National Agricultural Library
Animal Welfare Information Center
HomeAbout AWICPublicationsWorkshopsServicesNews and EventsHelpContact Us
Search AWIC
Search all of the United States Department of Agriculture
Advanced search
Browse by Subject
Research Animals
Farm Animals
Zoo, Circus and Marine Animals
Companion Animals
Government and Professional Resources
Literature Searching and Databases
Pain and Distress
Humane Endpoints and Euthanasia
You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Information Resources on Big Cats   / Lions - General  Printer Friendly Page
Information Resources on Big Cats
<< Table of Contents << Previous |  Next >>



Lions - General

Abuzaid, S.M., M.R. Gad, and Y.R. Wally (1994). Renal venous system of the lion (Panthera leo) a gross anatomical description. Veterinary Medical Journal, Cairo Univ. 41(1): 131-135. ISSN: None.
NAL Call Number: 41.9 C125
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, renal venous system, gross anatomical description, kidneys, venous anatomy.
Language of Text: Summary in English.

Abuzeid, S.M., S.M.M. El Nahla, A.K. Osman, and A.M. Erasha (1991). Some gross anatomical studies on the morphology and arterial segmentation of the spleen of the lion (Panthera leo) in Giza zoological garden [Egypt]. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal 22(43): 8-12. ISSN: 1012-5973.
NAL Call Number: SF604 A77
Abstract: The present work was conducted on five lion spleens collected from Giza zoological Garden. The morphology of the spleen was thoroughly investigated with special references to its parameters. The study of the intrasplenic distribution of arterial system in the spleen of lion as well as the corrosion cast revealed the presence of two splenic segments, proximal and distal.
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, spleen, gross anatomical studies, morphology, arterial segmentation, arterial system, corrosion cast, spleenic segments.
Language of Text: Summaries in Arabic and English.

Battisti, A., G. Panfili, G.d. Guardo, and M. Principato (1997). Gasterophilus pecorum larvae in an aged lion. Veterinary Record (United Kingdom) 140(25): 664. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, case studies, Gasterophilus pecorum, Felidae, zoo animals, pathogenesis, parasites, myiasis, Carnivora, Diptera, Insecta, parasitoses, ectoparasites, Italy, Europe GB.
Notes: Correspondence.

Bengis, R.G. (2000). Chemical capture of free-ranging lions (Panthera leo). Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference 14(14): 1029-1031. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: SF605.N672
Descriptors: capture of animals, anesthesia, immobilization, darting, sedation, chemical capture.
Notes: Meeting held on January 15-19, 2000, Orlando, Florida.

Boag, B. and J.A. Mlotkiewicz (1994). Effect of odor derived from lion faeces on behavior of wild rabbits. Journal of Chemical Ecology 20(3): 631-637. ISSN: 0098-0331.
NAL Call Number: QD415.A1J6
Abstract: A synthetic repellent derived from lion feces was tested in both pen and field bioassay trials. The chemical suppressed the feeding of rabbits on carrots for approximately one month. The application of the chemical to rabbit burrows under field conditions showed that it decreased rabbit numbers in the treated warrens and that this effect could still be detected after five months. It is suggested that this chemical could be a timely environmentally acceptable addition to the armamentarium of control measures required to reduce the recent increase in rabbit numbers occurring in Britain.
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, rabbits, vertebrate pests, pest control, feces, predators, odors, field tests, lions, rodent repellents, Britian.

Brennan, G., M.D. Podell, R. Wack, S. Kraft, J.L. Troyer, H. Bielefeldt Ohmann, and S. VandeWoude (2006). Neurologic disease in captive lions (Panthera leo) with low titer lion lentivirus infection. Journal of Clinical Microbiology J.C.M 44(12): 4345-4352. ISSN: 0095-1137.
NAL Call Number: QR46 .J6
Abstract: Lion lentivirus (LLV; also known as feline immunodeficiency virus of lion, Panthera leo [FIVPle]) is present in free-ranging and captive lion populations at a seroprevalence of up to 100%; however, clinical signs are rarely reported. LLV displays up to 25% interclade sequence diversity, suggesting that it has been in the lion population for some time and may be significantly host adapted. Three captive lions diagnosed with LLV infection displayed lymphocyte subset alterations and progressive behavioral, locomotor, and neuroanatomic abnormalities. No evidence of infection with other potential neuropathogens was found. Antemortem electrodiagnostics and radiologic imaging indicated a diagnosis consistent with lentiviral neuropathy. PCR was used to determine a partial lentiviral genomic sequence and to quantify the proviral burden in eight postmortem tissue specimens. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the virus was consistent with the LLV detected in other captive and free-ranging lions. Despite progressive neurologic signs, the proviral load in tissues, including several regions of the brain, was low; furthermore, gross and histopathologic changes in the brain were minimal. These findings suggest that the symptoms in these animals resulted from nonspecific encephalopathy, similar to human immunodeficiency virus, FIV, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) neuropathies, rather than a direct effect of active viral replication. The association of neuropathy and lymphocyte subset alterations with chronic LLV infection suggests that long-term LLV infection can have detrimental effects for the host, including death. This is similar to reports of aged sootey mangabeys dying from diseases typically associated with end-stage SIV infection and indicates areas for further research of lentiviral infections of seemingly adapted natural hosts, including mechanisms of host control and viral adaptation.
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, captive, neurologic diseases, low titer, lentivirus infection, feline immunodeficiency virus, free ranging, seroprevalence.

