NOTE: Housing, Husbandry, Care & Welfare of Selected Birds (Quail, Pheasant, Finches, Ostrich, Dove, Parrot & Others) may be viewed as one complete publication file below, or as individual chapters birds.htm.

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Housing, Husbandry, Care & Welfare of Selected Birds (Quail, Pheasant, Finches, Ostrich, Dove, Parrot & Others)

AWIC Resource Series No. 26 - February 2004


Updated by: Housing, Husbandry, Care & Welfare of Selected Birds (Quail, Pheasant, Finches, Ostrich, Dove, Parrot & Others) , May 2008

 

Updates - Housing, Husbandry, and Welfare of Selected Birds (Quail, Pheasant, Finches, Ostrich, Dove, Parrot), QB94-26, April 1994 by Michael D. Kreger http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/pubs/oldbib/qb9426.htm




Compiled by:

Richard L. Crawford, D.V.M.
D’Anna Jensen, B.S., LATG
Heidi Erickson, Ph.D.
Tim Allen, M.S.
Animal Welfare Information Center
National Agricultural Library
U.S. Department of Agriculture

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Agricultural Research Service
National Agricultural Library
Animal Welfare Information Center
Beltsville, Maryland 20705
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CONTENTS


Introduction | Analgesia / Anesthetic / Anesthesia | Anatomy / Physiology / Morphology

Care / Behavior / Husbandry / Biology / Enrichment | Diseases / Parasites / Conditions

Feeding / Nutrition | Veterinary | Selected Websites



INTRODUCTION

 

This publication is an update and expansion of the previous publication (QB-94-26), dated December 1980 - December 1993. The references listed in this publication were selected from various resources and arranged in six alphabetical sections: Analgesia/Anesthesia; Anatomy; Care/Behavior/Husbandry/Biology/Enrichment; Diseases/Parasites/Conditions; Feeding/Nutrition and Veterinary. Abstracts are included when available. Reference citations are listed chronologically and alphabetically. The citations in this publication pertain basically to wild/exotic birds and those used in research. Production birds such as chickens are not included here but there are a few citations on ducks and turkeys which may have application to other birds in general. Also, there are some references pertaining to the commercial use of birds, such as ostrich and emu, when the information might have application to other birds. Birds are presently being brought under regulation by USDA, APHIS, Animal Care. This will affect research facilities, exhibitors, dealers and transporters. It is hoped this publication will provide a useful reference source for anyone handling or caring for birds. An additional section of Selected Websites is included at the end of the publication.



ANALGESIA / ANESTHETIC / ANESTHESIA

 

 

2003

 

Anaesthesia of Birds. Lightfoot, T.; Coles, G. (ed); Dobson, J, (ed); Elliot, J. (ed); Elwood, C. (ed); Hall, E. (ed); Heath, S. (ed); Hill, P. (ed); Moore, P.H. (ed); Innes, J. (ed); Jeffery, A. (ed); Redrobe, S. (ed); Tasker, S. (ed); Williams, J. (ed); Wotton, P. (ed); Yam, P. Scientific Proceedings Veterinary Program: British Small Animal Veterinary Association, 46th Annual Congress, Birmingham, UK, Apr. 2003, p. 404-405. ISBN: 0905214773.

            Descriptors: birds, avian species, anesthesia, pain, methods.

 

            

2002

 

Air sac functional anatomy of the sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua galerita) during isoflurane anesthesia. Jaensch, Susan M.; Cullen, Len; Raidal, Shane R. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, Mar. 2002, v. 16 (1), p. 2-9. ISSN: 1082-6742.

            NAL call no: SF994.J6

Descriptors: Cacatua galerita, sedation, isoflurane, anesthesia, air sacs, anatomy, blood gas analysis.

Abstract: The air sac functional anatomy of sulphur-crested cockatoos (Cacatus galerita) during isoflurane anesthesia was studied by evaluation of respiratory casts of sulphur-crested cockatoos, blood gas analysis, and air sac gas analyses. The air sac anatomy of the sulphur-crested cockatoo was different from that described previously in psittacine bird species, with more extensive cranial and caudal thoracic air sacs and smaller abdominal air sacs. Blood gas analysis results indicated arterial and venous hyperoxia as a result of using 100% 02 as the anesthetic carrier gas, the significance of which in birds is currently unclear. Cranial and caudal thoracic air sac oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressure (PO2 and PCO2, respectively) were similar to those previously described in birds ventilated with 100% 02. Clavicular air sac Pos and POC2 were significantly lower than the cranial thoracic air sac, indicating significantly less ventilation of the clavicular air sac than of either the cranial or caudal air sacs.

 

Anaesthesie und Analgesie bei Ziervogein. [Anesthesia and analgesia of pet birds.] Hatt, J.M. Schweizer Archiv fuer Tieheilkunde, Nov. 2002, v. 144 (11), p. 606-613. ISSN: 0036-7281. Note: In German.

            NAL call no: 41.8 SCH9

            Descriptors: birds, analgesia, anesthesia, clinical techniques.

Abstract: Pet birds are frequently viewed as difficult patients for anaesthesia. The present paper revises the current anaesthetic procedures for injectable and inhalant anaesthetics. Currently the method of choice for the anaesthesia of pet birds is the isoflurane inhalation anaesthesia. Special emphasis is given to the preanaesthetic preparations. Fasting is shorter for pet birds than for mammals. Anaesthetized birds are at special risk for hypothermia. Methods for the prevention of heat loss are given. The use of analgesics are recommended both for welfare reasons but also because of the possibility to reduce the concentration of inhalation anaesthetics and therefore the amount of possible exposure of personnel to waste gases.

 

Anesthesia and analgesia in the avian patient. Echols, M.S.; Marx, K.L.(ed).; Roston, M.A. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference on Avian Medicine and Surgery, Mid Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians, Apr. 28-30, 2002, p. 10-19.

            NAL call no: SF994.M52

            Descriptors: anesthesia, anesthetics, aviary birds, pain, respiration, reviews.

 

Assessment of the analgesic effects of ketoprofen in ducks anesthetized with isoflurane. Machin, K.L.; Livingstone, A. American Journal of Veterinary Research, Jun. 2002, v. 63 (6), p. 821-826. ISSN: 0002-9645.

            NAL call no: 41.8 medetoAm3A

            Descriptors: ducks, ketoprofen, drug effects, heart rate, respiration rate, dosage.

Abstract: Objective: To determine whether administration of ketoprofen would have analgesic effects in spontaneously breathing ducks anesthetized with isoflurane. Animals: 13 healthy adult wild-strain Mallard ducks. Procedure: Each duck was anesthetized twice in a crossover study design with 6 days between randomized treatments. Ducks were given ketoprofen (5 mg/kg, IM) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution after a constant plane of anesthesia was established. Analgesia was assessed by measuring heart and respiratory rates and duration of application of a noxious stimulus. The noxious stimulus was applied 30, 50, and 70 minutes after drug administration and was maintained until gross purposeful movements were seen or for a maximum of 5 seconds. Result: At all 3 evaluation times, heart rate increases in response to the noxious stimulus were greater when ducks were given saline solution than when they were given ketoprofen. The increase in respiratory rate in response to the noxious stimulus was greater when ducks were given saline solution than when they were given ketoprofen only 70 minutes after drug administration. When ducks were given ketoprofen, duration of the noxious stimulus was significantly longer 50 and 70 minutes, but not 30 minutes, after drug administration. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Ketoprofen reduced the increase in heart and respiratory rates associated with application of a noxious stimulus in spontaneously breathing adult Mallard ducks anesthetized with isoflurane delivered at approximately 2.9%, suggesting that ketoprofen had analgesic effects in these ducks. The onset of analgesic effects may be longer than 30 minutes in some ducks.

 

Effect of medetomidine-butorphanol-ketamine anaesthesia and atipamezole on heart and respiratory rate and cloacal temperature of domestic pigeons. Atalan, G; Usun, M.; Demirkan, I.; Cenesiz, M. Journal of Veterinary Medicine: Series A, 2002, v. 49 (6), p. 281-285. ISSN: 0931-184X.

            NAL call no: 41.8 Z5

            Descriptors: domestic pigeon, ketamine, zolazepam, tiletamine, dosage.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sedative-anaesthetic effects of a combination of medetomidine (M, 50 mug per pigeon), butorphanol (B, 50 mug pe pigeon) and ketamine (K, 25 mg per pigeon) in domestic pigeons. Eight domestic pigeons (four male and four female, 8-15 months old) were used. The combination of Medetomidine and butorphanol injectable solutions were used to produce sedation. Ten minutes after M+B administration, K was injected. The anaesthetic effects of the drugs were reversed by administration of Atipamazole (AT) at 60 min after K administration. All drugs were injected into the pectoral muscles. The sedative-anaesthesia effects of the M+B-K combination and, alterations in respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), electrocardiographic (ECG) findings and cloacal temperature (CT) were investigated before and 10 min after pre-medication with M+B, at 5, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min during the onset of K anaesthesia and at 1, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 min following the administration of AT. The HR and RR of pigeons decreased within 10 min following M+B administration and remained lower until 1st and 5 min of AT injection, respectively. In ECG, no significant alterations in P, Q, R and S values were observed, however, arrhythmia was recorded for three pigeons, which returned to normal values following AT administration throughout the measurement. Cloacal temperature decreased gradually during the anaesthesia from 41.0 to 32.7 degrees C. The drug combination used in this study produced a satisfactory general anaesthesia for seven of the eight pigeons. All pigeons were unconscious within 5 min after K administration as indicated by disappearance of the palpebral and corneal reflexes and lack of reaction to the pain stimuli during the study. The effect of AT administration was observed within 10 min as all pigeons responded partly against stimuli and all reflexes. It is concluded that M+B-K anaesthesia in pigeons is a safe and reliable anaesthetic protocol for surgery.

 

Field immobilization of King Penguins with tiletamine-zolazepam. Thil, Marie Anne; Groscolas, Rene. Journal of Field Ornithology, Summer, 2002, v. 73 (3), p. 308-317. ISSN: 0273-8570.

            NAL call no: 413.8 B534

            Descriptors: tiletamine, general anesthetic drug, zolazepam, IM administration.

Abstract: The use of an injectable combination of tiletamine-zolazepam to immobilize King Penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) in the field was tested in non-incubating and incubating adults and in chicks. We also compared the behavioral and physiological response to this anesthetic agent according to the position used for immobilization (dorsal: lying on the back; ventral: lying on the belly) and following repeated administrations at one or several day intervals throughout a prolonged natural fast. A 5-mg/kg dosage administered intra-muscularly allowed an efficient immobilization of 97% of the adults for about one hour and after an induction time averaging 5 min. Birds kept in the dorsal position and without thermal insulation remained immobilized longer than those kept in the ventral position. Chicks were immobilized for 80 min. after receiving a 4-mg/kg dosage. The anesthetized birds lost the pain, noise, touch and podal reflex but not the palpebral one and showed no major side effects. Penguins responded similarly to repeated injections and recovered without complications or adverse reactions. Five of eight incubating adults resumed incubation after having been anesthetized. We concluded that immobilization of King Penguins with tiletamine-zolazepam is safe and efficient, allowing routine health examination and interventions such as, for example, vein catheterization and adipose tissue biopsies.

 

Oral administration of tiletamine/zolazepam for the immobilization of the Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo). Janovsky, Martin; Ruf, Thomas; Zenker, Wolfgang. Journal of Raptor Research, Sept. 2002, v. 36 (3), p. 188-193. ISSN: 0892-1016.

            NAL call no: QL696 F3J682

            Descriptors: common buzzard, tiletamine, dosage, zolazepam, oral administration.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy or oral administration of tiletamine/zolazepam in a bait for immobilizing Common Buzzards (Buteo buteo) (N=20). Two different dosages and two different methods of administration were compared. A dosage of 80 mg/kg was sufficient in most birds to enable safe handling after 30-60 min, whereas the majority of animals receiving 40 mg/kg still showed defensive reflexes. Birds receiving the drug in a powder form reached the deepest stage of anaesthesia after 30 min, whereas birds receiving a solution reached this stage significantly later, but not before 60 min. When the prepared bait with 80 mg/kg powder was stored for 7 to 14 hr, respectively, effectiveness of immobilization was significantly decreased compared to bait which was administered immediately after preparation.

 

O sevofluorano em psitacideos (Amazonas aestiva). Determinacao da dose minima (D.A.M) para producao de anestesia geral. Sevoflurane in psitacines (Amazonas amazona aestiva). [Determination of minimal anesthetic concentration to produce general anesthesia.] Alves-Nicolau, Alexandra; Auler, Jose Otavio; Tabbachi,-Fantoni, Denise; Ambrosio, Aline. Ciencia Rural, 2002, v. 32 (5), p. 781-786. ISSN: 0103-8478. Note: In Portuguese.

            NAL call no: S192 R4

            Descriptors: Amazona aestiva, Psittacidae, sedation, general anesthesia, sevoflurane.

Abstract: Ten adult psittacines (Amazonas aestiva) were used. After appropriate immobilization the anesthetic induction was accomplished with facial mask connected to modified circuit of Maffil using 6V% of Sevoflurane with oxygen flow rate at 1.5/l. The minimal concentration was determined in a manner similar to that proposed by LUDDERS et. al. (1990). The MAC obtained was 3.44V% higher than MAC. Proposed to mammals. Sevoflurane can be used safely in avian species once it did not alter significantly all physiological parameters analyzed.

 

 

2001

 

Advances in avian anesthesia. Heard, D.J. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Jan. 13-17, 2001, Eastern States Veterinary Association, 2001, v. 15, p. 736-737. In the volume: Small Animal and Exotics. Part of a three volume set.

            NAL call no: SF605.N672

            Descriptors: birds, anesthesia.

 

Analgesia and analgesic techniques. Robertson, Sheilah. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice, Jan. 2001, v. 4 (1), p. 1-18. ISSN: 1094-9194.

            NAL call no: SF601.V523

            Descriptors: analgesia and analgesic techniques, sedation, treatment techniques.

 

Analgesia and anesthesia. Heard, Darryl L. (Ed.). Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice, Jan. 2001, v. 4 (1), i-xii. P. 1-308. ISSN: 1094-9194.

            NAL call no: SF997.5.E95E97

            Descriptors: analgesia, sedation, anesthesia, exotic taxa, treatment techniques.

 

Anesthesia update: Agents, definitions, and strategies. Heavner, J.E. Comparative Medicine, Dec. 2001, v. 51 (6), p. 500-503. ISSN: 1532-0820.

            NAL call no: SF77.C65

            Descriptors: laboratory animals, inhaled anesthetics, blood gases, halothane, isoflurane, birds.

 

Avian analgesia. Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Ludders, John W. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice, Jan. 2001, v. 4 (1), p. 35-45. ISSN: 1094-9194.

            NAL call no: SF997.5.E95E97

            Descriptors: Aves, analgesia, treatment techniques, birds.

 

Avian anesthesia. Abou-Madi, Noha. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice, Jan. 2001, v.4 (1), p. 147-167. ISSN: 1094-9194.

            NAL call no: SF997.5.E95E97

            Descriptors: Aves, sedation, anesthesia, birds.

 

Capnographic monitoring of anesthetized African grey parrots receiving intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Edling, T.M.; Degernes, L.A.; Flammer, K.; Horne, W.A. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Dec. 15, 2001, v. 219 (12), p. 1714-1718. ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL call no: 41.8 Am3

            Descriptors: African grey parrots, anesthesia, monitoring, isoflurane, blood gases, heart rate, pH.

Abstract: Objective: To determine whether end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PETCO2) correlated with PaCO2in isoflurane-anesthetized African grey parrots receiving intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV). Design Prospective study. Animals 4 healthy mature African grey parrots Psittacus erithacus timnusl. Procedure. Each bird was anesthetized via mack with isoflurane, intubated, and connected to a pressure-limited intermittent-flow ventilator. Respiratory rate was altered while holding peak inspiratory pressure constant (5cm H2O) to achieve a PETCO2 in 1 of 3 ranges: <30 mm Hg., 30 to 40 mm Hg, and >40 mm Hg. Blood was collected from the superficial ulnar artery of each bird at least once during each of the 3 ranges. Arterial blood samples were collected for blood gas analysis while PETCO2 was recorded simultaneously. Results- A strong correlation between PETCO2 and Pace2 was detected over a wide range of partial pressures, although PETCO2 consistently overestimated PaCO2 by approximately 5 mm Hg. End tidal partial pressure of CO2 and PaCO2 also correlated well with arterial blood pH, and the acute response of the bicarbonate buffer system to changes in ventilation was similar to that of mammals. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Results indicated that PETCO2 reliably estimates PaCO2 in isoflurane-anesthetized African grey parrots receiving IPPV and suggest that IPPV combined with capnography is a viable option for anesthetic-maintenance in avian anesthesia.

 

Injectable Anesthesia and Analgesia of Birds. J. Paul-Murphy; J. Fialkowski. (Updated Aug. 5, 2001). In: Recent Advances in Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia: Companion Animals, R.D. Gleed and J.W. Ludders (eds.). Covers various types of drugs and contains charts with drug, dosage and route, and species remarks. Available: www.ivis.org. Document No. A1409.0801.

            Descriptors: anesthesia, analgesia, injectable, birds.

 

Order Passeriformes (songbirds). Anesthesia. Guimaraes, Marta Brito. Biology, Medicine, and Surgery of South American Wild Animals, Fowler, Murray E.; Cubas, Zalmir S. (eds.)., Iowa State University Press, 2001, i-x, p. 1-536: Chapter pagination: 200-201. ISBN: 0813828465.

            NAL call no: SF996.4.B56 2001

            Descriptors: Passeriformes, care in captivity, sedation, anesthesia, captive management.

 

Pharmacodynamics of flunixin and ketoprofen in mallard ducks (Anas platyhynchos). Machin, Karen L.; Tellier, Lise A.; Lair, Stephane; Livingston, Alexander. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, Jun. 2001, v. 32 (2), p. 222-229. ISSN: 1042-7260.

            NAL call no: SF601.J6

            Descriptors: pharmacology, toxicology, birds, analgesic drug, dosage, anti-inflammatory.

Abstract: Flunixin (FLX) and ketoprofen (KET) are potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) used to alleviate pain and decrease inflammation. The se drugs block access of arachidonic acid to its binding site on the cyclooxygenase enzyme, thus preventing conversion to thromboxane A2 and subsequent degradation to thromboxane B2 (TXB). Consequently, plasma TBX may be used to estimate duration of NSAID action. Sixteen adult mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: control (n=4), FLX 5 mg/kg (n=6), or KET 5 mg/kg (n=6). Blood samples were taken 1 hour prior to and just before (0 hr) injection and 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hr after injection. Plasma samples were analyzed for corticosterone and TBX. The feces were tested for the presence of hemoglobin and the ducks were euthanized for complete necropsy at the end of the study. Samples of muscle, kidney, liver, proventriculus, and intestine were taken for histologic analysis. Thrombaxane was suppressed significantly in all birds following administration or either FLX or KET for 4 hr and decreased for approximately 12 hr compared with baseline samples (-1 and 0 hr). In the control group, TBX gradually declines over time. None of the ducks showed evidence of gastrointestinal bleeding, but the FLX group had muscle necrosis present at injection sites. FLX and KET likely exert pharmacological effects for at least 12 h. Although degree of TBX inhibition cannot be correlated absolutely with degree of analgesia or anti-inflammatory effects, it is possible that these effects are present during this time. This work suggests that FLX and KET can potentially be used as anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents in waterfowl. However, because of muscle necrosis at the injection site, we do not recommend parenteral use of FLX in ducks.

 

Proceedings of the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists 25th Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA Oct. 12-13, 2001. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 2001, v. 28 (2), p. 97-110. ISSN: 1467-2987.

            NAL call no: SF914.V47

            Descriptors: analgesics, inhaled anesthetics, injectable anesthetics, pharmacokinetics.

Abstract: This proceedings contains 29 papers on anaesthesia education and the use of anaesthetics and its effects on small animals (dogs and cats), ruminants (sheep and goats), horses, laboratory animals (guinea pigs) and exotic species (ostriches, tapirs, greater bush baby).

 

The use of haloperidol during the transport of adult ostriches. Pfitzer, S.; Lambrechts, H. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, Mar. 2001, v. 72 (1), p. 2. ISSN: 0038-2809.

            NAL call no: 41.8 SO12

            Descriptors: animal behavior, transport, halperidol, pharmacology, restraint.

 

Veterinary Anesthesia. Cornick, Seahorn J.L.; 2001, x, 318 p. Butterworth-Heinemann; Woburn; USA. ISBN: 0750672277.

            NAL call no: SF914.C67 2001

            Descriptors: anesthesia, anesthetics, dosage, equipment, pain, monitoring, care.

Abstract: The book contains 18 papers and 3 appendixes. Topics covered are: Introduction to anaesthesia and patient preparation; pharmacology and application of parenteral anaesthetic agents; local/regional anaesthetic techniques; inhalation agents; anaesthetic equipment; monitoring anaesthesia; supportive care during anaesthesia; pain management; introduction to anaesthetic management in specific diseases; anaesthetic management of dogs and cats; anaesthetic management of birds; anaesthetic management of small mammals; anaesthetic management of reptiles; anaesthetic management of horses; anaesthetic management of ruminants and camelids; anaesthetic management of pigs and overview of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Appendixes contains topics about approximate dosages of anaesthetic agents and adjuncts for common domestic species; drug scheduling classification and guidelines for storing, dispensing and administering scheduled agents and suggestions for anaesthetic preparation and management of high-risk patients.

 

 

2000

 

Anestesia em aves: agentes anestesicos. [Anesthesia in birds: Anesthetic agents.] Guimaraes, Luciana Dambrosio; Moraes, Aury Nunes de. Ciencia Rural, Nov./Dec. 2000, v. 30 (6), p. 1073-1081. ISSN: 0103-8478. Note: In Portuguese.

            NAL call no: S192.R4

            Descriptors: Aves, sedation, anesthetic agents, effects, literature review.

 

Anesthesia and analgesia. Lawrence, M. Canadian Veterinary Journal, Mar. 2000, v. 41 (3), p. 229-230. ISSN: 0008-5286.

            NAL call no: 41.8 R3224

            Descriptors: anesthesia, pain, control, drugs, methods, techniques.

 

Avian analgesia. Clyde, V.L.; Paul, Murphy J.; Bonagura, J.D. Kirk’s Current Veterinary Therapy XIII: Small Animal Practice, 2000, p. 1126-1128. W.B. Saunders C., Philadelphia. ISBN: 0721655238.

            NAL call no: SF745 K57

            Descriptors: analgesics, pain, opioids, anesthetics, anti-inflammatory agents, birds.

 

Evaluation of isoflurane and propofol anesthesia for intraabdominal transmitter placement in nesting female canvasback ducks. Machin, Karen L.; Caulkett, Nigel A. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, Apr. 2000, v. 36 (2), p. 324-334. ISSN: 0090-3558.

            NAL call no: 41.9 W64B

            Descriptors: isoflurane, adverse effects, anesthetic drug, heart rate, body temperature.

Abstract: Heart rate, occurrence of apnea, body temperature quality of anesthesia and nest abandonment were compared during either propofol or isoflurane anesthesia of nesting female canvasback ducks (Aythya valisineria) at 15 to 18 days of incubation. One hundred eighteen canvasbacks were assigned randomly to three treatments so that nest abandonment could be compared among treatments from May to July, 1995 and 1996. Sterile dummy silicone implants were placed during an abdominal laparotomy while ducks were anesthetized with either propofol or isoflurane, or ducks were flushed from the nest but not captured (control). Propofol was delivered through an intravenous catheter, while isoflurane was delivered in oxygen. Propofol provided smooth, rapid induction and recovery, whereas ducks recovering from isoflurane tended to struggle. At the nest, ducks in the propofol group were given additional boluses until they were lightly anesthetized, whereas birds that received isoflurane were released. All birds survived surgery but one death occurred prior to surgery in 1995 using propofol during a period without ventilation and monitoring. Adequate artificial ventilation is recommended to prevent complications. Heart rate declined significantly in both years during isoflurane anesthesia and in 1995 during propofol anesthesia but not in 1996. During both isoflurane and propofol anesthesia body temperature declined significantly over time. Nest abandonment was significantly different among treatments and occurred in all treatment groups in both years, but propofol (15%) and control groups (8%) had lower than expected abandonment compared to isoflurane (28%). Propofol offers several advantages over isoflurane for field use; equipment is easily portable, lower anesthetic cost, and ambient temperature does not alter physical characteristics of the drug, Advantages over isoflurane, including lower nest abandonment following intraabdominal radio transmitter placement make propofol a good anesthetic choice for field studies.

