Snow Leopard - General
Ale, S.B., P. Yonzon, and Kamal Thapa (2007). Recovery of snow leopard Uncia uncia in Sagarmatha (Mount Everest) National Park, Nepal. Oryx 41(1): 89-92. ISSN: 0030-6053.
Abstract: From September to November 2004 we conducted surveys of snow leopard (Uncia uncia) signs in three major valleys in Sagarmatha (Mount Everest) National Park in Nepal using the Snow Leopard Information Management System, a standardized survey technique for snow leopard research. We walked 24 transects covering c. 14 km and located 33 sites with 56 snow leopard signs, and 17 signs incidentally in other areas. Snow leopards appear to have re-inhabited the Park, following their disappearance c. 40 years ago, apparently following the recovery of Himalayan tahr Hemitragus jemlahicus and musk deer Moschus chrysogaster populations. Taken together the locations of all 73 recent snow leopard signs indicate that the species is using predominantly grazing land and shrubland/open forest at elevations of 3,000-5,000 m, habitat types that are also used by domestic and wild ungulates. Sagarmatha is the homeland of c. 3,500 Buddhist Sherpas with >3,000 livestock. Along with tourism and associated developments in Sagarmatha, traditional land use practices could be used to ensure coexistence of livestock and wildlife, including the recovering snow leopards, and ensure the wellbeing of the Sherpas. Reproduced with permission of CAB. Abstracts.
Descriptors: snow leopard, Uncia uncia, recovery, habitats, national parks, tourism, Mount Everest, Sagarmatha, Panthera uncia.
Barnett, K.C. and J.C.M. Lewis (2002). Multiple ocular colobomas in the snow leopard (Uncia uncia). Veterinary Ophthalmology 5(3): 197-199. ISSN: 1463-5216.
NAL Call Number: SF891.V47
Descriptors: snow leopard, Uncia uncia, eye diseases, symptoms, eyelid diseases, multiple ocular colobomas, etiology, congenital abnormalities, case studies, diagnosis, Panthera uncia.
Notes: In the special issue: Exotic and laboratory animal / edited by T.J. Kern.
Blomqvist, L. (1980). Distribution and status of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia) [in Central Asia]. Tigerpaper (FAO-RAPA). 7(4): 15-20. ISSN: 1014-2789.
Descriptors: snow leopard, Panthera uncia, Uncia uncia, distribution, status, Central Asia.
Broder, J.M., A.J. MacFadden, L.M. Cosens, D.S. Rosenstein, and T.M. Harrison (2008). Use of positive reinforcement conditioning to monitor pregnancy in an unanesthetized snow leopard (Uncia uncia) via transabdominal ultrasound. Zoo Biology 27(1): 78-85. ISSN: 0733-3188.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Abstract: Closely monitoring snow leopard (Uncia uncia) fetal developments via transabdominal ultrasound, with minimal stress to the animal, was the goal of this project. The staff at Potter Park Zoo has used the principles of habituation, desensitization, and positive reinforcement to train a female snow leopard (U. uncia). Ultrasound examinations were preformed on an unanesthetized feline at 63 and 84 days. The animal remained calm and compliant throughout both procedures. Fetuses were observed and measured on both occasions. The absence of anesthesia eliminated components of psychologic and physiologic stress associated with sedation. This was the first recorded instance of transabdominal ultrasound being carried out on an unanesthetized snow leopard. It documents the feasibility of detecting pregnancy and monitoring fetal development via ultrasound.
Descriptors: snow leopard, Uncia uncia, positive reinforcement, conditioning, ultrasound, monitor, pregnancy, transabdominal ultrasound, stress.
Burgener, N., M. Gusset, and H. Schmid (2008). Frustrated appetitive foraging behavior, stereotypic pacing, and fecal glucocorticoid levels in snow leopards (Uncia uncia) in the Zurich Zoo. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 11(1): 74-83. ISSN: 1088-8705.