Briggs, M.B. (1996). Veterinary considerations of caring for the lion. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Annual Conference Proceedings: 60-66.
NAL Call Number: QL76.5.U6A472
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, zoo animals, animal health, animal diseases, veterinary medicine, caring, health.
Notes: Paper presented at the American Zoo and Aquarium Association Annual Conference, September 17-21, 1996, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Bull, M.E., D.G. Gebhard, W.A.F. Tompkins, and S. Kennedy Stoskopf (2002). Polymorphic expression in the CD8alpha chain surface receptor of African lions (Panthera leo). Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 84(3-4): 181-189. ISSN: 0165-2427.
NAL Call Number: SF757.2.V38
Abstract: Free-ranging African lion (Panthera leo) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were examined using flow cytometry and antibodies developed for use in the domestic cat to determine if phenotypic changes occurred in lion lymphocytes as a result of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection. The percentage of CD8 cells from lion peripheral blood was considerably lower than in the domestic cat. Lions with elevated levels of CD8+ cells were typically infected with FIV, similar to observations in the domestic cat. Antibodies against the alpha chain of the CD8 receptor (monoclonal antibody (mAb) 3.357) did not react consistently in all lions examined. Flow cytometric analysis determined that approximately 82 and 80% of the animals from Kruger and Hluhluwe-Umfolozi National Parks in South Africa reacted with the monoclonal antibody against the a chain of CD8 receptor, while only 17% of the lions in Etosha National Park in Namibia cross-reacted with the CD8alpha chain. There was no apparent correlation between FIV status and CD8alpha chain reactivity. The relative isolation of Etosha from the other two parks could explain the marked difference in CD8alpha chain expression and suggests that lions similar to other mammalian species demonstrate polymorphic expression of the CD8alpha chain (197).
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, antigens, receptors, gene expression, monocytes, antibodies, lymphocytes, feline immunodeficiency virus, infections.

Bull, M.E., S. Kennedy Stoskopf, J.F. Levine, M. Loomis, D.G. Gebhard, and W.A.F. Tompkins (2003). Evaluation of T lymphocytes in captive African lions (Panthera leo) infected with feline immunodeficiency virus. American Journal of Veterinary Research 64(10): 1293-1300. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, zoo animals, CD4 positive T lymphocytes, feline immunodeficiency virus, feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, host pathogen relationships, lymphocyte count, flow cytometry, CD8 positive T lymphocytes, wasting syndrome, symptoms.

Bwangamoi, O., D. Rottcher, and C. Wekesa (1990). Rabies, microbesnoitosis and sarcocystosis in a lion. [Correspondence]. Veterinary Record (United Kingdom) 127(16): 411. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, sarcocystosis, microbesnoitosis, protozoal infections, rabies, parasitoses, protozoa, viral diseases, zoonoses, Kenya, Africa.

de Barros, J.B.G., T.A.R. de Paula, S.L.P. daMatta, C.C. Fonseca, F.L.G. Leite, J.L. Rossi, P.C. de Oliveira, and E.P. daCosta (2007). Sertoli cell index and spermatic reserves in adult captive African lions (Panthera leo, Linnaeus, 1758). Animal Reproduction Science 102(3-4): 350-356. ISSN: 0378-4320.
NAL Call Number: QP251.A5
Descriptors: lions, Panthera leo, Sertoli cells, spermatozoa, adult animals, captive animals, males, spermatogenesis, testes, animal reproduction.

de la Fe, C., J.M. Rodraiguez, G.A. Ramairez, J. Hervaas, J. Gil, and J.B. Poveda (2006). Sudden Death Associated with Clostridium sordellii in Captive Lions (Panthera leo). Veterinary Pathology 43(3): 370-374. ISSN: 0300-9858.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P27
Abstract: In the spring of 2003, a series of sudden deaths in a group of adult lions (Panthera leo) with a previous history of depression, inanition, and lethargy, was investigated. Five animals died within 24 to 36 hours after onset of signs of disease. Serologic screening for viral disease detection was negative, evidence of parasites was not detected, and results of a complete blood count and serum biochemical analysis were within reference intervals in all lions. The most relevant lesions observed were multiple areas of necrosis and hemorrhage in the intestinal outer muscular layer, and cellulitis with an intense bloody edema in the mesenteric and the pericardial fat tissue. On the basis of the fulminant course of the disease, the gross and histologic findings, and the isolation and identification of Clostridium sordellii, a diagnosis of infectious myositis and cellulitis associated with acute clostridiosis was made. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of sudden death associated with C. sordellii in felines.
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, zoo animals, disease outbreaks, acute course, Clostridium sordellii, cellulitis, myositis, bacterial enteritis, sudden death.

Diniz, L.S.M., M.P. Holzchuh, V. Barnabe, C.A. Oliveira, and E.O. Costa (1996). Controle da reproducao de leoas (Panthera leo) em cativeiro: implante de contraceptivos de longa duracao. [Control of reproduction of captive lionesses (Panthera leo): long-term implanted contraceptive]. Hora Veterinaria (Brazil) 16(94): 60-64. ISSN: 0101-9163.
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, females, captivity, contraceptives, control of reproduction, oestrous cycle, oestrus synchronization, biological rhythms, reproduction, control of reproduction, long term inplanted contraceptive.
Language of Text: Portuguese, Summaries in English and Spanish.

Diop, P.E.H. (1986). Note clinique a propos d' une caudectomie d' un lion. [Clinical note about caudectomy on lion]. Revue De Medecine Veterinaire 137(12): 831-833. ISSN: 0035-1555.
Descriptors: lions, Panthera leo, caudectomy, surgical operations, tail, lesions, anatomy, body regions, injurious factors, vertebrates.
Language of Text: French, Summaries in French, English, German and Spanish).

