .

Tripathy S B and Acharjyo L N (1985). Parotitis in captive Panthera pardus and Panthera leo persica. Indian Journal of Veterinary Medicine 5(1): 59. ISSN: 0970-051X.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, lion, Panthera leo persica, captive, parotid glands, parotitis, dental system, oral system, ingestion, infection, pathology, pharmacology, veterinary medicine, tetracycline, pheniramine maleate, vitamin c, anti-infective drug.

Tripathy, S.B., L.N. Acharjyo, A.T. Rao, and B.C. Nayak (1980). Hemorrhagic cystitis in a captive black panther [Panthera pardus] India/ Short communication. Indian Veterinary Journal 57(3): 252-253. ISSN: 0019-6479.
Descriptors: leopards, Panthera pardus, black panther, captive, hemorrhagic cyctitis, India.

Uphyrkina, O., D. Miquelle, and H. Quigley (2002). Conservation genetics of the Far Eastern leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis). The Journal of Heredity 93(5): 303-11. ISSN: 0022-1503.
Abstract: The Far Eastern or Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) survives today as a tiny relict population of 25-40 individuals in the Russian Far East. The population descends from a 19th-century northeastern Asian subspecies whose range extended over southeastern Russia, the Korean peninsula, and northeastern China. A molecular genetic survey of nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation validates subspecies distinctiveness but also reveals a markedly reduced level of genetic variation. The amount of genetic diversity measured is the lowest among leopard subspecies and is comparable to the genetically depleted Florida panther and Asiatic lion populations. When considered in the context of nonphysiological perils that threaten small populations (e.g., chance mortality, poaching, climatic extremes, and infectious disease), the genetic and demographic data indicate a critically diminished wild population under severe threat of extinction. An established captive population of P. p. orientalis displays much higher diversity than the wild population sample, but nearly all captive individuals are derived from a history of genetic admixture with the adjacent Chinese subspecies, P. p. japonensis. The conservation management implications of potential restoration/augmentation of the wild population with immigrants from the captive population are discussed. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus orientalis, conservation genetics, Amur leopard, genetic survey, mitochondral DNA, consevation management.

Uphyrkina, O., W.E. Johnson, H. Quigley, D. Miquelle, L. Marker, M. Bush, and S.J. O'brien (2001). Phylogenetics, genome diversity and origin of modern leopard, Panthera pardus. Molecular Ecology 10(11): 2617-2633. ISSN: 0962-1083.
Descriptors: origins of the modern leopard, Panthera pardus, phylogenetics, genome diversity, origin, evolution, adaptation, population genetics, population studies, systematics, taxonomy.

Uphyrkina, O. and S.J. O'brien (2003). Applying molecular genetic tools to the conservation and action plan for the critically endangered far eastern leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis). Comptes Rendus Biologies 326(Supplement 1): S93-S97. ISSN: 1631-0691.
Descriptors: Amur leopard, Panthera pardus orientalis, endangered, conservation, applying molecular genetic tools, genetic analysis, management, far eastern leopard.

Zhang Zhihe, Lu Wenqi, Wang Xingliang, Wang Chengdong, Hou Rong, Song Yunfang, and He Guangxin (1999). The captive breeding of Chinese leopard (Panthera pardus). Acta Theriologica Sinica 19(3): 233-236. ISSN: 1000-1050.
Descriptors: leopard, Panthera pardus, captive breeding, behavior, wildlife management, conservation, reproduction, conservation, estrus, gestation, litter size, mating.
Language of Text: Chinese.



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