 

Handbook of Veterinary Anesthesia. 3rd ed. Muir, William, 1946. C.V. Mosby, c 2000. xviii, 574 p. ill. ISBN: 0323008011.

            NAL call no: SF914.M85 2000

            Descriptors: veterinary anesthesia, handbooks, manuals, includes avian species.

 

Immobilization of budgerigars using ketamine and diazepam. Jayathangaraj, M.G.; John, Mathew C. Indian Veterinary Medical Journal, Jun. 2000, v. 24 (2), p. 165-166. ISSN: 0250-5266.

            NAL call no: SF601.I45

            Descriptors: diazepam, ketamine, efficacy, intramuscular administration.

 

Pain management in birds. Bennett, R.A. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Jan. 15-19, 2000. Eastern States Veterinary Association, v. 14, p. 867.

            NAL call no: SF605.N672

            Descriptors: analgesics, birds, pain management.

 

Veterinary Anaesthesis and Analgesia. Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists, American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists, European College of Veterinary Anaesthesia. Previous title: Journal of Veterinary Anaesthesia. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science, c 2000 v. ill. ISSN: 1467-2987. www.blackwell-science.com/vaa

            NAL call no: SF914.V47

            Descriptors: veterinary anesthesia, periodicals, includes avian species.

 

 

1999

 

Anaesthesia of cranes with alphaxolone-alphadolone. Bailey, T.A.; Toosi, A.; Samour, J.H. Veterinary Record, Jul. 17, 1999, v. 145 (3), p. 84-85. ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL call no: 41.8 V641

            Descriptors: birds, anesthesia, dosage, safety, recovery, complications.

 

Anesthesia for small to medium sized exotic mammals, birds, and reptiles. Sedgwick, C.F.; Paddleford, R.R. Manual of Small Animal Anesthesia, 1999, ed. 2, p. 318-353. W.B. Saunders, Co. Philadelphia. ISBN: 0721649695.

            NAL call no: SF914.M36 1999

            Descriptors: pets, anesthesia, small mammals, exotics, anesthetics, avian species.

 

Analgesic effects of butorphanol and buprenorphine in conscious African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus and Psittacus erithacus timneh). Paul-Murphy, Joanne R.; Brunson, David B.; Miletic, Vjekoslav. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 1999, v. 60 (10), p. 1218-1221. ISSN: 0002-9645.

            NAL call no: 41.8 AM3A

            Descriptors: African grey parrot, butorphanol, buprenorphine, analgesic drug.

Abstract: Objective: To evaluate effects of butorphanol tartrate and buprenorphine hydrochloride on withdrawal threshold to a noxious stimulus in conscious African grey parrots. Animals: 29 African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus and Psittacus erithacus timneh). Procedure: Birds were fitted with an electrode on the medial metatarsal region of the right leg, placed into a test box, and allowed to acclimate. An electrical stimulus (range 0.0 to 1.46 mA) was delivered to each bird’s foot through an aluminum perch. A withdrawal response was recorded when the bird lifted its foot from the perch or vigorously flinched its wings. Baseline threshold to a noxious electrical stimulus was determined. Birds were then randomly assigned to receive an IM injection of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, butorphanol (1.0mg/kg of body weight), or buprenorphine (0.1 mg/kg), and threshold values were determined again. Results: Butorphanol significantly increased threshold value, but saline solution or burprenorphine did not significantly change threshold values. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Butorphanol had an analgesic effect, significantly increasing the threshold to electrical stimuli in African grey parrots. Buprenorphine at the dosage used did not change the threshold to electrical stimulus. Butorphanol provided an analgesic response in half of the birds tested. Butorphanol would be expected to provide analgesia to African grey parrots in a clinical setting.

 

Avian analgesia. Langenberg, J. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Jan. 9-13, 1999. Eastern States Veterinary Association, v. 13, p. 718-719.

            NAL call no: SF605.N672

            Descriptors: birds, analgesics, pain.

 

Avian analgesia. Clyde, Victoria L.; Paul-Murphy, Joanne. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy, 4th ed. Fowler, Murray E.; Miller, R. Eric. W.B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia. 1999 ed. 4, i-xxiii, p. 1-747. Chapter pagination: 309-314. ISBN: 0721686648.

            NAL call no: SF996 Z66

            Descriptors: Aves, analgesia, pain, treatment techniques, analgesics.

 

Current anesthesia recommendations for companion birds. Miller, W.; Buttrick, M. Iowa State University Veterinarian, Fall, 1999, v. 61 (2), p. 67-75. ISSN: 0099-5851.

            NAL call no: 41.8 V6452

            Descriptors: birds, anesthetics, anesthesia, respiratory system.

 

The effects of isoflurane anesthesia on hematologic and plasma biochemical values of American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Dressen, Priscilla J.; Wimsatt, Jeffery; Burkhard, Mary Jo. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, Sept. 1999, v. 13 (3), p. 173-179. ISSN: 1082-6742.

            NAL call no: SF994.J6

            Descriptors: sedation, isoflurane anesthesia, blood and plasma, effects.

Abstract: The effect of repeat blood sampling and anaesthesia on haematological and plasma biochemical values of American kestrels was investigated. In a validation study, blood samples from 6 awake kestrels were collected twice, 10 min apart, and results of haematological testing and plasma biochemical analysis were compared. Of the analytes measured, only the packed cell volume (PCV) value significantly changed (decreased) in the second sample. A weight-normalized model was used to correct for the dilutional effect of the first blood collection on the second sample values. However, with correction, the decrease in the PCV value remained, suggesting that this decrease was not likely to be caused solely by sampling-induced haemodilution. In a second study of 29 kestrels, haematological and plasma biochemical values were compared before and after 10 min of isoflurane anaesthesia. In this comparison, significant differences were observed in the basophil cpunt and in the values of albumin, alanine, aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen, cholesterol, creatinine, globulin, PCV, plasma protein, potassium, total protein and uric acid. However, after correcting for the effects of sampling dilution, only the changes in uric acid and potassium values could be attributed to the effects of anaesthesia. Age, sex and weight-related effects were also observed for selected values. It is concluded that the combined effect of isoflurane anaesthesia and repeat blood sampling causes more dramatic changes in analyte values than repeat sampling alone. Both the method and frequency of blood sample collection in kestrels must be considered when interpreting blood values.

 

Essential of Small Animal Anesthesia and Analgesia. Thurmon, John C.; Tranquilli, William J.; Benson, G. John.1999, viii, 580 p. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA. ISBN: 0683301071.

            NAL call no: SF914.E77 1999

            Descriptors: analgesics, anesthetics, fluid therapy, birds, amphibians, mammals.

Abstract: Written by leading experts on the subject, this easy-to-use handbook provides concise information on the principles of anesthesia for dogs, cats, birds, reptiles, and amphibians in routine clinical settings. Chapters cover such topics as perioperative pain management; pharmacology; anesthesia and the cardiovascular, respiratory, and central nervous systems; local anesthetic and analgesic techniques; acid-base balance and fluid therapy; euthanasia; and anesthetic emergencies and accidents. The text, intended for use as a guide to the more comprehensive third edition of Lumb and Jone’s textbook, Veterinary Anesthesia, is adequately illustrated and includes a subject index, tables, charts, and cross references to the parent book. Students and practitioners of veterinary medicine will benefit from this volume.

 

Evaluation of tiletamine-zolazepam as an anesthetic in quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Nicolau, A.A.; Spinosa, H. De S.; Maiorka, P.C.; Guerra, J.L. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science, Jan. 1999, v. 38 (1), p. 73-75. ISSN: 1060-0558.

            NAL call no: SF405.5.A23

            Descriptors: Japanese quail, anesthesia, drug combinations, dosage, drug effects.

Abstract: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) administered alone or in combination with atropine, xyl azine, and levomepromazine to quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). The induction time, duration of hypnosis and anesthesia, and time to recovery were determined. The presence or absence of tremor, upper respiratory tract secretions, and excitability and the degree of muscular tone were also observed. The results showed that doses from 10 to 100 mg/kg TZ administered alone or in combination with xylzine or levomepromazine failed to produce anesthesia; only hypnosis was obtained in a dose-dependent manner. Immediately after injection of the drug, histopathologic examination of the site of drug injection indicated the presence of discrete acute focal myositis. After 21 days, a discrete fibrosis between muscle fibers was detected in the pectoral muscle as a sign of scarring. We concluded that the administration of TZ to a dose of 100 mg/kg does not produce anesthesia in quail. For noninvasive and minimally painful procedures requiring chemical restraint and recumbency, the recommended dose is 30 mg/kg.

 

Manual of Small Animal Anesthesia. Paddleford, R.R. 1999. ed. 2, 372 p. W.B. Saunders, Co. Philadelphia, PA. ISBN: 0712640605.

            NAL call no: SF914 M36 1999

            Descriptors: anesthesia, anesthetics, pets, avian species.

Abstract: This manual has been thoroughly revised and updated since the first edition, published in 1988. The entire anaesthetic process is examined, including preanaesthetic agents, general anaesthesia, neuromuscular blocking agents, equipment, ventilation and monitoring, emergencies and complications, fluid, electrolyte and acid balance and postoperative patient care. There is a separate chapter on anaesthesia of exotic mammals, birds and reptiles. The 5 contributors are recognized experts in anaesthesia and critical care.

 

Propofol anesthesia. Short, Charles E.; Bufalari, Antonello. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, May, 1999, v. 29 (3), p. 747-778. ISSN: 0195-5616.

            NAL call no: SF601 SO12

            Descriptors: birds, mammals, side effects, metabolism, induction, maintenance.

 

Sevoflurane anesthesia in psittacines. Quandt, Jane E.; Greenacre, Cheryl B. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, Jun., 1999, v. 30 (2), p. 308-309. ISSN: 1042-7260.

            NAL call no: SF601.J6

            Descriptors: Psittaciformes, sedation, isoflurane and sevoflurane anesthesia.

Abstract: Duration of anaesthesia onset (time to intubation) and recovery (time to extubation, sternal and standing) and quality of recovery were compared for sevoflurane and isoflurane in 10 adult psittacines (1 yellow-napped amazon [Amazona ochraacephala auropalliata], 3 Hispaniolan Amazons [A. ventralis], 2 blue-fronted Amazons [A. aestiva], 1 Congo African grey parrot [Psittacus erithacus erithacus], 1 umbrella cockatoo [Cactua alba] and 2 Goffin’s cockatoos [C. goffini]. Both agents were initially administered at an equal volume percentage (2%) rather than at equal minimum alveolar concentrations (MACs), therefore the initial concentration was above the isoflurane MAC for dogs and birds (1.3%) but below the sevoflurane MAC for dogs (2.3%). The time to intubation was significantly longer with sevoflurane because of initially delivering the sevoflurane below suspected MAC for birds. Although recovery times (time to extubation, sternal, and standing) were not significantly different, birds recovering from sevoflurane were less ataxic. It is concluded that sevoflurane is a suitable inhalant agent for use in psittacines.

 

A technique for evaluating analgesia in conscious perching birds. Paul-Murphy, J.R.; Brunson, D.B.; Miletic, V. American Journal of Veterinary Research, Oct. 1999, v. 60 (10), p. 1213-1217. ISSN: 0002-9645.

            NAL call no: 41.8 Am3A

            Descriptors: Psittacus, pain, analgesics, assessment, opioids.

Abstract: Objective: to develop a technique for objective assessment of modulation of nociperception in conscious perching birds. Animals: 31 adult African grey parrots. Procedure: Birds were randomly assigned to receive saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (n=10), butorphanol tartrate (11), or buprenorphine hydrochloride (10), IM. Birds were fitted with a surface electrode on the medial tarsus of 1 leg. An electrical stimulus was delivered to the bird’s foot through an aluminum surface on half of the perch. The alternate side of the perch delivered a noxious thermal stimulus. A withdrawal response to either stimulus was recorded when the bird lifted its foot or vigorously flinched its wings. Results: Responses to thermal stimuli were extremely variable during baseline testing and after administration of drugs. Thus, significant differences were not detected after drug injection. In contrast, responses to an electrical stimulus were predictable with much less variation. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: This method and device allowed for the reliable determination of withdrawal threshold in perching birds. Use of this technique for objective assessment of modulation of nociperception in conscious perching birds will enable assessment of analgesic drugs.

 

 

1998

 

Anesthesia of pet birds. Curro, Thomas G. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine, Jan. 1998, v. 7 (1), p. 10-21. ISSN: 1055-937X.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1S36

            Descriptors: Aves, sedation, anesthesia procedures, review.

 

Anesthesia and surgery of ratites. Gilsleider, Edward F. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, Nov. 1998, v. 14 (3), p. 503-524. ISSN: 0749-0720.

            NAL call no: SF601.V535

            Descriptors: ratite sedation, anesthesia, treatment techniques, surgical techniques.

 

Avian anesthesia. Forbes, N.A. Voorjaarsdagen Congress, 1998, Veterinary Quarterly, 20: supplement, S65-S66. ISSN: 0165-2176.

            NAL call no: SF601.V46

            Descriptors: anesthesia, aviary birds, flunixin.

 

Cardiopulmonary effects of propofol and a medetomidine-midazolam-ketamine combination in mallard ducks. Machin, K.L.; Caulett, N.A. American Journal of Veterinary Research, May 1998, v. 59 (5), p. 598-602. ISSN: 0002-9645.

            NAL call no: 41.8 Am3A

            Descriptors: ducks, propofol, injectable anesthetics, drug combinations, drug effects.

 

Evaluation of pulse oximetry as a monitoring method in avian anesthesia. Schmitt, Petra M.; Gobel, Thomas; Trautvetter, Eberhard. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, Jun. 1998, v. 12 (2), p. 91-99. ISSN: 1082-6742.

            NAL call no: SF994.J6

            Descriptors: Aves, sedation, blood oxygen, metabolism, anesthesia monitoring.

Abstract: The heart rate and pulse rate were measured in 47 anaesthetized birds of 5 species using 2 commercial pulse oximeters. The trend of oxygenation was well recorded, but the saturation values recorded by pulse oximetry did not correlate well (r =0.81) with arterial saturation derived from blood gas analyses. Pulse rate correlated well with heart rate in both oximeters. Good recordings were obtained in calm birds, however, values fluctuated during the surgery and with incidents such as dysrhythmia or severe blood loss. It is concluded that pulse oximetry is not satisfactory for routine use in avian practice and that an avian calibration curve, which would consider the specific avian photometric behavior of haemoglobin, should be developed before oximetry can be adapted for use in birds.

 

Investigation of injectable anesthetic agents in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos): A descriptive study. Machin, K.L.; Caulkett, N.A. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 1998, v. 12 (4), p. 255-262. ISSN: 1082-6742.

            NAL call no: SF994.J6

            Descriptors: injectable anesthetics, anesthesia, drug combinations.

Abstract: 30 healthy mallard ducks were used in the study. The injectable anaesthetics investigated included xylazine, medetomidine, katamine, midazolam, butorphanol, fentanyl, sufentanil, methohexital, alphaxalone-alphadolone and propofol. The reversal agents atipamezole and flumazenil were also examined. Drugs were administered alone or in combination by the i.m., intranasal (i.n.) or i.v. route. Anaesthetic effects were recorded, and analgesia was assessed by response to toe pinching and feather plucking. Incremental doses were given when the effect of the initial dose was poor. No anaesthetic regimen was effective when administered by the i.m. route, and i.n. administration resulted in unreliable depth of anaesthesia. Intravenous administration of anaesthetic agents was more effective, but few regimens provided adequate duration of anaesthesia or analgesia for a surgical procedure. Intravenous administration of s medetomidine-midazolam-ketamine combination produced adequate anaesthesia and analgesia of a 30- min duration, and the effects of the combination could be reversed with atipamezole and flumazenil. Administration of i.v. propofol produced smooth induction and recovery, excellent muscle relaxation, and short duration of anaesthesia requiring additional boluses to prolong and maintain anaesthesia.

 

A method for anaesthesia and post-operative care for experimental procedures in avian species. Blogg, S.L.; Townsend, P.P.; Butler, P.J.; Taylor, E.W. Animal Technology (Sussex), The Institute. Aug. 1998, v. 49 (2), p. 101-109. ref. ISSN: 0264-4754.

            NAL call no: QL55.I5

Descriptors: ducks, Aythya fuligula, Anas platyhynchos, diving, injectable anesthetics, medetomidine, ketamine.

Abstract: This paper describes a successful method of anaesthesia for prolonged and/or invasive avian surgery, along with an appropriate protocol for post-operative care. These methods were determined during a neuroanatomical study of two species of bird, the tufted duck (Aythya fuligula) and the domestic duck (Anas platyhynchos), as part of an ongoing scientific study. Descriptions of current, relevant techniques of anaesthesia suitable for this study, were not readily available, therefore we felt that details of our methods would be a valuable contribution to this field. A standard operating procedure for use in similar studies and an example of an avian post-operative score sheet are outlined.

 

Recommendations for anesthesia in raptors with comments on trumpeter swans. Redig, Patrick T. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine, Jan. 1998, v. 7 (1), p. 22-29. ISSN: 1055-937X.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1S36

            Descriptors: Falconiformes, sedation, anesthesia, recommended procedures, review.

 

Respiratory physiology of birds: Considerations for anesthetic management. Ludders, John W. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine, Jan. 1998, v. 7 (1), p. 3-9. ISSN: 1055-937X.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1S36

            Descriptors: Aves, sedation, anesthesia, anatomy, physiology, literature review.

 

Safety of isoflurane anaesthesia in high risk avian patients. Olkowski, A.A.; Classen, H.L. Veterinary Record, Jul. 18, 1998, v. 143 (3), p. 82-83. ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL call no: 41.8 V641

            Descriptors: chickens, turkeys, isoflurane, anesthesia, safety, adverse effects.

 

Twenty years of progress in avian anesthesia and surgery. Altman, R.B. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Apr. 15, 1998, v. 212 (8), p. 1233-1235. ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL call no: 41.8.Am3

            Descriptors: birds, anesthesia, surgery, history.

 

 

1997

 

Anesthesia and analgesia. Heard, Darryl J. Avian Medicine and Surgery, Altman, Robert B.; Clubb, Susan L.; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Quesenberry, Katherine. W.B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia. 1997. i-xv. p. 1-1070. Chapter pagination: 807-827. ISBN: 0721654460.

            NAL call no: SF994.A95 1997

            Descriptors: analgesia, sedation, anesthesia, treatment techniques, review.

 

Anesthesia and analgesia in laboratory animals. Kohn, Dennis F. American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine Series. San Diego: Academic Press c 1997. xvii, 426 p. ill. ISBN: 0124175708.

            NAL call no: SF996.5.A54 1997

            Descriptors: laboratory animals, surgery, veterinary anesthesia, analgesia.

 

Anesthetic management of ratites. Lin, H.C.; Ko, J.C.H. The Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian, Apr. 1997, v. 19 (4, suppl.) p. S127-S132. ISSN: 0193-1903.

            NAL call no: SF601.C66

            Descriptors: ostriches, restraint, preanesthetic medication, injectable anesthetics.

 

Cardiopulmonary and anesthetic effects of propofol in wild turkeys. Schumacher, J.; Citino, S.B.; Hernandez, K.; Hutt, J.; Dixon, B. American Journal of Veterinary Research, Sept. 1997, v. 58 (9), p. 1014-1017. ISSN: 0002-9645.

            NAL call no: SF914.V47

            Descriptors: turkeys, anesthesia injectable anesthetics, safety heart rate, blood gases.

Abstract: Objective- to determine safety, anesthetic variables, and cardiopulmonary effects of IV infusion of propofol for induction and maintenance of anesthesia in wild turkeys. Animals-10 healthy, adult turkeys. Procedure-Anesthesia was induced by IV administration of propofol (5 mg/kg of body weight) over 20 seconds and was maintained for 30 minutes by constant IV infusion of propofol at a rate of 0.5 mg/kg/min. Heart rate and respiratory rates, arterial blood pressures, and arterial blood gas tensions were obtained prior to propofol administration (baseline values) and again at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes after induction of anesthesia. All birds were intubated immediately after induction anesthesia, and end tidal CO2 concentration was determined at the same time intervals. Supplemental oxygen was not provided. Results-Apnea was observed for 10 to 30 seconds after propofol administration, which induced a decrease in heart rate; however, the changes were not significant. Compared with baseline values, respiratory rate was significantly decreased at 4 minutes after administration of propofol and thereafter. Systolic, mean, and diastolic pressure decreased over the infusion period, but the changes were not significant. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased by 30% after 15 minutes of anesthesia; end-tidal CO2 concentration increased from baseline values after 30 minutes; Po, was significantly decreased at 5 minutes after induction and thereafter; P-CO2 was significantly (P it 0.05) increased after 15 minutes-of anesthesia; and arterial oxygen saturation was significantly (P it 0.05) decreased at the end of anesthesia. Two male turkeys developed severe transient hypoxemia, 1 at 5 and the other at 15 minutes after induction. Time to standing after discontinuation of propofol infusion was 11+6 minutes. Recovery was smooth and unremarkable. Conclusion-Propofol is an effective agent for IV induction and maintenance of anesthesia in wild turkeys, and is useful for short procedures or where the use of inhalation agents is contraindicated.

 

Repair of femur fracture in a peacock under ketamine anaesthesia: A case report. Singh, Y.P.; Singh, Man. Indian Veterinary Journal, 1997, v. 74 (2), p. 170-171. ISSN: 0019-6479.

            NAL call no: SF601.I45

            Descriptors: femur fracture, general anesthetic drug, intramedullary pinning, leg repair.

Abstract: Surgical repair of femur fracture in a peacock is described. The repair was achieved using intramedullary pinning under ketamine anaesthesia.

 

Use of xylazine, butorphanol, tiletamine-zolazepam, and isoflurane for induction and maintenance of anesthesia in ratites. Lin, H.C.; Todhunter, P.G.; Powe, T.A.; Ruffin, D.C. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Jan. 15, 1997, v. 210 (2), p. 244-248. ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL call no: 41.8 Am3

            Descriptors: emus, rhea, ostriches, opioids, injectable anesthetics, drug combinations.

Abstract: Anesthesia with xylazine, butorphanol, tiletamine-zolazepam, and isoflurane in ratites (9emus, 3 rheas, 6 ostriches) was investigated. Anaesthetic treatments included 4 regimens: induction and maintenance of anaesthesia with isoflurane, preanaesthetic sedation with xylazine and butorphanol followed by induction and maintenance of anaesthesia with isoflurane, induction of anaesthesia with tiletamine-zolazepam and maintenance with isoflurane, and pre-anaesthetic sedation with xylazine and butorphanol followed by induction of anaesthesia with tiletamine-zolazeoam and maintenance with isoflurane. None of the birds developed irreversible adverse effects, but 2 developed bradycardia (1 was treated with atropine and responded) and 2 others developed transient apnoea. Intravenous administration of tiletamine-zolazepam produced rapid and smooth induction of anaesthesia in adult ostriches.

 

 

1996

 

Anaesthesia. Lawton, Martin P.C. Manual of Raptors, Pigeons and Waterfowl, 1996, p. 79-88. Beynon, P.H.; Forbes, N.A.; Harcourt-Brown, N.H. eds. Iowa State University Press. ISBN: 0813828767.

            NAL call no: SF994.B73 1996

            Descriptors: analgesia, anesthesia, monitoring, postoperative care, sedation, birds.

 

Anaesthesia. Lawton, Martin P.C. BSAVA Manual of Psittacine Birds, New edition. 1996. p. 49-59. Beynon, P.H.; Forbes, N.A.; Lawto n, M.P.C. (eds.). Iowa State University Press. ISBN: 0813823498.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1M37 1996

            Descriptors: analgesia, premedication, sedation, psittacine birds, anesthesia, parrots.

 

Anesthesiology of ratites. Cornick-Seahorn, J.L. Ratite Management, Medicine, and Surgery, Krieger Publishing Co. 1996, p. 79-94. ISBN: 0894648748.

            NAL call no: SF995.5.R37 1996

            Descriptors: ostriches, emus, rheas, birds, preanesthetic medication, anesthesia.

