Anaesthesia of Birds. Lightfoot, T.; Coles, G. (ed); Dobson, J, (ed); Elliot, J. (ed); Elwood, C. (ed); Hall, E. (ed); Heath, S. (ed); Hill, P. (ed); Moore, P.H. (ed); Innes, J. (ed); Jeffery, A. (ed); Redrobe, S. (ed); Tasker, S. (ed); Williams, J. (ed); Wotton, P. (ed); Yam, P. Scientific Proceedings Veterinary Program: British Small Animal Veterinary Association, 46th Annual Congress, Birmingham, UK, Apr. 2003, p. 404-405. ISBN: 0905214773.

            Descriptors: birds, avian species, anesthesia, pain, methods.





Air sac functional anatomy of the sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua galerita) during isoflurane anesthesia. Jaensch, Susan M.; Cullen, Len; Raidal, Shane R. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, Mar. 2002, v. 16 (1), p. 2-9. ISSN: 1082-6742.

            NAL call no: SF994.J6

Descriptors: Cacatua galerita, sedation, isoflurane, anesthesia, air sacs, anatomy, blood gas analysis.

Abstract: The air sac functional anatomy of sulphur-crested cockatoos (Cacatus galerita) during isoflurane anesthesia was studied by evaluation of respiratory casts of sulphur-crested cockatoos, blood gas analysis, and air sac gas analyses. The air sac anatomy of the sulphur-crested cockatoo was different from that described previously in psittacine bird species, with more extensive cranial and caudal thoracic air sacs and smaller abdominal air sacs. Blood gas analysis results indicated arterial and venous hyperoxia as a result of using 100% 02 as the anesthetic carrier gas, the significance of which in birds is currently unclear. Cranial and caudal thoracic air sac oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressure (PO2 and PCO2, respectively) were similar to those previously described in birds ventilated with 100% 02. Clavicular air sac Pos and POC2 were significantly lower than the cranial thoracic air sac, indicating significantly less ventilation of the clavicular air sac than of either the cranial or caudal air sacs.


Anaesthesie und Analgesie bei Ziervogein. [Anesthesia and analgesia of pet birds.] Hatt, J.M. Schweizer Archiv fuer Tieheilkunde, Nov. 2002, v. 144 (11), p. 606-613. ISSN: 0036-7281. Note: In German.

            NAL call no: 41.8 SCH9

            Descriptors: birds, analgesia, anesthesia, clinical techniques.

Abstract: Pet birds are frequently viewed as difficult patients for anaesthesia. The present paper revises the current anaesthetic procedures for injectable and inhalant anaesthetics. Currently the method of choice for the anaesthesia of pet birds is the isoflurane inhalation anaesthesia. Special emphasis is given to the preanaesthetic preparations. Fasting is shorter for pet birds than for mammals. Anaesthetized birds are at special risk for hypothermia. Methods for the prevention of heat loss are given. The use of analgesics are recommended both for welfare reasons but also because of the possibility to reduce the concentration of inhalation anaesthetics and therefore the amount of possible exposure of personnel to waste gases.


Anesthesia and analgesia in the avian patient. Echols, M.S.; Marx, K.L.(ed).; Roston, M.A. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference on Avian Medicine and Surgery, Mid Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians, Apr. 28-30, 2002, p. 10-19.

            NAL call no: SF994.M52

            Descriptors: anesthesia, anesthetics, aviary birds, pain, respiration, reviews.


Assessment of the analgesic effects of ketoprofen in ducks anesthetized with isoflurane. Machin, K.L.; Livingstone, A. American Journal of Veterinary Research, Jun. 2002, v. 63 (6), p. 821-826. ISSN: 0002-9645.

            NAL call no: 41.8 medetoAm3A

            Descriptors: ducks, ketoprofen, drug effects, heart rate, respiration rate, dosage.

Abstract: Objective: To determine whether administration of ketoprofen would have analgesic effects in spontaneously breathing ducks anesthetized with isoflurane. Animals: 13 healthy adult wild-strain Mallard ducks. Procedure: Each duck was anesthetized twice in a crossover study design with 6 days between randomized treatments. Ducks were given ketoprofen (5 mg/kg, IM) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution after a constant plane of anesthesia was established. Analgesia was assessed by measuring heart and respiratory rates and duration of application of a noxious stimulus. The noxious stimulus was applied 30, 50, and 70 minutes after drug administration and was maintained until gross purposeful movements were seen or for a maximum of 5 seconds. Result: At all 3 evaluation times, heart rate increases in response to the noxious stimulus were greater when ducks were given saline solution than when they were given ketoprofen. The increase in respiratory rate in response to the noxious stimulus was greater when ducks were given saline solution than when they were given ketoprofen only 70 minutes after drug administration. When ducks were given ketoprofen, duration of the noxious stimulus was significantly longer 50 and 70 minutes, but not 30 minutes, after drug administration. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Ketoprofen reduced the increase in heart and respiratory rates associated with application of a noxious stimulus in spontaneously breathing adult Mallard ducks anesthetized with isoflurane delivered at approximately 2.9%, suggesting that ketoprofen had analgesic effects in these ducks. The onset of analgesic effects may be longer than 30 minutes in some ducks.


Effect of medetomidine-butorphanol-ketamine anaesthesia and atipamezole on heart and respiratory rate and cloacal temperature of domestic pigeons. Atalan, G; Usun, M.; Demirkan, I.; Cenesiz, M. Journal of Veterinary Medicine: Series A, 2002, v. 49 (6), p. 281-285. ISSN: 0931-184X.

            NAL call no: 41.8 Z5

            Descriptors: domestic pigeon, ketamine, zolazepam, tiletamine, dosage.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sedative-anaesthetic effects of a combination of medetomidine (M, 50 mug per pigeon), butorphanol (B, 50 mug pe pigeon) and ketamine (K, 25 mg per pigeon) in domestic pigeons. Eight domestic pigeons (four male and four female, 8-15 months old) were used. The combination of Medetomidine and butorphanol injectable solutions were used to produce sedation. Ten minutes after M+B administration, K was injected. The anaesthetic effects of the drugs were reversed by administration of Atipamazole (AT) at 60 min after K administration. All drugs were injected into the pectoral muscles. The sedative-anaesthesia effects of the M+B-K combination and, alterations in respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), electrocardiographic (ECG) findings and cloacal temperature (CT) were investigated before and 10 min after pre-medication with M+B, at 5, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min during the onset of K anaesthesia and at 1, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 min following the administration of AT. The HR and RR of pigeons decreased within 10 min following M+B administration and remained lower until 1st and 5 min of AT injection, respectively. In ECG, no significant alterations in P, Q, R and S values were observed, however, arrhythmia was recorded for three pigeons, which returned to normal values following AT administration throughout the measurement. Cloacal temperature decreased gradually during the anaesthesia from 41.0 to 32.7 degrees C. The drug combination used in this study produced a satisfactory general anaesthesia for seven of the eight pigeons. All pigeons were unconscious within 5 min after K administration as indicated by disappearance of the palpebral and corneal reflexes and lack of reaction to the pain stimuli during the study. The effect of AT administration was observed within 10 min as all pigeons responded partly against stimuli and all reflexes. It is concluded that M+B-K anaesthesia in pigeons is a safe and reliable anaesthetic protocol for surgery.


Field immobilization of King Penguins with tiletamine-zolazepam. Thil, Marie Anne; Groscolas, Rene. Journal of Field Ornithology, Summer, 2002, v. 73 (3), p. 308-317. ISSN: 0273-8570.

            NAL call no: 413.8 B534

            Descriptors: tiletamine, general anesthetic drug, zolazepam, IM administration.

Abstract: The use of an injectable combination of tiletamine-zolazepam to immobilize King Penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) in the field was tested in non-incubating and incubating adults and in chicks. We also compared the behavioral and physiological response to this anesthetic agent according to the position used for immobilization (dorsal: lying on the back; ventral: lying on the belly) and following repeated administrations at one or several day intervals throughout a prolonged natural fast. A 5-mg/kg dosage administered intra-muscularly allowed an efficient immobilization of 97% of the adults for about one hour and after an induction time averaging 5 min. Birds kept in the dorsal position and without thermal insulation remained immobilized longer than those kept in the ventral position. Chicks were immobilized for 80 min. after receiving a 4-mg/kg dosage. The anesthetized birds lost the pain, noise, touch and podal reflex but not the palpebral one and showed no major side effects. Penguins responded similarly to repeated injections and recovered without complications or adverse reactions. Five of eight incubating adults resumed incubation after having been anesthetized. We concluded that immobilization of King Penguins with tiletamine-zolazepam is safe and efficient, allowing routine health examination and interventions such as, for example, vein catheterization and adipose tissue biopsies.


Oral administration of tiletamine/zolazepam for the immobilization of the Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo). Janovsky, Martin; Ruf, Thomas; Zenker, Wolfgang. Journal of Raptor Research, Sept. 2002, v. 36 (3), p. 188-193. ISSN: 0892-1016.

            NAL call no: QL696 F3J682

            Descriptors: common buzzard, tiletamine, dosage, zolazepam, oral administration.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy or oral administration of tiletamine/zolazepam in a bait for immobilizing Common Buzzards (Buteo buteo) (N=20). Two different dosages and two different methods of administration were compared. A dosage of 80 mg/kg was sufficient in most birds to enable safe handling after 30-60 min, whereas the majority of animals receiving 40 mg/kg still showed defensive reflexes. Birds receiving the drug in a powder form reached the deepest stage of anaesthesia after 30 min, whereas birds receiving a solution reached this stage significantly later, but not before 60 min. When the prepared bait with 80 mg/kg powder was stored for 7 to 14 hr, respectively, effectiveness of immobilization was significantly decreased compared to bait which was administered immediately after preparation.


O sevofluorano em psitacideos (Amazonas aestiva). Determinacao da dose minima (D.A.M) para producao de anestesia geral. Sevoflurane in psitacines (Amazonas amazona aestiva). [Determination of minimal anesthetic concentration to produce general anesthesia.] Alves-Nicolau, Alexandra; Auler, Jose Otavio; Tabbachi,-Fantoni, Denise; Ambrosio, Aline. Ciencia Rural, 2002, v. 32 (5), p. 781-786. ISSN: 0103-8478. Note: In Portuguese.

            NAL call no: S192 R4

            Descriptors: Amazona aestiva, Psittacidae, sedation, general anesthesia, sevoflurane.

Abstract: Ten adult psittacines (Amazonas aestiva) were used. After appropriate immobilization the anesthetic induction was accomplished with facial mask connected to modified circuit of Maffil using 6V% of Sevoflurane with oxygen flow rate at 1.5/l. The minimal concentration was determined in a manner similar to that proposed by LUDDERS et. al. (1990). The MAC obtained was 3.44V% higher than MAC. Proposed to mammals. Sevoflurane can be used safely in avian species once it did not alter significantly all physiological parameters analyzed.





Advances in avian anesthesia. Heard, D.J. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Jan. 13-17, 2001, Eastern States Veterinary Association, 2001, v. 15, p. 736-737. In the volume: Small Animal and Exotics. Part of a three volume set.

            NAL call no: SF605.N672

            Descriptors: birds, anesthesia.


Analgesia and analgesic techniques. Robertson, Sheilah. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice, Jan. 2001, v. 4 (1), p. 1-18. ISSN: 1094-9194.

            NAL call no: SF601.V523

            Descriptors: analgesia and analgesic techniques, sedation, treatment techniques.