Dorso, L., E. Risi, S. Triau, S. Labrut, F. Nguyen, L. Guigand, M. Wyers, and J. Abadie (2008). High grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the mandibular salivary gland in a lion (Panthera leo). Veterinary Pathology 45(1): 104-108. ISSN: 0300-9858.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P27
Abstract: A 13-year-old neutered male lion was presented with a primary neoplasm arising from the left mandibular salivary gland associated with metastases to regional lymph nodes, thoracic viscera (lungs, heart, esophagus, and diaphragm), and kidney. Histologic and immunohistochemical investigations led to a diagnosis of a high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the mandibular salivary gland. In this case report, we point out the importance of the immunohistochemical characterization for differential diagnosis between various types of carcinomas of the salivary gland.
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, mandibular salivary gland, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, high grade, metastases, regional lymph modes, thoracid viscera, kidney, case report.

Epstein, A., R. White, I.H. Horowtiz, P.H. Kass, and R. Ofri (2002). Effects of propofol as an anaesthetic agent in adult lions (Panthera leo): a comparison with two established protocols. Research in Veterinary Science 72(2): 137-140. ISSN: 0034-5288.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R312
Abstract: The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of a ketamine/propofol anaesthetic protocol in lions (Panthera leo), and to compare it to two commonly used anaesthetic protocols. Seventeen adult lions were anaesthetised using three different protocols. Group XK (n=6) was anaesthetised with intramuscular (i.m.) injections of xylazine and ketamine. Group KD (n=5) was anaesthetised with an i.m. injection of ketamine, followed by an intravenous (i.v.) injection of ketamine and diazepam. Group KP (n=6) was anaesthetised with an i.m. injection of ketamine followed by an i.v. injection of propofol. There was a significant difference in heart rate (P < 0.0002), which was lowest in group XK and highest in KD. Jaw tone was significantly lower in Group XK (P < 0.05). No undesirable effects were noted following injection of the propofol. Propofol was a suitable and safe drug for maintenance of anaesthesia in adult lions.
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, ketamine, intramuscular injection, intravenous injection, xylazine, diazepam, heart rate, jaws, adverse effects, human health and safety, respiration rate, propofol, jaw tone.

Fahlman, A., A. Loveridge, C. Wenham, C. Foggin, J.M. Arnemo, and G. Nyman (2005). Reversible anaesthesia of free-ranging lions (Panthera leo) in Zimbabwe. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 76(4): 187-192. ISSN: 0038-2809.
Descriptors: lions, Panthera leo, free ranging, anaesthesia, reversable, Carnivora, Felidae, Zimbabwe Africa.

Frackowiak, H. (1989). Das Rete mirabile der Arteria maxillaris des Loewen (Panthera leo, L. 1758). [The rete mirabile of the maxillary artery of the lion (Panthera leo, L. 1758)]. Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Series C 18(4): 342-348. ISSN: 0340-2096.
Descriptors: lions, Panthera leo, blood vessels, maxillary artery, anatomy, rete mirabile, body parts, body regions, cardiovascular system.
Language of Text: German, Summaries in German, English, Spanish and French.

George, P.O., J.V. Cheeran, A.M. Jalaluddin, K. Rajankutty, and C.A. Varkey (1986). Treatment of wounds on the forelimb of a lion (Panthera leo) under general anaesthesia. Indian Veterinary Journal (India) 63(11): 952-953. ISSN: 0019-6479.
Descriptors: lions, Panthera leo, wounds, forelimb, treatment, therapy, anaesthesia, anatomy, body regions, veterinary care, India.

Hartley, M.P., R.M. Kirberger, M. Haagenson, and L. Sweers (2005). Diagnosis of suspected hypovitaminosis A using magnetic resonance imaging in African lions (Panthera leo). Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 76(3): 132-137. ISSN: 0038-2809.
Descriptors: lions, Panthera leo, suspected hypovitaminosis A, vitamin deficiencies, retinol, diagnosis, magnetic resonance imaging, south Africa, nutrient deficiencies.

Hashizaki, F., N. Kohno, E. Narushima, K. Tashiro, M. Inoue, T. Komine, K. Yamakawa, A. Takagi, and M. Saitoh (1981). Contraception of vasectomy procedure for male lions, Panthera leo, at Tama Zoological Park [Japan]. Journal of Japanese Association of Zoological Gardens and Aquariums 22(4): 100-103. ISSN: 0386-7498.
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, contraception, vasectomy procedure, male, Tama Zoological Park, Japan.
Language of Text: Japanese, Summary in English.

Hawkey, C.M. and M.G. Hart (1986). Haematological reference values for adult pumas, lions, tigers, leopards, jaguars and cheetahs. Research in Veterinary Science 41(2): 268-269. ISSN: 0034-5288.
Abstract: Normal haematological values and fibrinogen levels were obtained from a number of healthy adult Felidae in the collection of the Zoological Society of London. The group comprised 29 pumas (Felis concolor), 32 lions (Panthera leo), 27 tigers (P tigris), 19 leopards (P pardus), 18 jaguars (P onca) and 22 cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The values provided a basis for identifying abnormalities in the blood of sick individuals of these species and for undertaking interspecies comparisons.
Descriptors: cheetah, Acinonyx jubata, pumas, Felis concolor, lions, Panthera leo, tigers, Panthera tigris, leopards, Panthera pardus, jaguars, Panthera onca, adult, fibrinogen levels, blood, hematological reference values.