Abstract: This study hypothesized that permanently frustrated, appetitive-foraging behavior caused the stereotypic pacing regularly observed in captive carnivores. Using 2 adult female snow leopards (Uncia uncia), solitarily housed in the Zurich Zoo, the study tested this hypothesis experimentally with a novel feeding method: electronically controlled, time-regulated feeding boxes. The expected result of employing this active foraging device as a successful coping strategy was reduced behavioral and physiological measures of stress, compared with a control-feeding regime without feeding boxes. The study assessed this through behavioral observations and by evaluating glucocorticoid levels noninvasively from feces. Results indicated that the 2 snow leopards did not perform successful coping behavior through exercising active foraging behavior or through displaying the stereotypic pacing. The data support a possible explanation: The box-feeding method did not provide the 2 snow leopards with the external stimuli to satisfy their appetitive behavioral needs. Moreover, numerous other factors not necessarily or exclusively related to appetitive behavior could have caused and influenced the stereotypic pacing. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: snow leopard, Uncia uncia, abnormal behavior, animal behaviour, animal welfare, feces, foraging, glucocorticoids, stress, zoo animals, leopards, Panthera uncia, Switzerland.
Chaudhuri, S., S.K. Mukherjee, A. Chatterjee, and J.L. Ganguli (1992). Isolation of P. multocida F-3,4 from a stillborn snow leopard. Veterinary Record Journal of the British Veterinary Association 130(2): 36. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: snow leopard, Uncia uncia, Pasteurella multocida, stillborn, isolated, case studies, Panthera uncia, India.
Doster, A.R., D.L. Armstrong, and T.W. Bargar (1989). Seminoma and parathyroid adenoma in a snow leopard (Panthera uncia). Journal of Comparative Pathology (UK) 100(4): 475-480. ISSN: 0021-9975.
Descriptors: snow leopard, Panthera uncia, Uncia uncia, seminoma, parathyroid adenoma, neoplasms, zoo animal collections, carnivores, diseases.
Espinosa Aviles, D., M. Lucia Taylor, M. Del Rocio Reyes Montes, and A. Perez Torrez (2008). Molecular findings of disseminated histoplasmosis in two captive snow leopards (Uncia uncia). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 39(3): 450-454. ISSN: 1042-7260.
Descriptors: snow leopard, Unica unica, disseminated histoplasmosis, molecular findings, captive, diagnosis, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, transmission.
Green, M.J.B. (1993). Protecting the mountains of Central Asia and their snow leopard populations. Tigerpaper (FAO) 20(2): 1-14. ISSN: 1014-2789.
Descriptors: snow leopard, Uncia uncia, mountains, management, planning, surveys, nature conservation., resource management, Afghanistan, central Asia, nature reserves, Bhutan, China, India, Nepal, Pakistan.
Green, M.J.B. (1987). Protected areas and snow leopards: their distribution and status. Paper presented at the fifth International Snow Leopard Symposium held in Srinagar from 13-15 October 1986. Tigerpaper (FAO) 14(4): 1-10. ISSN: 1014-2789.
Descriptors: snow leopard, Unica unica, endangered species, natural distribution, wilderness areas, protected areas, distribution, conservation, Felidae, symposium.
Ikeda, N. (2004). Economic impacts of livestock depredation by snow leopard Uncia uncia in the Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal Himalaya. Environmental Conservation 31(4): 322-330. ISSN: 0376-8929.
Abstract: It is necessary to fully understand the economic conditions of local herders in order to find solutions to the conflicts between wildlife conservation and livestock rearing in remote areas of low-income countries. In the Kanchenjunga Conservation Area (KCA), Nepal, livestock depredation by snow leopards impacts on yak herders' livelihoods. Retaliatory killings of snow leopard by the herders have been reported and the concerned authorities recently initiated snow leopard conservation programmes. In 2001, interviews with the yak herders who used the pastures in the Ghunsa valley in the preceding year collected data on the incidence of livestock death caused by snow leopards. The annual net cash income of the yak herders was estimated by obtaining baseline values of sales and expenditure per livestock head through field measurement of dairy products and interviews with a sample of herders. As yet, the average annual damage does not appear to have adversely affected fundamental livelihoods in households with an average herd size (36.6 head). However, in the worst scenario of livestock depredation, households with medium or small-sized herds (<40 head) might risk their living conditions becoming unsustainable or having to withdraw from yak pastoralism. A supplementary interview showed that the majority of the herders, except those who took completely neutral attitudes towards the regional conservation and development programme, had negative views of the snow leopard conservation policy. For the snow leopard conservation programme in the KCA to be a success, there must be a system to compensate the herders' households for livestock damage. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: snow leopard, Uncia uncia, damage, economic impact, income, livestock farming, losses, predation, wild animals, wildlife conservation, Panthera uncia, yaks.