Analgesia and anesthesia. Heard, Darryl L. (Ed.). Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice, Jan. 2001, v. 4 (1), i-xii. P. 1-308. ISSN: 1094-9194.

            NAL call no: SF997.5.E95E97

            Descriptors: analgesia, sedation, anesthesia, exotic taxa, treatment techniques.


Anesthesia update: Agents, definitions, and strategies. Heavner, J.E. Comparative Medicine, Dec. 2001, v. 51 (6), p. 500-503. ISSN: 1532-0820.

            NAL call no: SF77.C65

            Descriptors: laboratory animals, inhaled anesthetics, blood gases, halothane, isoflurane, birds.


Avian analgesia. Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Ludders, John W. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice, Jan. 2001, v. 4 (1), p. 35-45. ISSN: 1094-9194.

            NAL call no: SF997.5.E95E97

            Descriptors: Aves, analgesia, treatment techniques, birds.


Avian anesthesia. Abou-Madi, Noha. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice, Jan. 2001, v.4 (1), p. 147-167. ISSN: 1094-9194.

            NAL call no: SF997.5.E95E97

            Descriptors: Aves, sedation, anesthesia, birds.


Capnographic monitoring of anesthetized African grey parrots receiving intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Edling, T.M.; Degernes, L.A.; Flammer, K.; Horne, W.A. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Dec. 15, 2001, v. 219 (12), p. 1714-1718. ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL call no: 41.8 Am3

            Descriptors: African grey parrots, anesthesia, monitoring, isoflurane, blood gases, heart rate, pH.

Abstract: Objective: To determine whether end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PETCO2) correlated with PaCO2in isoflurane-anesthetized African grey parrots receiving intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV). Design Prospective study. Animals 4 healthy mature African grey parrots Psittacus erithacus timnusl. Procedure. Each bird was anesthetized via mack with isoflurane, intubated, and connected to a pressure-limited intermittent-flow ventilator. Respiratory rate was altered while holding peak inspiratory pressure constant (5cm H2O) to achieve a PETCO2 in 1 of 3 ranges: <30 mm Hg., 30 to 40 mm Hg, and >40 mm Hg. Blood was collected from the superficial ulnar artery of each bird at least once during each of the 3 ranges. Arterial blood samples were collected for blood gas analysis while PETCO2 was recorded simultaneously. Results- A strong correlation between PETCO2 and Pace2 was detected over a wide range of partial pressures, although PETCO2 consistently overestimated PaCO2 by approximately 5 mm Hg. End tidal partial pressure of CO2 and PaCO2 also correlated well with arterial blood pH, and the acute response of the bicarbonate buffer system to changes in ventilation was similar to that of mammals. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Results indicated that PETCO2 reliably estimates PaCO2 in isoflurane-anesthetized African grey parrots receiving IPPV and suggest that IPPV combined with capnography is a viable option for anesthetic-maintenance in avian anesthesia.


Injectable Anesthesia and Analgesia of Birds. J. Paul-Murphy; J. Fialkowski. (Updated Aug. 5, 2001). In: Recent Advances in Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia: Companion Animals, R.D. Gleed and J.W. Ludders (eds.). Covers various types of drugs and contains charts with drug, dosage and route, and species remarks. Available: Document No. A1409.0801.

            Descriptors: anesthesia, analgesia, injectable, birds.


Order Passeriformes (songbirds). Anesthesia. Guimaraes, Marta Brito. Biology, Medicine, and Surgery of South American Wild Animals, Fowler, Murray E.; Cubas, Zalmir S. (eds.)., Iowa State University Press, 2001, i-x, p. 1-536: Chapter pagination: 200-201. ISBN: 0813828465.

            NAL call no: SF996.4.B56 2001

            Descriptors: Passeriformes, care in captivity, sedation, anesthesia, captive management.


Pharmacodynamics of flunixin and ketoprofen in mallard ducks (Anas platyhynchos). Machin, Karen L.; Tellier, Lise A.; Lair, Stephane; Livingston, Alexander. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, Jun. 2001, v. 32 (2), p. 222-229. ISSN: 1042-7260.

            NAL call no: SF601.J6

            Descriptors: pharmacology, toxicology, birds, analgesic drug, dosage, anti-inflammatory.

Abstract: Flunixin (FLX) and ketoprofen (KET) are potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) used to alleviate pain and decrease inflammation. The se drugs block access of arachidonic acid to its binding site on the cyclooxygenase enzyme, thus preventing conversion to thromboxane A2 and subsequent degradation to thromboxane B2 (TXB). Consequently, plasma TBX may be used to estimate duration of NSAID action. Sixteen adult mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: control (n=4), FLX 5 mg/kg (n=6), or KET 5 mg/kg (n=6). Blood samples were taken 1 hour prior to and just before (0 hr) injection and 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hr after injection. Plasma samples were analyzed for corticosterone and TBX. The feces were tested for the presence of hemoglobin and the ducks were euthanized for complete necropsy at the end of the study. Samples of muscle, kidney, liver, proventriculus, and intestine were taken for histologic analysis. Thrombaxane was suppressed significantly in all birds following administration or either FLX or KET for 4 hr and decreased for approximately 12 hr compared with baseline samples (-1 and 0 hr). In the control group, TBX gradually declines over time. None of the ducks showed evidence of gastrointestinal bleeding, but the FLX group had muscle necrosis present at injection sites. FLX and KET likely exert pharmacological effects for at least 12 h. Although degree of TBX inhibition cannot be correlated absolutely with degree of analgesia or anti-inflammatory effects, it is possible that these effects are present during this time. This work suggests that FLX and KET can potentially be used as anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents in waterfowl. However, because of muscle necrosis at the injection site, we do not recommend parenteral use of FLX in ducks.


Proceedings of the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists 25th Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA Oct. 12-13, 2001. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 2001, v. 28 (2), p. 97-110. ISSN: 1467-2987.

            NAL call no: SF914.V47

            Descriptors: analgesics, inhaled anesthetics, injectable anesthetics, pharmacokinetics.

Abstract: This proceedings contains 29 papers on anaesthesia education and the use of anaesthetics and its effects on small animals (dogs and cats), ruminants (sheep and goats), horses, laboratory animals (guinea pigs) and exotic species (ostriches, tapirs, greater bush baby).


The use of haloperidol during the transport of adult ostriches. Pfitzer, S.; Lambrechts, H. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, Mar. 2001, v. 72 (1), p. 2. ISSN: 0038-2809.

            NAL call no: 41.8 SO12

            Descriptors: animal behavior, transport, halperidol, pharmacology, restraint.


Veterinary Anesthesia. Cornick, Seahorn J.L.; 2001, x, 318 p. Butterworth-Heinemann; Woburn; USA. ISBN: 0750672277.

            NAL call no: SF914.C67 2001

            Descriptors: anesthesia, anesthetics, dosage, equipment, pain, monitoring, care.

Abstract: The book contains 18 papers and 3 appendixes. Topics covered are: Introduction to anaesthesia and patient preparation; pharmacology and application of parenteral anaesthetic agents; local/regional anaesthetic techniques; inhalation agents; anaesthetic equipment; monitoring anaesthesia; supportive care during anaesthesia; pain management; introduction to anaesthetic management in specific diseases; anaesthetic management of dogs and cats; anaesthetic management of birds; anaesthetic management of small mammals; anaesthetic management of reptiles; anaesthetic management of horses; anaesthetic management of ruminants and camelids; anaesthetic management of pigs and overview of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Appendixes contains topics about approximate dosages of anaesthetic agents and adjuncts for common domestic species; drug scheduling classification and guidelines for storing, dispensing and administering scheduled agents and suggestions for anaesthetic preparation and management of high-risk patients.





Anestesia em aves: agentes anestesicos. [Anesthesia in birds: Anesthetic agents.] Guimaraes, Luciana Dambrosio; Moraes, Aury Nunes de. Ciencia Rural, Nov./Dec. 2000, v. 30 (6), p. 1073-1081. ISSN: 0103-8478. Note: In Portuguese.

            NAL call no: S192.R4

            Descriptors: Aves, sedation, anesthetic agents, effects, literature review.


Anesthesia and analgesia. Lawrence, M. Canadian Veterinary Journal, Mar. 2000, v. 41 (3), p. 229-230. ISSN: 0008-5286.

            NAL call no: 41.8 R3224

            Descriptors: anesthesia, pain, control, drugs, methods, techniques.


Avian analgesia. Clyde, V.L.; Paul, Murphy J.; Bonagura, J.D. Kirk’s Current Veterinary Therapy XIII: Small Animal Practice, 2000, p. 1126-1128. W.B. Saunders C., Philadelphia. ISBN: 0721655238.

            NAL call no: SF745 K57

            Descriptors: analgesics, pain, opioids, anesthetics, anti-inflammatory agents, birds.


Evaluation of isoflurane and propofol anesthesia for intraabdominal transmitter placement in nesting female canvasback ducks. Machin, Karen L.; Caulkett, Nigel A. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, Apr. 2000, v. 36 (2), p. 324-334. ISSN: 0090-3558.

            NAL call no: 41.9 W64B

            Descriptors: isoflurane, adverse effects, anesthetic drug, heart rate, body temperature.

Abstract: Heart rate, occurrence of apnea, body temperature quality of anesthesia and nest abandonment were compared during either propofol or isoflurane anesthesia of nesting female canvasback ducks (Aythya valisineria) at 15 to 18 days of incubation. One hundred eighteen canvasbacks were assigned randomly to three treatments so that nest abandonment could be compared among treatments from May to July, 1995 and 1996. Sterile dummy silicone implants were placed during an abdominal laparotomy while ducks were anesthetized with either propofol or isoflurane, or ducks were flushed from the nest but not captured (control). Propofol was delivered through an intravenous catheter, while isoflurane was delivered in oxygen. Propofol provided smooth, rapid induction and recovery, whereas ducks recovering from isoflurane tended to struggle. At the nest, ducks in the propofol group were given additional boluses until they were lightly anesthetized, whereas birds that received isoflurane were released. All birds survived surgery but one death occurred prior to surgery in 1995 using propofol during a period without ventilation and monitoring. Adequate artificial ventilation is recommended to prevent complications. Heart rate declined significantly in both years during isoflurane anesthesia and in 1995 during propofol anesthesia but not in 1996. During both isoflurane and propofol anesthesia body temperature declined significantly over time. Nest abandonment was significantly different among treatments and occurred in all treatment groups in both years, but propofol (15%) and control groups (8%) had lower than expected abandonment compared to isoflurane (28%). Propofol offers several advantages over isoflurane for field use; equipment is easily portable, lower anesthetic cost, and ambient temperature does not alter physical characteristics of the drug, Advantages over isoflurane, including lower nest abandonment following intraabdominal radio transmitter placement make propofol a good anesthetic choice for field studies.


Handbook of Veterinary Anesthesia. 3rd ed. Muir, William, 1946. C.V. Mosby, c 2000. xviii, 574 p. ill. ISBN: 0323008011.

            NAL call no: SF914.M85 2000

            Descriptors: veterinary anesthesia, handbooks, manuals, includes avian species.


Immobilization of budgerigars using ketamine and diazepam. Jayathangaraj, M.G.; John, Mathew C. Indian Veterinary Medical Journal, Jun. 2000, v. 24 (2), p. 165-166. ISSN: 0250-5266.

            NAL call no: SF601.I45

            Descriptors: diazepam, ketamine, efficacy, intramuscular administration.