Hayward, M.W. and G.J. Hayward (2007). Activity patterns of reintroduced lion Panthera leo and spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta in the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. African Journal of Ecology 45(2): 135-141. ISSN: 0141-6707.
NAL Call Number: 409.6 Ea7
Abstract: Africa's large predator guild competes for a limited food resource base. To minimize the degree of competition, we hypothesized that the two largest members of this guild and its fiercest competitors, the lion and the spotted hyaena, would partition their activity patterns to avoid interacting. We used 96-h continuous follows of focal animal(s) to determine when the six radio-collared lions and eight radio-collared spotted hyaenas, reintroduced into Addo Elephant National Park in 2003/2004, were active using a binomial measure of activity which was defined as movements >100 m during each hourly period. Contrary to our predictions, lions and hyaenas did not partition their activity times, probably because of their current low population densities. Both species exhibited a crepuscular activity pattern although hyaenas were far less active during daylight. A sub-adult lioness minimized competitive interactions by becoming diurnal. This is likely to be a common strategy for lions that have been expelled from their natal pride to become nomadic, as it allows them to minimize kleptoparasitic and agonistic interactions from competitively dominant conspecifics and competitors. The increase in testosterone that occurs in males upon reaching sexual maturity, darkens their pelage and causes them to be more directly impacted by the heat, and thereby affords females an opportunity to escape from males during hot temperatures. Similarly, the longer pelage of young hyaenas restricts their activity to the cooler night-time.
Descriptors: lions, Panthera leo, behavior, Carnivora, interspecific competition, intraspecific competition, competition avoidance, crepuscular, nocturnal, nomadism, temperature inhibition, spotted hyaena, Crocuta crocuta.

Hcottner, M., M. Nakao, T. Wassermann, L. Siefert, J.D.F. Boomker, A. Dinkel, Y. Sako, U. Mackenstedt, T. Romig, and A. Ito (2008). Genetic characterization and phylogenetic position of Echinococcus felidis (Cestoda: Taeniidae) from the African lion. International Journal for Parasitology 38(7): 861-868. ISSN: 0020-7519.
NAL Call Number: QH547.I55
Abstract: Echinococcus felidis had been described in 1937 from African lions, but was later included in Echinococcus granulosus as a subspecies or a strain. In the absence of any genetic characterization, most previous records of this taxon from a variety of large African mammals remained unconfirmed due to the lack of diagnostic criteria and the possible confusion with the sympatric E. granulosus sensu stricto, Echinococcus ortleppi and Echinococcus canadensis. In this study, we obtained taeniid eggs from lion feces in Uganda and amplified DNA from individual eggs. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences showed similarities with those of other Echinococcus spp., but high values of percentage divergence of mitochondrial genes indicated the presence of a distinct species. In a second step, we compared this material with the preserved specimens of adult E. granulosus felidis, which had been identified morphologically approximately 40years ago in South Africa. All DNA fragments (<200bp) that could be amplified from the adults showed 100% similarity with the Ugandan material. In the phylogenetic tree of Echinococcus which was constructed from the mitochondrial genes, E. felidis is positioned as a sister taxon of E. granulosus sensu stricto. The data obtained will facilitate the development of diagnostic tools necessary to study the epidemiology of this enigmatic parasite.
Descriptors: African lion, Pantherea leo, parasites, Cestoda, Echinococcus felidis, eggs, DNA, epidemiology.

Herz, V. and R.M. Kirberger (2004). Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in a white lion cub (Panthera leo), with concomitant radiographic double corticle line. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 75(1): 49-53. ISSN: 0038-2809.
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism, white lion cub, radiographic double corticle line, concomitant, nutrition, diagnosis.

Kiffner, C., M. Waltert, B. Meyer, and M. Mcohlenberg (2008). Response of lions (Panthera leo Linnaeus 1758) and spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta Erxleben 1777) to sound playbacks. African Journal of Ecology 46(2): 223-226. ISSN: 0141-6707.
NAL Call Number: 409.6 Ea7
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, spotted hyaenas, Crocuta crocuta, sound playbacks, response, behavior.

Kirberger, R.M., D.F. Keet, and W.M. Wagner (2006). Radiologic abnormalities of the appendicular skeleton of the lion (Panthera Leo): Incidental findings and Mycobacterium bovis-induced changes. Veterinary Radiologyand Ultrasound the Official Journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association 47(2): 145-152. ISSN: 1058-8183.
NAL Call Number: SF757.8.A4
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, musculoskeletal system, limb bones, bone fractures, mycobacterial diseases, Mycobacterium bovis, tuberculosis, animal injuries, joint diseases, lesions, diagnostic techniques, radiography, animal age.

Lewis, J.C.M. (1991). Malattia di Osgood-Schlatter in un leone africano. [The Osgood-Schlatter disease in an African lion]. Selezione Veterinaria (Italy) 32(5): 943-944. ISSN: 0037-1521.
Descriptors: lions, Panthera leo, Osgood Schlatter disease, African lion, movement disorders, fractures, diagnosis, food enrichment, healing, veterinary care, food, functional disorders, lesions.
Language of Text: Italian.

Lewis, J.C.M. (1989). Osgood Schlatter disease in an African lion in the Middle East. British Veterinary Journal (UK) 145(5): 494-495. ISSN: 0007-1935.
Descriptors: lions, Panthera leo, osgood schlatter disease, radiography, anaesthesia, nutritional disorders, fractures, bone diseases, metabolic disorders, Middle East.