 

Anesthetic agents. Altman, R.B.; Johnston, D. (ed.); Waner, T. Proceedings and Abstracts 21st Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA), Jerusalem, Israel. Oct. 20-23, 1996, 96 p.

            Descriptors: anesthesia, ketamine, diazepam, aviary birds, anesthetics.

 

Avian anesthesia administration. Rosskopf, Walter J.; Woerpel, Richard W.; Reed, Sue: Snider, Karen; Dispirito, Tony. University of Sydney Post Graduate Foundation in Veterinary Science Proceedings, 1996, v. 279, p. 173-199. ISSN: 1326-5091.

            NAL call no: SF604.R37 

            Descriptors: Aves, treatment techniques, sedation, anesthesia administration.

 

Avian anesthesia and patient monitoring.. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Mid Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians, Apr. 28-30, 1996, 1996, v. 17, p. 34-39.

            NAL call no: SF994.M52

            Descriptors: Aves, sedation, anesthesia, patient monitoring, birds, review .

 

Capturing Humbolt Penguins, Spheniscus humboldti, with the use of an anaesthetic. Luna, Jorquera G.; Culik, B.; Aquilar, R. Marine Ornithology, 1996, v. 24 (1-2), p. 47-50. ISSN: 1018-3337.

            Descriptors: ketamine hydrochloride, birds, general anesthetic, drug delivery.

 

Clinical perspectives of intravenous ketamine anaesthesia in peafowl (Pavo cristatus). Athar, M.; Shakoor, A.; Muhammad, G.; Sarwar, M.N.; Chaudry, N.I. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, 1996, v. 44 (3), p. 357-361. ISSN: 0236-6290.

            NAL call no: 41.8 AC83

            Descriptors: injectable anesthetics, anesthesia, surgery, dosage, ketamine.

Abstract: At the Faculty of Veterinary Science, Faisalabad, Pakistan, during [1994/1995?], 29 peafowl were surgically treated for infraorbital abscesses (22 birds), lacerated wounds (4 birds) and fractures of tibia (2 birds) and radius (1 bird) and were anaesthetized by i.v. administration of ketamine hydorchloride (Inj. Calypsol) at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight. Divided doses (10+5+5 mg/kg) were used with an interval of 1-2 min between each dose. Anaesthesia lasted for about 15 min and the birds recovered completely after 30 min to 3 hours. The respiration rate was greatly depressed during anaesthesia (8 to10 cycles/min) and birds had a deep abdominal respiratory pattern. Analgesia was incomplete and muscle relaxation was not satisfactory. Mild salivation was noticed in 3 anaesthetized birds. Recovery, although not smooth, was uneventful.

 

Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of a continuous infusion of gualfenesin, xylazine, and ketamine for maintenance of anesthesia in emus. Cornick, Seahorn J.L. Veterinary Surgery, 1996, v. 25 (2), p. 180. Scientific Abstracts from the 1995 American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists Meeting, Oct. 20, 1995, Atlanta, GA. ISSN: 0161-3499.

            NAL call no: SF911.V43

            Descriptors: safety, efficacy, drug combinations, anesthesia, immobilization.

 

Evaluation of sedation in quail by use of midazolam and reversed by use of flumazenil. Day, T.D.; Roge, C.K. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Sept. 1, 1996, v. 209 (5), p. 969-971. ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL call no: 41.8 Am3

            Descriptors: anesthesia, dosage effects, heart rate, respiration rate, drug antagonism.

 

Practical anesthesia administration. Rosskopf, Walter J. Jr.; Woerpel, Richard W. Diseases of Cage and Aviary Birds, Third ed. 1996: p. 664-671. Williams & Wilkins, London, UK. ISBN: 0683073826.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1D57

            Descriptors: anesthetic administration, dosing, maximum alveolar concentration, inhalants.

 

Principles of avian anesthesia and surgery. Altman, R.B.; Johnston, D. (ed).; Waner, T. Proceedings and Abstracts 21st Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA), Jerusalem, Israel. Oct. 20-23, 1996, p. 91-92.

            Descriptors: surgery, clinical examination, aviary birds, anesthesia.

 

Use of propofol for induction and maintenance of anesthesia in a barn owl (Tyto alba) undergoing tracheal resection. Mama, Khursheed R.; Phillips, Lyndsay G. Jr.; Pascoe, Peter J. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, Sept. 1996, v. 27 (3), p. 397-401. ISSN: 1042-7260.

            NAL call no: SF601.J6

            Descriptors: sedation, propofol, Strigiformes, Aves, short term anesthesia, surgery, owls.

Abstract: An adult barn owl was evaluated for respiratory distress. A partial proximal tracheal obstruction was diagnosed, and surgical resection of the affected segment was elected. Anaesthesia was induced with 4 mg i.v. propofol and maintained with 0.5 mg/kg/min propofol by continuous i.v. infusion. Heart rate, direct arterial blood pressure, respiratory rate, and arterial blood gases were measured before and during the anaesthetic period. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased from 148 mm Hg to 130 mm Hg transiently following anaesthetic induction. Arterial blood gas values were within normal limits (carbon dioxide = 34.3 mm Hg and oxygen = 86.7 mm Hg 15 min following induction). No complications were noted, and recovery was timely and uneventful. It is concluded that propofol may be used as an i.v. anaesthetic for short surgical procedures in barn owls.

 

 

1995

 

Anaestesia negli uccelli. Utilizzo dell'associazione medetomidina-ketamina e dell'atipamezolo nell'anestesia degli uccelli non domestici. [Anesthesia of birds. Use of a medetomidine-ketamine combination and atipamezole in the anaesthesia of non-domestic birds.] Scrollavezza, P.; Zanichelli, S. Obiettivi e Documenti Veterinari, 1995, v. 16 (11), p. 13-16, 19-21. ISSN: 0392-1913. Note: In Italian.

            Descriptors: anesthetics, reviews, anesthesia, medetomidine, ketamine.

 

Arrhythmias associated with isoflurane anesthesia in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Aguilar, Roberto F.; Smith, Victoria E.; Ogburn, Phillip; Redig, Patrick T. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, Dec. 1995, v. 26 (4), p. 508-516. ISSN: 1042-7260.

            NAL call no: SF601.J6

            Descriptors: sedation, isoflurane anaesthesia, cardiac arrhythmia, heart beat, frequency.

Abstract: 12 bald eagles were each subjected to two 30 min sessions of anaesthesia. Each subject was anaesthetized with increasing amounts of isoflurane through a mask until a concentration of 4% was reached. Each eagle was then intubated and the isoflurane concentration was reduced to 2.5 - 3.5 % for anaesthetic maintenance. Electrocardiograms were obtained before induction and after 30 min of anaesthesia. Continuous lead II electrocardiographic monitoring was initiated before induction and continued until after recovery. Pulse and O2²saturation were monitored on all birds with a plethysmograph. Continuous gas flow was monitored following intubation with a sidestream gas analyser. In 5 randomly selected birds, 1 ml of venous blood was drawn at predetermined intervals from the ulnar vein into a syringe and refrigerated for subsequent blood gas and electrolyte analysis. Levels of venous O2, PO2, potassium, and pH were determined for each sample. In the same 5 birds, mean arterial and systolic blood pressures were monitored indirectly every 23 min. Temperatures were measured at the same intervals as those used for blood sampling. Arrhythmias were observed in 75% of the eagles and occurred during periods of induction or recovery in 80% of the cases. Though hypercapnia was suspected as a contributing factor, paired sample t-test analysis of measured data failed to indicate causality.

 

Chemical immobilization of red-necked ostriches (Struthio camelus) under field conditions. Ostrowski, S.; Ancrenaz, M. Veterinary Record, Feb. 11, 1995, v. 136 (6), p. 145-147. ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL call no: 41.8 V641

            Descriptors: ostriches, anesthesia, immobilization, dosage, drug combinations, effects.

Abstract: Sixteen red-necked ostriches (Struthio camelus) were darted under field conditions with combinations of etorphine hydrochloride with medetomidine of ketamine on 13 birds; xylazine hydrochloride and metomidate alone were used on one or 2 birds. The times to recumbency and recovery were recorded and compared. The principal complications during the anaesthetic procedure were myopathy due to over exertion and respiratory collapse. Etorphine combined with medetomidine produced good quality but short duration sedation, which allowed minor procedures to be carried out.

 

Inhalant anesthetics and inspired oxygen: Implications for anesthesia in birds. Ludders, J.W.; Seaman, G.C.; Erb, H.N. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, Jan./Feb. 1995, v. 31 (1), p. 38-41. ISSN: 0587-2871.

            NAL call no: SF601.A5

            Descriptors: birds, anesthesia, oxygen, respiration, heart rate, inhaled anesthetics.

 

Ostrich anaesthesia: Xylazine premedication followed by alphaxalone/alphadolone and isoflurane. Cullen, L.K.; Goerke, M.A.; Swan, R.A.; Clark, W.T.; Nandapi, D.; Colbourne, C. Australian Veterinary Journal, Apr. 1995, v. 72 (4), p. 153-154. ISSN: 0005-0423.

            NAL call no: 41.8 Au72

            Descriptors: ostriches, anesthesia, preanesthetic medication, drug combinations.

 

Principles and techniques of analgesia for zoological medicine. Heard, Darryl J. Proceedings of the Annual Veterinary Medical Forum American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 1995, v. 13, p. 62-64. ISSN: 0894-7708.

            NAL call no: SF605.V47

            Descriptors: analgesia, sensory reception, principles and techniques, review.

 

 

1994

 

Anesthesia and analgesia. Cooper, J.E. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Eastern States Veterinary Association, Jan. 15-20,1994, p. 895-896.

            NAL call no: SF605.N672

            Descriptors: small mammals, anesthesia, analgesics, birds, methods, drugs, techniques.

 

Avian anesthesia for the general practitioner. Ludders, J.W. Proceeding of the North American Veterinary Conference, Eastern States Veterinary Association, Jan. 15-20, 1994, p. 791-793.

            NAL call no: SF605.N672

            Descriptors: birds, anesthesia, veterinary medicine, methods, drugs.

 

Determination of the ED50 of isoflurane and evaluation of the isoflurane-sparing effect of butorphanol in cockatoos (Cacatua spp.). Curro, T.G.; Brunson, D.B.; Paul, Murphy J. Veterinary Surgery, 1994, v. 23 (5), p. 429-433. ISSN: 0161-3400.

            NAL call no: SF911.V43

            Descriptors: anesthesia, inhaled anesthetics, analgesia, cockatoo.

Abstract: The use of butorphanol as an analgesic in a psittacine species was evaluated by determining its isoflurane-sparing effect. The Effective Dose 50 (ED 50) of isoflurane was determined using a bracketing technique based on the purposeful movement elicited by pressure applied to a digit with a haemostat. The ED50 of isoflurane for 11 cockatoos (4 greater sulfur crested, 3 lesser sulfur crested, and 4 citron crested) was determined to be 1.44 + 0.07%. After the administration of 1 mg/kg of butophanol tartrate intramuscularly (IM), the ED50 was significantly decreased to 1.08 + 0.05%. Physiological variables that changed significantly included decreases in heart rate, tidal volume (Vt), inspiratory (Ti) and expiratory times (Te), and an increase in respiratory rate. No complications resulted because of these changes. Based on the results, butorphanol produces an isoflurane-sparing effect in cockatoos and has the potential to be a useful analgesic in psittacines.

 

Effects of low and high fractions of inspired oxygen on ventilation in ducks anesthetized with isoflurane. Seaman, G.C.; Ludders, J.W.; Erb, H.N.; Gleed, R.D. American Journal of Veterinary Research, Mar. 1994, v. 55 (3), p. 395-398. ISSN: 0002-9645.

            NAL call no: 41.8 Am3A

            Descriptors: ducks, lung ventilation, oxygen, anesthesia, respiratory disorders.

Abstract: High fractions of inspired oxygen are commonly used during general anesthesia in birds. Observations in ducks anesthetized with halothane or pentobarbital indicated that high fractions of inspired oxygen depress ventilation. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that ducks hypoventilate when breathing high fractions of inspired oxygen, compared with the same ducks breathing low fractions of inspired oxygen. Respiratory variables were recorded in 7 ducks anesthetized with 1.4% isoflurane in oxygen. Four concentrations of oxygen (21, 40, 70, and >90%) were used for each duck. Respiratory rate decreased as the fraction of inspired oxygen increased, but not significantly. There was a significant decrease in tidal volume as Paco2 increased. Hyperoxia was observed to contribute to hypoventilation in ducks anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen.

 

Research Animal Anesthesia, Analgesia and Aurgery: Proceedings of a Conference Sponsored by SCAW held in Atlanta. Smith, Alison, C.; Swindle, M. Michael. Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, 1994. iv. 170 p. ill.

            NAL call no: SF914.R49 1994

Descriptors: veterinary anesthesia congress, veterinary surgery, laboratory animals, includes birds.

 

Small animal anesthesia part I and II. Muir, W.W. III. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Jan. 15-20, 1994, Eastern States Veterinary Association, 1994, p. 17-21.

            NAL call no: SF605.N672

            Descriptors: anesthesia.

 

 

1993 

 

Anesthesia monitoring of avian surgical patient. Thorstad, C.L. Veterinary Practice Staff, 1993, v. 5 (5), p. 8-11. ISSN: 1047-8639.

            NAL call no: SF601.V4747

            Descriptors: inhaled anesthetics, complications, anesthesia, aviary birds.

 

Determination of the ED50 of isoflurane and evaluation of the analgesic properties of the butorphanol in cockatoos (Cacatua spp.). Curro, T.G.; Brunson, D.B.; Paul Murphy J. Veterinary Surgery, 1993, v. 22 (6), p. 546. Abstracts from the Ninth Annual Veterinary Midwest Anesthesia Conference, Jun. 5, 1993, Champaign-Urbana, IL. ISSN: 0161-3499.

            NAL call no: SF911.V43

            Descriptors: anesthesia, inhaled anesthetics, analgesics, cockatoos.

 

Effects of ketamine-xylazine anesthesia on adrenal function and cardiac conduction in goshawks and pigeons. Lumeij, J.T. Raptor Biomedicine, Redig, Patrick T.; Cooper, John E.; Remple, J. David; Hunter, D. Bruce (eds). University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1993, i-xvii, p. 1-265. Chapter pagination: 145-149. ISBN: 0816622191.

            NAL call no: SF994.5.R36 1993

            Descriptors: sedation, ketamine-xylazine anesthesia, comparative effects.

 

The influence of midazolam on the minimum anesthetic concentration of isoflurane in racing pigeons. Smith, J.; Mason, D.E.; Muir, W.W. Veterinary Surgery, 1993, v. 22 (6), p. 546-547. ISSN: 0161-3499.

            NAL call no: SF911.V43

            Descriptors: racing animals, anesthesia, inhaled anesthetics, preanesthetic.

 

Inhalation anesthesia in birds of prey. Fitzgerald, Guy; Blais, Diane. Raptor Biomedicine, Redig, Patrick T.; Cooper, John E.; Remple, J.David; Hunter, D. Bruce (eds). University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1993, i-xvii. p. 1-265. Chapter pagination: 128-135. ISBN: 0816622191.

            NAL call no: SF994.5.R36 1993

            Descriptors: Falconiformes, sedation, inhalation anesthesia techniques, review.

 

Principles and techniques of anesthesia and analgesia for exotic practice. Heard, D.J. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, W.B. Saunders Co. Nov. 1993, v. 23 (6), p. 1301-1327. ISSN: 0195-5616.

            NAL call no: SF601.V523

            Descriptors: pets, anesthesia, sedation, treatment techniques, birds.

 

 

1992

 

Anesthesia administration for pet birds. Part 1. Anesthetic agents. Rosskopf, W. Jr.; Woerpel, R.W.; Reed, S.; Snider, K.; Dispirito, T. Veterinary Practice Staff, 1992, v. 4 (2), p. 34-37. ISSN: 1047-8639.

            NAL call no: SF601.V4747

            Descriptors: aviary birds, injectable anesthetics, inhaled anesthetics, anesthesia.

 

Anesthesia administration in pet birds: Successful anesthetic protocol. Rosskopf, W.J.; Woerpel, R.W.; Reed, S.; Snider, K.; Dispirito, T. Veterinary Practice Staff, 1992, v. 4 (5), p. 10-14. ISSN: 1047-8639.

            NAL call no: SF601.V4747

            Descriptors: anesthetics, anesthesia, aviary birds.

 

Anesthetic management of ostriches. Cornick, J.L.; Jensen, J. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Jun. 1, 1992, v. 20 (11), p. 1661-1666. ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL call no: 41.8 Am3

            Descriptors: ostriches, anesthesia, anesthetics, heart rate, blood pressure, blood gases.

Abstract: Several anaesthetic induction protocols used to facilitate intubation and anaesthetic maintenance with isoflurane in 7 adult ostriches and 1 juvenile ostrich were evaluated. Induction protocols included i.v. administration of Telazol (zolazepam/tiletamine) i.v. administration of Vallium//Ketaset (diazepam/ketamine) with and without Rompun (xylazine), i.v. administration of xylazine/ketamine, i.m. administration of Wildnil (carfentanil) or xylamine/carfentanil, and mask induction with Aerrane (isoflurane). General anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in 100% oxygen for various procedures, including proventriculotomy (6 birds), tibial (1 bird) or mandibular (1 bird) fracture repair, and drainage of an iatrogenic haematoma (1 bird). Heart rate and respiratory rate varied greatly among birds. The arterial blood pressure values recorded from 6 of the birds during maintenance of general anaesthesia were higher than for most mammalian species, but were comparable to values reported for awake chickens and turkeys.

 

Anesthetic management for surgery in 10 ostriches. Matthews, N.S.; Hartsfield, S.M.; Sanders, E.A.; Light, G.S. Veterinary Surgery, 1992, v. 21 (2), p. 164. ISSN: 0161-3499.

            NAL call no: SF911.V43

            Descriptors: surgical operations, diazepam, ketamine, xylazine, anesthesia.

 

Effects of yohimbine as a reversing agent for ketamine-xylazine anesthesia in budgerigars. Heaton, J.T.; MD; Brauth, S.E. Laboratory Animal Science, Feb. 1992, v. 42 (1), p. 54-56. ISSN: 0023-6764.

            NAL call no: 410.9 P94

            Descriptors: budgerigars, anesthesia, yohimbine, ketamine, xylazine, dosage effects.

Abstract: Fourteen adult budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were anesthetized with a combination of ketamine hydrochloride (40mg/kg) and xylazine hydrochloride (10mg/kg) intramuscularly. Forty-five minutes after ketamine-xylazine injection, one of four yohimbine hydrochloride doses )0.0, 0.11, 0.275 0r 0.44 mg/kg, IM) was administered in a 0.7% saline vehicle. Latencies are recorded in minutes from yohimbine injection until subjects’ behavior indicated three different points of recovery: 1) lifting the head, 2) standing unaided without ataxia, and 3) perching. Means for all three recovery point latencies ere significantly reduced by 0.275 mg/kg of yohimbine compared with saline vehicle alone. Mean latencies among treatment groups for each of the three recovery points were not significantly different, other than control versus treated groups. Based on these results, we recommend a yohimbine dose of 0.275 mg/kg as an effective reversing agent for ketamine-xylazine anesthesia in budgerigars.

 

Minimal anesthetic concentration and cardiopulmonary dose-response to halothane in ducks. Ludders, J.W. Veterinary Surgery, 1992, v. 21 (4), p. 319-324. ISSN: 0161-3499.

            NAL call no: SF911.V43

            Descriptors: anesthesia, inhaled anesthetics, cardiovascular system, halothane.

Abstract: The minimal anaesthetic conc (MAC) for halothane and cardiopulmonary dose-responses at several conc of halothane were determined during spontaneous ventilation in 9 young adult Pekin ducks. The MAC for halothane was 1.04+0.11. There were dose-dependent decreases in ventilation, significant reductions in inspiratory and expiratory times, and prolongation of expiratory pause times. The end-tidal haolthane conc at apnoea in 5 ducks was <1.35% and anaesthetic index was <1.51. Heart rate increased significantly as the conc of halothane was increased, but arterial blood pressure did not change. Cardiac arrhythmias developed in 5 ducks at end-tidal halothane conc as low as 1.15%, and one duck died of cardiac arrest.

 

Moglichkeiten der Schmerzausschaltung beim Vogel - eine Ubersicht. [Possibilities for analgesia in birds. A review.] Warncke, G. Tierlaboratorium, 1992, no. 15, p. 67-82. ISSN: 0179-0862. Note: In German.

            NAL call no: QL55.Z46

            Descriptors: anesthesia, injectable anesthetics, inhaled anesthetics, analgesics.

 

Ostrich (Struthio camelus) immobilization using carfentanil and xylazine and reversal with yohimbine and naltrexone. Raath, J.P.; Quandt, S.K.F.; Malan, J.H. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, Dec. 1992, v. 63 (4), p. 138-140. ISSN: 0301-0732.

            NAL call no: 41.8 SO8

            Descriptors: ostriches, anesthesia, drug restraint.

 

Pain in birds. Gentle, M.J. Animal Welfare, 1992, v. 1 (4), p. 235-247. ISSN: 0962-7286.

            NAL call no: HV4701.A557

            Descriptors: animal welfare, debeaking, analgesics, pain, reviews.

Abstract: The physiology of pain, pain receptors, behavioural and physiological responses to pain, pain following trauma (including beak amputation), and analgesia in birds are reviewed.

 

1991

 

Anesthesia in caged birds. Doolen, M.D.; Jackson, L. Iowa State University Veterinarian, 1991, v. 53 (2), p. 76-80. ISSN: 0099-5851.

            NAL call no: 41.8 V6425.

            Descriptors: aviary birds, inhaled anesthetics, injectable anesthetics, anesthesia.

 

Intravenously administered propofol for anesthesia of the common buzzard (Buteo buteo), the tawny owl (Strix aluco), and the barn owl (Tyto alba). Milaelian, J. Proceedings of the First Conference of the European Committee of the Association of Avian Veterinarians, Vienna, Mar. 13-16, 1991, p. 97-101.

            NAL call no: SF994.A2

            Descriptors: anesthesia, injectable anesthetics, birds.

 

Premature ventricular contractions and apparent hypertension during anesthesia in an ostrich. Matthews, N.S.; Burba, D.J.; Cornick, J.L. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Jun. 1, 1991, v. 198 (11), p. 1959-1961. ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL call no: 41.8 AM3

            Descriptors: ostriches, anesthesia, hypertension, ventricles contraction, adverse effects.

Abstract: Premature ventricular contractions and apparent hypertension were seen in an adult ostrich anaesthetized with isoflurane. The ostrich had septic joints and was anaesthetized to allow joint lavage. The premature ventricular contractions occurred at the rate of 1 to 2 min, with a brief period of 12 to 15 min, and were not treated with any antiarrhythmic drugs. Normal blood pressures for awake or anaesthetized adult ostriches are not readily available, but the blood pressures in this bird were higher than in other ostriches measured with the same technique. Systolic pressures ranged from 199 to 249 mm of Hg, diastolic pressures from 107 to 177 mm of Hg, and mean pressures were from 165 to 220 mm of Hg during isoflurane anaesthesia of approximately 45 min duration. Recovery from anaesthesia was uncomplicated, although the ostrich died 12 days later from mycotic pneumonia attributed to Aspergillus sp. and Candida albicans.

 

A technique for liver biopsy performed in Pekin ducks using anesthesia with Telazol. Carp, N.Z.; Saputelli, J.; Halbherr, T.C.; Mason, W.S.; Jilbert, A.R. Laboratory Animal Science, Oct. 1991, v. 41 (5), p. 474-475. ISSN: 0023-6764.

            NAL call no: 410.9 P94

            Descriptors: ducks, liver biopsy, anesthesia, injectable anesthetics, safety.

Abstract: Infection of Pekin ducks with duck hepatitis B virus is a useful model for studying the hepadenoviruses, of which human hepatitis B virus is the prototype. The utility of this model had been limited, however, by the difficulties associated with anesthetizing and obtaining liver biopsies from ducks. We developed a technique using Telazol, (13mg/kg) to anesthetize ducks before surgical biopsy of the liver in ducks infected with duck hepatitis B virus. Eight Pekin ducks infected with duck hepatitis B virus underwent serial biopsies at 4- to 5- week intervals. There was one perioperative death in 34 surgical procedures with no evidence on intr-abdominal sepsis or wound complications. Telazol can be used safely and humanely to anesthetize ducks without the need for general endotracheal anesthesia.