Pain management in birds. Bennett, R.A. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Jan. 15-19, 2000. Eastern States Veterinary Association, v. 14, p. 867.

            NAL call no: SF605.N672

            Descriptors: analgesics, birds, pain management.


Veterinary Anaesthesis and Analgesia. Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists, American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists, European College of Veterinary Anaesthesia. Previous title: Journal of Veterinary Anaesthesia. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science, c 2000 v. ill. ISSN: 1467-2987.

            NAL call no: SF914.V47

            Descriptors: veterinary anesthesia, periodicals, includes avian species.





Anaesthesia of cranes with alphaxolone-alphadolone. Bailey, T.A.; Toosi, A.; Samour, J.H. Veterinary Record, Jul. 17, 1999, v. 145 (3), p. 84-85. ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL call no: 41.8 V641

            Descriptors: birds, anesthesia, dosage, safety, recovery, complications.


Anesthesia for small to medium sized exotic mammals, birds, and reptiles. Sedgwick, C.F.; Paddleford, R.R. Manual of Small Animal Anesthesia, 1999, ed. 2, p. 318-353. W.B. Saunders, Co. Philadelphia. ISBN: 0721649695.

            NAL call no: SF914.M36 1999

            Descriptors: pets, anesthesia, small mammals, exotics, anesthetics, avian species.


Analgesic effects of butorphanol and buprenorphine in conscious African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus and Psittacus erithacus timneh). Paul-Murphy, Joanne R.; Brunson, David B.; Miletic, Vjekoslav. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 1999, v. 60 (10), p. 1218-1221. ISSN: 0002-9645.

            NAL call no: 41.8 AM3A

            Descriptors: African grey parrot, butorphanol, buprenorphine, analgesic drug.

Abstract: Objective: To evaluate effects of butorphanol tartrate and buprenorphine hydrochloride on withdrawal threshold to a noxious stimulus in conscious African grey parrots. Animals: 29 African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus and Psittacus erithacus timneh). Procedure: Birds were fitted with an electrode on the medial metatarsal region of the right leg, placed into a test box, and allowed to acclimate. An electrical stimulus (range 0.0 to 1.46 mA) was delivered to each bird’s foot through an aluminum perch. A withdrawal response was recorded when the bird lifted its foot from the perch or vigorously flinched its wings. Baseline threshold to a noxious electrical stimulus was determined. Birds were then randomly assigned to receive an IM injection of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, butorphanol (1.0mg/kg of body weight), or buprenorphine (0.1 mg/kg), and threshold values were determined again. Results: Butorphanol significantly increased threshold value, but saline solution or burprenorphine did not significantly change threshold values. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Butorphanol had an analgesic effect, significantly increasing the threshold to electrical stimuli in African grey parrots. Buprenorphine at the dosage used did not change the threshold to electrical stimulus. Butorphanol provided an analgesic response in half of the birds tested. Butorphanol would be expected to provide analgesia to African grey parrots in a clinical setting.


Avian analgesia. Langenberg, J. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Jan. 9-13, 1999. Eastern States Veterinary Association, v. 13, p. 718-719.

            NAL call no: SF605.N672

            Descriptors: birds, analgesics, pain.


Avian analgesia. Clyde, Victoria L.; Paul-Murphy, Joanne. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy, 4th ed. Fowler, Murray E.; Miller, R. Eric. W.B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia. 1999 ed. 4, i-xxiii, p. 1-747. Chapter pagination: 309-314. ISBN: 0721686648.

            NAL call no: SF996 Z66

            Descriptors: Aves, analgesia, pain, treatment techniques, analgesics.


Current anesthesia recommendations for companion birds. Miller, W.; Buttrick, M. Iowa State University Veterinarian, Fall, 1999, v. 61 (2), p. 67-75. ISSN: 0099-5851.

            NAL call no: 41.8 V6452

            Descriptors: birds, anesthetics, anesthesia, respiratory system.


The effects of isoflurane anesthesia on hematologic and plasma biochemical values of American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Dressen, Priscilla J.; Wimsatt, Jeffery; Burkhard, Mary Jo. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, Sept. 1999, v. 13 (3), p. 173-179. ISSN: 1082-6742.

            NAL call no: SF994.J6

            Descriptors: sedation, isoflurane anesthesia, blood and plasma, effects.

Abstract: The effect of repeat blood sampling and anaesthesia on haematological and plasma biochemical values of American kestrels was investigated. In a validation study, blood samples from 6 awake kestrels were collected twice, 10 min apart, and results of haematological testing and plasma biochemical analysis were compared. Of the analytes measured, only the packed cell volume (PCV) value significantly changed (decreased) in the second sample. A weight-normalized model was used to correct for the dilutional effect of the first blood collection on the second sample values. However, with correction, the decrease in the PCV value remained, suggesting that this decrease was not likely to be caused solely by sampling-induced haemodilution. In a second study of 29 kestrels, haematological and plasma biochemical values were compared before and after 10 min of isoflurane anaesthesia. In this comparison, significant differences were observed in the basophil cpunt and in the values of albumin, alanine, aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen, cholesterol, creatinine, globulin, PCV, plasma protein, potassium, total protein and uric acid. However, after correcting for the effects of sampling dilution, only the changes in uric acid and potassium values could be attributed to the effects of anaesthesia. Age, sex and weight-related effects were also observed for selected values. It is concluded that the combined effect of isoflurane anaesthesia and repeat blood sampling causes more dramatic changes in analyte values than repeat sampling alone. Both the method and frequency of blood sample collection in kestrels must be considered when interpreting blood values.


Essential of Small Animal Anesthesia and Analgesia. Thurmon, John C.; Tranquilli, William J.; Benson, G. John.1999, viii, 580 p. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA. ISBN: 0683301071.

            NAL call no: SF914.E77 1999

            Descriptors: analgesics, anesthetics, fluid therapy, birds, amphibians, mammals.

Abstract: Written by leading experts on the subject, this easy-to-use handbook provides concise information on the principles of anesthesia for dogs, cats, birds, reptiles, and amphibians in routine clinical settings. Chapters cover such topics as perioperative pain management; pharmacology; anesthesia and the cardiovascular, respiratory, and central nervous systems; local anesthetic and analgesic techniques; acid-base balance and fluid therapy; euthanasia; and anesthetic emergencies and accidents. The text, intended for use as a guide to the more comprehensive third edition of Lumb and Jone’s textbook, Veterinary Anesthesia, is adequately illustrated and includes a subject index, tables, charts, and cross references to the parent book. Students and practitioners of veterinary medicine will benefit from this volume.


Evaluation of tiletamine-zolazepam as an anesthetic in quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Nicolau, A.A.; Spinosa, H. De S.; Maiorka, P.C.; Guerra, J.L. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science, Jan. 1999, v. 38 (1), p. 73-75. ISSN: 1060-0558.

            NAL call no: SF405.5.A23

            Descriptors: Japanese quail, anesthesia, drug combinations, dosage, drug effects.

Abstract: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) administered alone or in combination with atropine, xyl azine, and levomepromazine to quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). The induction time, duration of hypnosis and anesthesia, and time to recovery were determined. The presence or absence of tremor, upper respiratory tract secretions, and excitability and the degree of muscular tone were also observed. The results showed that doses from 10 to 100 mg/kg TZ administered alone or in combination with xylzine or levomepromazine failed to produce anesthesia; only hypnosis was obtained in a dose-dependent manner. Immediately after injection of the drug, histopathologic examination of the site of drug injection indicated the presence of discrete acute focal myositis. After 21 days, a discrete fibrosis between muscle fibers was detected in the pectoral muscle as a sign of scarring. We concluded that the administration of TZ to a dose of 100 mg/kg does not produce anesthesia in quail. For noninvasive and minimally painful procedures requiring chemical restraint and recumbency, the recommended dose is 30 mg/kg.


Manual of Small Animal Anesthesia. Paddleford, R.R. 1999. ed. 2, 372 p. W.B. Saunders, Co. Philadelphia, PA. ISBN: 0712640605.

            NAL call no: SF914 M36 1999

            Descriptors: anesthesia, anesthetics, pets, avian species.

Abstract: This manual has been thoroughly revised and updated since the first edition, published in 1988. The entire anaesthetic process is examined, including preanaesthetic agents, general anaesthesia, neuromuscular blocking agents, equipment, ventilation and monitoring, emergencies and complications, fluid, electrolyte and acid balance and postoperative patient care. There is a separate chapter on anaesthesia of exotic mammals, birds and reptiles. The 5 contributors are recognized experts in anaesthesia and critical care.


Propofol anesthesia. Short, Charles E.; Bufalari, Antonello. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, May, 1999, v. 29 (3), p. 747-778. ISSN: 0195-5616.

            NAL call no: SF601 SO12

            Descriptors: birds, mammals, side effects, metabolism, induction, maintenance.


Sevoflurane anesthesia in psittacines. Quandt, Jane E.; Greenacre, Cheryl B. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, Jun., 1999, v. 30 (2), p. 308-309. ISSN: 1042-7260.

            NAL call no: SF601.J6

            Descriptors: Psittaciformes, sedation, isoflurane and sevoflurane anesthesia.

Abstract: Duration of anaesthesia onset (time to intubation) and recovery (time to extubation, sternal and standing) and quality of recovery were compared for sevoflurane and isoflurane in 10 adult psittacines (1 yellow-napped amazon [Amazona ochraacephala auropalliata], 3 Hispaniolan Amazons [A. ventralis], 2 blue-fronted Amazons [A. aestiva], 1 Congo African grey parrot [Psittacus erithacus erithacus], 1 umbrella cockatoo [Cactua alba] and 2 Goffin’s cockatoos [C. goffini]. Both agents were initially administered at an equal volume percentage (2%) rather than at equal minimum alveolar concentrations (MACs), therefore the initial concentration was above the isoflurane MAC for dogs and birds (1.3%) but below the sevoflurane MAC for dogs (2.3%). The time to intubation was significantly longer with sevoflurane because of initially delivering the sevoflurane below suspected MAC for birds. Although recovery times (time to extubation, sternal, and standing) were not significantly different, birds recovering from sevoflurane were less ataxic. It is concluded that sevoflurane is a suitable inhalant agent for use in psittacines.


A technique for evaluating analgesia in conscious perching birds. Paul-Murphy, J.R.; Brunson, D.B.; Miletic, V. American Journal of Veterinary Research, Oct. 1999, v. 60 (10), p. 1213-1217. ISSN: 0002-9645.

            NAL call no: 41.8 Am3A

            Descriptors: Psittacus, pain, analgesics, assessment, opioids.

Abstract: Objective: to develop a technique for objective assessment of modulation of nociperception in conscious perching birds. Animals: 31 adult African grey parrots. Procedure: Birds were randomly assigned to receive saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (n=10), butorphanol tartrate (11), or buprenorphine hydrochloride (10), IM. Birds were fitted with a surface electrode on the medial tarsus of 1 leg. An electrical stimulus was delivered to the bird’s foot through an aluminum surface on half of the perch. The alternate side of the perch delivered a noxious thermal stimulus. A withdrawal response to either stimulus was recorded when the bird lifted its foot or vigorously flinched its wings. Results: Responses to thermal stimuli were extremely variable during baseline testing and after administration of drugs. Thus, significant differences were not detected after drug injection. In contrast, responses to an electrical stimulus were predictable with much less variation. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: This method and device allowed for the reliable determination of withdrawal threshold in perching birds. Use of this technique for objective assessment of modulation of nociperception in conscious perching birds will enable assessment of analgesic drugs.