Maj, A., G.M. Spellman, and S.K. Sarver (2008). The Complete CDS of the Prion Protein (PRNP) Gene of African Lion (Panthera leo). Virus Genes 36(2): 433-434. ISSN: 0920-8569.
NAL Call Number: QH434 .V57
Abstract: We provide the complete PRNP CDS sequence for the African lion, which is different from the previously published sequence and more similar to other carnivore sequences. The newly obtained prion protein sequence differs from the domestic cat sequence at three amino acid positions and contains only four octapeptide repeats. We recommend that this sequence be used as the reference sequence for future studies of the PRNP gene for this species.
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, prion protein, PRNP, complete CDS, gene, sequence, amino acid positions, reference sequence.

Maratea, K., S.B. Hooser, and J.A. Ramos Vara (2006). Degenerative myelopathy and vitamin A deficiency in a young black-maned lion (Panthera leo). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 18(6): 608-611. ISSN: 1040-6387.
NAL Call Number: SF774.J68
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, females, zoo animals, vitamin A, nutrient deficiencies, deficiency diseases, nervous system diseases, spinal cord, disease diagnosis, myelin sheath, cell nucleus, pathogenesis , cerebrospinal fluid, degenerative myelopathy.

Muller Graf, C.D.M., M.E.J. Woolhouse, and C. Packer (1999). Epidemiology of an intestinal parasite (Spirometra spp.) in two populations of African lions (Panthera leo). Parasitology (United Kingdom) 118(4): 407-415. ISSN: 0301-1820.
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, intestinal parasite, epidemiology, diphyllobothriidae, Spirometa spp., ova, helminths, feces, cestoda, platyhelminthes, wildlife.

Munao Diniz, L.S., H.E. Belluomini, L.P. Travassos Filho, and M.B. da Rocha (1987). Presence of the ear mite Otobius megnini in the external ear canal of lions (Panthera leo). Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine 18(4): 154-155. ISSN: 0093-4526.
NAL Call Number: SF601.J6
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, ears, Acari, ear mites, larvae, Otobius megnini, disease vectors, Brazil.

Munson, L., J.L. Brown, M. Bush, C. Packer, D. Janssen, S.M. Reiziss, and D.E. Wildt (1996). Genetic diversity affects testicular morphology in free-ranging lions (Panthera leo) of the Serengeti Plains and Ngorongoro Crater. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility (United Kingdom) 108(1): 11-15. ISSN: 0022-4251.
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, free ranging, genetic diversity, affects, testicular mophology, Serengeti Plains, Nngorongoro Crater.

Murali Manohar, B., A.V. Korandi, S. Vairamuthu, M.G. Jayathangaraj, and R. Vijayakumar (2003). Cutaneous capillary haemangioma in a lion. Indian Veteinary Journal (India). 80(8): 826-827. ISSN: 0019-6479.
Abstract: The Reports on cutaneous neoplasms in the captive wild mammals are very sparse. A case of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma was reported. Considering rarity of occurance and paucity of information on skin tumours in wild mammals, a case of cutaneous capillary haemangioma in a lion is recorded.
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, hemangioma, cutaneous capillary, neoplasms, captive, squamous cell carcinoma, tumors, case report, India.

Natoli, E. (1990). Mating strategies in cats: a comparison of the role and importance of infanticide in domestic cats, Felis catus L., and lions, Panthera leo L. Animal Behaviour 40(1): 183-186. ISSN: 0003-3472.
NAL Call Number: 410 B77
Descriptors: lions, Panthera leo, domestic cats, Felis catus, mating behavior, infant mortality, reproduction , infanticide, species comparison.

Ocholi, R.A., J.O. Kalejaiye, and P.A. Okewole (1989). Acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in two captive lions (Panthera leo) in Nigeria. Veterinary Record (UK) 124(19): 515-516. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, acute disseminated toxoplasmosis, toxoplasma, captive, disease symptoms, diarrhea, postmortem examination, coccidia, diagnosis, digestive disorders, diseases, parasitoses, protozoa, protozoal infections, sporozoa, symptoms, Toxoplasma gondii, Nigeria Africa.

Ofri, R., I.H. Horowitz, S. Jacobson, and P.H. Kass (1997). Tear production in lions (Panthera leo): the effect of two anesthetic protocols. Veterinary and Comparative Ophthalmology 7(3): 173-175. ISSN: 1076-4607.
NAL Call Number: SF891.P78
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, tears, anesthesia, xylazine, atropine, ketamine, diazepam, tear production.

Ofri, R., L.S. Shore, P.H. Kass, and I.H. Horowitz (1999). The effect of elevated progesterone levels on intraocular pressure in lions (Panthera leo). Research in Veterinary Science 67(2): 121-123. ISSN: 0034-5288.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R312
Abstract: Recently, we reported that intraocular pressure (IOP) in juvenile male lions (Panthera leo) is significantly higher than in juvenile lionesses. Whilst we could not ascertain the basis for this gender-related difference, we suspected that they were the result of fluctuations in levels of sex hormones. Because 19 of the 22 lions described in our previous report had to be re-anaesthetized, we repeated tonometry in these animals, to try and correlate between IOP and the levels of progesterone, oestrogen and/or testosterone. Based on elevated (>5 ng ml-1) levels of progesterone, lionesses were divided into a luteal (n=8) and a non-luteal (n=13) group. In the luteal group, mean IOP was 27.07 +/- 2.15 mm Hg, significantly (P=0.001) higher than in the non-luteal group (21.61 +/- 2.70 mm Hg). Oestrogen, testosterone, anesthesia and age had no significant effect on IOP. It is suggested that elevated progesterone levels associated with the luteal phase in lionesses cause increased resistance to aqueous humor outflow, leading to IOP elevation. Similar ocular hypertension has been observed in rabbits following exogenous progesterone application, but this is the first report on the hypertensive effect of endogenous progesterone on top.
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, progesterone, eyes, gender differences, estrogens, testosterone, intraocular pressure, elevated progesterone levels, sex hormones, levels.