 

Use of medetomidine as a preanaesthetic in birds. Kalpravidh, M. Journal of Veterinary Anaesthesia, 1991, Special supplement, 245-248; Proceedings of the 4th International Congress of Veterinary Anaesthesia, Utrecht, Netherlands, Aug. 25-31, 1991. ISSN: 1467-2987.

            NAL call no: SF914 V47

            Descriptors: anesthesia, injectable anesthetics, ketamine, medetomidine.

Abstract: Medetomidine, a alpha2-adrenoreceptor agonist wae used to balance ketamine anaesthesia in birds. Twenty zebra doves weighing 40 to 60 g were equally divided into 2 groups. Group 1 was used to evaluate the effects of 100 mg/kg bwt of 5% ketamine and 0.1 mg/kg bwt of 0.005% medetomidine in combination with 100 mg/kg bwt or 5% ketamine. Group 2 was used to study the effects of 200 mg/kg bwt of 5% ketamine and 30 mg/kg bwt of 1% pentobarbital. All injections were made i.m. Medetomidine-ketamine combination provided better analgesia, deeper anaesthesia, and smoother recovery with less wing flapping than with ketamine alone. The anaesthetic effect of the combination was comparable to that of pentobarbital but recovery was smoother.

 

Veterinary Anaesthesia. Hall, J.W.; Clarke, K.W. 1991, ed. 9, 410 p. Bailliere Tindall, Ltd, London; UK. ISBN: 0702014214.

            NAL call no: SF914.H39 2000

            Descriptors: laboratory animals, wild animals, anesthetics, pre-medication, anesthesia.

Abstract: The 9th extensively revised edition is aimed at students and provides a reference for veterinary surgeons in general practice. Part one “Principles and Procedures” covers: general considerations, patient monitoring and clinical measurement, introduction to general anaesthesia, principles of sedation, analgesia and premedication, general pharmacology of intravenous and inhaled anaesthetic agents, relaxation of the skeletal muscles, artificial ventilation of the lungs, apparatus for the administration of anaesthetics and principles of local analgesia. Part 2 “Anaesthesia of the species” includes species-specific details for the horse, cattle, sheep, goat and other herbivores, pig, dog, cat, birds, laboratory and wild animals. Part 3 “Special anaesthesia” deals with obstetrics, intrathoracic and cardiac surgery as well as accidents and emergencies. Appendices include duties of an anaesthetist, glossary of abbreviations, and UK and US approved names of some drugs used in anaesthesia. There is a subject index.

 

 

1990

 

Anesthesia of birds and miscellaneous laboratory animals. Bush, M. Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals Proceedings, 1990 Forum, American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, Columbia, MD, May 3-6, 1990, p. 107-109.

            NAL call no: SF914.A53 1990

            Descriptors: birds, laboratory animals, anesthesia.

 

Chemical immobilization in ostriches (Struthio camelus) using etorphine hydrochloride. Samor, J.H.; Irwin, Davies J.; Faraj, E. Veterinary Record, Dec. 8, 1990, v. 127 (23), p. 575-576. ill. ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL call no: 41.8 V641

            Descriptors: ostriches, immobilization, etorphine, anesthesia.

 

Isoflurane as an inhalational anesthetic agent in clinical practice. Dohoo, S.E. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 1990, v. 31 (12), p. 847-850. ISSN: 0008-5286.

            NAL call no: 41.8 R3224

            Descriptors: anesthesia, pharmacokinetics, inhaled-anesthetics.

Abstract: Isoflurane is the most recently available inhalation anaesthetic agent on the market. Although there have been few clinical trials comparing the use to halothane and methoxyflurane, the pharmacology of the agent suggests certain situations in which it may be the preferred agent. These include avian anaesthesia, geriatric patients, patients with cardiovascular disease or hepatic disease, critically ill and unstable patients, cases such as brachiocephalics where upper airway obstructions is a concern during recovery, patients where increases in intracranial pressure should be avoided, and caesarean section. In addition, the rapid recoveries seen with isoflurane may be an advantage for outpatient surgeries.

 

Minimal anesthetic concentrations and cardiopulmonary dose response of isoflurane in ducks. Ludders, J.W.; Mitchell, G.S.; Rode, J. Veterinary Surgery, 1990, v. 19 (4), p. 304-307. ISSN: 0161-3499.

            NAL call no: SF911.V43

            Descriptors: anesthesia, inhaled anesthetics, hemodynamics.

Abstract: The minimal anaesthetic concentration (MAC) for isoflurane was determined during spontaneous ventilation in nine male Pekin ducks (7 to 12 weeks of age; 3.0 +0.4 kg). While each bird was awake, arterial blood was collected for analysis of pH, PaCO², and PaO². After anaesthesia was induced with isoflurane in oxygen, MAC was determined for isoflurane in each bird during spontaneous ventilation in a manner similar to MAC determinations in mammals. Pulmonary dose-response data were collected at 1 and 1;5 MAC. Anaesthetic index (AI; an index of anaesthetic-induced apnoea) was calculated from ducks that became apnoeic. The MAC for isoflurane was 1.30 + 0.23%)mean + SD). There was a dose dependent decrease in ventilation as evidenced by significant increase in PaCO². Apnoea or unacceptable hypercarbia (PaCO²> 110 mm Hg), or both, were common occurrences at the end-tidal isoflurane concentrations greater than 1.5 MAC. Anaesthetic index calculated from 4 ducks was 1.65+0.13 (mean +SEM). There was no significant difference between the means of either heart rate or mean arterial blood pressure in birds at 1.0 and 1.5 MAC.

 

Pharmacology and physiologic effects of anesthesia and analgesics: Anesthetics. Benson, G.J. Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals Proceedings. 1990 Forum, American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, May 3-6, 1990, p. 7-10.

            NAL call no: SF914.A53 1990

            Descriptors: anesthetics, pharmacology, includes birds.

 

Principles of anesthesia and analgesia. Brown, M.J. Essentials for Animal Research: A Primer for Research Personnel, B.T. Bennett; M.J. Brown, J.C. Schofield, 1990, p 39-58. ref.

            NAL call no: QL55.B36

            Descriptors: domestic animals, laboratory animals, anesthesia, analgesics, pain.

 

 

1989

 

Common anesthetic dosages for use in psittacine birds. McDonald, S.E. Journal of the Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1989, v. 3 (4), p. 186-187. ISSN: 0892-9904.

            NAL call no: SF994.J6

            Descriptors: aviary birds, injectable anesthetics, inhaled anesthetics, anesthesia.

 

Effects of ketamine, xylazine, and a combination of ketamine and xylazine in Pekin ducks. Ludders, J.W.; Rode, J.; Mitchell, G.S.; Nordheim, E.V. American Journal of Veterinary Research, Feb. 1989, v. 50 (2), p. 245-249. ISSN: 0002-9645.

            NAL call no: 41.8 AM3A

            Descriptors: ducks, ketamine, xylazine, drug combinations, anesthesia, adverse effects.

Abstract: Effects of ketamine, xylazine, and a combination of ketamine and xylazine were studied in 12 male Pekin ducks (7 to 12 weeks old [+SD] body weight, 3.1 +0.3kg). After venous and arterial catheterization and fixation of a temperature probe in the cloaca, each awake duck was confined, but not restrained, in an open box in a dimly lit room. Blood pressure and lead II ECG were recorded. Three arterial blood samples were collected every 15 minutes over a 45-minute period (control period) and were analyzed for pHa, Paco2 and Pao2. After the control period, each duck was assigned at random to 1 0f 3 drug groups: (1) ketamine (KET; 20 mg/kg of body weight, IV), (2) xylazine (XYL; 1 mg;kg, IV) and (3) KET+XYL (KET 20mg.kg and XYL, 1 mg/kg, IV). Measurements were made at 1, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90 minutes after drug administration. All ducks survived the drug study. Cloacal temperature was significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) increased above control cloacal temperature at 90 minutes after the administration of ketamine, and from 10 to 90 minutes after the administration of ketamine plus xylazine. In ducks of the KET group, pHa, Paco2, and Pao2, remained unchanged after administration of the drug. In ducks in the XYL group, pHa and Pao2 decreased significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) from control values for all time points up to and including 15 minutes after drug administration. In ducks of the KET+XYL group, pHa and Pao2 were significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) decreased at all time points up to and including 45 and 15 minutes respectively, after administration of the drugs. In ducks of the XYL group, Paco2 increased significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) during the first 15 minutes after drug administration, and for 45 minutes after administration of KET+XYL. Results indicated that ketamine when given alone to ducks, was not associated with pulmonary depression. There was drug-associated respiratory depression after IV administration of XYL or KET+XYL.

 

Handbook of Veterinary Anesthesia. Muir, William, 1946; Hubbell, John A.E. St. Louis, C. V. Mosby, 1989, xi, 340 p. ill. ISBN: 0801635937.

            NAL call no: SF914.M85

            Descriptors: veterinary anesthesia handbook, manuals, animal welfare.

 

 

1988

 

Air sac anesthesia technique. MacCoy, D. AAV Today, 1988, v. 2 (2), p. 97. ISSN: 0892-9904.

            NAL call no: SF994.A2

            Descriptors: Aves, anesthesia, abdominal air sac, anesthesia technique.

 

Anesthesia in waterfowl. Kaufman, E.; Pokras, M.; Sedgwick, C. AAV Today, 1988, v. 2 (2), p. 98. ISSN: 0892-9904.

            NAL call no: SF994.A2

            Descriptors: Anseriformes, anesthesia.

 

Avian anesthesia, part 2: Injectable agents. Mandelker, L. Companion Animal Practice, 1988, v. 2 (10), p. 21-23. ISSN: 0894-9794.

            NAL call no: SF981.C64

            Descriptors: Psittaciformes, Serinus canaria, anesthesia, injectable agents, guidelines.

 

Effects of surgical pentobarbital anesthesia on blood pressure, heart rate, and arterial blood pH and gas tension in turkeys. Lee, J.C.; McGrath, C.J.; Leighton, A.R.; Wilson, M.H. Laboratory Animal Science, 1988, v. 38 (2), p. 208-210. ISSN: 0023-6764.

            NAL call no: 410.9 P94

            Descriptors: barbituates, laboratory animals, blood chemistry, anesthesia, turkeys.

Abstract: Forty two broad breasted white turkeys aged 4-16 weeks received an i.v. bolus injection of sodium pentobarbital at 5 mg/kg every 2 minutes until anaesthesia reached the surgical plane. There was no relationship between age and dosage rate, which varied between 36.8+2.2 and 42.1+2.9 mg/kg. The mean arterial blood pressure was reduced in all age groups, with a significant difference from 6 weeks; the heart rate rose significantly at all ages except 4 weeks; these changes largely obviated age-related differences. There were minimal changes in arterial pH and hematocrit values but arterial PO2 was significantly decreased and PCO2 increased. The results are tabulated.

 

Inefficacy of oral ketamine for chemical restraint in turkeys. Clutton, R.E. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, Apr.1988, v. 24 (2), p. 380-381. ISSN: 0090-3558.

            NAL call no: 41.9 W64B

            Descriptors: turkeys, ketamine, anesthesia, restraint of animals.

 

Introduction to avian anesthesia. Mandelker, L. Companion Animal Practice, 1988, v. 2 (6), p. 31-32. ISSN: 0894-9794.

            NAL call no: SF981.C64

            Descriptors: Aves, anesthesia, introductory notes.

 

Ketamine-xylazine anesthesia in red-tailed hawks with antagonism by yohimbine. Degernes, L.A.; Kreeger, T.J.; Mandsager, R.; Redig, P.T. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 1988, v. 24 (2), p. 322-326. ISSN: 0090-3558.

            NAL call no: 41.9 W64B

            Descriptors: anesthesia, ketamine/xylazine, yohimbine antagonism, Falconiformes.

Abstract: Five red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) were anaesthetized at weekly intervals with intravenous ketamine hydrochloride (KET, 4.4 mg/kg) and xylazine hydrochloride (XYL, 2.2 mg/kg). 20 minutes after anaesthesia, yohimbine hydrochloride (YOH, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20 and 0.40 mg/kg) or a control was administered. All doses of YOH significantly reduced the head-up-times and the standing times, compared to the control group. The heart and respiratory rates following YOH (all doses) were significantly greater than the anaesthetized rates, but were comparable to the rates observed in restrained, unanaesthetized hawks. Yohimbine did not appear to have any significant effect of body temperature. Based upon administration of 4.4 mg/kg KET and 2.2 mg/kg XYL, a dose of 0.10 mg/kg YOH was recommended to achieve antagonism without causing profound cardiovascular or respiratory changes.

 

Overview of avian anesthesia. Heard, D.J. AAV Today, 1988, v. 2 (2), p. 92-95, ISSN: 0892-9904.

            NAL call no: SF994.A2

            Descriptors: Aves, anesthesia, overview of techniques and methodology.

 

Quality anesthesia in the field. Taylor, M. AAV Today, 1988, v. 2 (2), p. 97. ISSN: 0892-9904.

            NAL call no: SF994.A2

            Descriptors: Gruidae, anesthesia, field use of portable system, Balearica pavonina, birds.

 

 

1987

 

Anesthesia and surgery. Mandelker, L. Companion Bird Medicine, Burr, E.W. (ed). Iowa State University Press, Ames. 1997, i-x. p. 1-247. Chapter pagination: 148-154.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1C66 1987

            Descriptors: Aves, anesthesia, surgical techniques, range of anesthetics, small birds.

 

Avian anesthesia - A clinical update. Taylor, M. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Zoological and Avian Medicine, Association of Avian Veterinarians & American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, 1987, p. 1-586. Chapter pagination: 519-524.

            Descriptors: Aves, anesthesia, review.

 

Pain, anesthesia, and analgesia in common laboratory animals. Jan. 1980 through Dec. 1986, 514 citations. Gluckstein, Fritz P. Literature Search no. 86-17, PHS, NIH, Bethesda, MD (1987) 45 p.

            NAL call no: Z7994.L3G5

            Descriptors: laboratory animals, pain, analgesia, bibliography, includes birds.

 

Special considerations for general anesthesia of birds. Carter, Storm A. Modern Veterinary Practice, 1987, v. 68 (6), p. 358-360. ISSN: 0362-8140.

            NAL call no: 41.8 N812

            Descriptors: Aves, anesthesia, respiratory system, considerations.

 

 

1986

 

[A contribution to the knowledge or ether general anesthesia of singing birds and parrots.] Bajric, A.; Ozegovic, T.; Hlubna, D. Veterinaria (Sarajevo), 1986, v. 35 (1), p. 119-122. ISSN: 0372-6827. Note: In Serbo-Croatian.

            NAL call no: 41.8 V6494

            Descriptors: Psittaciformes, anesthesia, ether, exposure time, effect.

 

Effect of tolazoline on xylazine-ketamine-induced anesthesia in turkey vultures. Allen, J.L.; Oosterhuis, J.E. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 1986, v. 189 (9), p. 1011-1012. ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL call no: 41.8 AM3

            Descriptors: Cathartes aura, anesthesia, xylazine-ketamine, tolazoline, effect.

 

Inhalation anesthesia for captive wild mammals, birds and reptiles. Sedgwick, C.J. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Fowler, M.E. W.B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia. 1986. i-xxiv, p. 1-1127. Chapter pagination: 51-56.

            NAL call no: SF996.Z66

            Descriptors: Reptilia, Aves, Mammalia, anesthesia, inhalation, review.

 

Prolonged isoflurane anesthesia in the golden eagle. Clutton, R.E. Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine, 1986, v. 17 (3), p. 103-105. ISSN: 0093-4562.

            NAL call no: SF601.J6

            Descriptors: anesthesia, prolonged use of isoflurane, Aquila chrysaetos.

 

Restraint and anesthesia. Fowler, M.E. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Fowler, M.E. (ed). W.B. Saunders, Co. Philadelphia. 1986, i-xxiv. p. 1-1127. Chapter pagination: 488-491.

            NAL call no: SF996.Z66

Descriptors: Psittaciformes, Passeriformes, restraining technique, anesthesia, parrots, songbirds, review.

 

 

1985

 

Isoflurane-nitrous oxide-oxygen anesthesia in an Andean condor. Bednarski, R.M.; Ludders, J.W.; LeBlanc, P.H.; Pickett, J.P.; Sedgwick, C.J. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 1985, v. 187 (11), p. 1209-1210. ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL call no: 41.8 AM3

            Descriptors: Vultur gryphus, anesthesia, isoflurane/nitrous-oxide/oxygen, evaluation.

 

 

1983

 

L'anesthesie des especes insolites en pratique veterinaire courante. 2. L'anesthesie des oiseaux. [Anaesthesia of uncommon species in current veterinary practice. 2. Bird anaesthesia.] Genevois, J.P.; Fayolle, P.; Autefage, A.; Cazieux, A.; Bonnemaison, P. Rev. Med. Vet.: Ecole nationale veterinaire de Toulouse, Nov. 1983, v. 134 (11), p. 601-607. ISSN: 0035-1555. Note: In French with English, German and Spanish summaries.

            NAL call no: 41.8 R32

            Descriptors: anesthesia, uncommon species, bird anesthesia.

 

Stimulation-produced analgesia. Wolfle, T.L.; Liebeskind, J.C. Animal Pain: Perception and Alleviation, Kitchell, R.L.; Erickson, H.H. (eds). American Physiological Society, Bethesda, MD. 1983, i-x. P. 1-221. Chapter pagination: 107-115.

            NAL call no: QP451.4.A54

            Descriptors: pain, analgesia, brain, sensory reception, nervous system and behavior.

 

 

1982

 

Hypothermia used instead of anesthesia for surgery on nestling passerines. Mueller, N.S. Journal of Field Ornithology, 1982, v. 53 (1), p. 60. ISSN: 0273-8570.

            NAL call no: 413.8 B534

Descriptors: Passeriformes, surgical techniques, nestlings, hypothermia, young animals, temperature reduction, evaluation.

 

A review of avian anesthesia. Hartsfield, S.M. Southwestern Veterinarian, College Station, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A & M University, 1982, v. 35 (2), p. 117-126. ISSN: 0038-495X.

            NAL call no: 41.8 SO82

            Descriptors: avian, anesthesia, review.

 

 

1980

 

[Application of tentatively prepared circuit and accessories to halothane inhalation anesthesia in small birds.] Yamamura, H. Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association, 1980, v. 33 (5), p. 213-219. ISSN: 0046-6454. Note: In Japanese.

            NAL call no: 41.9 J275

            Descriptors: Aves, anesthesia, halothane inhalation, administration equipment.

 

 

1979

 

Effects of anesthesia on the temperature and electrocardiogram of birds. Altman, R.B.; Miller, M.S. American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Annual Proceedings, 1979, p. 61-62a. ISSN: 0095-0610.

            NAL call no: SF605.A4

            Descriptors: halothane, ketamine, effects on body temperature, anesthesia effects.

 

 

1978

 

[Anesthesia in birds with metomidate.] Samejima, M.; Sakawa, T. Journal of the Japanese Veterinary Medical Association, May 1978, v. 31 (5), p. 267-271. ill. ISSN: 0046-6454. Note: In Japanese with an English summary.

            NAL call no: 41.9 J275

            Descriptors: birds, anesthesia, metomidate.

 

Anesthesia in companion birds. Dolphin, R.E. American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Annual Proceedings, 1978, p. 61-62. ISSN: 0095-0610.

            NAL call no: SF605.A4

            Descriptors: Aves, anesthesia, pet birds.

 

Drugs used for avian anesthesia: A review. Fedde, M.R. Poultry Science, 1978, v. 57 (5), p. 1376-1399. ISSN: 0032-5791.

            NAL call no: 47.8 AM33P

            Descriptors: Aves, anasthesia, local and general anesthetics, pharmaceuticals, review.

 

Fowl, quail, pheasants (Galliformes). Restraint and anesthesia. Franchetti, D.R.; Klide, A.M. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Fowler, M.E. (ed). W.B. Saunders, Co. Philadelphia. 1978, i-xvi. p. 1-951. Chapter pagination: 303-304.

            NAL call no: SF996.Z66

            Descriptors: Galliformes, restraint, chemical and physical, anesthesia, agents, dosages.

 

An outline guide to general anesthesia in exotic species. Stunkard, J.A.; Miller, J.C. Auburn Veterinarian, 1978, v. 34 (2), p. 57-64. ISSN: 0446-6454.

            NAL call no: 41.8 AU1

            Descriptors: Pisces, amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, anesthesia, birds, review.

 

Perching birds, parrots, cockattos and macaws (psittacines and passerines). Restraint and anesthesia. Franchetti, D.R.; Kilde, A.M. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Fowler, M.E. (ed). W.B. Saunders Co., 1978, i-xvi. P. 1-951. Chapter pagination: 359-364.

            NAL call no: SF996.Z66

            Descriptors: restraint, physical and chemical, anesthesia, handling techniques.



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ANATOMY / PHYSIOLOGY / MORPHOLOGY

 


2003

 

The role of mechanical forces on the patterning of the avian feather bearing skin: A biomechanical analysis of the integumentary musculature in birds. Homberger, D.G.; de Silva, K.N. Journal of Experimental Zoology: Part B Molecular Development and Evolution, Aug. 2003, v. 298 (1), p. 123-139.

            NAL call no: 410 J825

            Descriptors: integumentary musculature, smooth muscles, skin.

Abstract: The integumentary musculature of birds consists of three distinct componentss. The smooth musculature comprises feather and apterial muscles, which form a continuous musculo-elastic layer within the dermis. The feather muscles, which consistently include at least erectors and depressors, interconnect contour feathers within pterylae (i.e., feather tracts) along gridlines that are oriented diagonally to the longitudinal and transverse axes of the body. The apterial muscles interconnect pterylae by attaching to the contour feathers along their peripheries. The striated musculature is composes of individual subcutaneous muscles, most of which attach to contour feathers along the caudal periphery of pterylae. A new integrative functional analysis of the integumentary musculature proposes how apterial muscles stabilize the pterylae and modulate the tension of the musculo-elastic layer, and how subcutaneous muscles provide the initial stimulus for erector muscles being able to ruffle the contour feathers within pterylae. It also shows how the arrangement of the contour feathers and integumentary muscles reflects the stresses and strains that act on the avian skin. These mechanical forces are in effect not only in the adult, especially during flight, but may also be active during feather morphogenesis. The avian integument with its complex structural organization may, therefore, represent an excellent model for analyzing the nature of interactions between the environment and genetic material. The predictions of our model are testable, and our study demonstrates the relevance of integrated analyses of complex organs as mechanically coherent systems for evolutionary and developmental biology.

 

 

2002

 

Anatomy. Zucca, P. Birds of Prey: Health and Diseases, 3rd ed. Cooper, John E. Blackwell Science Ltd. Oxford, Malden etc. 2002, i-xvii, p. 1-345. Chapter pagination: 13-27. ISBN: 0632051159.

            NAL call no: SF994.5.C65 2002

            Descriptors: Falconiformes, Strigiformes, anatomy, general morphology, overview.

 

Air sac functional anatomy of the sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua galerita) during isoflurane anesthesia. Jaensch, Susan M.; Cullen, Len; Raidal, Shane R. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, Mar. 2002, v. 16 (1), p. 2-9. ISSN: 1082-6742.

            NAL call no: SF994.J6

            Descriptors: sedation, respiratory system, air sacs, anaesthesia, gases.

 

Avian anatomy and physiology. Harcourt Brown, N.; Meredith, A.(ed.).; Redrobe, S. BSAVA Manual of Exotic Pets, 2002, Ed. 4, p. 138-148. ref. ISBN: 0905214471.

            NAL call no: SF981.B78 2002

            Descriptors: animal anatomy, physiology, musculoskeletal system.

 

Avian GI tract morphology and diseases. Orosz, S.E.; Marx, K.L. (ed.); Roston, M.A. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference on Avian Medicine and Surgery, Mid Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians, Apr. 28-30, 2002, p. 116-120.

            NAL call no: SF994.M52

            Descriptors: anatomy, aviary birds, digestive tract, morphology.

 

Avian long bones, flight and bipedalism. Casinos, A.; Cubo, J.; Russell, A.P.(ed.); Bels, V. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology, 2002, v. 131 (1), p. 159-167. ref. ISSN: 1095-6433.

            NAL call no: QP1.C6

            Descriptors: bones, flight, locomotion, wings, phylogeny, bird anatomy, legs.