Anesthesia of pet birds. Curro, Thomas G. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine, Jan. 1998, v. 7 (1), p. 10-21. ISSN: 1055-937X.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1S36

            Descriptors: Aves, sedation, anesthesia procedures, review.


Anesthesia and surgery of ratites. Gilsleider, Edward F. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, Nov. 1998, v. 14 (3), p. 503-524. ISSN: 0749-0720.

            NAL call no: SF601.V535

            Descriptors: ratite sedation, anesthesia, treatment techniques, surgical techniques.


Avian anesthesia. Forbes, N.A. Voorjaarsdagen Congress, 1998, Veterinary Quarterly, 20: supplement, S65-S66. ISSN: 0165-2176.

            NAL call no: SF601.V46

            Descriptors: anesthesia, aviary birds, flunixin.


Cardiopulmonary effects of propofol and a medetomidine-midazolam-ketamine combination in mallard ducks. Machin, K.L.; Caulett, N.A. American Journal of Veterinary Research, May 1998, v. 59 (5), p. 598-602. ISSN: 0002-9645.

            NAL call no: 41.8 Am3A

            Descriptors: ducks, propofol, injectable anesthetics, drug combinations, drug effects.


Evaluation of pulse oximetry as a monitoring method in avian anesthesia. Schmitt, Petra M.; Gobel, Thomas; Trautvetter, Eberhard. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, Jun. 1998, v. 12 (2), p. 91-99. ISSN: 1082-6742.

            NAL call no: SF994.J6

            Descriptors: Aves, sedation, blood oxygen, metabolism, anesthesia monitoring.

Abstract: The heart rate and pulse rate were measured in 47 anaesthetized birds of 5 species using 2 commercial pulse oximeters. The trend of oxygenation was well recorded, but the saturation values recorded by pulse oximetry did not correlate well (r =0.81) with arterial saturation derived from blood gas analyses. Pulse rate correlated well with heart rate in both oximeters. Good recordings were obtained in calm birds, however, values fluctuated during the surgery and with incidents such as dysrhythmia or severe blood loss. It is concluded that pulse oximetry is not satisfactory for routine use in avian practice and that an avian calibration curve, which would consider the specific avian photometric behavior of haemoglobin, should be developed before oximetry can be adapted for use in birds.


Investigation of injectable anesthetic agents in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos): A descriptive study. Machin, K.L.; Caulkett, N.A. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 1998, v. 12 (4), p. 255-262. ISSN: 1082-6742.

            NAL call no: SF994.J6

            Descriptors: injectable anesthetics, anesthesia, drug combinations.

Abstract: 30 healthy mallard ducks were used in the study. The injectable anaesthetics investigated included xylazine, medetomidine, katamine, midazolam, butorphanol, fentanyl, sufentanil, methohexital, alphaxalone-alphadolone and propofol. The reversal agents atipamezole and flumazenil were also examined. Drugs were administered alone or in combination by the i.m., intranasal (i.n.) or i.v. route. Anaesthetic effects were recorded, and analgesia was assessed by response to toe pinching and feather plucking. Incremental doses were given when the effect of the initial dose was poor. No anaesthetic regimen was effective when administered by the i.m. route, and i.n. administration resulted in unreliable depth of anaesthesia. Intravenous administration of anaesthetic agents was more effective, but few regimens provided adequate duration of anaesthesia or analgesia for a surgical procedure. Intravenous administration of s medetomidine-midazolam-ketamine combination produced adequate anaesthesia and analgesia of a 30- min duration, and the effects of the combination could be reversed with atipamezole and flumazenil. Administration of i.v. propofol produced smooth induction and recovery, excellent muscle relaxation, and short duration of anaesthesia requiring additional boluses to prolong and maintain anaesthesia.


A method for anaesthesia and post-operative care for experimental procedures in avian species. Blogg, S.L.; Townsend, P.P.; Butler, P.J.; Taylor, E.W. Animal Technology (Sussex), The Institute. Aug. 1998, v. 49 (2), p. 101-109. ref. ISSN: 0264-4754.

            NAL call no: QL55.I5

Descriptors: ducks, Aythya fuligula, Anas platyhynchos, diving, injectable anesthetics, medetomidine, ketamine.

Abstract: This paper describes a successful method of anaesthesia for prolonged and/or invasive avian surgery, along with an appropriate protocol for post-operative care. These methods were determined during a neuroanatomical study of two species of bird, the tufted duck (Aythya fuligula) and the domestic duck (Anas platyhynchos), as part of an ongoing scientific study. Descriptions of current, relevant techniques of anaesthesia suitable for this study, were not readily available, therefore we felt that details of our methods would be a valuable contribution to this field. A standard operating procedure for use in similar studies and an example of an avian post-operative score sheet are outlined.


Recommendations for anesthesia in raptors with comments on trumpeter swans. Redig, Patrick T. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine, Jan. 1998, v. 7 (1), p. 22-29. ISSN: 1055-937X.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1S36

            Descriptors: Falconiformes, sedation, anesthesia, recommended procedures, review.


Respiratory physiology of birds: Considerations for anesthetic management. Ludders, John W. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine, Jan. 1998, v. 7 (1), p. 3-9. ISSN: 1055-937X.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1S36

            Descriptors: Aves, sedation, anesthesia, anatomy, physiology, literature review.


Safety of isoflurane anaesthesia in high risk avian patients. Olkowski, A.A.; Classen, H.L. Veterinary Record, Jul. 18, 1998, v. 143 (3), p. 82-83. ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL call no: 41.8 V641

            Descriptors: chickens, turkeys, isoflurane, anesthesia, safety, adverse effects.


Twenty years of progress in avian anesthesia and surgery. Altman, R.B. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Apr. 15, 1998, v. 212 (8), p. 1233-1235. ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL call no: 41.8.Am3

            Descriptors: birds, anesthesia, surgery, history.





Anesthesia and analgesia. Heard, Darryl J. Avian Medicine and Surgery, Altman, Robert B.; Clubb, Susan L.; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Quesenberry, Katherine. W.B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia. 1997. i-xv. p. 1-1070. Chapter pagination: 807-827. ISBN: 0721654460.

            NAL call no: SF994.A95 1997

            Descriptors: analgesia, sedation, anesthesia, treatment techniques, review.


Anesthesia and analgesia in laboratory animals. Kohn, Dennis F. American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine Series. San Diego: Academic Press c 1997. xvii, 426 p. ill. ISBN: 0124175708.

            NAL call no: SF996.5.A54 1997

            Descriptors: laboratory animals, surgery, veterinary anesthesia, analgesia.


Anesthetic management of ratites. Lin, H.C.; Ko, J.C.H. The Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian, Apr. 1997, v. 19 (4, suppl.) p. S127-S132. ISSN: 0193-1903.

            NAL call no: SF601.C66

            Descriptors: ostriches, restraint, preanesthetic medication, injectable anesthetics.


Cardiopulmonary and anesthetic effects of propofol in wild turkeys. Schumacher, J.; Citino, S.B.; Hernandez, K.; Hutt, J.; Dixon, B. American Journal of Veterinary Research, Sept. 1997, v. 58 (9), p. 1014-1017. ISSN: 0002-9645.

            NAL call no: SF914.V47

            Descriptors: turkeys, anesthesia injectable anesthetics, safety heart rate, blood gases.

Abstract: Objective- to determine safety, anesthetic variables, and cardiopulmonary effects of IV infusion of propofol for induction and maintenance of anesthesia in wild turkeys. Animals-10 healthy, adult turkeys. Procedure-Anesthesia was induced by IV administration of propofol (5 mg/kg of body weight) over 20 seconds and was maintained for 30 minutes by constant IV infusion of propofol at a rate of 0.5 mg/kg/min. Heart rate and respiratory rates, arterial blood pressures, and arterial blood gas tensions were obtained prior to propofol administration (baseline values) and again at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes after induction of anesthesia. All birds were intubated immediately after induction anesthesia, and end tidal CO2 concentration was determined at the same time intervals. Supplemental oxygen was not provided. Results-Apnea was observed for 10 to 30 seconds after propofol administration, which induced a decrease in heart rate; however, the changes were not significant. Compared with baseline values, respiratory rate was significantly decreased at 4 minutes after administration of propofol and thereafter. Systolic, mean, and diastolic pressure decreased over the infusion period, but the changes were not significant. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased by 30% after 15 minutes of anesthesia; end-tidal CO2 concentration increased from baseline values after 30 minutes; Po, was significantly decreased at 5 minutes after induction and thereafter; P-CO2 was significantly (P it 0.05) increased after 15 minutes-of anesthesia; and arterial oxygen saturation was significantly (P it 0.05) decreased at the end of anesthesia. Two male turkeys developed severe transient hypoxemia, 1 at 5 and the other at 15 minutes after induction. Time to standing after discontinuation of propofol infusion was 11+6 minutes. Recovery was smooth and unremarkable. Conclusion-Propofol is an effective agent for IV induction and maintenance of anesthesia in wild turkeys, and is useful for short procedures or where the use of inhalation agents is contraindicated.


Repair of femur fracture in a peacock under ketamine anaesthesia: A case report. Singh, Y.P.; Singh, Man. Indian Veterinary Journal, 1997, v. 74 (2), p. 170-171. ISSN: 0019-6479.

            NAL call no: SF601.I45

            Descriptors: femur fracture, general anesthetic drug, intramedullary pinning, leg repair.

Abstract: Surgical repair of femur fracture in a peacock is described. The repair was achieved using intramedullary pinning under ketamine anaesthesia.


Use of xylazine, butorphanol, tiletamine-zolazepam, and isoflurane for induction and maintenance of anesthesia in ratites. Lin, H.C.; Todhunter, P.G.; Powe, T.A.; Ruffin, D.C. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Jan. 15, 1997, v. 210 (2), p. 244-248. ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL call no: 41.8 Am3

            Descriptors: emus, rhea, ostriches, opioids, injectable anesthetics, drug combinations.

Abstract: Anesthesia with xylazine, butorphanol, tiletamine-zolazepam, and isoflurane in ratites (9emus, 3 rheas, 6 ostriches) was investigated. Anaesthetic treatments included 4 regimens: induction and maintenance of anaesthesia with isoflurane, preanaesthetic sedation with xylazine and butorphanol followed by induction and maintenance of anaesthesia with isoflurane, induction of anaesthesia with tiletamine-zolazepam and maintenance with isoflurane, and pre-anaesthetic sedation with xylazine and butorphanol followed by induction of anaesthesia with tiletamine-zolazeoam and maintenance with isoflurane. None of the birds developed irreversible adverse effects, but 2 developed bradycardia (1 was treated with atropine and responded) and 2 others developed transient apnoea. Intravenous administration of tiletamine-zolazepam produced rapid and smooth induction of anaesthesia in adult ostriches.





Anaesthesia. Lawton, Martin P.C. Manual of Raptors, Pigeons and Waterfowl, 1996, p. 79-88. Beynon, P.H.; Forbes, N.A.; Harcourt-Brown, N.H. eds. Iowa State University Press. ISBN: 0813828767.

            NAL call no: SF994.B73 1996

            Descriptors: analgesia, anesthesia, monitoring, postoperative care, sedation, birds.