Isenbuegel, E. and P. Weilenmann (1985). Lidcolobome bei Schneeleoparden (Uncia uncia, Schreber 1775) im Zoo Zuerich. [Colobomes of the eyelid in an snow leopard (Uncia uncia, Schreber 1775) in the Zurich zoological garden]. Praktische Tierarzt 66(1): 61-62. ISSN: 0032-681X.
Descriptors: snow leopard, Uncia uncia, eye diseases, diagnosis, Felidae, injurious factors, eyelid diseases.
Language of Text: German.
Janovsky, M., A. Grone, D. Ciardo, J. Vollm, A. Burnens, R. Fatzer, and L.N. Bacciarini (2006). Phaeohyphomycosis in a snow leopard (Uncia uncia) due to Cladophialophora bantiana. Journal of Comparative Pathology 134(2/3): 245-248. ISSN: 0021-9975.
Abstract: Phaeohyphomycosis caused by Cladophialophora bantiana was diagnosed in a 5-month-old snow leopard with spastic paralysis of the hind legs and inability to defaecate or urinate. At post-mortem examination, a greenish soft mass resembling an abscess was found on one side of the epidural space at the fourth lumbar vertebral body. Histological examination revealed a purulent meningitis with myelomalacia. Dematiaceous fungal hyphae, present within the inflammatory infiltrate, were identified as C. bantiana by culture and sequence analysis of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. This neurotropic fungus rarely affects organs other than the brain in human beings and cats, and has been reported only occasionally in Europe. The case described suggests that phaeohyphomycosis due to C. bantiana infection may be recognized more frequently in the future and the possible involvement of organs other than the brain should be borne in mind. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: snow leopard, young animal, Uncia uncia, phaeohyphomycosis, case reports, clinical aspects, diagnosis, histopathology, meningitis, mycoses, paralysis, postmortem examinations, ribosomal RNA, Cladophialophora bantiana.
Jiang Zhi Gang and Xu Ai Chun (2006). Snow leopard (Uncia uncia). Chinese Journal of Zoology 41(4): 128. ISSN: 0250-3263.
Descriptors: snow leopard, Uncia uncia, conservation, terrestrial ecology, environmental sciences.
Language of Text: Chinese.
Liao Y, Luo H, Liou D, Xu S, and Yuan B (1986). A preliminary study on the rearing and breeding of snow leopard Panthera uncia. Acta Theriologica Sinica 6(2): 93-100. ISSN: 1000-1050.
Descriptors: snow leopard, Panthera uncia, rearing, breeding, preliminary study, oestrus, parturition, behavior, growth, pregnancy, feeding, mating.
Language of Text: Chinese.
Lukarevsky, V.S. and A.D. Poyarkov (2008). The current state of the snow leopard (Uncia uncia, Carnivora) population in Russia. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 87(1): 114-121. ISSN: 0044-5134.
Abstract: Based on the analysis of the field materials and literature data on the distribution of Uncia uncia Shreber 1775, the most part of its range in Russia was investigated. The current distribution of this species in southern Siberia was studied. The marking activity of the animal was used for the assessment of the density and number of its population. The main groups of snow leopard were revealed, and their size was determined. The most preferential habitats of the animal are areas, where small open plateau, gentle slopes and narrow valleys alternate with rocky gorges, taluses and mountains with dissected gorges, as well as slopes without snow cover. The pathways and preferential biotopes for the movements of the animal, as well as the main regularities of the leopard distribution were revealed. The higher the altitude of mountains, the higher the altitude this predator prefers. The range of snow leopard is fragmentary, probably, due to the mosaic pattern of its habitats. Problems of conservation and the main reasons for the reduction of the range and number of snow leopard in Russia are discussed. Such a reduction appears to relate to the application of toxic substances against wolves and wide use of loop traps for legal and illegal hunting for musk deer. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: snow leopard, Uncia uncia, animal welfare, habitat selection, hunting, population distribution, toxicology, Panthera uncia.
Language of Text: Russian, Summary in English.