 

Comparative anatomy of the paratympanic organ (vitali organ) in the middle ear of birds and non-avian vertebrates: Focus on alligators, parakeets and armadillos. Neeser, Jason A.; von Bartheld, Christopher S. Brain, Behavior and Evolution, 2002, v. 60 (2), p. 65-79. Available: www.karger.com/journals/bbe/bbe_ih.htm ISSN: 0006-8977.

Descriptors: lumen, middle ear, sensory system, vestibular brainstem.

Abstract: The paratympanic organ (PTO) in the middle ear has been described in numerous bird species, but little is known about the distribution of this presumed lateral line remnant in other vertebrate classes. Here we provide evidence for a PTO in juvenile alligators, and make the first detailed description of its location and relation to ligaments in the reptilian middle ear. The alligator PTO measures about 450 mum in diameter. The alligator PTO contains hair cells whose cilia extend into a mucous substance within the lumen. The PTO connects through a ligament to the ear drum, suggesting that pressure onto the tympanic membrane might induce fluid movement in the PTO. Labeling of innervating nerve fibers with fluorescent dye, Dil, indicates that the alligator PTO is connected with the vestibular brainstem. Because all bird species examined possess a PTO except owls and possibly parakeets, we verified the absence of a PTO in parakeets by examination of aerial sections combined with GABA immunolabeling for potential hair cells. Bird species with significant upper beak movement lack a PTO, suggesting that PTO function is incompatible with upper beak movement. We also examined the middle ear of an armadillo, a mammal that has a very basal position within the eutherian phylogenetic tree. A small vesicle with ciliated cells was found but did not label with a hair-cell specific marker, antibodies to myosin Vlla, and thus is not likely to represent a true PTO. Our evidence for a PTO in non-avian species, the alligator, together with previous reports suggesting the presence of a PTO in some mammals, indicates that ancestral stem amniotes possessed a PTO, and that the PTO was not a de novo invention of birds.

 

Comparative histomorphological study on the duodenum of fowl (Gallus gallus), duck (Anas boscas) and quail (Cortutnix corturnix). Partha, Das; Roy, M.M.; Mondal, M. Das, P. Journal of Interacademicia, 2002, v. 6 (2), p. 202-205. ref. ISSN: 0971-9016.

Descriptors: duodenum, histology, villi, animal anatomy, species differences.

Abstract: The fowls (n=6), ducks (n=6) and quails (n=6) used in the study were reared up to 8 weeks of age before they were sacrificed. It was observed that the topographic positions of the duodenum in all birds were similar and only the length and diameter varied. Histologically, all 5 layers of the duodenum (tunica serosa, tunica muscularis, tunica submucosa, tunica muscularis and tunica mucosa) were present in fowls, ducks and quails. Villi were found in all layers of the duodenum of the three bird species with a variation again in sizes and shapes.

 

Composite cellular defence stratagem in the avian respiratory system: Functional morphology of the free (surface) macrophages and specialized pulmonary epithelia. Naganpiep, L.N.; Maina, J.N. Journal of Anatomy, 2002, v. 200 (5), p. 499-516. ref. ISSN: 0021-8782.

NAL call no: 447.8 J826

Descriptors: lungs, macrophages, morphology, defence mechanisms, respiratory.

Abstract: Qualitative and quantitative attributes of the free respiratory macrophages (FRMs) of the lung - air sac systems of the fowl (Gallus gallus variant domesticus) and the muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) were compared with those of the alveolar macrophages of the lung of the black rat (Rattus rattus). The birds had significantly fewer FRMs compared to the rat. In the birds, the FRMs were found in both the lungs and the air sacs. Under similar experimental conditions, the most robust FRMs were those of the domestic fowl followed by those of the rat and the duck. Flux of macrophages onto the respiratory surface from the subepithelial compartment and probably also from the pulmonary vasculature was observed in the birds but not in the rat. In the duck and domestic fowl, a phagocytic epithelium that constituted over 70% of the surface area of the blood-gas (tissue) barrier lines the atrial muscles, the atria and the infundiblae. The epithelial cells of the upper respiratory airways contain abundant lysosomes, suggesting a high lytic capacity. By inference, the various defence strategies in the avian lung may explain the dearth of FRMs on the respiratory surface. We counter-propose that rather than arising directly from paucity of FRMs, an aspect that has been over-stressed by most investigators, the purported high susceptibility of birds (particularly table birds) to respiratory ailments and afflictions may be explained by factors such as inadequate management and husbandry practices and severe genetic manipulation for fast growth and high productivity, manipulations that may have weakened cellular and immunological defences.

 

Embryonic development from first cleavage through seventy-two hours incubation in two strains of pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos). Dupuy, V.; Nersessian, B.; Bakst, M.R. Poultry Science, 2002, v. 81 (6), p. 860-868. ref. ISSN: 0032-5791.

NAL call no: 47.8 Am33P

Descriptors: cleavage, embryonic development, embryos, incubation.

Abstract: Embryonic mortality is a significant problem plaguing the commercial duck industry worldwide, yet an objective means to stage development of the duck embryo is lacking. Such a staging procedure, which is described in this study, is essential for the critical and reproducible assessment of embryo development. The morphological features associated with duck embryo development are very similar to those of the chicken, although the duck embryo develops more slowly. The staging scheme presented here provides objective morphological criteria describing the embryonic development of the duck.

 

The histological observations on the large intestine of the goose (Anser anser) during the pre- and post-hatching periods. Liman, N.; Asian, S.; Gulmez, N. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 2002, v. 64 (8), p. 705-709. ref. ISSN: 0916-7250.

NAL call no: SF604.J342

Descriptors: animal anatomy, caecum, colon, histology, large intestine.

Abstract: The development of the caecum and colon in the goose was investigated using light microscopy during the period from the 15th to 28th day of incubation and from 1 - 30 d of age after hatching. By day 15 of incubation in the caecum and colon, the lumen was surrounded by pseudostratified epithelium. The previllous ridges appeared on the 15th and 17th d of incubation in the colon and caeca, respectively. At the base of the previllous ridges, the epithelium changed into a simple prismatic epithelium on the 15th and 17th d of incubation in the colon and caecum respectively. The villi appeared at the 21st d of incubation. The crypts and goblet cells appeared on the 1st d after hatching. In the prehatching period, the lamina muscularis mucosa was present only in the colon. The submucosa consisted of loosely aggregated connective tissue in the prehatching period. In the posthatching period, it consisted of a very thin layer of connective tissue. Its presence was only obvious where the cells of the submucosal nerve plexus or occasional large blood vessels considerably increased its thickness. The nerve plexus corresponding to the Auerbach’s plexus of the mammalian intestine and submucosal nerve plexus appeared by the 15th d of incubation. From the 15th to 28th d of incubation, the tunica muscularis consisted of circular smooth muscle cells in the caeca. On the 28th day of incubation, a thinner longitudinal muscle layer was added to the circular smooth muscle layer. In the colon, there was an outer longitudinal and a thicker circular muscle layer.

 

Kinematic parameters of terrestrial locomotion in cusorial (ratites), swimming (ducks), and striding birds (quail and guinea fowl). Abourachid, A.; Russell, A.P.(ed.); Bels, V. Symposium from ESCPB Congress, Liege, Belgium, Jul 24-28, 2000. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology, 2002, v. 131 (1), p. 113-119. ref. ISSN: 1095-6433.

NAL call no: QP1.C6

Descriptors: kinematics, locomotion, morphology, poultry.

 

Macro-anatomical investigations on sternum in bald ibis. Dursun, Nejdet; Duzler, Ayhan; Bozkurt, Ermine Uman; Ozcan, Ozgel. Indian Veterinary Journal, Feb. 2002, v. 79 (2), p. 160-165. ref. ISSN: 0019-6479.

NAL call no: SF601.I45

Descriptors: sternum, gross anatomy, skeletal system, birds.

Abstract: The sternum of Bald ibis is formed by three main parts; corpus sterni, rostrum sterni and carina sterni. The cranial border of the corpus sterni (margo cranialis sterni) carries six important structures. Three eminent processes form the processus caudolateralis sterni on the caudal border of the corpus sterni (margo caudalis sterni). Facies visceralis sterni (facies dorsalis-facies interna) is a concave surface in contact with internal organs. There are 15-20 orifices called “pori pneumatic” on this surface. Carina sterni is a sharp and high process lying on the median plane of the facies ventralis sterni. Anatomy of the sternum in Bald ibis has suggested that they are stronger and longer flying birds.

 

Measurement of the cardiac silhouette in psittacines. Straub, J.; Pees, M.; Krautwald-Junghanns, M.E. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 2002, v. 221 (1), p. 76-79. ref. ISSN: 0003-1488.

NAL call no: 41.8 AM3

Descriptors: animal anatomy, heart, normal values, sternum, thorax.

Abstract: Objective: to determine reference values for size of the radiographic cardiac silhouette in healthy adult medium-sized psittacines. Design: Prospective case series. Animals: 46 African grey parrots (Psittacus erythacus), 7 Senegal parrots (Poicephalus senegalus), and 6 orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). Procedure: Birds were anaesthetized, and ventodorsal radiographic projections were obtained. Maximum width of the cardiac silhouette, width of the thorax at the level of the maximum width of the cardiac silhouette, and width of the coracoid were measured on the radiographs. Sternum length was directly measured on individual birds. Results of physical examination, electrocardiography, and echocardiography were normal in all birds. Results: Mean cardiac silhouette width-to-sternum length ratio was 38%, mean cardiac silhouette width-to-thorax width ratio was 55%, and mean cardiac silhouette width-to-coracoid width ratio was 600%. Width of the cardiac silhouette was strongly correlated with length of the sternum, width of the coracoid, and width of the thorax. No significant differences between species were detected. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Results suggest that in healthy adult medium-sized psittacines, the cardiac silhouette on a ventrodorsal radiographic projection should be 35 to 41% of the length of the sternum, 51 to 61% of the width of the thorax, and 545 to 672% of the width of the coracoid.

 

Morphology and distribution of nitrergic neurons in the pheasant small intestine. Schmidtova, K.; Kocisova, M.; Sirotakova, M. Folia Veterinaria, 2002, v. 46 (1), p. 8-10. ref. ISSN: 0015-5748.

NAL call no: 41.8 F712

Descriptors: histochemistry, ilium, morphology, neurons, small intestine.

 

Morphometry of the heart of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), Alisterus parrots (Alisterus scapularis) and common buzzards (Buteo buteo). Straub, J.; Valerius, K.P.; Pees, M.; Krautwald-Junghanns, M.E. Research in Veterinary Science, Apr. 2002, v. 72 (2), p. 147-151. ref. ISSN: 0034-5288.

NAL call no: 41.8 R312

Descriptors: heart, morphology, normal values, ventricles, species differences.

Abstract: This study was conducted to establish data and reference values for the thickness of the myocardium and the length of the left and the right ventricle of the avian heart. The hearts of 14 budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), 5 Alisterus parrots (Alisterus scapularis) (also known as Australian king parrot), and 10 common buzzards (Buteo buteo) of both sexes were examined according to a standard protocol. In order to compare the results of birds of different sizes, all data were related to the size of the bird’s body (length of the sternum) and the results of the measurements of the myocardial thickness in relation to the length of the heart. Results of different zones were compared by means of statistical methods within one species. A comparison between the different species was also performed. With regard to the relative thickness of the myocardium, only minor differences between the species were evident, greater differences were found in the length of ventricles.

 

Organization of the avian basal forebrain: Chemical anatomy in the parrot (Melopsittacus undulatus). Roberts, Todd Freeman; Hall, William Sterling; Brauth, Steven Earle. Journal of Comparative Neurology, Dec. 23, 2002, v. 454 (4), p. 383-408. ISSN: 0021-9967.

NAL call no: QP351.J68

Descriptors: biochemistry, chemical anatomy, laboratory techniques.

Abstract: Hodological, electrophysiological, and ablation studies indicate a role for the basal forebrain in telencephalic vocal control, however, to date the organization of the basal forebrain has not been extensively studied in any nonmammal or nonhuman vocal learning species. To this end the chemical anatomy of the avian basal forebrain was investigated in a vocal learning parrot, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). Immunological and histological stains, including choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholinesterase, tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP)-32, the calcium binding proteins calbindin D-28k and parvalbumin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, iron, substance P, methionine enkephalin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphotase diaphorase, and argenine vasotocin were used in the present study. We concluded that the ventral paleostriatum (cf. Kitt and Brauth (1981) Neuroscience 6:1551-1556) and adjacent archistriatal regions can be subdivided into several distinct subareas that are chemically comparable to mammalian basal forebrain structures. The nucleus accumbens is histochemically separable into core and shell regions. The nucleus taeniae (TN) is theorized to be homologous to the medial amygdaloid nucleus. The archistriatum pars ventrolateralis (Avl: comparable to the pigeon archistriatum pars dorsalis) is theorized to be a possible homologue of the central amygdaloid nucleus. The TN and Avl are histochemically continuous with the medial aspects of the bed nucleua of the stria teminalis nucleus and ventromedial striatum, forming an avian analogue of the extended amygdala. The apparent counterpart in budgerigars of the mammalian nucleus basalis of Meynert consists of a field of cholinergic neurons spanning the basal forebrain. The budgerigar septal region is theorized to be homologous as a field to the mammalian septum. Our results are discussed with regard to both the evolution of the basal forebrain and its role in vocal learning processes.

 

Skeleton of manus of adult greater adjutant stork (Leptoptilos dubius). Sarma, Munmun; Kalita, Arup; Sarma, Kushal Konwar. Indian Journal of Animal Science, Nov. 2002, v. 72 (11), p. 965-966. ISSN: 0367-8318.

NAL call no: 41.8 IN22

Descriptors: skeletal system, movement, Aves, bird anatomy.

 

Studies on the fine structure of caeca in domestic geese. Chen, YiengHow; Hsu, Hoang Kao; Hsu, Jenn Chung; Chen, Y.H.; Hsu, H.K.; Hsu J.C. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2002, v. 15 (7), p. 1018-1021. ref. ISSN: 1011-2367.

NAL call no: SF55.A78A7

Descriptors: animal anatomy, poultry, villi, tissue ultrastructure, geese, caecum.

Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the villus distribution in the caeca of domestic geese based on the fine structure. The caeca of White roman geese, 14 weeks old, were sampled and specimens were detected under photomicroscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results indicated that the villi existed at the proximal caecum. The morphologies of these villi showed finger-like, peak-like or tongue-like shapes. The heights of the villi decreased far from the proximal caecum. No villi were found in the middle and distal caecum. It was obvious that the proximal segment was the main portion for absorbing food nutrients in the caeca. The caecal content particles were small and possessed a viscid character. The larger particles filtered out at the proximal caecum just like a mesh. The surface of the middle caecum exhibited parallel ridges with no villi. There were band plicae circular shapes found in the middle caecum under electron microscopy.

 

Topographische Anatomie der Hintergliedmasse beim Maussard Buteo butero Linne, 1758 [Topographical anatomy of the back nerves of the common buzzard (Buteo buteo Linne, 1758).] Rinck, M., 2002, 77 p. ref. Note: In German.

            Descriptors: anatomy, arteries, limbs, muscles, pelvis, peripheral nerves, veins.

 

 

2001

 

The arterial supply of Meckel’s diverticulum in geese (Anser anser domesticus). Besoluk, K.; Eken, E. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 2001, v. 63 (12), p. 1343-1345. ref. ISSNL 0916-7250.

NAL call no: SF604.J342

Descriptors: geese anatomy, arteries, blood circulation, reference works.

Abstract: The following study was carried out to describe the arterial supply of Meckel’s diverticulum (MD) in geese, using 36 adult healthy geese of both sexes, 50 to 52 weeks of age. The arterial supply of MD was classified into three types. In the first type, MD was supplied by a very distinct branch from the cranial mesenteric artery in 21 geese. In the second type, it was supplied by one terminal branch from the cranial mesenteric artery in nine geese. In the third type, it was supplied by one branch from the jejunal artery and by a terminal branch from the cranial mesenteric artery in six geese. Based on these types, significant differences (P-0.01) in the length of MD were found between type I and II. The blood supply of the third type was observed more frequently in the male than in the female. Results from this study may contribute to the anatomical knowledge of arterial supply of MD in the geese.

 

Avian anatomy: From the basics to new perspectives. Berkhoudt, Herman; Suthers, Roderick A.; Zweers, Gart A. Journal of Morphology, Jun. 2001, v. 248 (3), p. 207. ISSN: 0362-2525. Also, Netherlands Journal of Zoology, Jun. 2001, v. 51 (2), p. 125-262. ISSN: 0028-2960.

NAL call no: 444.8 J826 and 410 AR27

Descriptors: Aves, skeletal system, anatomy, comparative anatomy, functional anatomy.

 

Avian tracheal anatomy. Lafortune, M.; Black, S. Exotic DVM, 2001, v. 3 (2), p. 4-5. ref. ISSN: 1521-1363.

NAL call no: SF981.E96

Descriptors: animal anatomy, species differences, trachea.

 

[Biomechanics of flight of the birds.] Eren, G. Veteriner Fakultesi Anatomi Anabilim Dali, Bursa, Turkey. 2001, v. 19 (1-2), p. 199-203. ref. ISSN: 1301-3173. Note: In Turkish.

Descriptors: anatomy, biophysics, flight, wings.

 

Clinical avian anatomy: The pelvic limb of raptors. Harcourt-Brown, N. Journal of Morphology, Jun. 2001, v. 248 (3), p. 239. ISSN: 0362-2525.

NAL call no: 444.8 J826

Descriptors: skeletal system, support, birds of prey, pelvic limb, gross anatomy.

 

Comparative morphology of the gastrointestinal tract in raptorial birds. Bragulla, Hermann; Hirschberg, Ruth; Heidbrink, Stefanie. Journal of Morphology, Jun. 2001, v. 248 (3), p. 209. ISSN: 0362-2525.

NAL call no: 444.8 J826

Descriptors: digestive system, comparative morphology, stomach.

 

Comparative ultrastructure and cytochemistry of the avian pineal organ. Fejer, Z.; Rohlich, P.; Szel, A.; David, O.; Zadori, A.; Manzano, M.J.; Vigh, B. Microscopy Research and Technique, 2001, v. 53 (1), p. 12-24. ref. ISSN: 1059-910X.

NAL call no: QH212.E4J69

Descriptors: brain, cytochemistry, histology, pineal body.

Abstract: The breeding of birds is expected to solve problems of nourishment for the growing population. The function of the pineal organ synchronizing sexual activity and environmental light periods is important for successful reproduction. Comparative morphology of the avian pineal completes data furnished by experiments on some frequently used laboratory animals about the functional organization of the organ. According to comparative histological data, the pineal of vertebrates is originally a double organ (the “third and fourth eye”). One of them often lies extracranially, perceiving direct solar radiation, and the other, located intracranially, is supposed to measure diffuse brightness of the environment. Birds have only a single pineal, presumably originating from the intracranial pineal of lower vertebrates. Developing from the epithalamus, the avian pineal organ histologically seems not to be a simple gland (“pineal gland”) but a complex part of the brain composed of various pinealocytes and neurons that are embedded in an ependymal/glial network. In contrast to organs of “directional view” that develop large photoreceptor outer segments (retina, parietal pineal eye of reptiles) in order to decode two-dimensional images of the environment, the “densitometer” like pineal organ seems to increase their photoreceptor membrane content by multiplying the number of photoreceptor perikarya and developing follicle-like foldings of its wall during evolution (“folded retina”). Photoreceptor membranes of avian pinealocytes can be stained by antibodies against various photoreceptor-specific compounds, among others, opsins, including pineal opsins. Photoreseptors immunoreacting with antibodies to chicken pinopsin were also found in the reptilian pineal organ. Similar to cones and rods representing the first neurons of the retina in the lateral eye, pinealocytes of birds possess an axonal effector process which terminates on the vascular surface of the organ as a neurohormonal ending, or forms ribbon-containing synapses on pineal neurons. Serotonin is detectable immunocytochemically on the granular vesicles accumulated in neurohormonal terminals. Pinealocytic perikarya and axon terminals also bind immunocytochemically recognizable excitatory amino acids. Peripheral autonomic fibres regulate the blood supply of the pineal tissue according to the different levels of light-dependent pineal cell activity.

 

Comparative view of pineal gland morphology of nocturnal and diurnal birds of tropical origin. Haldar, C.; Bishnupuri, K.S. Microscopy Research and Technique, 2001, v. 53 (1), p. 25-32. ref. ISSN: 1059-910X.

NAL call no: QH212.E4J69

Descriptors: brain, morphology, organelles, pineal body, ultrastructure.

 

Functional morphology of the pecten oculi in the nocturnal spotted owl (Bubo bubo africanus), and the diurnal black kite (Milvus migrans) and domestic fowl (Gallus gallus var. domesticus):A comparative study. Klama, S.G.; Maina, J.N.; Bhattacharjee, J.; Weyrauch, K.D. Journal of Zoology, 2001, v. 254 (4), p. 521-528. ref. ISSN: 0952-8369.

NAL call no: QL1.J68

Descriptors: blood vessels, eyes, morphology, surface area, uses, chickens.

 

Histological and histochemical studies on the lingual, preglottal and laryngeal salivary glands of the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) at post-hatching period. Liman, N.; Bayram, G.; Kocak, M. Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia, 2001, v. 30 (6), p. 367-373. ref. ISSN: 0340-2096.

NAL call no: SF761.Z4

Descriptors: animal anatomy, histochemistry, histology, salivary glands.

 

Histological and histochemical studies of ureter of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Sreeranjini, A.R.; Lyyanagar, M.P.; Gopinath, S. Indian Journal of Poultry Science, 2001, v. 36 (2), p. 210-211. ref. ISSN: 0019-5529.

NAL call no: SF481.I5

Descriptors: animal anatomy, histology, morphology, ureter, ultrastructure.

 

The intermesenteric plexus in the pigeon (Columba livia GM). Kuder, T.; Nowak, E.; Szczurkowski, A. Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia, Apr. 2001, v. 30 (2), p. 85-88. ISSN: 0340-2096.

NAL call no: SF761.Z4

Descriptors: Columba livia, nerve plexuses, intermesenteric plexus, histology.

Abstract: Using the thiocholine method and histological techniques the intermesenteric plexus of the pigeon was studied. The intermesenteric plexus of this species is a plexo-ganglionic structure with several (five to seven) ganglia and nerve fibres. The ganglia have an oval-, spindle- or star-like shape. Single nerve cells along the nerve fibres were observed. The intermesenteric plexus of the pigeon is situated on the ventrolateral surface of the aorta, between the cranial mesenteric artery and caudal mesenteric artery. The connections between the intermesenteric and other vegetative plexuses (coeliac plexus, mesenteric inferior plexus) and the pelvic nerve were observed.

 

In vivo magnetic resonance imaging of the reproductive organs in a passerine bird species. Czisch, Michael; Berthold, Peter. Journal of Avian Biology, Sept. 2001, v. 32 (3), p. 278-281. ISSN: 0908-8857.

Descriptors: in vivo magnetic resonance imaging, reproductive system, Aves.

Abstract: For researchers working on the reproductive anatomy of birds, the standard tool has been the scalpel. We demonstrated that magnetic resonance imaging allows us to study non-invasively the testes and ovaries of small birds. Thus, repeated measurements of the same individual can be obtained at different life-history stages or before and after experimental treatment with a minimum of harm done to the birds. We present cross-sectional images of male and female Garden Warblers Sylvia born at different stages of their gonadal maturation cycle to illustrate the high resolution that can be achieved through MRI. Volumetric analyses enabled us to determine the total testicular volume with high accuracy.

 

Localization of acetylated tubulin positive nerve fibres in the spleen of pheasants. Marettova, E.; Maretta, M.; Schmidtova, K. Acta Veterinaria Beograd, 2001, v. 51 (5-6), p. 291-298. ref. ISSN: 0567-8315.

Descriptors: animal anatomy, immune system, localization, neurons, spleen.

 

Observations on the histological structure of adrenal glands of quail with reference to age and sex. Ali, M.A. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal, 2001, v. 45 (90), p. 1-13. ref. ISSN: 1012-5973.

NAL call no: SF604.A77

Descriptors: adrenal cortex, adrenal glands, histology, cell structure.