Anaesthesia. Lawton, Martin P.C. BSAVA Manual of Psittacine Birds, New edition. 1996. p. 49-59. Beynon, P.H.; Forbes, N.A.; Lawto n, M.P.C. (eds.). Iowa State University Press. ISBN: 0813823498.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1M37 1996

            Descriptors: analgesia, premedication, sedation, psittacine birds, anesthesia, parrots.


Anesthesiology of ratites. Cornick-Seahorn, J.L. Ratite Management, Medicine, and Surgery, Krieger Publishing Co. 1996, p. 79-94. ISBN: 0894648748.

            NAL call no: SF995.5.R37 1996

            Descriptors: ostriches, emus, rheas, birds, preanesthetic medication, anesthesia.


Anesthetic agents. Altman, R.B.; Johnston, D. (ed.); Waner, T. Proceedings and Abstracts 21st Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA), Jerusalem, Israel. Oct. 20-23, 1996, 96 p.

            Descriptors: anesthesia, ketamine, diazepam, aviary birds, anesthetics.


Avian anesthesia administration. Rosskopf, Walter J.; Woerpel, Richard W.; Reed, Sue: Snider, Karen; Dispirito, Tony. University of Sydney Post Graduate Foundation in Veterinary Science Proceedings, 1996, v. 279, p. 173-199. ISSN: 1326-5091.

            NAL call no: SF604.R37 

            Descriptors: Aves, treatment techniques, sedation, anesthesia administration.


Avian anesthesia and patient monitoring.. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Mid Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians, Apr. 28-30, 1996, 1996, v. 17, p. 34-39.

            NAL call no: SF994.M52

            Descriptors: Aves, sedation, anesthesia, patient monitoring, birds, review .


Capturing Humbolt Penguins, Spheniscus humboldti, with the use of an anaesthetic. Luna, Jorquera G.; Culik, B.; Aquilar, R. Marine Ornithology, 1996, v. 24 (1-2), p. 47-50. ISSN: 1018-3337.

            Descriptors: ketamine hydrochloride, birds, general anesthetic, drug delivery.


Clinical perspectives of intravenous ketamine anaesthesia in peafowl (Pavo cristatus). Athar, M.; Shakoor, A.; Muhammad, G.; Sarwar, M.N.; Chaudry, N.I. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, 1996, v. 44 (3), p. 357-361. ISSN: 0236-6290.

            NAL call no: 41.8 AC83

            Descriptors: injectable anesthetics, anesthesia, surgery, dosage, ketamine.

Abstract: At the Faculty of Veterinary Science, Faisalabad, Pakistan, during [1994/1995?], 29 peafowl were surgically treated for infraorbital abscesses (22 birds), lacerated wounds (4 birds) and fractures of tibia (2 birds) and radius (1 bird) and were anaesthetized by i.v. administration of ketamine hydorchloride (Inj. Calypsol) at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight. Divided doses (10+5+5 mg/kg) were used with an interval of 1-2 min between each dose. Anaesthesia lasted for about 15 min and the birds recovered completely after 30 min to 3 hours. The respiration rate was greatly depressed during anaesthesia (8 to10 cycles/min) and birds had a deep abdominal respiratory pattern. Analgesia was incomplete and muscle relaxation was not satisfactory. Mild salivation was noticed in 3 anaesthetized birds. Recovery, although not smooth, was uneventful.


Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of a continuous infusion of gualfenesin, xylazine, and ketamine for maintenance of anesthesia in emus. Cornick, Seahorn J.L. Veterinary Surgery, 1996, v. 25 (2), p. 180. Scientific Abstracts from the 1995 American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists Meeting, Oct. 20, 1995, Atlanta, GA. ISSN: 0161-3499.

            NAL call no: SF911.V43

            Descriptors: safety, efficacy, drug combinations, anesthesia, immobilization.


Evaluation of sedation in quail by use of midazolam and reversed by use of flumazenil. Day, T.D.; Roge, C.K. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Sept. 1, 1996, v. 209 (5), p. 969-971. ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL call no: 41.8 Am3

            Descriptors: anesthesia, dosage effects, heart rate, respiration rate, drug antagonism.


Practical anesthesia administration. Rosskopf, Walter J. Jr.; Woerpel, Richard W. Diseases of Cage and Aviary Birds, Third ed. 1996: p. 664-671. Williams & Wilkins, London, UK. ISBN: 0683073826.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1D57

            Descriptors: anesthetic administration, dosing, maximum alveolar concentration, inhalants.


Principles of avian anesthesia and surgery. Altman, R.B.; Johnston, D. (ed).; Waner, T. Proceedings and Abstracts 21st Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA), Jerusalem, Israel. Oct. 20-23, 1996, p. 91-92.

            Descriptors: surgery, clinical examination, aviary birds, anesthesia.


Use of propofol for induction and maintenance of anesthesia in a barn owl (Tyto alba) undergoing tracheal resection. Mama, Khursheed R.; Phillips, Lyndsay G. Jr.; Pascoe, Peter J. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, Sept. 1996, v. 27 (3), p. 397-401. ISSN: 1042-7260.

            NAL call no: SF601.J6

            Descriptors: sedation, propofol, Strigiformes, Aves, short term anesthesia, surgery, owls.

Abstract: An adult barn owl was evaluated for respiratory distress. A partial proximal tracheal obstruction was diagnosed, and surgical resection of the affected segment was elected. Anaesthesia was induced with 4 mg i.v. propofol and maintained with 0.5 mg/kg/min propofol by continuous i.v. infusion. Heart rate, direct arterial blood pressure, respiratory rate, and arterial blood gases were measured before and during the anaesthetic period. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased from 148 mm Hg to 130 mm Hg transiently following anaesthetic induction. Arterial blood gas values were within normal limits (carbon dioxide = 34.3 mm Hg and oxygen = 86.7 mm Hg 15 min following induction). No complications were noted, and recovery was timely and uneventful. It is concluded that propofol may be used as an i.v. anaesthetic for short surgical procedures in barn owls.





Anaestesia negli uccelli. Utilizzo dell'associazione medetomidina-ketamina e dell'atipamezolo nell'anestesia degli uccelli non domestici. [Anesthesia of birds. Use of a medetomidine-ketamine combination and atipamezole in the anaesthesia of non-domestic birds.] Scrollavezza, P.; Zanichelli, S. Obiettivi e Documenti Veterinari, 1995, v. 16 (11), p. 13-16, 19-21. ISSN: 0392-1913. Note: In Italian.

            Descriptors: anesthetics, reviews, anesthesia, medetomidine, ketamine.


Arrhythmias associated with isoflurane anesthesia in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Aguilar, Roberto F.; Smith, Victoria E.; Ogburn, Phillip; Redig, Patrick T. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, Dec. 1995, v. 26 (4), p. 508-516. ISSN: 1042-7260.

            NAL call no: SF601.J6

            Descriptors: sedation, isoflurane anaesthesia, cardiac arrhythmia, heart beat, frequency.

Abstract: 12 bald eagles were each subjected to two 30 min sessions of anaesthesia. Each subject was anaesthetized with increasing amounts of isoflurane through a mask until a concentration of 4% was reached. Each eagle was then intubated and the isoflurane concentration was reduced to 2.5 - 3.5 % for anaesthetic maintenance. Electrocardiograms were obtained before induction and after 30 min of anaesthesia. Continuous lead II electrocardiographic monitoring was initiated before induction and continued until after recovery. Pulse and O2²saturation were monitored on all birds with a plethysmograph. Continuous gas flow was monitored following intubation with a sidestream gas analyser. In 5 randomly selected birds, 1 ml of venous blood was drawn at predetermined intervals from the ulnar vein into a syringe and refrigerated for subsequent blood gas and electrolyte analysis. Levels of venous O2, PO2, potassium, and pH were determined for each sample. In the same 5 birds, mean arterial and systolic blood pressures were monitored indirectly every 23 min. Temperatures were measured at the same intervals as those used for blood sampling. Arrhythmias were observed in 75% of the eagles and occurred during periods of induction or recovery in 80% of the cases. Though hypercapnia was suspected as a contributing factor, paired sample t-test analysis of measured data failed to indicate causality.


Chemical immobilization of red-necked ostriches (Struthio camelus) under field conditions. Ostrowski, S.; Ancrenaz, M. Veterinary Record, Feb. 11, 1995, v. 136 (6), p. 145-147. ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL call no: 41.8 V641

            Descriptors: ostriches, anesthesia, immobilization, dosage, drug combinations, effects.

Abstract: Sixteen red-necked ostriches (Struthio camelus) were darted under field conditions with combinations of etorphine hydrochloride with medetomidine of ketamine on 13 birds; xylazine hydrochloride and metomidate alone were used on one or 2 birds. The times to recumbency and recovery were recorded and compared. The principal complications during the anaesthetic procedure were myopathy due to over exertion and respiratory collapse. Etorphine combined with medetomidine produced good quality but short duration sedation, which allowed minor procedures to be carried out.


Inhalant anesthetics and inspired oxygen: Implications for anesthesia in birds. Ludders, J.W.; Seaman, G.C.; Erb, H.N. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, Jan./Feb. 1995, v. 31 (1), p. 38-41. ISSN: 0587-2871.

            NAL call no: SF601.A5

            Descriptors: birds, anesthesia, oxygen, respiration, heart rate, inhaled anesthetics.


Ostrich anaesthesia: Xylazine premedication followed by alphaxalone/alphadolone and isoflurane. Cullen, L.K.; Goerke, M.A.; Swan, R.A.; Clark, W.T.; Nandapi, D.; Colbourne, C. Australian Veterinary Journal, Apr. 1995, v. 72 (4), p. 153-154. ISSN: 0005-0423.

            NAL call no: 41.8 Au72

            Descriptors: ostriches, anesthesia, preanesthetic medication, drug combinations.


Principles and techniques of analgesia for zoological medicine. Heard, Darryl J. Proceedings of the Annual Veterinary Medical Forum American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 1995, v. 13, p. 62-64. ISSN: 0894-7708.

            NAL call no: SF605.V47

            Descriptors: analgesia, sensory reception, principles and techniques, review.





Anesthesia and analgesia. Cooper, J.E. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Eastern States Veterinary Association, Jan. 15-20,1994, p. 895-896.

            NAL call no: SF605.N672

            Descriptors: small mammals, anesthesia, analgesics, birds, methods, drugs, techniques.


Avian anesthesia for the general practitioner. Ludders, J.W. Proceeding of the North American Veterinary Conference, Eastern States Veterinary Association, Jan. 15-20, 1994, p. 791-793.

            NAL call no: SF605.N672

            Descriptors: birds, anesthesia, veterinary medicine, methods, drugs.


Determination of the ED50 of isoflurane and evaluation of the isoflurane-sparing effect of butorphanol in cockatoos (Cacatua spp.). Curro, T.G.; Brunson, D.B.; Paul, Murphy J. Veterinary Surgery, 1994, v. 23 (5), p. 429-433. ISSN: 0161-3400.

            NAL call no: SF911.V43

            Descriptors: anesthesia, inhaled anesthetics, analgesia, cockatoo.

Abstract: The use of butorphanol as an analgesic in a psittacine species was evaluated by determining its isoflurane-sparing effect. The Effective Dose 50 (ED 50) of isoflurane was determined using a bracketing technique based on the purposeful movement elicited by pressure applied to a digit with a haemostat. The ED50 of isoflurane for 11 cockatoos (4 greater sulfur crested, 3 lesser sulfur crested, and 4 citron crested) was determined to be 1.44 + 0.07%. After the administration of 1 mg/kg of butophanol tartrate intramuscularly (IM), the ED50 was significantly decreased to 1.08 + 0.05%. Physiological variables that changed significantly included decreases in heart rate, tidal volume (Vt), inspiratory (Ti) and expiratory times (Te), and an increase in respiratory rate. No complications resulted because of these changes. Based on the results, butorphanol produces an isoflurane-sparing effect in cockatoos and has the potential to be a useful analgesic in psittacines.