Ogungbade, S.G. and A.F. Ogunrinade (1984). [Tapeworm infection (Taenia hydatigena) in lion (Panthera leo) in captivity. A case report]. Revue D'Elevage Et De Medecine Veterinaire Des Pays Tropicaux 37(1): 30-31. ISSN: 0035-1865.
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, tapeworm infection, Tainia hydatigena, captivity, case report, Nigeria.
Language of Text: French, Summaries in French, English and Spanish.

Port, C.D., E.R. Maschgan, J. Pond, B. Kirschner, S. Poticha, and D.G. Scarpelli (1981). Chronic exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in 2 Indian lions (Panthera leo persica). Journal of Comparative Pathology (UK) 91(4): 483-491. ISSN: 9921-9975.
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo persica, chronic exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, disease, pathology.

Powell, D.M. (1995). Preliminary evaluation of environmental enrichment techniques for African lions (Panthera leo). Animal Welfare (United Kingdom) 4(4): 361-370. ISSN: 0962-7286.
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo persica, zoo animals, behavior, animal housing, environmental enrichment techniques, preliminary evaluation.

Power, R.J. (2002). Prey selection of lions Panthera leo in a small, enclosed reserve. Koedoe (South Africa) 45(2): 67-75. ISSN: 0075-6458.
Descriptors: lions, Panthera leo, prey selection, small enclosed reserve, predation, mammals, resource conservation, resource management, South Africa.

Rashid, M.A. (1982). The GIR lion sanctuary project , conservation, India. Wildlife in India, PSA Journal
NAL Call Number: QL84.5.I4S2
Descriptors: Persian lion, Panthera leo persica, conservation efforts, GIR lion sanctuary, India.

Roelke Parker, M.E., L. Munson, C. Packer, R. Kock, S. Cleaveland, M. Carpenter, S.J. O' Brien, A. Pospischil, R. Hofmann Lehmann, and H. Lutz (1996). A canine distemper virus epidemic in Serengeti lions (Panthera leo). Nature 379(6564): 441-445. ISSN: 0028-0836.
NAL Call Number: 472 N21
Abstract: Canine distemper virus (CDV) is thought to have caused several fatal epidemics in canids within the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem of East Africa, affecting silver-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) and bat-eared foxes (Otocyon megalotis) in 1978, and African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in 1991. The large, closely monitored Serengeti lion population was not affected in these epidemics. However, an epidemic caused by a morbillivirus closely related to CDV emerged abruptly in the lion population of the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, in early 1994, resulting in fatal neurological disease characterized by grand mal seizures and myoclonus; the lions that died had encephalitis and pneumonia. Here we report the identification of CDV from these lions, and the close phylogenetic relationship between CDV isolates from lions and domestic dogs. By August 1994, 85% of the Serengeti lion population had anti-CDV antibodies, and the epidemic spread north to lions in the Massai Mara National reserve, Kenya, and uncounted hyaenas, bat-eared foxes, and leopards were also affected.
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, endangered species, disease outbreaks, mortality, symptoms, wildlife management, dogs as disease vectors and resivors, vaccination, domestic animals, fatal-infections, distemper virus, lions, grand mal seizures, species extinction, Tanzania, Kenya.

Ruiz de Ybanez, M.R., C. Martinez Carrasco, J.J. Martinez, J.M. Ortiz, T. Attout, and O. Bain (2006). Dirofilaria immitis in an African lion (Panthera leo). Veterinary Record Journal of the British Veterinary Association 158(7): 240-242. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, Dirofilaria immitis, disease.

Schramm, R.D., M.B. Briggs, and J.J. Reeves (1994). Spontaneous and induced ovulation in the lion (Panthera leo). Zoo Biology 13(4): 301-307. ISSN: 0733-3188.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, induced, spontaneous, ovulation, copulation, progesterone, blood, estrus, interestrous interval.

Sharma, M., R.C. Katoch, V.K. Gupta, and M.K. Batta (2003). Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection in lion (Panthera leo) cubs. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 73(2): 163. ISSN: 0367-8318.
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, cubs, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, septicemia, infection, histopathology, wildlife, bacteria, bacterioses, enterobacteriaceae, India.

Shi Zhukui (1993). Diagnosis and treatment of intestinal obstruction and anemia in African lion. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology 23(7): 31-32. ISSN: 1000-6419.
Descriptors: lions, Panthera leo, intestinal obstruction, anemia, diagnosis, treatment, digestive disorders, laboratory diagnosis, disease control, blood disorders.
Language of Text: Chinese.

Singh, M., P.P. Raval, N. Dharaiya, and V.C. Soni (1999). Feeding niche of Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) and leopard (Panthera pardus) in the Gir Protected Area. Tigerpaper (FAO) 26(3): 12-15. ISSN: 1014-2789.
Descriptors: lions, Panthera leo persica, leopard, Panthera pardus, feeding habits, predation, behavior, carnivora, felidae, protected area.

Siqueira, V.J., W.O. Bernis, C.H.R.d.A. Silva, T.M.P. Soares, P.A.d.S. Ferreira, and R.G.d.M. Campos (2001). Correcao cirurgica de fratura de tibia e fibula em um leao (Panthera leo), por meio de pinos intramedulares de Steinmann. [Surgical correction of tibia e fibula in a lion (Panthera leo), using Steinmann intramedullary pins. A case report]. Veterinaria Noticias 7(1): 107-112. ISSN: 0104-3463.
NAL Call Number: CENAGRI, CP 02432, 70.043-900 Brasilia,DF - Brasil.
Descriptors: lions, Panthera leo, limb bones, fractures, surgical operations, fibula, tibia, bones, felidae, Steinmann pins, anesthesia, radiografs, case report.
Language of Text: Portuguese, Summaries in English and Portuguese.