Abstract: The study was conducted to determine the histological changes in the adrenal gland of quails as a result of age and sex. The adrenal glands of 75 Japanese quails of both sex, but different age groups (one day to 7 months) were removed, stained, and subjected to electron microscopic examination. The parenchyma of adrenal gland was formed from acidophilic and basophilic cells intermingled with each other and separated by blood sinasoids. The acidophilic and basophilic cells represented the cortical and medullary tissues, respectively. The peripheral cortical cells were arranged in clumps forming loops against the capsule and were large, polyhedral to columnar in shape and with highly vacuolated, lightly acidophilic cytoplasm containing few acid fucshin positive granules. In contrast, the inner cords were large, columnar, less vacuolated, and had a more acidophilic cytoplasm containing numerous acid fucshin granules. Two types of medullary cells could be differentiated according to affinity of their cytoplasm to the stain, cells with deeply stained and lightly stained basophilic cytoplasmic granules. EM examination showed that cortical cells could be classified into two types based on the amount of lipid droplets and mitochondria, cells containing numerous lipid droplets with few large globular mitochondria, and those containing few lipid droplets with numerous smaller globular mitochondria. Medullary cells could also be classified into two types based on the shape of their secretory granules, cells containing homogenous, electron dense secretory granules and those containing secretory granules forming an electron dense core surrounded by a hallow-electron lucent coat. Sex had no effect on the development of adrenal glands in quail. However, with the advancement of age, the cortical cells became more vacuolated and less acidophilic. Moreover, some cells showed pyknotic nuclei and cytolysis.

 

Osteopathy of the pectoral and pelvic limbs including pentadactyly in a young kestrel (Falco t. tinnunculus). Frey, Roland; Albert, Regina; Krone, Oliver; Liez, Michael. Journal fuer Ornithologie, Jul. 2001, v. 142 (3), p. 335-366. ISSN: 0021-8375.

Descriptors: skeletal musculature, osteopathy, anatomy and possible causes.

 

Radiographic anatomy of the thoraco-abdominal cavity of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Wagner, W.M.; Kirberger, R.M.; Groenwald, H.B. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 2001, v. 72 (4), p. 203-208. ref. ISSN: 0038-2809.

NAL call no: 41.9 SO12

Descriptors: abdominal cavity, anatomy, radiography, thoracic cavity, standard procedures.

 

Radiographic anatomy of the thoraco-abdominal cavity in ostriches (Struthio camelus). Wagner, W.M.; Kirberger, R.M.; Groenewald, H.B. Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound, Mar./Apr. 2001, v. 42 (2), p. 175-176. ISSN: 1058-8183. Also: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 2001, v.72 (4), p. 203-208. ref. ISSN: 0038-2809.

NAL call no: SF757.8.A4 and 41.8 SO12

Descriptors: radiographic anatomy, abdomen, Aves, radiology, imaging method.

 

Radiography of the thoraco-abdominal cavity of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Wagner, Wencke M.; Kirberger, Robert M. Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound, Mar./Apr. 2001, v. 42 (2), p. 134-140. ISSN: 1058-8183.

NAL call no: SF757.8.A4

Descriptors: radiography, diagnostic method, six frame technique, three frame technique.

Abstract: A standard radiographic procedure was developed for the thoraco-abdominal cavity of female non-breeding ostriches. Positioning, collimation, centering and a technique chart were defined to give reproducible and consistently good quality radiographs. Radiographs were obtained from one adult ostrich cadaver, two adult female ostriches as well as two growing ostriches at various stages. A 6-frame technique was established for lateral views taking the topographic tissue distribution into consideration and using easily palpable landmarks as centering points. Standing true right lateral radiographs are recommended for standard procedures. For dorsoventral exposures a 3-frame technique in the recumbent ostrich was found to be optimal. Birds should be fasted if possible. A technique chart for lateral exposure is provided.

 

The renal structure from fishes to birds. Ditrich, H. Vertebrate Functional Morphology: Horizon of Research in the 21st Century, Dutta, Heran M.; Datta, Munshi, J.S.; (eds). Science Publishers, Inc. Enfield & Plymouth. 2001. i-xii. 1-487 p. Chapter pagination: 343-364. ref. ISBN: 1578080983.

NAL call no: QL805 V47 2001

Descriptors: vertebrata, kidney, renal structure, comparative functional anatomy.

 

Scanning electron microscopic study on the vascular supply of the dove adrenal gland. Nasu, T.; Morimoto, M. Japanese Poultry Science, 2001, v. 38 (1), p. 28-34. ref. ISSN: 0029-0254.

NAL call no: 47.8 N57

Descriptors: anatomy, arteries, blood flow, portal vein, electron microscopy.

 

Some anatomical and morphometric studies on the esophagus and stomach of goose, turkey, sparrow, kestrel, hoopoe, owl and darter. Hassouna, E.M.A. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal, 2001, v. 44 (88), p. 21-46. ref. ISSN: 1012-6973.

NAL call no: SF604.A77

Descriptors: animal anatomy, oesophagus, stomach, morphometrics, weight, comparative study.

 

Some anatomical and morphometric studies on the intestinal tract of chicken, duck, turkey, pigeon, dove, quail, sparrow, heron, jackdaw, hoopoe, kestrel and owl. Hassouna, E.M.A. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal, 2001, v. 44 (88), p. 47-78. ref. ISSN: 1012-5973.

NAL call no: SF604.A77

Descriptors: digestive tract, morphometrics, poultry comparative study.

Abstract: Similar to that of mammals the intestinal tract of birds can be differentiated into two main divisions: small intestine and large intestine. The small intestine can also be subdivided morphologically into; duodenum, jejunum and ileum. However, there are many differences between the large intestine of birds and that of mammals. The large intestine of birds consisted of two caeca, short single colon, and short rectum open in the cloaca. In relation to the body; the absolute value of the intestinal length was about (3.6-0.8) time that of the total body length in goose and hoopoe respectively. However, the absolute value of the intestinal length was about (11.5-3.2) time that of the total length of the body cavity in duck and hoopoe. The absolute value of the intestinal weight equal to (0.1-0.1) that of the total body weight in goose and hoopoe. The length and weight of the small intestine varied between the different species of birds. The mean relative value of the length of the small intestine to the total intestinal length ranged between (96.5% in dove-82% in hoopoe). While the mean relative value of the weight of the small intestine to the total intestinal weight ranged between (95% in dove-38.4% in owl). However, that for the large intestine measured about (18.3% in hoopoe-3.5% in dove). On the other hand, the mean relative value of the weight of the large intestine to the total intestinal weight constituted about (61.6% in owl-5.3% in dove). The length of the duodenal loop and its parts as well as its shape and extension varied along the examined birds. Concerning the mean percentage of the duodenal length to the total length of the small intestine it was observed that the highest one was noticed in the owl (29.4%) while the lowest one was presented in turkey (10.2%). In all examined bird species the jejunum was the longest part of the small intestine. Its shape and arrangement was differed in different examined birds. Concerning the highest mean percentage of the jejunal length to the total length of the small intestine observed in turkey (83.4%) while the lowest one was present in dove (67%). The ileum lied between the two caeca. Its length was nearly the same length of the caeca in chicken, turkey, goose, duck, and quail. In birds with very short caecum; pigeon, dove, sparrow, kestrel, heron and jackdaw or without caecum as hoopoe; the ileum could be demarcated by the supraduodenal loop of the jejunum. The mean percentage of the length of the ileum to the total length of the small intestine revealed that the highest percentage was in dove (17.6%) and the lowest one was in chicken (2.7%). In all examined bird species there were two caeca, except hoopoe which had no caecum as well as that of heron and kestrel which had only one caecum. The two caeca appeared as short bud in pigeon, sparrow, dove, and jackdaw. While in chicken, duck, goose, turkey, quail and owl they were long cylindrical expansions, with rounded apex in quail, duck and goose; ampullated sac with rounded end in owl. In heron and kestrel the caecum was in the form of finger like projection. The shape of the colon differed among the examined birds. It was very short dilated sac in jackdaw and kestrel; long tube with the same caliber along its length in duck, goose, turkey, quail, dove, and heron. In hoopoe it was in the form of a sac like dilatation. The mean percentage of the length of the colon to the total length of the large intestine reached its highest value (78.3%) in goose and its lowest one (14.3%) in jackdaw. The mean percentage of the weight of the colon to the total weight of the large intestine reached its highest percentage in jackdaw (88%) and its lowest one in quail (7.1%).

 

Some morphological and morphometrical studies on the liver and biliary duct system in goose, turkey, dove, sparrow, jackdaw, hoopoe, owl and darter. Hassouna, E.M.A.; Zayed, A.E. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal, 2001, v. 44 (88), p. 1-20. ref. ISSN: 1012-5973.

NAL call no: SF604.A77

Descriptors: bile ducts, length, liver, morphology, morphometrics, weight.

 

[A study of the gastric blood vessels of the ring-necked pheasant.] Zhang, De Lu; Liu, Zuo Jun. Chinese Journal of Zoology, Apr. 20, 2001, v. 36 (2), p. 11-15. ISSN: 0250-3263. Note: In Chinese.

NAL call no: QL1.T8

Descriptors: blood vessels, stomach, anatomy, proventriculus, digestive system.

 

Three-dimensional kinematics of skeletal elements in avian prokinetic and rhynchokinetic skulls determines by Roentgen stereophogrammetry. Gussekloo, Sander W.S.; Vosselman, M. George; Bout, Ron G. Journal of Experimental Biology, May 2001, v. 204 (10), p. 1735-1744. ISSN: 0022-0949.

NAL call no: 442.8 B77

Descriptors: Struthio, Rhea, Dromaius, skull, skull-skeletal elements, morphology.

Abstract: Several different types of cranial kinesis are present within modern birds, enabling them to move (part of) the upper bill relative to the braincase. This movement of the upper bill results from movement of the quadrate and the pterygoid-palatine complex (PPC). The taxon Palaeognathae is characterised by a very distinct PPC and a special type of cranial kinesis (central kinesis) that is very different from that found in the Neognathae. This has led some authors to hypothesis that there is a functional relationship between the morphology of the PPC and the type of cranial kinesis. This hypothesis is tested here by analysing the movement pattern of both the upper bill and the PPC in birds with three different types of cranial kinesis: prokinesis, distal rhynchokinesis and central rhynchokinesis. Movement patterns were determined using a Roentgen stereophotogrammetry method, which made it possible to detect very small displacements (0.5mm) of bony elements in three dimensions, while the jaw muscles and ligaments remained intact. We found that in all types of kinesis investigated the movements of the quadrate, jugal bars and PPC are similar. Movement of the quadrate is transferred to the upper beak by the jugal bar and the PPC, which moves almost exclusively forwards, thereby elevating or depressing the upper bill. The differences between the types of kinesis lie only in the position of the point of rotation. These findings indicate that there is no correlation between the specific morphology of the PPC and the type of cranial kinesis. Several other factors, including the external forces applied during food acquisition, may influence the morphology of the PPC. Differences in PPC morphology therefore appear to be the result of different functional demands acting on the system simultaneously but with different strengths, depending on the species.

 

Transcutaneous ultrasonography of the coelomic viscera of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Wagner, W.M.; Kirbeger, R.M. Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound, 2001, v. 42 (6), p. 546-552. ref. ISSN: 1058-8183.

NAL call no: SF757.8.A4

Descriptors: animal anatomy, imagery, ultrasonography, female animals.

 

2000

 

Advances in anatomy, embryology and cell biology. Bozhilova, Pastirova A.; Ovtscharoff, W. Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology, 2000, 155 p. i-vi; p.1-88. ISSN: 0301-5556.

NAL call no: QP361.H45

Descriptors: glial cells, nervous system, inferior olivary complex.

Abstract: The inferior olivary complex is one of the precerebellar nuclei. This monograph presents an anatomical study of the inferior olivary complex in several submammalian and mammalian species, including humand, in order to provide new information and morphometric data about the normal structure of the olivary neurons and glial cells using light microscopy, electron microscopy, freeze-etching, histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry. The species studied were carp (Cyprinus carpio), frog (Rana temporaria), lizards (Lacerta muralis), tortoise (Testudo graeca), pigeons (Columba livia), Sprague Dawley and Wistar rats, ground squirrels (Citellus citellus), cats (Felis domestica), and 14 human brain stems. Electron micrographs, photomicrographs, graphs, diagrams, and line drawings illustrate the text. References and a subject index are provided

 

Anatomy and histochemistry of flight muscles in a wing-propelled diving bird, the Atlantic puffin, Fratercula arctica. Kovacs, Christopher E.; Meyers, Ron A. Journal of Morphology, May, 2000, v.244 (2), p. 109-125. ISSN: 0362-2525.

NAL: call no: 444.8 J826

Descriptors: Aves, muscular system, anatomy, histochemistry.

Abstract: Twenty-three species within the avian family Alcidae are capable of wing propelled flight in the air and under water.. Alcids have been viewed as Northern Hemisphere parallels to penguins, and have often been studied to see if their underwater flight comes at a cost, compromising their aerial flying ability. We examined the anatomy and histochemistry of select wing muscles (Mm. pectoralis, supracoracoideus, latissimus dorsi caudalis, coracobrachialis, triceps scapularis, and scapulo humeralis caudalis) from Atlantic puffins (Fratercula arctica) to assess if the muscle fiber types reveal the existence of a compromise associated with “duel-medium” flight. Pectoralis was found to be proportional in size with that of nondiving species, although the supracoracoideus was proportionally larger in puffins. Muscle fiber types were largely aerobic in both muscles, with two distinct fast-twitch types demonstrable: a smaller, aerobic, moderately glycolytic population (FOg), and a larger, moderately aerobic, glycolytic population (FoG). The presence of these two fiber types in the primary flight muscles of puffins suggests that aerial and underwater flight necessitate a largely aerobic fiber complement. We suggest that alcids do not represent an adaptive compromise, but a stable adaptation for wing-propelled locomotion both in the air and underwater.

 

Anatomical and physiological properties of the ventral nucleus of the lateral geniculate of the pigeon (Columba livia). Mpodozis, J.; Letelier, J.C.; Marin, G.; Cecchi, C.; Henny, P.; Madrid, C.; Morales, D.; Sentis, E.; Karten, H. Journal of Physiology, Cambridge, Feb. 2000, (532p.): 50p. ISSN: 0022-3751.

NAL call no: 447.8 J82

Descriptors: Aves, Columbiformes, visual system, anatomy.

 

[Anatomization and identification of ostrich hind limb muscle.] Chow, H.M.; Huang, Y.S.; Hong, W.S. Report of the Taiwan Sugar Research Institute (TSRI), 2000, No. 169, p. 31-49. ref. ISSN: 0257-5493. Note: In Chinese.

NAL call no: 65.9 F76R

Descriptors: animal anatomy, limbs, muscles.

Abstract: This study focuses on anatomizing the ostrich hind limb muscles and identifying their location, shape, weight, origin and insertion. These individual muscles were divided into preacetabular muscles (including M. iliotibialis cranialis and M. ambians); acetabular muscles (including M. iliofemoralis externus, M. iliotrochantericus cranialis, M. iliofemoralis internus and M. iliotrochantericus caudalis); femoral muscles (including M. femerotibialis externus, M. femerotibialis medius, M. femerotibialis accessotius, M. femerotibialis internus); postacetabular muscles (including M. iliotibialis lateralis, M. iliofibularis, M. iliofemoralis, M. flexor crurislateralis, M. flexor cruris medialis, M. pubo-ischio femoralis, M. pectineus, M. ishiofemoralis, M. obturatorius medialis and M. obturatorius lateralis) and lower leg muscles (including M. gastrocnemius, pars internus, M. gastrocnemius, pars externus, M. peroneus longus, flexor, and extensor). These data of individual muscles may further provide referential information regarding ostrich meat yield, marketing, processing and consumer acceptability.

 

Aspects of the functional morphology of the ductus epididymidis in domestic anseriform and galliform birds. Aire, T.S. Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia, 2000, v. 29 (3), p. 179-191. ref. ISSN: 0034-5288.

NAL call no: SF761.Z4

Descriptors: lipids, epididymis, histology, Golgi apparatus, ultrastructure.

Abstract: The structure of the ductus epididymidis, and its capacity to take up luminal particulate material (Indian ink) were studied, using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in domestic fowl, turkey and Japanese quail (Order Galliformes) and drakes (Order Anseriformes). The epithelium appeared contractile and stable structurally, especially in drakes in which, among other cytoskeletal features, abundant perinuclear intermediate filaments radiated peripherally in the principal, non-ciliated (Type III) cell. The Golgi complex was well developed, except in turkeys in which it was extremely inconspicuous. Sparsely granulated profiles were the main component of the elaborate endoplasmic reticulum, which was best developed in drakes and least in turkeys. The cells in the turkeys were uniquely laden with large aggregates of lipid droplets. Generally, characteristics of cells active in the synthesis and merocrine secretion of proteinaceous material were evident. There was no evidence of apocrine-like secretion in well-fixed tissues. The cells lacked the capacity to take up luminal Indian ink particles, and displayed very poorly developed endocytic structural features which are also probably only selectively and minimally absorptive. Ultrastructural features varied between and within the orders studied, necessitating further studies.

 

The autonomic nervous system of avian species. Kuenzel, Wayne J. Sturkie’s Avian Physiology, 5th ed. Whittow, G. Causey. (ed.). Academic Press, San Diego, London etc. 2000, i-xiii. p. 1-685. Chapter pagination: 101-122. ISBN: 0127476059.

NAL call no: QL698.S787

Descriptors: Aves, autonomic nervous system, functional anatomy and physiology.

 

The avian ear and hearing. Necker, Reinhold. Sturkie’s Avian Physiology, 5th ed. Whittow, G. Causey (ed.). Academic Press, San Diego, London etc. 2000, i-xiii. p. 1-685. Chapter pagination: 21-38. ISBN: 0127476059.

NAL call no: QL698.S787

Descriptors: Aves, brain, sound reception, hearing, anatomy, physiology, ear.

 

The avian spleen: Anatomy, physiology, and diagnostics. Powers, L.V. Compendium in Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian, Sept. 2000, v. 22 (9), p. 838-843, 880. ref. ISSN: 0193-1903.

NAL call no: SF601.C66

Descriptors: birds, spleen, species differences, radiography, ultrasonography, histology.

 

Basic anatomy, physiology and nutrition. Macwhirter, Patricia. Avian Medicine, Tully, Thomas N. Jr.; Lawton, Martin P.C.; Dorrestein, Gerry M. (eds.). Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford & Woburn, 2000. in-xiv, p. 1-411. Chapter pagination: 1-25. ISBN: 0750635983.

NAL call no: SF994.A93

Descriptors: Aves, general morphology, nutrition, whole animal physiology, bird anatomy.

 

Brain growth in mallards, Pekin and Muscovy ducks (Anatidae). Gille, U.; Salomon, F.V. Journal of Zoology, 2000, v. 252 (3), p. 399-404. ref. ISSN: 0952-8369.

NAL call no: QL1.J68

Descriptors: brain growth, age, domestication, ducks.

Abstract: Post-hatching changes in brain mass were investigated in mallards and four stocks of domesticated ducks (n=48 per stock) using growth curve analysis and allometry. The birds varied in age between hatching and 154 days. Percentage brain size at hatching in ducks varies between 22.5 and 28% which fits well into the precocial category. Brain growth shows a sigmoid course. The point of inflection is very early when compared to other organs. However, growth is slow after passing the growth rate maximum. Pekins show higher absolute brain masses than mallards. However, the growth patterns with respect to time are very similar among stocks. Strongly negative allometry is found with allometric exponents between 0.31 and 0.37 with the highest value in mallards. Allometrically, there is an increasing reduction of brain mass in Pekins when compared to mallards to about 12.5% in adults. No differences were found between mallards and either Muscovies or the Muscovy x Pekin cross. The reduction in relative brain size in domesticated animals when compared to their wild ancestors is generally attributed to a decrease in functional demands resulting from the artificial environment. Because brain growth is more conservative and less influenced by selection than body weight, we assume that this is, at least in part, a result of the constancy of brain growth patterns.

 

The cardiovascular system. Smith, Frank M.; West, Nigel H.; Jones, David R. Sturkie’s Avian Physiology, 5th ed, Whittow, G. Causey (ed.). Academic Press, San Diego, London etc. 2000. i-xiii. p. 1-685. Chapter pagination: 141-231. ISBN: 0127476059.

NAL call no: QL698.S787

Descriptors: Aves, circulatory system, functional anatomy and physiology, birds, cardiovascular system.

 

Chemical anatomy of the avian basal forebrain: A histochemical, and cytoarchitectural study in a parrot (Melopsittacus undulatus). Roberts, T.F.; Hall, W.S.; Brauth, S.E. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, 2000, v. 26 (1-2), Abstract no. 462.12. ISSN: 0190-5295.

Descriptors: Aves, Psittaciformes, basal forebrain, nervous system, histochemistry, parrots, cytoarchitectonic methods, buderigar.

Abstract: We used histochemical and cytoarchitectonic methods to investigate the organization of the basal forebrain in a vocal learning Australian parrot, the buderigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). We wished to obtain more information about the chemical architecture of this area because lesion studies (cf. Brauth et al, 1994) indicate a role for the basal forebrain in vocalization. Our results show that the basal forebrain can be subdivided into a nucleus accumbens (Ac), ventral pallidum (VP), substantia innominata (SI), olfactory tubercle (TO), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), diagonal brand of broca (DBB) and medial and lateral septal nuclei (SM/SL). Ac is located ventromedial to the parolfactory lobe (LPO) and surrounding the ventral horn of the lateral telencephalic ventricle can be distinguished by high levels of enkephalin-like immunoreactivity (ELI), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), substance P (SP), and neurotensin (NT). Based on these features and position this nucleus corresponds to the mammalian Ac. The VP is located ventral to LPO and the paleostriatum augmentatum (PA). VP can be distinguished with high levels of ELI, CGRP, TH, and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). The region underlying PA, in the lateral portion of VP, contains high levels of SP and NT. The SI, which overlaps VP, is most evident by high levels of Chat and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) reactivity. TO can be seen in rostral sections, underlying the ventral paleostriatal complex and evidenced by heavy labeling for ELI, ChAT, and TH. The BNST, located ventral and ventrolateral to the ventral horn of the lateral telencephalic ventricle, stains intensely for arginine vasotocin (AVT), AchE, TH, CGRP, and SP. The DBB is seen most clearly with staining for ChAT, NADP-h, and CGRP while the SL/SM are delineated with heavy staining for TH, NADP-h, AChE, ChAT, ENK, CGRP, and SP. Staining for nissl and myelin were also used to identify cellular characteristics and fiber bundles traversing the basal forebrain. Taken together our results indicate that the budgerigar basal forebrain can be delineated into distinctive cellular structures using a combination of chemical markers and that these structures correspond to nuclei which are quite similar to those of the mammalian basal forebrain. IBN 9816061 to SEB.

 

The cranial nerves of the bee eater Merops albicollis (Meropidae, Coraciformes). The nervus facialis and the cranial sympathetic branches. Abd, Elkader I.Y.; Samah, S.M. Fathy. Journal of the Egyptian German Society of Zoology, Jul. 2000, v. 33 (B), p. 41-56.

NAL call no: QL1.E49

Descriptors: nerves, cranial nerves, anatomy.

 

The cranial nerves of the bee eater Merops albicollis (Meropidae, Coraciformes). The eye muscle nerves and the ciliary ganglion. Abd, Elkader I.Y.; Samah, S.M. Fathy. Journal of the Egyptian German Society of Zoology, Jul. 2000, v. 33 (B), p. 21-40.

NAL call no: QL1.E49

Descriptors: musculature, ganglia, nerves, cranial nerves, eye muscles, anatomy.

 

[The digestive tract anatomy of crowned crane.] Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Zi Hui; Lu, Yan Ping; Xiao, Fang; Zhou, Xiao Li. Chinese Journal of Zoology, Jun. 2000, v. 35 (3), p. 32-35. ISSN: 0250-3263. Note: In Chinese.

NAL call no: QL1.T8

Descriptors: digestive system, size, relationship with body length.

 

Flight. Butler, P.J.; Bishop, C.M. Sturkie’s Avian Physiology, 5 th ed. Whittow, G. Causey (ed.). Academic Press, San Diego, London etc. 2000, i-xiii. p.1-685. Chapter pagination: 391-435. ISBN: 0127476059.

NAL call no: QL698.S787

Descriptors: Aves, flight, functional anatomy and physiology, birds.

 

Fragmental notes on on avian morpho-anatomy: 1. Gloss myological sketches of a Sula leucogaster. Kuroda, Nagahisa. Journal of the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology, May 31, 2000, v. 32 (1), p. 31-33. ISSN: 0044-0183.