Effects of low and high fractions of inspired oxygen on ventilation in ducks anesthetized with isoflurane. Seaman, G.C.; Ludders, J.W.; Erb, H.N.; Gleed, R.D. American Journal of Veterinary Research, Mar. 1994, v. 55 (3), p. 395-398. ISSN: 0002-9645.

            NAL call no: 41.8 Am3A

            Descriptors: ducks, lung ventilation, oxygen, anesthesia, respiratory disorders.

Abstract: High fractions of inspired oxygen are commonly used during general anesthesia in birds. Observations in ducks anesthetized with halothane or pentobarbital indicated that high fractions of inspired oxygen depress ventilation. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that ducks hypoventilate when breathing high fractions of inspired oxygen, compared with the same ducks breathing low fractions of inspired oxygen. Respiratory variables were recorded in 7 ducks anesthetized with 1.4% isoflurane in oxygen. Four concentrations of oxygen (21, 40, 70, and >90%) were used for each duck. Respiratory rate decreased as the fraction of inspired oxygen increased, but not significantly. There was a significant decrease in tidal volume as Paco2 increased. Hyperoxia was observed to contribute to hypoventilation in ducks anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen.


Research Animal Anesthesia, Analgesia and Aurgery: Proceedings of a Conference Sponsored by SCAW held in Atlanta. Smith, Alison, C.; Swindle, M. Michael. Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, 1994. iv. 170 p. ill.

            NAL call no: SF914.R49 1994

Descriptors: veterinary anesthesia congress, veterinary surgery, laboratory animals, includes birds.


Small animal anesthesia part I and II. Muir, W.W. III. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Jan. 15-20, 1994, Eastern States Veterinary Association, 1994, p. 17-21.

            NAL call no: SF605.N672

            Descriptors: anesthesia.





Anesthesia monitoring of avian surgical patient. Thorstad, C.L. Veterinary Practice Staff, 1993, v. 5 (5), p. 8-11. ISSN: 1047-8639.

            NAL call no: SF601.V4747

            Descriptors: inhaled anesthetics, complications, anesthesia, aviary birds.


Determination of the ED50 of isoflurane and evaluation of the analgesic properties of the butorphanol in cockatoos (Cacatua spp.). Curro, T.G.; Brunson, D.B.; Paul Murphy J. Veterinary Surgery, 1993, v. 22 (6), p. 546. Abstracts from the Ninth Annual Veterinary Midwest Anesthesia Conference, Jun. 5, 1993, Champaign-Urbana, IL. ISSN: 0161-3499.

            NAL call no: SF911.V43

            Descriptors: anesthesia, inhaled anesthetics, analgesics, cockatoos.


Effects of ketamine-xylazine anesthesia on adrenal function and cardiac conduction in goshawks and pigeons. Lumeij, J.T. Raptor Biomedicine, Redig, Patrick T.; Cooper, John E.; Remple, J. David; Hunter, D. Bruce (eds). University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1993, i-xvii, p. 1-265. Chapter pagination: 145-149. ISBN: 0816622191.

            NAL call no: SF994.5.R36 1993

            Descriptors: sedation, ketamine-xylazine anesthesia, comparative effects.


The influence of midazolam on the minimum anesthetic concentration of isoflurane in racing pigeons. Smith, J.; Mason, D.E.; Muir, W.W. Veterinary Surgery, 1993, v. 22 (6), p. 546-547. ISSN: 0161-3499.

            NAL call no: SF911.V43

            Descriptors: racing animals, anesthesia, inhaled anesthetics, preanesthetic.


Inhalation anesthesia in birds of prey. Fitzgerald, Guy; Blais, Diane. Raptor Biomedicine, Redig, Patrick T.; Cooper, John E.; Remple, J.David; Hunter, D. Bruce (eds). University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1993, i-xvii. p. 1-265. Chapter pagination: 128-135. ISBN: 0816622191.

            NAL call no: SF994.5.R36 1993

            Descriptors: Falconiformes, sedation, inhalation anesthesia techniques, review.


Principles and techniques of anesthesia and analgesia for exotic practice. Heard, D.J. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, W.B. Saunders Co. Nov. 1993, v. 23 (6), p. 1301-1327. ISSN: 0195-5616.

            NAL call no: SF601.V523

            Descriptors: pets, anesthesia, sedation, treatment techniques, birds.





Anesthesia administration for pet birds. Part 1. Anesthetic agents. Rosskopf, W. Jr.; Woerpel, R.W.; Reed, S.; Snider, K.; Dispirito, T. Veterinary Practice Staff, 1992, v. 4 (2), p. 34-37. ISSN: 1047-8639.

            NAL call no: SF601.V4747

            Descriptors: aviary birds, injectable anesthetics, inhaled anesthetics, anesthesia.


Anesthesia administration in pet birds: Successful anesthetic protocol. Rosskopf, W.J.; Woerpel, R.W.; Reed, S.; Snider, K.; Dispirito, T. Veterinary Practice Staff, 1992, v. 4 (5), p. 10-14. ISSN: 1047-8639.

            NAL call no: SF601.V4747

            Descriptors: anesthetics, anesthesia, aviary birds.


Anesthetic management of ostriches. Cornick, J.L.; Jensen, J. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Jun. 1, 1992, v. 20 (11), p. 1661-1666. ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL call no: 41.8 Am3

            Descriptors: ostriches, anesthesia, anesthetics, heart rate, blood pressure, blood gases.

Abstract: Several anaesthetic induction protocols used to facilitate intubation and anaesthetic maintenance with isoflurane in 7 adult ostriches and 1 juvenile ostrich were evaluated. Induction protocols included i.v. administration of Telazol (zolazepam/tiletamine) i.v. administration of Vallium//Ketaset (diazepam/ketamine) with and without Rompun (xylazine), i.v. administration of xylazine/ketamine, i.m. administration of Wildnil (carfentanil) or xylamine/carfentanil, and mask induction with Aerrane (isoflurane). General anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in 100% oxygen for various procedures, including proventriculotomy (6 birds), tibial (1 bird) or mandibular (1 bird) fracture repair, and drainage of an iatrogenic haematoma (1 bird). Heart rate and respiratory rate varied greatly among birds. The arterial blood pressure values recorded from 6 of the birds during maintenance of general anaesthesia were higher than for most mammalian species, but were comparable to values reported for awake chickens and turkeys.


Anesthetic management for surgery in 10 ostriches. Matthews, N.S.; Hartsfield, S.M.; Sanders, E.A.; Light, G.S. Veterinary Surgery, 1992, v. 21 (2), p. 164. ISSN: 0161-3499.

            NAL call no: SF911.V43

            Descriptors: surgical operations, diazepam, ketamine, xylazine, anesthesia.


Effects of yohimbine as a reversing agent for ketamine-xylazine anesthesia in budgerigars. Heaton, J.T.; MD; Brauth, S.E. Laboratory Animal Science, Feb. 1992, v. 42 (1), p. 54-56. ISSN: 0023-6764.

            NAL call no: 410.9 P94

            Descriptors: budgerigars, anesthesia, yohimbine, ketamine, xylazine, dosage effects.

Abstract: Fourteen adult budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were anesthetized with a combination of ketamine hydrochloride (40mg/kg) and xylazine hydrochloride (10mg/kg) intramuscularly. Forty-five minutes after ketamine-xylazine injection, one of four yohimbine hydrochloride doses )0.0, 0.11, 0.275 0r 0.44 mg/kg, IM) was administered in a 0.7% saline vehicle. Latencies are recorded in minutes from yohimbine injection until subjects’ behavior indicated three different points of recovery: 1) lifting the head, 2) standing unaided without ataxia, and 3) perching. Means for all three recovery point latencies ere significantly reduced by 0.275 mg/kg of yohimbine compared with saline vehicle alone. Mean latencies among treatment groups for each of the three recovery points were not significantly different, other than control versus treated groups. Based on these results, we recommend a yohimbine dose of 0.275 mg/kg as an effective reversing agent for ketamine-xylazine anesthesia in budgerigars.


Minimal anesthetic concentration and cardiopulmonary dose-response to halothane in ducks. Ludders, J.W. Veterinary Surgery, 1992, v. 21 (4), p. 319-324. ISSN: 0161-3499.

            NAL call no: SF911.V43

            Descriptors: anesthesia, inhaled anesthetics, cardiovascular system, halothane.

Abstract: The minimal anaesthetic conc (MAC) for halothane and cardiopulmonary dose-responses at several conc of halothane were determined during spontaneous ventilation in 9 young adult Pekin ducks. The MAC for halothane was 1.04+0.11. There were dose-dependent decreases in ventilation, significant reductions in inspiratory and expiratory times, and prolongation of expiratory pause times. The end-tidal haolthane conc at apnoea in 5 ducks was <1.35% and anaesthetic index was <1.51. Heart rate increased significantly as the conc of halothane was increased, but arterial blood pressure did not change. Cardiac arrhythmias developed in 5 ducks at end-tidal halothane conc as low as 1.15%, and one duck died of cardiac arrest.


Moglichkeiten der Schmerzausschaltung beim Vogel - eine Ubersicht. [Possibilities for analgesia in birds. A review.] Warncke, G. Tierlaboratorium, 1992, no. 15, p. 67-82. ISSN: 0179-0862. Note: In German.

            NAL call no: QL55.Z46

            Descriptors: anesthesia, injectable anesthetics, inhaled anesthetics, analgesics.


Ostrich (Struthio camelus) immobilization using carfentanil and xylazine and reversal with yohimbine and naltrexone. Raath, J.P.; Quandt, S.K.F.; Malan, J.H. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, Dec. 1992, v. 63 (4), p. 138-140. ISSN: 0301-0732.

            NAL call no: 41.8 SO8

            Descriptors: ostriches, anesthesia, drug restraint.


Pain in birds. Gentle, M.J. Animal Welfare, 1992, v. 1 (4), p. 235-247. ISSN: 0962-7286.

            NAL call no: HV4701.A557

            Descriptors: animal welfare, debeaking, analgesics, pain, reviews.

Abstract: The physiology of pain, pain receptors, behavioural and physiological responses to pain, pain following trauma (including beak amputation), and analgesia in birds are reviewed.




Anesthesia in caged birds. Doolen, M.D.; Jackson, L. Iowa State University Veterinarian, 1991, v. 53 (2), p. 76-80. ISSN: 0099-5851.

            NAL call no: 41.8 V6425.

            Descriptors: aviary birds, inhaled anesthetics, injectable anesthetics, anesthesia.


Intravenously administered propofol for anesthesia of the common buzzard (Buteo buteo), the tawny owl (Strix aluco), and the barn owl (Tyto alba). Milaelian, J. Proceedings of the First Conference of the European Committee of the Association of Avian Veterinarians, Vienna, Mar. 13-16, 1991, p. 97-101.

            NAL call no: SF994.A2

            Descriptors: anesthesia, injectable anesthetics, birds.