Steinmetz, A., K. Eulenberger, J. Thielebein, S. Buschatz, A. Bernhard, A. Wilsdorf, and R. Ofri (2006). Lens anomalies and other ophthalmic findings in a group of closely related Angola lions (Panthera leo bleyenberghi). Zoo Biology 25(5): 433-439. ISSN: 0733-3188.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, eye lens, cataracts, clinical examination, histopathology, adult animals, young animals, progeny, endangered species, Katanga lion, lenticular abnormalities, ophthalmic examination, lion cubs.

Stolte, M. and M. Welle (1995). Cutaneous mast cell tumours in a lion (Panthera leo): a light and transmission electron microscopical study. Journal of Comparative Pathology 113(3): 291-294. ISSN: 0021-9975.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J82
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, neoplasms, cutaneous mast cells, skin, histopathology, electron microscopical study, cell ultrastructure.

Sundeep Chandra, A.M., R.E. Papendick, J. Schumacher, B.L. Homer, and P. Wollenman (1999). Cerebellar herniation in captive lions (Panthera leo). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation Official Publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians Inc 11(5): 465-468. ISSN: 1040-6387.
NAL Call Number: SF774.J68
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, cerebellar herniation, spinal cord, etiology, skull, case studies, malformations, vitamin A deficiency, Florida.

Tanwar, R.K., L.M. Mittal, S.M. Sharma, J.S. Yadav, and P.D. Mathur (1984). Parasitic gastritis in an Asian lion- a case report. Indian Journal of Veterinary Medicine (India) 4(1): 48-49. ISSN: 0970-051X.
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, parsitic gastritis, disease, parasites, case report.

Tefera, M. (2003). Phenotypic and reproductive characteristics of lions (Panthera leo) at Addis Ababa Zoo. Biodiversity and Conservation 12(8): 1629-1639. ISSN: 0960-3115.
NAL Call Number: QH75.A1 B562
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, animal breeding, reproductive characteristics, zoo animals, sexual reproduction, phenotypic characteristics, wildlife management, Ethiopia, captive breeding.

Trinkel, M., N. Ferguson, A. Reid, C. Reid, M. Somers, L. Turelli, J. Graf, M. Szykman, D. Cooper, P. Haverman, G. Kastberger, C. Packer, and R. Slotow (2008). Translocating lions into an inbred lion population in the Hluhluwe iMfolozi Park, South Africa. Animal Conservation 11(2): 138-143. ISSN: 1367-9430.
NAL Call Number: QH75.A1 A54
Abstract: A fundamental problem in conservation biology is the risk of inbreeding in fragmented and declining populations. In the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (HiP), a small, enclosed reserve in South Africa, a large lion Panthera leo population arose from a founder group of five individuals in the 1960s. The HiP lion population went through a persistent decline and showed indications of inbreeding depression. To restore the genetic variation of the inbred HiP lion population, new lions were translocated into the existing population. Translocated females formed stable associations and established enduring pride areas with other translocated lionesses, but did not bond into native female prides. The translocated male coalition was more successful in gaining and maintaining residence in a pride than the translocated lone male that split off on his own from the male coalition. Litter size and cub survival was about twice as high for pairings involving at least one translocated parent than for pairings of two native lions. It is therefore possible to infuse new genes rapidly and successfully into a small, isolated lion population. Such translocations may become an important adaptive management tool as lion populations become increasingly fragmented.
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, inbreeding, population dynamics, translocation, inbred population, translocated lions, litter size, cub survival.

Umapathy, G., S.D. Sontakke, K. Srinivasu, T. Kiran, S.D. Kholkute, and S. Shivaji (2007). Estrus behavior and fecal steroid profiles in the Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) during natural and gonadotropin induced estrus. Animal Reproduction Science 101(3-4): 313-325. ISSN: 0378-4320.
NAL Call Number: QP251.A5
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, endangered species, zoo animals, female reproductive system, estrous cycle, ovulation, hormone secretion, estradiol, progesterone, feces, normal values, hormonal regulation, human chorionic gonadotropin, mating behavior, vocalization , India.

VandeWoude, S., S.J. O' Brien, and E.A. Hoover (1997). Infectivity of lion and puma lentiviruses for domestic cats. Journal of General Virology 78(4): 795-800. ISSN: 0022-1317.
NAL Call Number: QR360.A1J6
Abstract: Infection of domestic cats with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) causes progressive immunological deterioration similar to that caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Lentiviruses related to but phylogenetically distinct from FIV have been detected in several non-domestic feline species. Serological cross-reactivity of these viruses raises the question as to whether inter-species transmission may occur. To address this issue, we asked whether lion lentivirus (FIV-Ple) or two strains of puma lentivirus (FIV-Pco) could replicate or cause disease in domestic cats. We found that domestic cats inoculated with FIV-Ple developed persistent cell-associated viraemia, transient cell-free viraemia and antiviral antibody. Clinical disease was not detected throughout a 6 month observation period. Two of four cats inoculated with FIV-Pco developed cell-associated viraemia, seroconverted and exhibited transient lymphadenopathy. No changes in white blood cell parameters or other haematological abnormalities were detected in any of the infected cats. Virus-specific RNA was detected in cocultivated lymphocytes of all infected cats by RT-PCR. These findings reveal that non-domestic cat lentiviruses are infectious for domestic cats and can establish persistent infection in the absence of disease.
Descriptors: lion, puma, domestic cats, lentiviruses, infectivity, immunideficiency virus, FIV, infectious.