Descriptors: muscular system, Aves, brown booby, movement, support, birds.

 

Fragmental notes on avian morpho-anatomy: 2. Myological sketch of a Brown Pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis. Kuroda, Nagahisa. Journal of the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology, Dec. 29, 2000, v. 32 (2), p. 80-85. ISSN: 0044-0183.

Descriptors: avian morpho anatomy, Brown pelican, Aves, myological sketch.

 

Gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology. Denbow, D. Michael. Sturkie’s Avian Physiology, 5th ed. Whittow, G. Causey (ed.). Academic Press, San Diego, London etc. 2000, i-xiii. p. 1-685. Chapter pagination: 299-325. ISBN: 1027476059.

NAL call no: QL698.S787

Descriptors: Aves, digestion, functional physiology, anatomy and physiology, birds.

 

Greater song complexity is associated with augmented song system anatomy in zebra finches. Airey, David C.; DeVoogd, Timothy J. Neuroreport, Jun. 5, 2000, v. 11 (8), p. 1749-1754. Available: www.neuroreport.com/ ISSN: 0959-4965.

Descriptors: anatomy, brain anatomy, high vocal center, behavior.

Abstract: We revisited the relationship between brain anatomy and song behavior in zebra finches. Consistent with previous studies in other song birds, we find that differences in volume of the telencephalic song control nucleus HVc is predictive of differences in repertoire size and phase duration in zebra finches. We extended the study of brain and behavior correlations in song birds by showing that repertoire size in zebra finches can be predicted by variance in several brain nuclei, providing the first demonstration that volumetric differences across multiple components of a neural network are predictive of song behavior.

 

Histological observations on the infundibulum of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Parida, S.; Greeta, Ramesh; Kumar, M.S.; Vijayagavan, C.; Ramesh, G. Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy, 2000, v. 12 (1), p. 69-75. ref. ISSN: 0971-1937.

Descriptors: epithelium, histology, infundibulum, mucosa, lymphocytes.

 

Histology of the lingual glands in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Maya, S.; Lucy, P. Indian Journal of Poultry Science, 2000, v. 35 (3), p. 306-308. ref. ISSN: 0019-5529.

             NAL call no: SF481.I5

Descriptors: animal anatomy, salivary glands, tongue.

 

Histological studies on the extra-hepatic ducts and gall bladder of the domestic duck. Lakshmi, M.S.; Rao, T.S.C.; Kumar, D.P.; Nagamalleswari, Y.; Ramadevi, V. Indian Veterinary Journal, 2000, v. 77 (5), p. 415-417. ref. ISSN: 0019-6479.

NAL call no: 41.8 IN2

Descriptors: gall bladder, histology, bile ducts, poultry.

 

Histological studies on the pineal gland of domestic ducks (Anas boschas domesticus). Prasad, R.V.; Rao, T.S.C.; Vijayaragavan, C. Indian Journal of Poultry Science, v. 35 (2), p. 121-123. ref. ISSN: 0019-5529.

NAL call no: SF481.I5

Descriptors: animal anatomy, cells, glands, histology, pineal body.

 

Histomorphological and histochemical study of ovary in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Parida, S.; Sivakumar, M.; Geetha, Ramesh; Vijayragavan, C.; Ramesh, G. Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy, 2000, v. 12 (1), p. 69-75. ref. ISSN: 0971-1937.

Descriptors: histochemistry, ovaries, smooth muscle, reproductive organs, females.

 

Microanatomical studies on the copulatory apparatus of the domestic drake (Anas boschas domesticus). Rao, T.S.C.; Vijayaragavan, C. Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy, 2000, v. 12 (1), p. 76-80. ref. ISSN: 0971-1937.

Descriptors: capillaries, histology, muscle fibres, penis, male ducks.

 

A morphological study on the postnatal development of the bursa of Fabricius in White Pekin ducks. Indu, V.R.; Chungath, J.J.; Harshan, K.R.; Ashok, N. Indian Journal of Poultry Science, 2000, v. 35 (2), p. 124-127. ref. ISSN: 0019-5529.

NAL call no: SF481.I5

Descriptors: animal anatomy, morphology, bursa Fabricii, development, growth and development.

 

[Preliminary studies on the skeleton system of Tragopan caboti.] Zhang, Zi Hui; Zheng, Guang Mei. Chinese Journal of Zoology, Apr. 20, 2000, v. 35 (2), p. 25-27. ISSN: 0250-3263. Note: In Chinese.

NAL call no: QL1.T8

Descriptors: skeleton, anatomy and observations, Tragopan caboti.

 

Radiographic analysis of the growth of long bones in bustards. Naldo, J.L.; Bailey, T.A.; Samour, J.H. Research in Veterinary Science, 2000, v. 69 (3), p. 233-240. ref. ISSN: 0034-5288.

NAL call no: 41.8 R312

Descriptors: bone formation, growth rate, limb bones, radiography, comparative study.

Abstract: A serial radiographic study was conducted on seven houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii), 10 rufous-crested bustard (Eupodotis ruficrista), four white-bellied bustard (Eupodotis senegalensis) and eight kori bustard (Ardeotis kori) chicks to determine the growth rate of long bones and to establish radiographic standards for assessing skeletal maturity. The growth rate of the tarsometatarsus and tibiotarsus in the bustard species investigated were similar to those in domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus) and some long-legged avian species. Maturation of long bones occurred earlier in houbara bustards compared with rufous-crested, white-bellied and kori bustards.

 

Renal anatomy in sparrows from different environments. Casotti, Giovanni; Braun, Eldon. Journal of Morphology, Mar. 2000, v. 243 (3), p. 283-291. ISSN: 0362-2525.

NAL call no: 444.8 J826

Descriptors: Aves, urinary system, renal medulla, excretory system.

Abstract: The renal anatomy of three species of sparrows, two from mesic areas, the House sparrow (Passer domesticus) and Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia), and one salt marsh species, the Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) was examined. Electron microscopy was used to describe the ultrastructure of the nephron. In addition, stereology was used to quantify the volumes of cortex, medulla, and major vasculature of the kidneys, and the volumes and surface areas occupied by individual nephron components. There appeared to be no differences in the ultrastructural anatomy of the nephrons among sparrows. Proximal tubules contained both narrow and wide intercellular spaces filled with interdigitations of the basolateral membrane. The thin limbs of Henle contained very wide intercellular spaces which were absent in the thick limbs of Henle. The distal tubule cells contained short, apical microvilli and infoldings of the basolateral membrane. In cross section, the medullary cones of all birds display an outer ring of thick limbs of Henle which surround an inner ring of collecting ducts, which in turn surround a central core of thin limbs of Henle. The Savannah Sparrow has a significantly higher volume of medulla compared to the two more mesic species. Within the cortex, the Savannah Sparrow also has a significantly higher volume of proximal tubules but a significantly lower volume of distal tubules than the other species. Within the medulla, the Savannah Sparrow has a significantly higher volume and surface area of capillaries, and a significantly higher surface area of thick limbs of Henle. And collecting ducts than the mesic species. These data suggest that the salt marsh Savannah Sparrow has the renal morphology necessary to produce a more highly concentrated urine than the mesic zone species.

 

Respiration. Powell, F.L. Sturkie’s Avian Physiology, 5th ed. Whittow, G. Causey (ed.). Academic Press, San Diego, London etc. 2000. i-xiii. p. 1- 685. Chapter pagination: 233-264. ISBN: 0127476059.

NAL call no: QL698.S787

Descriptors: Aves, respiration, functional anatomy and physiology, birds.

 

Rostral Wulst in passerine birds. 1. Origin, course, and terminations of an avian pyramidal tract. Wild, J.M.; Williams, M.N. Journal of Comparative Neurology, Jan. 24, 2000, v. 416 (4), p. 429-450. ISSN: 0021-9967.

NAL call no: QP351.J68

Descriptors: brain, neurons, spinal cord, pyramidal tract of Rostral Wulst, perching birds.

 

Sensory physiology: Vision. Gunturkun, Onur. Sturkie’s Avian Physiology, 5th ed. Whittow, G. Causey (ed.). San Diego, London etc. 2000, i-xiii. p. 1-685. Chapter pagination: 1-19. ISBN: 0127476059.

NAL call no: QL698.S787

Descriptors: Aves, brain, vision, anatomy and function, eye, structure, birds.

 

Some morphological and morphometric studies on the orbit of chicken, duck, goose, turkey, pigeon, dove, quail, heron, hoopoe, jackdaw, kestrel and owl. Hassouna, Eman M.A. Bulletin of the Faculty of Science Assiut University E-Zoology, 2000, v. 29 (2), p. 65-82.

Descriptors: Aves, orbit morphometry, skull, orbit, species comparison, various bird species.

 

Structure and postnatal development of pharynx in Japanese quails. Maya, S.; Paily, L. Indian Journal of Poultry Science, v. 35 (2), p. 128-131. ref. ISSN: 0019-5529.

NAL call no: SF481.I5

Descriptors: animal anatomy, glands, morphology, pharynx.

 

Surgery of the avian reproductive tract. Bennett, R.A. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Eastern States Veterinary Association, 2000, v. 14, p. 864-866. ref.

NAL call no: SF605.N672

Descriptors: birds, surgical operations, animal anatomy, reproductive organs, birds.

 

Systematic revision, skeletal anatomy, and paleoecology of the New World Early -Tertiary Presbyornithidae (Aves: Anseriformes). Ericson, Per G.P. Paleobios, Sept. 2000, v. 20 (2), p. 1-23. ISSN: 0031-0298.

Descriptors: skeleton, anatomy and ecology, phylogeny, systematics, evolution, birds.

 

Three-dimensional kinematics of skeletal elements in avian prokinetic and rhynchokinetic skulls determined by Roentgen stereophotogrammetry. Guessekloo, Sander W.S.; Vosselman, M. George; Bout, Ron G. Journal of Experimental Biology, May 2000, v. 204 (10), p. 1735-1744. ISSN: 0022-0949.

NAL call no: 442.8 B77

Descriptors: skull skeletal elements kinematics and morphology relationship, Aves, birds.

Abstract: Several different types of cranial kinesis are present within modern birds, enabling them to move (part of) the upper bill relative to the braincase. This movement of the upper bill results from movement of the quadrate and pterygoid-palatine complex (PPC). The taxon Palaeognathae is characterised by a very distinct PPC and a special type of cranial kinesis (central kinesis) that is very different from that found in the Neognathae. This has led some authors to hypothesis that there is a functional relationship between the morphology of the PPC and the type of cranial kinesis. This hypothesis is tested here by analysing the movement pattern of both the upper bill and the PPC in birds with three different types of cranial kinesis: prokinesis, distal rhynchokinesis and central rhynchokinesis. Movement patterns were determined using a roentgen stereophotogrammetry method, which made it possible to detect very small displacements (0.5 mm) of bony elements in three dimensions, while the jaw muscles and ligaments remained in tact. We found that in all types of kinesis investigated the movements of the quadrate, jugal bars and PPC are similar. Movement of the quadrate is transferred to the upper beak by the jugal bar and the PPC, which moves almost exclusively forwards and backwards, thereby elevating or depressing the upper bill. The differences between the types of kinesis lie only in the position of the point of rotation. These findings indicate that there is no correlation between the specific morphology of the PPC and the type of cranial kinesis. Several other factors, including external forces applied during food acquisition, may influence the morphology of the PPC. Differences in PPC morphology therefore appear to be the result of different functional demands acting on the system simultaneously but with different strengths, depending on the species.

 

Vergleichende Untersuchungen am Skelettsystem von Farb- und Positurkanarienvogeln. [Comparative investigation of the skeletal system of canaries.] Rienhoff, W. Vergleichende Untersuchungen am Skelettsystem von Farb und Positurkanarienvogein, 2000, 145 p. Thesis. Tierarztliche Hochschule Hannover; Hannover, Germany. Note: In German.

NAL call no: DISS F2000356

Descriptors: anatomy, bones, skeleton, comparative study, canaries.

 

 

1999

 

Anatomy. Bezuidenhout, A.J. The Ostrich: Biology, Production and Health, Deeming, D.C. (ed.). CABI Publishing Co., Wallingford & New York, 1999. i-x. p. 1-358. Chapter pagination: 13-49. ISBN: 0851993508.

NAL call no: SF511.0774-1999

Descriptors: Struthio camelus, general morphology, anatomy, Aves.

 

The anatomy and timing of vocal learning in birds. Nottebohm, Fernando. The Design of Animal Communication, Hauser, Mark D; Konishi, Mark (eds.). MIY Press, Cambridge, MA. 1999, i-xi. p. 1-701. Chapter pagination: 63-110. ISBN: 0262082772.

Descriptors: Aves, brain, song learning pathways, acoustic signals, learning.

 

Approach to the thoracic cavity of birds. Bennett, R.A. Exotic DVM, 1999, v. 1 (3), p. 55-58.

NAL call no: SF981.E96

Descriptors: thoracic cavity, thorax, radiography, anatomy, morphology.

 

Avian gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology. Klasing, Kirk C. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine, Apr. 1999, v. 8 (2), p. 42-50. ISSN: 1055-937X.

NAL call no: SF994.2.A1S36

Descriptors: nutrition, digestive system, Aves, anatomy physiology, birds.

 

The avian respiratory system. Orosz, S.E. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian, 1999, v. 21 (10), p. 935-943. ref. ISSN: 0193-1903.

NAL call no: SF601.C66

Descriptors: respiratory system, poultry, anatomy, reviews, physiology, birds.

 

Cardiac ganglia of Japanese quail: Distribution and morphology. Kuder, T.; Tekieli, A. Annals of Anatomy, Sept. 1999, v. 181 (5), p. 467-473. ISSN: 0940-9602.

Descriptors: Japanese quail, histochemistry, cardiac ganglia, circulatory system.

Abstract: The cardiac ganglia in Japanese quail were studied with the use of histological, histochemical and ultrastructural techniques. Histological investigations revealed the presence of a number of cholinergic ganglia in the fatty tissue of the epicardium. They were grouped in plexo-ganglionic forms localized in three regions: (1) on the ventral surface of the cardiac atria, (2) on the ventral surface of the cardiac ventricle, (3) on the dorsal surface of the cardiac ventricle. These plexoganglia are structures composed of many ganglia differing in size (from 77 mum to 577 mum length and from 53 mum to 163 mum width), connected by fascicles of nerve fibers. The cells of cardiac ganglia have single, round or oval nuclei with one or several dense nucleoli. There were myelinated and unmyelinated fibers in the intercellular spaces. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and free ribosomes were localized mainly in the perinuclear part, RER was less abundant, but mitochondria were more numerous in this part of the cytoplasm. In the peripheral parts of the neurones, axo-somatic synapses were usually observed. Profiles of the end sections of axons contained two kinds of synaptic vesicles: small, agranular ones and among them large ones with a dense core.

 

Comparative anatomy. Oglesbee, B. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Jan. 9-13, 1999. Eastern States Veterinary Association, 1999, v. 13, p. 734-736.

NAL call no: SF605.N672

Descriptors: birds, animal anatomy.

 

Comparative avian surgical anatomy. Harcourt-Brown, N.H. Exotic DVM, 1999, v. 1 (3), p. 35-40.

NAL call no: SF981.E96

Descriptors: surgery, anatomy, pets, birds.

 

Fibre composition in the interosseous nerve of the pigeon. Necker, R.; Rosenberg, J. Journal of Anatomy, 1999, v. 194 (4), p. 525-530. ref. ISSN: 0021-1006.

NAL call no: 447.8 J826

Descriptors: fibula, myelin, peripheral nerves, nervous system.

 

Functional anatomy of the avian centrifugal visual system. Miceli, Dom; Reperant, Jacques; Bertrand, Christine; Rio, Jean Paul. Behavioral Brain Research, Feb. 1, 1999, v. 98 (2), p. 203-210. ISSN: 0166-4328.

Descriptors: ground feeding behavior, visual attention, visually guided behavior, eyes, retina, birds.

Abstract: Although first described over a century ago, the centrifugal visual system (CVS) projecting to the retina still remains somewhat of an enigma with regard to its functional role in visually-guided behavior. The highly developed avian CVS has been the most extensively investigated and the anatomical organization of its two component centrifugal structures, the n. isthmo-opticus (NIO) and ectopic neurons (EN), including its afferent brainstem projections is reviewed. The results of double-labeling studies combining axonal tracing techniques and immunohistofluorescence have demonstrated GABA immunoreactivity (-ir) of interneurons within the neutopilar zone of the NIO, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-ir and nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-ir in the centrifugal cells of the NIO and EN as well as in the afferent projection neurons of layers 9/10 of the optic tectum. The data are discussed in terms of neurochemical and excitatory/inhibitory mechanisms withing the different components of the avian CVS in relation to hypotheses which have implicated this system in visual attention and ground-feeding behavior.

 

The functional anatomy of the basal ganglia of birds. Medina, L.; Jiao, Y.; Reiner, A. European Journal of Morphology, Apr. 1999, v. 37 (2-3), p. 160-165. ISSN: 0924-3860.

Descriptors: functional anatomy, movement, control, Aves.

Abstract: To study how the basal ganglia can control movement in birds, we have reinvestigated the connections of the pigeon dorsal pallidum. Our results indicate that avian basal ganglia appear to control movement through major projections to several premotor pretectal and tegmental centres which innervate the tectum, and through a minor projection to a possible motor thalamic centre which innervates the Wulst. For such control, separate striatopallidal output circuits appear to exist in birds that are remarkably similar to those described in Mammals, suggesting that avian and mammalian basal ganglia may control movement through similar mechanisms, and that the morphological substrate for such control evolved earlier than previously thought.

 

Gross anatomical studies on the copulatory apparatus of the domestic drake (Anas boschas domesticus). Rao, T.S.C.; Vijayaragavan, C. Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy, 1999, v. 11 (2), p. 99-102. ref.

Descriptors: anatomy, penis, male genitalia.

 

Gross anatomy of pancreas of domestic duck (Anas boschas domesticus). Madhavi, G.; Rao, T.S.C.; Kumar, D.P.; Nagamalleswari, Y.; Makkena, Sreenu; Sreenu, M. Cheiron, 1999, v. 28 (5), p. 171-178. ref. ISSN: 0379-542X.

NAL call no: SF604.C56

Descriptors: pancreas, anatomy, poultry.

 

Histoarchitecture of the oviductal magnum in birds. Naragude, H.B.; Mugale, R.R.; Bhosle, N.S.; Gayake, H.P. Indian Veterinary Journal, 1999, v. 76 (8), p. 725-727. ref. ISSN: 0019-6479.

NAL call no: 41 8IN2

Descriptors: anatomy, oviducts, histology, poultry.

 

Histochemical studies on the liver of the domestic duck (Anas boschas domesticus). Lakshmi, M.S.; Rao, T.S.C.; Kumar, D.P.; Nagamalleswari, Y.; Ramadevi, V. Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy, v. 11 (2), p. 143-145. ref.

Descriptors: liver, histochemistry, poultry.

 

Histochemical studies on the ovary of the domestic duck (Anas boschas domesticus). Rao, T.S.C.; Vijayaragavan, C. Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy, 1999, v. 11 (2), p. 139-142. ref.

Descriptors: domestic duck, ovary, histochemisty, studies.

 

Histogenesis of the pancrease of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Sivakumar, M.; Geetha, Ramesh; Vijayaragavan, C.; Ramesh, G. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 1999, v. 69 (11), p. 905-907. ref. ISSN: 0367-8318.

NAL call no: 41.8 IN22

Descriptors: embryonic development, pancreas, organogenesis.

 

Histology and histochemistry of the thyroid gland of domestic duck. Prasad, R.V.; Rao, T.S.C.; Vijayaragavan, C. Indian Journal of Poultry Science, 1999, v. 34 (2), p. 112-119. ref. ISSN: 0019-5529.

NAL call no: SF481.I5

Descriptors: thyroid gland, histology, histochemistry, epithelium.

 

Histological studies on the liver of the domestic duck (Anas boschas domesticus). Lakshmi, M.S.; Rao, T.S.C.; Pramodkumar, D.; Nafamalleswari, Y.; Devi, V.R. Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy, 1999, v. 11 (2), p. 133-138. ref.

Descriptors: liver, histology, poultry.

 

The innervation of the ureter in the duck (Anas platyrhynchos). A morphological and quantitative study. Mirabella, N.; Paino, G.; Germano, G.; Pelagalli, G.V. Annals of Anatomy, 1999, v. 181 (6), p. 537-544. ref. ISSN: 0940-9602.

Descriptors: innervation, ureter, motility, muscles, histochemistry, young and adult ducks.

Abstract: The morphology and distribution of the innervation in the duck ureter were studied using acetylcholinesterase (AchE) histochemistry and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 immunohistochemistry. The density of AChE positive ganglia and neurons was calculated in the adventitial and muscular layers both in young and adult birds. Separate neuron counts and neuron density calculations were performed for the upper, intermediate and lower parts of the ureter. Three nerve plexuses located in the tunica adventitia, in the tunica muscularis and in the lamina propria respectively, sere observed. Both in young and adult ducks, the density of adventitial neurons was significantly greater in the lower tract than in the upper and intermediate tracts. It is suggested that, in birds, the innervation may play a role in ureteric functions such as muscular motility and closure and/or opening of the ureteric papilla.

 

Integration of renal and gastrointestinal function. Braun, E.J. Special Issue: Avian Gastrointestinal and Renal Function. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 1999, v. 183 (4-5), p. 495-499. ref. ISSN: 0022-104X.

NAL call no: 410 J825

Descriptors: reviews, digestive tract, kidneys, colon, urine, osmoregulation, birds.

Abstract: In birds, the kidney does not independently regulate the composition of the extra-cellular fluid, as is the case for mammals. The urine of birds enters the cloaca and is moved by a reverse peristaltic action into the colon. In the colon, the urine comes in contact with an epithelium that modifies its composition. If the osmotic potential of the urine is significantly higher than that or the plasma, the urine will not be refluxed into the colon. The composition of the ureteral urine is sensed in the cloaca which in turn modulates the refluxing activity. It appears to be the large contraction waves of the colon that are modified by changes in the composition of the urine, although radiographic evidence indicates that the small contraction waves of the colon do the actual refluxing. It is necessary for the urine to be moved into the colon. This may be driven by the need to recover some, if not all, of the protein in the urine. This protein maintains uric acid in a colloidal suspension that prevents the formation of uric acid crystals which would block the renal tubules. Thus, the kidneys and lower gastrointestinal tract must function in concert in the regulation of the composition of the extracellular fluid.

 

Light microscopy of the post-hatch endocrine pancreas of Japanese quail. Sivakumar, M.; Kannan, T.A.; Geetha, Ramesh; Parida, S.; Basha, S.H.; Vijayaragavan, C.; Ramesh, G. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 1999, v. 69 (12), p. 1024-1027. ref. ISSN: 0367-8318.

NAL call no: 41.8 IN22

Descriptors: pancreas, microscopy, ultrastructure, age groups.

 

Microanatomical studies on the epididymal region of the domestic drake. Rao, T.S.C.; Vijayaragavan, C. Indian Journal of Poultry Science, 1999, v. 34 (2), p. 107-111. ref.

NAL call no: SF481.I5

Descriptors: animal anatomy, epididymis, epithelium, male ducks.

 

Microanatomical studies on the isthmus of the domestic duck. Rao, T.S.C.; Vijayaragavan, C. Indian Journal of Poultry Science, 1999, v. 34 (2), p. 235-239. ref. ISSN: 0019-5529.

NAL call no: SF481.I5

Descriptors: animal anatomy, mucosa, serosa, epithelium.

 

Microanatomical studies on the ovary of the domestic duck (Anas boschas domesticus). Roa, T.S.C.; Vijayaragavan, C. Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy, 1999, v. 11 (2), p. 128-132. ref.

Descriptors: ovaries, histology, female genitalia.

 

Morphological and histological study on the liver and the biliary system of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Stornelli, M.R.; Ricciardi, M.P.; Giannessi, E. Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology, Oct./Dec. 1999, v. 104 (4), p. 172. ISSN: 1122-6714.

NAL call no: QM1.A7

Descriptors: biliary system, digestive system, histology, morphology.

 

Note on the osteology and taxonomic position of the African long-tailed hawk, Urotriorchis macrourus (Aves: Accipitridae). Mlikovsky, Jiri. Bulletin of the British Ornithology Club, Mar. 1999, v. 119 (1), p. 32-37. ISSN: 0007-1595.