Premature ventricular contractions and apparent hypertension during anesthesia in an ostrich. Matthews, N.S.; Burba, D.J.; Cornick, J.L. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Jun. 1, 1991, v. 198 (11), p. 1959-1961. ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL call no: 41.8 AM3

            Descriptors: ostriches, anesthesia, hypertension, ventricles contraction, adverse effects.

Abstract: Premature ventricular contractions and apparent hypertension were seen in an adult ostrich anaesthetized with isoflurane. The ostrich had septic joints and was anaesthetized to allow joint lavage. The premature ventricular contractions occurred at the rate of 1 to 2 min, with a brief period of 12 to 15 min, and were not treated with any antiarrhythmic drugs. Normal blood pressures for awake or anaesthetized adult ostriches are not readily available, but the blood pressures in this bird were higher than in other ostriches measured with the same technique. Systolic pressures ranged from 199 to 249 mm of Hg, diastolic pressures from 107 to 177 mm of Hg, and mean pressures were from 165 to 220 mm of Hg during isoflurane anaesthesia of approximately 45 min duration. Recovery from anaesthesia was uncomplicated, although the ostrich died 12 days later from mycotic pneumonia attributed to Aspergillus sp. and Candida albicans.


A technique for liver biopsy performed in Pekin ducks using anesthesia with Telazol. Carp, N.Z.; Saputelli, J.; Halbherr, T.C.; Mason, W.S.; Jilbert, A.R. Laboratory Animal Science, Oct. 1991, v. 41 (5), p. 474-475. ISSN: 0023-6764.

            NAL call no: 410.9 P94

            Descriptors: ducks, liver biopsy, anesthesia, injectable anesthetics, safety.

Abstract: Infection of Pekin ducks with duck hepatitis B virus is a useful model for studying the hepadenoviruses, of which human hepatitis B virus is the prototype. The utility of this model had been limited, however, by the difficulties associated with anesthetizing and obtaining liver biopsies from ducks. We developed a technique using Telazol, (13mg/kg) to anesthetize ducks before surgical biopsy of the liver in ducks infected with duck hepatitis B virus. Eight Pekin ducks infected with duck hepatitis B virus underwent serial biopsies at 4- to 5- week intervals. There was one perioperative death in 34 surgical procedures with no evidence on intr-abdominal sepsis or wound complications. Telazol can be used safely and humanely to anesthetize ducks without the need for general endotracheal anesthesia.


Use of medetomidine as a preanaesthetic in birds. Kalpravidh, M. Journal of Veterinary Anaesthesia, 1991, Special supplement, 245-248; Proceedings of the 4th International Congress of Veterinary Anaesthesia, Utrecht, Netherlands, Aug. 25-31, 1991. ISSN: 1467-2987.

            NAL call no: SF914 V47

            Descriptors: anesthesia, injectable anesthetics, ketamine, medetomidine.

Abstract: Medetomidine, a alpha2-adrenoreceptor agonist wae used to balance ketamine anaesthesia in birds. Twenty zebra doves weighing 40 to 60 g were equally divided into 2 groups. Group 1 was used to evaluate the effects of 100 mg/kg bwt of 5% ketamine and 0.1 mg/kg bwt of 0.005% medetomidine in combination with 100 mg/kg bwt or 5% ketamine. Group 2 was used to study the effects of 200 mg/kg bwt of 5% ketamine and 30 mg/kg bwt of 1% pentobarbital. All injections were made i.m. Medetomidine-ketamine combination provided better analgesia, deeper anaesthesia, and smoother recovery with less wing flapping than with ketamine alone. The anaesthetic effect of the combination was comparable to that of pentobarbital but recovery was smoother.


Veterinary Anaesthesia. Hall, J.W.; Clarke, K.W. 1991, ed. 9, 410 p. Bailliere Tindall, Ltd, London; UK. ISBN: 0702014214.

            NAL call no: SF914.H39 2000

            Descriptors: laboratory animals, wild animals, anesthetics, pre-medication, anesthesia.

Abstract: The 9th extensively revised edition is aimed at students and provides a reference for veterinary surgeons in general practice. Part one “Principles and Procedures” covers: general considerations, patient monitoring and clinical measurement, introduction to general anaesthesia, principles of sedation, analgesia and premedication, general pharmacology of intravenous and inhaled anaesthetic agents, relaxation of the skeletal muscles, artificial ventilation of the lungs, apparatus for the administration of anaesthetics and principles of local analgesia. Part 2 “Anaesthesia of the species” includes species-specific details for the horse, cattle, sheep, goat and other herbivores, pig, dog, cat, birds, laboratory and wild animals. Part 3 “Special anaesthesia” deals with obstetrics, intrathoracic and cardiac surgery as well as accidents and emergencies. Appendices include duties of an anaesthetist, glossary of abbreviations, and UK and US approved names of some drugs used in anaesthesia. There is a subject index.





Anesthesia of birds and miscellaneous laboratory animals. Bush, M. Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals Proceedings, 1990 Forum, American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, Columbia, MD, May 3-6, 1990, p. 107-109.

            NAL call no: SF914.A53 1990

            Descriptors: birds, laboratory animals, anesthesia.


Chemical immobilization in ostriches (Struthio camelus) using etorphine hydrochloride. Samor, J.H.; Irwin, Davies J.; Faraj, E. Veterinary Record, Dec. 8, 1990, v. 127 (23), p. 575-576. ill. ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL call no: 41.8 V641

            Descriptors: ostriches, immobilization, etorphine, anesthesia.


Isoflurane as an inhalational anesthetic agent in clinical practice. Dohoo, S.E. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 1990, v. 31 (12), p. 847-850. ISSN: 0008-5286.

            NAL call no: 41.8 R3224

            Descriptors: anesthesia, pharmacokinetics, inhaled-anesthetics.

Abstract: Isoflurane is the most recently available inhalation anaesthetic agent on the market. Although there have been few clinical trials comparing the use to halothane and methoxyflurane, the pharmacology of the agent suggests certain situations in which it may be the preferred agent. These include avian anaesthesia, geriatric patients, patients with cardiovascular disease or hepatic disease, critically ill and unstable patients, cases such as brachiocephalics where upper airway obstructions is a concern during recovery, patients where increases in intracranial pressure should be avoided, and caesarean section. In addition, the rapid recoveries seen with isoflurane may be an advantage for outpatient surgeries.


Minimal anesthetic concentrations and cardiopulmonary dose response of isoflurane in ducks. Ludders, J.W.; Mitchell, G.S.; Rode, J. Veterinary Surgery, 1990, v. 19 (4), p. 304-307. ISSN: 0161-3499.

            NAL call no: SF911.V43

            Descriptors: anesthesia, inhaled anesthetics, hemodynamics.

Abstract: The minimal anaesthetic concentration (MAC) for isoflurane was determined during spontaneous ventilation in nine male Pekin ducks (7 to 12 weeks of age; 3.0 +0.4 kg). While each bird was awake, arterial blood was collected for analysis of pH, PaCO², and PaO². After anaesthesia was induced with isoflurane in oxygen, MAC was determined for isoflurane in each bird during spontaneous ventilation in a manner similar to MAC determinations in mammals. Pulmonary dose-response data were collected at 1 and 1;5 MAC. Anaesthetic index (AI; an index of anaesthetic-induced apnoea) was calculated from ducks that became apnoeic. The MAC for isoflurane was 1.30 + 0.23%)mean + SD). There was a dose dependent decrease in ventilation as evidenced by significant increase in PaCO². Apnoea or unacceptable hypercarbia (PaCO²> 110 mm Hg), or both, were common occurrences at the end-tidal isoflurane concentrations greater than 1.5 MAC. Anaesthetic index calculated from 4 ducks was 1.65+0.13 (mean +SEM). There was no significant difference between the means of either heart rate or mean arterial blood pressure in birds at 1.0 and 1.5 MAC.


Pharmacology and physiologic effects of anesthesia and analgesics: Anesthetics. Benson, G.J. Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals Proceedings. 1990 Forum, American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, May 3-6, 1990, p. 7-10.

            NAL call no: SF914.A53 1990

            Descriptors: anesthetics, pharmacology, includes birds.


Principles of anesthesia and analgesia. Brown, M.J. Essentials for Animal Research: A Primer for Research Personnel, B.T. Bennett; M.J. Brown, J.C. Schofield, 1990, p 39-58. ref.

            NAL call no: QL55.B36

            Descriptors: domestic animals, laboratory animals, anesthesia, analgesics, pain.





Common anesthetic dosages for use in psittacine birds. McDonald, S.E. Journal of the Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1989, v. 3 (4), p. 186-187. ISSN: 0892-9904.

            NAL call no: SF994.J6

            Descriptors: aviary birds, injectable anesthetics, inhaled anesthetics, anesthesia.


Effects of ketamine, xylazine, and a combination of ketamine and xylazine in Pekin ducks. Ludders, J.W.; Rode, J.; Mitchell, G.S.; Nordheim, E.V. American Journal of Veterinary Research, Feb. 1989, v. 50 (2), p. 245-249. ISSN: 0002-9645.

            NAL call no: 41.8 AM3A

            Descriptors: ducks, ketamine, xylazine, drug combinations, anesthesia, adverse effects.

Abstract: Effects of ketamine, xylazine, and a combination of ketamine and xylazine were studied in 12 male Pekin ducks (7 to 12 weeks old [+SD] body weight, 3.1 +0.3kg). After venous and arterial catheterization and fixation of a temperature probe in the cloaca, each awake duck was confined, but not restrained, in an open box in a dimly lit room. Blood pressure and lead II ECG were recorded. Three arterial blood samples were collected every 15 minutes over a 45-minute period (control period) and were analyzed for pHa, Paco2 and Pao2. After the control period, each duck was assigned at random to 1 0f 3 drug groups: (1) ketamine (KET; 20 mg/kg of body weight, IV), (2) xylazine (XYL; 1 mg;kg, IV) and (3) KET+XYL (KET and XYL, 1 mg/kg, IV). Measurements were made at 1, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90 minutes after drug administration. All ducks survived the drug study. Cloacal temperature was significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) increased above control cloacal temperature at 90 minutes after the administration of ketamine, and from 10 to 90 minutes after the administration of ketamine plus xylazine. In ducks of the KET group, pHa, Paco2, and Pao2, remained unchanged after administration of the drug. In ducks in the XYL group, pHa and Pao2 decreased significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) from control values for all time points up to and including 15 minutes after drug administration. In ducks of the KET+XYL group, pHa and Pao2 were significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) decreased at all time points up to and including 45 and 15 minutes respectively, after administration of the drugs. In ducks of the XYL group, Paco2 increased significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) during the first 15 minutes after drug administration, and for 45 minutes after administration of KET+XYL. Results indicated that ketamine when given alone to ducks, was not associated with pulmonary depression. There was drug-associated respiratory depression after IV administration of XYL or KET+XYL.


Handbook of Veterinary Anesthesia. Muir, William, 1946; Hubbell, John A.E. St. Louis, C. V. Mosby, 1989, xi, 340 p. ill. ISBN: 0801635937.

            NAL call no: SF914.M85

            Descriptors: veterinary anesthesia handbook, manuals, animal welfare.





Air sac anesthesia technique. MacCoy, D. AAV Today, 1988, v. 2 (2), p. 97. ISSN: 0892-9904.

            NAL call no: SF994.A2

            Descriptors: Aves, anesthesia, abdominal air sac, anesthesia technique.


Anesthesia in waterfowl. Kaufman, E.; Pokras, M.; Sedgwick, C. AAV Today, 1988, v. 2 (2), p. 98. ISSN: 0892-9904.