VandeWoude, S., S.J. O'Brien, K. Langelier, W.D. Hardy, J.P. Slattery, E.E. Zuckerman, and E.A. Hoover (1997). Growth of lion and puma lentiviruses in domestic cat cells and comparisons with FIV. Virology (USA) 233(1): 185-192. ISSN: 0042-6822.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 V81
Abstract: Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV-Fca) is a lentivirus that causes gradual immunological deterioration in domestic cats. Lentiviruses related to FIV have been detected in several nondomestic feline species; the biologic significance of these viruses remains to be defined. To examine the in vitro cell tropism of these nondomestic cat lentiviruses, prototypical puma and lion lentiviruses (FIV-Pco and FIV-Ple) were cultured in a variety of feline cell cultures. A domestic cat T lymphoma cell line, 3201, best supported the replication of both FIV-Pco and FIV-Ple. Moreover, FlV-Ple was lytic for these cells. RT-PCR amplification of a conserved pol gene region demonstrated species-specific primer homology. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of this amplification product confirmed the identity of the replicating viruses and classified two previously uncharacterized viruses within predictable lion and puma clades. Sequence analysis of a conserved pol region demonstrated homology with previously characterized FIV-Ple and FIV-Pco. Western blot analysis using domestic cat anti-FIV-Fca sera showed that both FIV-Pco and FIV-Ple were antigenically related, to differing degrees, to three serotypes of FIV-Fca. These studies demonstrate that though nondomestic cat lentiviruses differ significantly from FIV-Fca and that a viral-specific protocol may be necessary for sensitive viral detection, these viruses can replicate in cells of domestic cats, suggesting the potential for cross-species transmission.
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, puma, Puma concolor, lentivirus, growth, domestic cat cells, comparison with FIV, viruses, feline immunodeficiency virus.

Weissengruber, G.E., G. Forstenpointner, G. Peters, A. Kubber Heiss, and W.T. Fitch (2002). Hyoid apparatus and pharynx in the lion (Panthera leo), jaguar (Panthera onca), tiger (Panthera tigris), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and domestic cat (Felis silvestris f. catus). Journal of Anatomy 201(3): 195-209. ISSN: 0021-8782.
Abstract: Structures of the hyoid apparatus, the pharynx and their topographical positions in the lion, tiger, jaguar, cheetah and domestic cat were described in order to determine morphological differences between species or subfamilies of the Felidae. In the lion, tiger and jaguar (species of the subfamily Pantherinae) the Epihyoideum is an elastic ligament lying between the lateral pharyngeal muscles and the Musculus (M.) thyroglossus rather than a bony element like in the cheetah or the domestic cat. The M. thyroglossus was only present in the species of the Pantherinae studied. In the lion and the jaguar the Thyrohyoideum and the thyroid cartilage are connected by an elastic ligament, whereas in the tiger there is a synovial articulation. In adult individuals of the lion, tiger and jaguar the ventral end of the tympanohyal cartilage is rotated and therefore the ventral end of the attached Stylohyoideum lies caudal to the Tympanohyoideum and the cranial base. In newborn jaguars the Apparatus hyoideus shows a similar topographical position as in adult cheetahs or domestic cats. In adult Pantherinae, the Basihyoideum and the attached larynx occupy a descended position: they are situated near the cranial thoracic aperture, the pharyngeal wall and the soft palate are caudally elongated accordingly. In the Pantherinae examined the caudal end of the soft palate lies dorsal to the glottis. Differences in these morphological features between the subfamilies of the Felidae have an influence on specific structural characters of their vocalizations.
Descriptors: cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, lion, Panthera leo, jaguar, Panthera onca, tiger, Panthera tigris, domestic cat, Felis silvestris f. catus, anatomy, histology, hyoid apparatus, pharynx, anatomy, histology, hyoid bone growth, development, pharyngeal muscles anatomy, histology, pharyngeal muscles growth, development, pharynx, growth, development.

Williams, J.H., E. Van Wilpe, and M. Momberg (2005). Renal medullary AA amyloidosis, hepatocyte dissociation and multinucleated hepatocyte in a 14 year old free ranging lioness (Panthera leo). Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 76(2): 90-98. ISSN: 0038-2809.
Descriptors: lioness, Panthera leo, free ranging, 14 year old, renal medullary AA amyloidosis, hepatocyte dissociation, multinucleated hepatocyte, veterinary care.

Yu, C.H., K.T. Kim, D.N. Hwang, J.Y. Yhee, C.T. Moon, T.Y. Hur, and J.H. Sur (2007). Peribiliary cysts associated with severe liver disease: a previously unrecognized tumor in a lion (Panthera leo). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 19(6): 709-712. ISSN: 1040-6387.
NAL Call Number: SF774.J68
Descriptors: lion, Panthera leo, zoo animals, liver, liver diseases, signs, symptoms, animals and humans, mortality, cysts, neoplasms, animal diseases, diagnosis, histopathology, histology.



Back to Top  
<< Table of Contents << Previous |  Next >>
Last Modified: Jan 23, 2014  
AWIC Home | NAL Home | USDA | AgNIC | ARS | Web Policies and Important Links | RSS Feeds | Site Map
FOIA | Accessibility Statement | Privacy Policy | Non-Discrimination Statement | Information Quality | | White House