Murata, K., T. Yanai, T. Agatsuma, and S. Uni (2003). Dirofilaria immitis infection of a snow leopard (Uncia uncia) in a Japanese zoo with mitochondrial DNA analysis. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 65(8): 945-947. ISSN: 0916-7250.
Abstract: Three dog heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) were detected in the lumen of the right cardiac ventriculus and of the pulmonary artery of a captive female snow leopard (Uncia uncia) that died of pancreatic carcinoma at a zoo in Japan. Neither clinical respiratory nor circulatory symptoms caused by the heartworm infection were observed. The filarial worms were identified as D. immitis from the morphologic characteristics of the esophagus, the presence of faint longitudinal ridges on the cuticular surface, the situation of vulva posterior to the esophagus, and the measurements of the body. The heartworms from the snow leopard were identical to that of D. immitis from dogs in the sequence of the cytochrome oxidase I region in the mitochondrial DNA. This host record is the first of D. immitis in U. uncia. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: snow leopard, Uncia uncia, Dirofilaria immitis, heart worms, case reports, cytochrome c oxidase, hosts, mitochondrial DNA, new host records, zoo animals, Panthera uncia.
Pfeil, A. (2004). Leiomyom in der Blase bei einem weiblichen Schneeleoparden (Uncia uncia, Schreber, 1776). [Leiomyoma in the urinary bladder of a female snow leopard (Uncia uncia, Schreber, 1776)]. Tierarztliche Praxis Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere 32(1): 40-44. ISSN: 1434-1239.
Abstract: A leiomyoma of the urinary bladder in a 14-year-old female snow leopard exhibiting bloody vaginal discharge was removed by partial cystectomy [Germany, date not given]. Gravel (struvite) was found in the urine of the inflammatory bladder. Moreover, ovariohysterectomy was performed. Histological findings showed a glandular-cystic hyperplasia. Tumours of the bladder were very rare in cats. The benign tumours of the bladder often had no clinical relevance and rarely resulted in bladder dysfunction. Therefore, they might remain undiagnosed in many cases, particularly since the diagnostic procedure in big cats was very extensive. Leiomyoma of the bladder in snow leopards had not been described. The present paper described the surgery performed, succeeding therapy and struvite prophylaxis. Moreover, the aetiology of the leiomyoma's origin was discussed based on current literature. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: snow leopard, Uncia uncia, leiomyoma, urinary bladder, case reports, clinical aspects, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, gravel, histopathology, neoplasms, surgery, urine, Panthera uncia.
Language of Text: German, Summary in English.
Reed Smith, J. and M. Kumpf (1998). Snow leopards (Uncia uncia): Family group management alternatives. Animal Keepers' Forum 25(10): 386-391. ISSN: 0164-9531.
Descriptors: snow leopard, Uncia uncia, care in captivity, creation and management, family groups, case reports and recommendations.
Roth, T.L., D.L. Armstrong, M.T. Barrie, D.M. Garell, and D.E. Wildt (1996). Seasonal effects on ovarian responsiveness to exogenous gonadotropins and successful artificial insemination in the snow leopard (Panthera unica). Annual Conference of the International Embryo Transfer Society.,Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, Theriogenology, Vol. 45, p. 246.
Descriptors: snow leopard, Panthera pardus, successful artificial insemination, exogenous gonadotropins, ovarian responsiveness, seasonal effects, conference information.
Roth, T.L., D.L. Armstrong, M.T. Barrie, and D.E. Wildt (1997). Seasonal effects on ovarian responsiveness to exogenous gonadotrophins and successful artificial insemination in the snow leopard (Uncia uncia). Reproduction, Fertility, and Development 9(3): 285-295. ISSN: 1031-3613.