            NAL call no: SF994.A2

            Descriptors: Anseriformes, anesthesia.


Avian anesthesia, part 2: Injectable agents. Mandelker, L. Companion Animal Practice, 1988, v. 2 (10), p. 21-23. ISSN: 0894-9794.

            NAL call no: SF981.C64

            Descriptors: Psittaciformes, Serinus canaria, anesthesia, injectable agents, guidelines.


Effects of surgical pentobarbital anesthesia on blood pressure, heart rate, and arterial blood pH and gas tension in turkeys. Lee, J.C.; McGrath, C.J.; Leighton, A.R.; Wilson, M.H. Laboratory Animal Science, 1988, v. 38 (2), p. 208-210. ISSN: 0023-6764.

            NAL call no: 410.9 P94

            Descriptors: barbituates, laboratory animals, blood chemistry, anesthesia, turkeys.

Abstract: Forty two broad breasted white turkeys aged 4-16 weeks received an i.v. bolus injection of sodium pentobarbital at 5 mg/kg every 2 minutes until anaesthesia reached the surgical plane. There was no relationship between age and dosage rate, which varied between 36.8+2.2 and 42.1+2.9 mg/kg. The mean arterial blood pressure was reduced in all age groups, with a significant difference from 6 weeks; the heart rate rose significantly at all ages except 4 weeks; these changes largely obviated age-related differences. There were minimal changes in arterial pH and hematocrit values but arterial PO2 was significantly decreased and PCO2 increased. The results are tabulated.


Inefficacy of oral ketamine for chemical restraint in turkeys. Clutton, R.E. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, Apr.1988, v. 24 (2), p. 380-381. ISSN: 0090-3558.

            NAL call no: 41.9 W64B

            Descriptors: turkeys, ketamine, anesthesia, restraint of animals.


Introduction to avian anesthesia. Mandelker, L. Companion Animal Practice, 1988, v. 2 (6), p. 31-32. ISSN: 0894-9794.

            NAL call no: SF981.C64

            Descriptors: Aves, anesthesia, introductory notes.


Ketamine-xylazine anesthesia in red-tailed hawks with antagonism by yohimbine. Degernes, L.A.; Kreeger, T.J.; Mandsager, R.; Redig, P.T. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 1988, v. 24 (2), p. 322-326. ISSN: 0090-3558.

            NAL call no: 41.9 W64B

            Descriptors: anesthesia, ketamine/xylazine, yohimbine antagonism, Falconiformes.

Abstract: Five red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) were anaesthetized at weekly intervals with intravenous ketamine hydrochloride (KET, 4.4 mg/kg) and xylazine hydrochloride (XYL, 2.2 mg/kg). 20 minutes after anaesthesia, yohimbine hydrochloride (YOH, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20 and 0.40 mg/kg) or a control was administered. All doses of YOH significantly reduced the head-up-times and the standing times, compared to the control group. The heart and respiratory rates following YOH (all doses) were significantly greater than the anaesthetized rates, but were comparable to the rates observed in restrained, unanaesthetized hawks. Yohimbine did not appear to have any significant effect of body temperature. Based upon administration of 4.4 mg/kg KET and 2.2 mg/kg XYL, a dose of 0.10 mg/kg YOH was recommended to achieve antagonism without causing profound cardiovascular or respiratory changes.


Overview of avian anesthesia. Heard, D.J. AAV Today, 1988, v. 2 (2), p. 92-95, ISSN: 0892-9904.

            NAL call no: SF994.A2

            Descriptors: Aves, anesthesia, overview of techniques and methodology.


Quality anesthesia in the field. Taylor, M. AAV Today, 1988, v. 2 (2), p. 97. ISSN: 0892-9904.

            NAL call no: SF994.A2

            Descriptors: Gruidae, anesthesia, field use of portable system, Balearica pavonina, birds.





Anesthesia and surgery. Mandelker, L. Companion Bird Medicine, Burr, E.W. (ed). Iowa State University Press, Ames. 1997, i-x. p. 1-247. Chapter pagination: 148-154.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1C66 1987

            Descriptors: Aves, anesthesia, surgical techniques, range of anesthetics, small birds.


Avian anesthesia - A clinical update. Taylor, M. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Zoological and Avian Medicine, Association of Avian Veterinarians & American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, 1987, p. 1-586. Chapter pagination: 519-524.

            Descriptors: Aves, anesthesia, review.


Pain, anesthesia, and analgesia in common laboratory animals. Jan. 1980 through Dec. 1986, 514 citations. Gluckstein, Fritz P. Literature Search no. 86-17, PHS, NIH, Bethesda, MD (1987) 45 p.

            NAL call no: Z7994.L3G5

            Descriptors: laboratory animals, pain, analgesia, bibliography, includes birds.


Special considerations for general anesthesia of birds. Carter, Storm A. Modern Veterinary Practice, 1987, v. 68 (6), p. 358-360. ISSN: 0362-8140.

            NAL call no: 41.8 N812

            Descriptors: Aves, anesthesia, respiratory system, considerations.





[A contribution to the knowledge or ether general anesthesia of singing birds and parrots.] Bajric, A.; Ozegovic, T.; Hlubna, D. Veterinaria (Sarajevo), 1986, v. 35 (1), p. 119-122. ISSN: 0372-6827. Note: In Serbo-Croatian.

            NAL call no: 41.8 V6494

            Descriptors: Psittaciformes, anesthesia, ether, exposure time, effect.


Effect of tolazoline on xylazine-ketamine-induced anesthesia in turkey vultures. Allen, J.L.; Oosterhuis, J.E. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 1986, v. 189 (9), p. 1011-1012. ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL call no: 41.8 AM3

            Descriptors: Cathartes aura, anesthesia, xylazine-ketamine, tolazoline, effect.


Inhalation anesthesia for captive wild mammals, birds and reptiles. Sedgwick, C.J. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Fowler, M.E. W.B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia. 1986. i-xxiv, p. 1-1127. Chapter pagination: 51-56.

            NAL call no: SF996.Z66

            Descriptors: Reptilia, Aves, Mammalia, anesthesia, inhalation, review.


Prolonged isoflurane anesthesia in the golden eagle. Clutton, R.E. Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine, 1986, v. 17 (3), p. 103-105. ISSN: 0093-4562.

            NAL call no: SF601.J6

            Descriptors: anesthesia, prolonged use of isoflurane, Aquila chrysaetos.


Restraint and anesthesia. Fowler, M.E. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Fowler, M.E. (ed). W.B. Saunders, Co. Philadelphia. 1986, i-xxiv. p. 1-1127. Chapter pagination: 488-491.

            NAL call no: SF996.Z66

Descriptors: Psittaciformes, Passeriformes, restraining technique, anesthesia, parrots, songbirds, review.





Isoflurane-nitrous oxide-oxygen anesthesia in an Andean condor. Bednarski, R.M.; Ludders, J.W.; LeBlanc, P.H.; Pickett, J.P.; Sedgwick, C.J. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 1985, v. 187 (11), p. 1209-1210. ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL call no: 41.8 AM3

            Descriptors: Vultur gryphus, anesthesia, isoflurane/nitrous-oxide/oxygen, evaluation.





L'anesthesie des especes insolites en pratique veterinaire courante. 2. L'anesthesie des oiseaux. [Anaesthesia of uncommon species in current veterinary practice. 2. Bird anaesthesia.] Genevois, J.P.; Fayolle, P.; Autefage, A.; Cazieux, A.; Bonnemaison, P. Rev. Med. Vet.: Ecole nationale veterinaire de Toulouse, Nov. 1983, v. 134 (11), p. 601-607. ISSN: 0035-1555. Note: In French with English, German and Spanish summaries.

            NAL call no: 41.8 R32

            Descriptors: anesthesia, uncommon species, bird anesthesia.


Stimulation-produced analgesia. Wolfle, T.L.; Liebeskind, J.C. Animal Pain: Perception and Alleviation, Kitchell, R.L.; Erickson, H.H. (eds). American Physiological Society, Bethesda, MD. 1983, i-x. P. 1-221. Chapter pagination: 107-115.

            NAL call no: QP451.4.A54

            Descriptors: pain, analgesia, brain, sensory reception, nervous system and behavior.





Hypothermia used instead of anesthesia for surgery on nestling passerines. Mueller, N.S. Journal of Field Ornithology, 1982, v. 53 (1), p. 60. ISSN: 0273-8570.

            NAL call no: 413.8 B534

Descriptors: Passeriformes, surgical techniques, nestlings, hypothermia, young animals, temperature reduction, evaluation.


A review of avian anesthesia. Hartsfield, S.M. Southwestern Veterinarian, College Station, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A & M University, 1982, v. 35 (2), p. 117-126. ISSN: 0038-495X.

            NAL call no: 41.8 SO82

            Descriptors: avian, anesthesia, review.





[Application of tentatively prepared circuit and accessories to halothane inhalation anesthesia in small birds.] Yamamura, H. Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association, 1980, v. 33 (5), p. 213-219. ISSN: 0046-6454. Note: In Japanese.

            NAL call no: 41.9 J275

            Descriptors: Aves, anesthesia, halothane inhalation, administration equipment.





Effects of anesthesia on the temperature and electrocardiogram of birds. Altman, R.B.; Miller, M.S. American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Annual Proceedings, 1979, p. 61-62a. ISSN: 0095-0610.

            NAL call no: SF605.A4

            Descriptors: halothane, ketamine, effects on body temperature, anesthesia effects.





[Anesthesia in birds with metomidate.] Samejima, M.; Sakawa, T. Journal of the Japanese Veterinary Medical Association, May 1978, v. 31 (5), p. 267-271. ill. ISSN: 0046-6454. Note: In Japanese with an English summary.

            NAL call no: 41.9 J275

            Descriptors: birds, anesthesia, metomidate.


Anesthesia in companion birds. Dolphin, R.E. American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Annual Proceedings, 1978, p. 61-62. ISSN: 0095-0610.

            NAL call no: SF605.A4

            Descriptors: Aves, anesthesia, pet birds.


Drugs used for avian anesthesia: A review. Fedde, M.R. Poultry Science, 1978, v. 57 (5), p. 1376-1399. ISSN: 0032-5791.

            NAL call no: 47.8 AM33P

            Descriptors: Aves, anasthesia, local and general anesthetics, pharmaceuticals, review.


Fowl, quail, pheasants (Galliformes). Restraint and anesthesia. Franchetti, D.R.; Klide, A.M. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Fowler, M.E. (ed). W.B. Saunders, Co. Philadelphia. 1978, i-xvi. p. 1-951. Chapter pagination: 303-304.

            NAL call no: SF996.Z66

            Descriptors: Galliformes, restraint, chemical and physical, anesthesia, agents, dosages.


An outline guide to general anesthesia in exotic species. Stunkard, J.A.; Miller, J.C. Auburn Veterinarian, 1978, v. 34 (2), p. 57-64. ISSN: 0446-6454.

            NAL call no: 41.8 AU1

            Descriptors: Pisces, amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, anesthesia, birds, review.


Perching birds, parrots, cockattos and macaws (psittacines and passerines). Restraint and anesthesia. Franchetti, D.R.; Kilde, A.M. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Fowler, M.E. (ed). W.B. Saunders Co., 1978, i-xvi. P. 1-951. Chapter pagination: 359-364.

            NAL call no: SF996.Z66

            Descriptors: restraint, physical and chemical, anesthesia, handling techniques.

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