NAL Call Number: QP251.R47
Abstract: Ovaries of the seasonally-breeding snow leopard (Uncia uncia) were examined to determine whether they were responsive to exogenous gonadotrophins throughout the year. The potential of laparoscopic artificial insemination (AI) also was assessed for producing offspring. During the non-breeding, pre-breeding, breeding and post-breeding seasons, females (n = 20) were treated with a standardized, dual-hormone regimen given intramuscularly (600 I.U. of equine chorionic gonadotrophin followed 80-84 h later with 300 I.U. of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)). Laparoscopy was performed 45-50 h after administration of hCG, and all ovarian structures were described. Females with fresh corpora lutea (CL) were inseminated, and anovulatory females were subjected to follicular aspiration to examine oocyte quality. Snow leopards responded to exogenous gonadotrophins throughout the year. Mean number of total ovarian structures (distinct follicles mature in appearance plus CL) did not differ (P > or = 0.05) with season, but the proportion of CL: total ovarian structures was greater (P < 0.01) for the breeding season compared with all other seasons. The proportion of females ovulating was greater (P < 0.05) during the breeding and post-breeding seasons than during the pre-breeding and non-breeding seasons respectively. No Grade-1 quality oocytes were recovered from follicles of anovulatory females. Serum concentrations of oestradiol-17 beta appeared elevated in all females, and neither oestradiol-17 beta concentrations nor progesterone concentrations differed (P > or = 0.05) among seasons. Of 15 females artificially inseminated, the only one that was inseminated in the non-breeding season became pregnant and delivered a single cub. This is the first successful pregnancy resulting from AI in this endangered species.
Descriptors: snow leopard, Unica unica, ovarian responsiveness, exogenous gonadotrophins, seasonal effects, successful artificial insemination.
Schaeffer, E., H. Wiesner, and G. von Hegel (1988). Multiple okulare Kolobome (MOC) mit persistierender Pupillarmembran beim Schneeleopard (Panthera unica). [Multiple ocular colobomata (MOC) with persistent pupillary membranes in the snow leopard (Panthera unica)]. Tieraerztliche Praxis 16(1): 87-91. ISSN: 0303-6286.
Descriptors: snow leopard, Uncia uncia, ocular colobomata, multiple, histology, persistant pupillary membranes, Panthera unica.
Language of Text: German, Summaries in English and German.
Sharma, D. (2007). Ketamine xylazine anaesthesia in snow leopard (Uncia uncia). Zoos Print Journal 22(11): 2895. ISSN: 0973-2535 (print); 0973-2551 (electronic).
Descriptors: snow leopard, Uncia uncia, anesthesia, ketamine, xylazine.
Sims, C. (2001). Morphological distinctions in skulls of five felids (Puma concolor, Panthera onca, Panthera pardus, Uncia uncia, and Acinonyx jubatus). Journal of Morphology 248(3): 285. ISSN: 0362-2525.
Descriptors: cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, skull, morphological distinctions, skeletal system, cougar, jaguar, leopard, snow leopard, species comparison study.
Notes: Sixth International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Jena, Germany; July 21-26, 2001.
Stidworthy, M.R., J.C.M. Lewis, J. Penderis, and A.C. Palmer (2008). Progressive encephalomyelopathy and cerebellar degeneration in a captive-bred snow leopard (Uncia uncia). Veterinary Record 162(16): 522-524. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Abstract: A 6-week-old snow leopard (Uncia uncia) from a zoological park in eastern England was initially presented with progressive signs of incoordination and ataxia [date not given]. By three months of age, the animal showed increasing coordination of the hindlimbs, and two weeks later it was unable to support its weight on its hindlimbs or control their movement. Radiographic examination revealed no abnormalities of the vertebral column. The animal was euthanized by intravenous injection of pentobarbitone sodium. Postmortem examination revealed no other macroscopic abnormalities except for pulmonary congestion and oedema. Histopathological abnormalities were confined to the central nervous system. In the spinal cord, Wallerian-type degeneration occurred in the white matter tracts in all funiculi except for the dorsal columns. Axonal degeneration was of typical Wallerian type, characterized by the presence of numerous widely dilated myelin sheaths, many of which contained myelophages, and gliosis. These changes were most prominent in the ventral columns and in the dorsal spinocerebellar tracts. In the cerebellum, changes were most pronounced in the cortical layers of the vermis. In conclusion, this case may be part of a spectrum of spinal cord degenerative disease in captive snow leopards described previously. The distinctive histological features suggest that it may be more appropriately classified as an example of the progressive encephalomyelopathy with cerebellar degeneration previously reported in captive cheetahs and domestic cats. At present, the cause remains unknown. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: snow leopard, Uncia uncia, brain diseases, progressive encephalomyelopathy, case reports, cerebellar degeneration, clinical aspects, diagnosis, histopathology, lesions, myeloencephalopathy, nervous system diseases, postmortem examinations, zoo animals, Panthera uncia.
Sulser, C.E., B.L. Steck, and B. Baur (2008). Effects of construction noise on behaviour of and exhibit use by Snow leopards Uncia uncia at Basel zoo. International Zoo Yearbook 42(1): 199-205. ISSN: 0074-9664.
NAL Call Number: QL76.I5
Abstract: Noise caused by human activities can cause stress in animals. We examined whether noise from construction sites affects the behaviour of and exhibit use by three Snow leopards Uncia uncia at Basel zoo. The behaviour and location of the animals were recorded at 1 minute intervals, using the instantaneous scan sampling method over a period of 216 hours (104 hours on noisy days and 112 hours on quiet days). The animals differed individually in their responses to the construction noise. On noisy days, the Snow leopards generally spent less time in locomotion and more time resting, but even on quiet days, resting was the predominant behaviour performed. Under noisy conditions, they increased social resting and decreased resting alone. Walking and social walking were also reduced on noisy days. Furthermore, the Snow leopards spent considerably more time in the remote off-exhibit enclosure under noisy conditions. Independent of background noise, they stayed more than half of the time in the caves and the forecourts of the outdoor enclosure. On quiet days, the Snow leopards used more sectors of their exhibit than on noisy days. The results indicate that the Snow leopards responded to construction noise by increasing the amount of time spent resting and by withdrawing to the remote parts of their exhibit.
Descriptors: snow leopard, Uncia uncia, construction noise, effects, behavior, exhibit use, resting, noise, stress, locomotion, resting, walking.
Taylor D J, Meuli L E, and Thau R B (1984). Comparison of urinary steroids in the siberian tiger and the snow leopard during estrus and pregnancy. 17TH Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Reproduction.,Laramie, Wyo., USA, Biology of Reproduction, Vol. 30, p. 66.
Descriptors: snow leopard, Unica unica, Siberian tiger, Panther tigris, estrus, pregnancy, urinary steroids, comparison, conference information.
W.W.F Nepal Program. (2000). Snow Leopard Manual., Kathmandu: WWF Nepal Program, .: 70 p.: ill. (chiefly col.), col. map; 25 cm. p.
NAL Call Number: QL737.C23.S58 2000
Descriptors: snow leopard, Uncia uncia, manual, Nepal, World Wildlife Fund, book.
Wharton, D. and S.A. Mainka (1997). Management and husbandry of the snow leopard Uncia uncia. International Zoo Yearbook 35(0): 139-147. ISSN: 0074-9664.
Descriptors: snow leopard, Uncia uncia, management, husbandry, animal care, breeding, captive management, diet, enclosures, housing, nutrition, veterinary care.
Xu Feng, Ma Ming, Yin Shou Jing, and B. Munkhtsog (2006). Autumn habitat selection by snow leopard (Uncia uncia) in beita mountain, Xinjiang, China. Zoological Research 27(2): 221-224. ISSN: 0254-5853.
Descriptors: snow leopard, Uncia uncia, behavior, autumn habitat selection, population studies, terrestrial ecology, topography, vegetation type, shrub, cliff base, hillside.
Language of Text: Chinese.
Zhang, F., Z. Jiang, Y. Zeng, and T. McCarthy (2007). Development of primers to characterize the mitochondrial control region of the snow leopard (Uncia uncia). Molecular Ecology Notes 7(6): 1196-1198. ISSN: 1471-8278.
NAL Call Number: QH541.15 .M632
Abstract: The snow leopard (Uncia uncia) is a rare carnivore living above the snow line in central Asia. Using universal primers for the mitochondrial genome control region hypervariable region 1 (HVR1), we isolated a 411-bp fragment of HVR1 and then designed specific primers near each end of this sequence in the conserved regions. These primers were shown to yield good polymerase chain reaction products and to be species specific. Of the 12 snow leopards studied, there were 11 segregating sites and six haplotypes. An identification case of snow leopard carcass (confiscated by the police) proved the primers to be a useful tool for forensic diagnosis in field and population genetics studies.
Descriptors: snow leopard, Uncia uncia, mitochondrial DNA, control region, primers, species specific primers.