Descriptors: skeleton, anatomy, taxonomic significance, Aves.

 

Olfaction in birds. Roper, Timothy J. Advances in the Study of Behavior, 1999, v. 28 p. 247-332. ISSN: 0065-3454.

NAL call no: QL750.A33

Descriptors: Aves, brain, olfactory system anatomy, chemoreception, review.

 

Physiology. Skadhauge, E.; Dawson, A. The Ostrich: Biology, Production and Health, Deeming, D.C. (Ed.). CABI Publishing, Wallingford & New York, 1999. i-x. p. 1-358. Chapter pagination: 51-81. ISBN: 0851993508.

NAL call no: SF511.0774 1999

Descriptors: whole animal physiology, review, Struthio camelus, Aves, ostriches.

 

Reproduction. Soley, J.T.; Groenwald, H.B.; Deeming, D.C. The Ostrich: Biology, Production and Health, 1999, v. p. 129-158. ref. ISBN: 0851993508.

NAL call no: SF511.0774-1999

Descriptors: reproduction, reviews, anatomy, histology, endocrinology, males and females, ostriches.

Abstract: This review covers the gross and microscopic anatomy of the male and female reproductive system of the ostrich, reproductive endocrinology, and infertility in males and females.

 

Rostral Wulst of passerine birds. 2. Intratelencephalic projections to nuclei associated with the auditory and song systems. Wild, J.M.; Williams, M.N. Journal of Comparative Neurology, Nov. 1, 1999, v. 413 (4), p. 520-534. ISSN: 0021-9967.

NAL call no: QP750.J68

Descriptors: brain, rostral wulst projections, auditory and song systems, perching birds.

 

Structure and postnatal development of infundibulum in Japanese quail. Lucy, K.M.; Harshan, K.R. Indian Journal of Poultry Science, 1999, v. 34 (2), p. 125-128. ref. ISSN: 0019-5529.

NAL call no: SF481.I5

Descriptors: oviducts, postnatal development, smooth muscle, epithelium.

 

Structural and postnatal development of vagina in Japanese quail. Lucy, K.M.; Harshan, K.R. Indian Journal of Poultry Science, 1999, v. 34 (2), p. 120-124. ref. ISSN: 0019-5529.

NAL call no: SF481.I5

Descriptors: vagina, uterus, smooth muscle, oviducts, postnatal development.

 

Surgical anatomy of the pelvic limb. Orosz, Susan E. Birds and All That Jazz, Bergman, Eric (ed.). Proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference & Expo, Association of Avian Veterinarians, Sept. 1-2, 1999. i-x. p. 1-449. Chapter pagination: 389-398.

NAL call no: SF994.M52

Descriptors: Aves, anatomy and surgical fracture repair techniques, hindlimbs, birds.

 

Surgical anatomy of the pelvic limb. Orosz. S.E.; Roston, M.A.(ed.); Marx, K.L. Proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference on Avian Medicine and Surgery. Mid-Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians, Apr. 25-27, 1999, p. 46-55.

NAL call no: SF994.M52

Descriptors: hips, surgery, skeleton, musculoskeletal system, anatomy, joints, birds.

 

[The visceral anatomy of the Oriental white stork.] Luan, Xiaofeng; Li, Wenfa; Yuan, Hongye. Journal of the Northeast Forestry University, Mar. 25, 1999, v. 27 (2), p. 74-76. ISSN: 1000-5382. Note: In Chinese.

Descriptors: size, weight, digestive system, heart, kidney, anatomy.

 

 

 

1998

 

The anatomy of the air sacs of the ostrich. Bezuidenhout, A.; Putter, G.; Groenwald, H.B.; Soley, J.T.; Huchzermeyer, F.W. Proceedings of the Second International Scientific Ratite Congress, Sept. 21-25, 1998, p. 94-95. ref.

Descriptors: air sacs, anatomy, respiratory system.

 

[Anatomical research on the brain of African ostrich.] Peng, Kemei; Zhang, Weimin; Feng, Yueping. Journal of Huazhong Agricultural University, Aug. 1998, v. 17 (4), p. 373-377. ISSN: 1000-2421. Note: In Chinese.

NAL call no:S471.C6H833

Descriptors: ostrich, brain anatomy and biometrics, size, weight.

 

[Anatomy of the skeletal system of black-headed gull, Larus riabundns (ridibundus).]Wu, Jieyun; et al. Sichuan Journal of Zoology, Nov. 28, 1998, v. 17 (4), p. 181-184. ISSN: 1000-7083. Note: In Chinese.

Descriptors: skeleton, anatomy, Larus ridibundus.

 

[The avian alimentary tract: Some unique features, unique disorders, and some common fallacies.] Graham, David L. Proceedings Avian Specialty Advanced Program, Small Mammal and Reptile Program, in Conjunction with the 1998 Annual Conference and Expo, Association of Avian Veterinarians, Aug. 25, 1998. i-v. p. 1-119. Chapter pagination: 35-41. Note: In Chinese.

NAL call no: SF994.M5

Descriptors: Aves, digestive system, anatomy and function, clinical significance, birds.

 

The avian digestive system: Anatomy and physiology for the clinician. Orosz, Susan E. Strike Gold in Reno, Wissman, Margaret. Proceedings Avian Specialty Advanced Program & Small Mammal and Reptile Medicine and Surgery, Sept. 9, 1997, in Conjunction with the Annual Conference & Expo Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1997, i-v. p. 1-117. Chapter pagination: 3-7.

            NAL call no: SF994.M5

            Descriptors: Aves, digestive system, anatomy and physiology, clinical significance, birds.

 

Avian nutrition: Anatomy of the avian digestive system. Part 2. Klasing, K.C. Exotic Bird Report, May 1998, v. 10 (1), p. 4-6.

Descriptors: Aves, digestive system, anatomy, birds.

 

The avian shoulder. Pokras, M.A. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Jan. 10-14, 1998. Eastern States Veterinary Association, 1998, v. 12, p. 776-777.

NAL call no: SF605.N672

Descriptors: birds, animal anatomy, shoulders.

 

The avian thyroid gland. Part one: A review of the anatomy and physiology. Merryman, Joyce I.; Buckles, Elizabeth, L. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, v. 12 (4), p. 234-237. ref. ISSN: 1082-6742.

NAL call no: SF994.J6

Descriptors: Aves, thyroid gland, histology and physiology, development, birds.

 

The comparative functional gizzard morphology of several species of birds. Moore, Suzanne J. Australian Journal of Zoology, 1998, v. 46 (4), p. 359-368. ISSN: 0004-959X.

NAL call no: QL1.I68

Descriptors: Aves, functional anatomy comparisons, digestion, morphology, birds.

 

Comparative renal function in reptiles, birds and mammals. Braun, Eldon J. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine, Apr. 1998, v. 7 (2), p. 62-71. ISSN: 1055-937X.

NAL call no: SF994.2.A1S36

Descriptors: Reptilia, Aves, Mammalia, excretory system, renal function, kidney, comparative study, birds.

 

Comparative skeletal muscle fibre morphometry among wild birds with different locomotor behavior. Torrella, J.R.; Fouces, V.; Palomeque, J.; Viscor, G. Journal of Anatomy, Feb. 1998, v. 192 (2), p. 211-222. ISSN: 0021-8782.

NAL call no: 447.8 J826

Descriptors: skeletal muscle fibre morphometry, metabolic rate, biochemistry.

 

Fine structure of the tongue and lingual papillae of the penguin. Kobayashi, Kan.; Kumakura, Masahiko; Yoshimura, Ken; Inatomi, Mititomo; Asami, Tomoichiro. Archives of Histology and Cytology, Mar. 1998, v. 61 (1), p. 37-46. ISSN: 0914-9465.

Descriptors: tongue, histology, ultrastructure, lingual papillae, Aves.

 

Gross anatomy and imaging of the avian and reptilian urinary system. Canny, Carol. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine, Apr. 1998, v. 7 (2), p. 72-80. ISSN: 1055-937X.

NAL call no: SF994.2.A1S36

Descriptors: Aves, Reptilia, anatomical techniques, radiographical, ultrasound, birds.

 

Manual of Ornithology: Avian Structure and Function. Proctor, Noble S.; Lynch, Patrick J. 1998; xii, 340 p. ISBN: 0300076193 (paper); 0300057466 (cloth).

Descriptors: skeletal system, skeleton, musculature, bibliography.

Abstract: This book is a laboratory manual presenting a highly detailed and thoroughly illustrated introduction to avian anatomy. It is intended for use as a textbook in undergraduate and graduate lab courses as well as a reference for birdwatchers. Chapter topics include systematics, topography, feathers, skeleton, musculature, organ systems (five chapters), and field techniques. This softback version (a reprint of the 1993 hardcover) closes with a classification of birds, a bibliography, and an index.

 

Morphological and functional anatomy of the cloaca and terminal solon of the African ostrich. Warui, C.N.; Skadhauge, E.; Huchzemeyer, F.W. Proceedings of the Second International Scientific Ratite Congress, Oudtshoorn, South Africa. Sept. 21-25, 1998, p. 88-90. ref.

Descriptors: digestive tract, morphology, excretion, urine, intestines.

 

The origin of birds and their flight. Padian, Kevin; Chiappe, Luis M. Scientific American, Feb. 1998, v. 278 (2), p. 38-47. ISSN: 0036-8733.

NAL call no: 470 SCI25

Descriptors: aerodynamics, anatomy, origin of flight, Aves.

 

Osmoregulation in ratite birds: Kidney-gut interactions in excretion of electrolytes and water in ostrich, emu and rhea. Skadhauge, E.; Huchzemeyer, F.W. Proceedings of the Second International Scientific Ratite Congress, Oudtshoorn, South Africa, 21-25 Sept. 1998. p. 84-87. ref.

Descriptors: electrolytes, excretion, kidneys, water, osmoregulation, intestines.

 

Pelvic limb musculature in the Emu Dromaius novaehollandiae (Aves: Struthioniformes: Dromaiidae): Adaptation to high-speed running. Patak, A.R.; Baldwin, J. Journal of Morphology, Oct. 1998, v. 238 (1), p. 23-37. ISSN: 0365-2525.

NAL call no: 444.8 J826

Descriptors: anatomy, cursorial locomotion, high-speed running, leg muscles.

Abstract: Emus provide an excellent opportunity for studying sustained high-speed running by a bird. Their pelvic limb musculature is described in detail and morphological features characteristic of a cursorial lifestyle are identified. Several anatomical features of the pelvic limb reflect the emu’s ability for sustained running at top speeds: (1) emus have a reduced number of toes and associated muscles, (2) emus are unique among birds in having a M. Gastrocnemius, the most powerful muscle in the shank, that has four muscle bellies, not the ususal three, and (3) contribution to total body mass of the pelvic limb muscle of emus is similar to that of the flight muscles of flying birds, whereas the pelvic limb muscles of flying birds constitute a much smaller proportion of total body mass. Generally, the pelvic limb musculature of emus resembles that of other ratites with the notable exception of M. gastrocnemius. The presence and arrangement of four muscle bellies may increase the effectiveness of M. gastrocnemius and other muscles during cursorial locomotion by moving the limb in a cranio-caudal rather than a latero-medial plane.

 

Renal anatomy of the cat bird, Dumetella carolinis. Angelo, D.; Casotti, G. American Zoologist, 1998, v. 38 (5), p. 204A. ISSN: 0003-1589.

NAL call no: 410 Am3

Descriptors: renal anatomy, urinary system, Aves, Passeriformes, perching birds.

 

A scanning electron microscope study of the luminal surface specializations in the blood vessels of the pecten oculi in a diurnal bird, the black kite (Milvus migrans). Klama, S.G.; Maina, J.N.; Bhattacharjee, J.; Weyrauch, K.D.; Gehr, P. Annals of Anatomy, Oct. 1998, v. 180 (5), p. 455-460. ISSN: 0940-9602.

Descriptors: eye, pectinal blood vessels, pectin oculi, Aves.

 

Ultrastructural features of the epithelial lining of the air sacs of the ostrich. Solry, J.T.; Groenewald, H.B.; Bezuidenhout, A.J.; Huchzermeyer, F.W. Proceedings of the Second International Scientific Ratite Congress, Sept. 21-25, 1998, p. 96-98. ref.

Descriptors: air sacs, anatomy, ultrastructure, epithelium, microscopy.

 

The use of computer assisted tomography as an instrument in collecting information on anatomical structures of the respiratory tract in live birds. Krautwald-Junghanns, M.E.; Schumacher, F.; Sohn, H.G. Zoology, 1998, v. 101 (3), p. 139-147. ref. ISSN: 0007-1498.

NAL call no: 410.9 B772B

Descriptors: computed tomography, respiratory system, anatomy, morphology.

 

 

1997

 

Anatomia macroscopica e histologica de esofago, estomago, intestino y recto de la garcita azulada, Butorides striatus (Aves: Ardeidae). [Macroscopic and histological anatomy of the esophagus, stomach, intestine, and rectum of the striated heron, Butorides striatus (Aves: Ardeidae).] Rosa de Montaner, Angela; Beltzer, Adolfo H.; De Carlo, Estela, B.; Mosso, Eduardo D. Revista Ceres, Jan./Feb. 1997, v. 44 (251), p. 83-93. ISSN: 0034-737X. Note: In Spanish.

NAL call no: 9.2 C332

Descriptors: digestive system, anatomy and histology, striated heron.

 

Anatomy and electrophysiological properties of the ostrich coprodeum (coprodaeum). Skadhauge, E.; Erlwanger, K.H.; Ruziwa, S.; Dantzer, V.; Elbrond, V.S.; Chamunorwa, J.; Huchzermeyer, F.W. Proceedings of the Second International Scientific Ratite Congress, Sept. 21-25, 1998, p. 91-93. ref.

Descriptors: anatomy, physiology, cloaca, electrophysiology.

 

Anatomy and histochemistry of spread-wing posture in birds. I. Wing drying posture in the double-crested cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus. Meyers, Ron A. Journal of Morphology, Jul. 1997, v. 233 (1), p. 67-76. ISSN: 0362-2525.

NAL call no: 444.9 J826

Descriptors: anatomy, histochemistry, muscular system, wing spread posture.

Abstract: Spread-wing posture of birds often have been studied with respect to the function of behavior, but ignored with regard to the mechanism by which birds accomplish posture. The double-crested cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus, was used as a model for this study of spread-wing posture. Those muscles capable of positioning and maintaining the wing in extension and protraction were assayed histochemically for the presence of slow (postural) muscle fibers. Within the forelimb of Phalacrocoeax, Mm. coracobrachialis cranialis, pectoralis thoracicus (cranial portion), deltoideus minor, triceps scapularis, and extensor metacarpi radialis pars dorsalis and ventralis were found to contain populations of slow-twitch or slow-tonic muscle fibers. These fibers in the above muscles are considered to function during spreadwing postures in this species.

 

Anatomy and histochemistry of spread-wing posture in birds: 2. Gliding flight in the California gull, Larus californicus: A paradox of fast fibers and posture. Meyers, Ron A.; Mathias, Edward. Journal of Morphology, Sept. 1997, v. 233 (3), p. 237-247. ISSN: 0362-2525.

NAL call no: 444.8 J826

Descriptors: wings, skeletal musculature, flight, gliding, posture, Aves.

 

Anatomy and microbiology of the digestive tract of the Adelie penguin. Olsen, Monica Alterskjaer; Mathiesen, Svein, Disch. Norsk Polarinstitutt Meddelelser, 1997, v. 148, p. 35-41. ISSN: 0373-5605.

NAL call no: 409 N76M no.106

Descriptors: digestive system, anatomy and microbiology, bacteria, birds.

 

Avian anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system: A review. Orosz, Susan E. Strike Gold in Reno. Wissman, Margaret (ed.). Proceedings Avian Specialty Advanced Program & Small Mammal and Reptile Medicine and Surgery, Sept. 9, 1997, in Conjunction with th Annual Conference & Expo, Association of Avian Veterinarians. 1997, i-v. p. 1-117. Chapter pagination: 3-7.

NAL call no: SF994.M52

Descriptors: Aves, respiratory system, anatomy and physiology, review, birds.

 

Avian respiratory anatomy and physiology. Heard, Darryl J. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine, Oct. 1997, v. 6 (4), p. 172-179. ISSN: 1055-937X.

NAL call no: SF994.2.A1S36

Descriptors: Aves, respiratory system, anatomy overview, respiratory function, birds.

 

The avian respiratory system: A unique model for studies of respiratory toxicosis and for monitoring air quality. Brown, Richard E.; Brain, Joseph D.; Wang, Ning. Environmental Health Perspectives, 1997, v. 105 (2), p. 188-200. ISSN: 0091-6765.

NAL call no: RA565.A1E54

Descriptors: biochemistry, toxicology, respiratory system, air quality, animal model.

Abstract: There are many distinct differences (morphologic, physiologic, and mechanical) between the bird’s lung-air-sac respiratory system and the mammalian bronchoalveolar lung. In this paper, we review the physiology of the avian respiratory system with attention to those mechanisms that may lead to significantly different results, relative to those in mammals, following exposure to toxic gases and airborne particulates. We suggest that these differences can be productively exploited to further our understanding of the basic mechanisms of inhalant toxicology (gases and particulates). The large mass-specific gas uptake by the avian respiratory system, at rest and especially during exercise, could be exploited as a sensitive monitor of air quality. Birds have much to offer in our understanding of respiratory toxicology, but the expectations can only be realized by investigating, in a wide variety of avian taxa, the pathophysiologic interactions of a broad range of inhaled toxicants on the bird’s unique respiratory system.

 

Comparative anatomy of the alimentary canal of the marabou stork and domestic fowl. Amongi, T.; Kaziro, M. Journal of Morphology, 1997, v. 232 (3), p. 230. ISSN: 0362-2525.

NAL call no: 444.8 J826

Descriptors: alimentary canal, comparative anatomy, digestive system.

 

The functional anatomy of the ciliary muscle in four avian species. Pardue, Machelle, T.; Sivak, Jacob G. Brain, Behavior and Evolution, Jun. 1997, v. 49 (6), p. 295-311. ISSN: 0006-8977.

Descriptors: Aves, musculature, eye, functional anatomy, ciliary muscle, comparative study, birds.

 

Functional anatomy of forebrain vocal control pathways in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). Brauth, Steven E.; Heaton, James T.; Shea, Stephen D.; Durand, Sarah E.; Hall, William S. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, Jan. 1997, v. 15 (807), p. 368-385. ISSN: 0077-8923.

NAL call no: 500 N484

Descriptors: brain, forebrain, functional anatomy, innervation, control and learning.

 

Functional anatomy of neural pathways contributing to the control of song production in birds. Wild, J.M. European Journal of Morphology, Oct. 1997, v. 35 (4), p. 303-325. ISSN: 0924-3860.

Descriptors: syrinx, tongue vocal tract, behavior, jaw muscular system.

Abstract: In birds, as in humans, vocal control involves the intricate coordination of three major groups of muscles, namely, those of the vocal organ, the respiratory apparatus, and the vocal tract, including the jaw and tongue. The neural pathways involved in the control of each of these groups of muscles are described for songbirds and compared with those of non-oscine birds and mammals. The pathway in songbirds that controls the syrinx, the birds vocal organ, originates in the telencephalon and projects via the occipito-mesencephalic tract directly upon vocal motoneurons in the medulla. Activity in this pathway configures the syrinx into phonatory positions for the production of species typical vocalizations. Another component of this pathway medicates control of respiration during vocalization, since it projects upon both expiratory and inspiratory groups of premotor neurons in the ventrolateral medulla, as well as upon several other nuclei en route. This pathway appears to be primarily involved with the control of the temporal pattern of song, but is also importantly involved in the control of vocal intensity, mediated via air sac pressure. There are extensive interconnections between the vocal and respiratory pathways, especially at brainstem levels, and it may be these that ensure the necessary temporal coordination of syringeal and respiratory activity. The pathway mediating control of the jaw appears to be different than those mediating control of the syrinx and respiratory muscles. It originates in a different part of the telencephalon and projects upon premotor neurons in the medulla that, on preliminary analysis, appear to be separate from those projecting upon the syringeal motor nucleus. The separateness of this pathway may reflect the imperfect correlation of jaw movements with the dynamic and acoustic features of song. The brainstem pathways medicating control of vocalization and respiration in songbirds have distinct similarities to those in non-oscine birds and in mammals such as cats and monkeys. However, songbirds and parrots, like humans, but unlike other non-songbirds, have developed a special telencephalic vocal control system for the production of learned vocalizations.

 

Hos birds breath. Frederickson, J. Proceedings, 18th Annual Conference on Avian Medicine and Surgery, Mid-Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1997, p. 27-29.

NAL call no: SF994.M52

Descriptors: respiration, muscles, anatomy, physiology.

 

Musculoskeletal system. Quesenberry, Katherine; Orosz, Susan; Dorrestein, Gerry M. Avian Medicine and Surgery, Altman, Robert B.; Clubb, Susan; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Quesenberry, Katherine. W.B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia, London. 1997, i-xv. 1-1070 p. Chapter pagination: 517-539. ISBN: 0721654460.

NAL call no: SF994.J6

Descriptors: Aves, musculoskeletal system anatomy, skeleton.

 

The role of the larynx in articulated vocalization of birds. Homberger, D.G. American Zoologist, 1997, v. 37 (5), p. 136A. ISSN: 0003-1569.

NAL call no: 410. Am3

Descriptors: Aves, skeleto-muscular anatomy, vocal complexity.

 

Studies of neurotrophin biology in the developing trigeminal system. Davies, Alun M. Journal of Anatomy, Nov. 1997, v. 191 (4), p. 483-491. ISSN: 0021-8782.

NAL call no: 447.8 J826

Descriptors: development, endocrine system, nervous system, trigeminal system, mice, chickens.

Abstract: The accessibility of the primary sensory neurons of the trigeminal system at stages throughout their development in avian and mammalian embryos and the ease with which these neurons can be studied in vivo has facilitated investigation of several fundamental aspects of neurotrophin biology. Studies of the timing and sequence of action of neurotrophins and the expression of neurotrophins and their receptors in this well characterized neuronal system have led to a detailed understanding of the functions of neurotrophins in neuronal development. The concepts of neurotrophin independent survival, neurotrophin switching and neurotrophin cooperativity have largely arisen from work on the trigeminal system. Morever, in vitro studies of trigeminal neurons provided some of the first evidence that the neurotrophin requirements of sensory neurons are related to sensory modality. The developing trigeminal system has been studied most extensively in mice and chickens, each of which has particular advantages for understanding different aspects of neurotrophin biology. In this review, I will outline these advantages and describe some of the main findings that have arisen from this work.

 

Topographical anatomy of the distal pelvic limb of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Liswaniso, D.; Purton, M.D.; Boyd, J.S.; Deeming, D.C. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal, 1997, v. 28 (1), p. 35. ISSN: 1016-1511.

NAL call no: SF601.R5

Descriptors: anatomy, limbs, pelvis, limb bones, muscles.

 

Vergleichende Anatomie der Nasenhohle und Nasenebenhohlen bei Stelzvogeln (Ardeidae, Ciconidae, Gruidae sowie Phoenicopteridae). [Comparative Anatomy of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses in Wading Birds.] Herkt, B. 1997, 131 p. fig. ref. Note: In German.

Descriptors: anatomy, head, wild birds.

 

[Visual system in the bird’s brain.] Sugita, Shoei. Animal Science and Technology, 1997, v. 68 (1), p. 91-104. ISSN: 0918-2365. Note: In Japanese.

NAL call no: SF1.H36

Descriptors: anatomy, brain, nervous system, visual system, Aves.

 

 

1996

 

Anatomy of the budgerigar and other birds. Evans, Howard E. Diseases of Caged and Aviary Birds, 3rd ed. p. 79-162. fig. ref. Rosskopf, W.J.; Woerpel, R.W. (eds). Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD. 1996. ISBN: 0683073826.

NAL call no: SF994.2.A1D57 1996

Descriptors: anatomy, body form, body structures, skeleton, body systems, comparative study, captive small birds.

 

Avian anatomy and physiology. Cannon, Michael. University of Sydney Post Graduate Foundation in Veterinary Science Proceedings, 1996, v. 279, p. 377-396. ISSN: 1326-5091.

Descriptors: Aves, general morpholgy, anatomy, whole animal physiology, birds.

 

Clinical anatomy of ratites. Fowler, M.E. Ratite Management, Medicine, and Surgery, Tully, Thomas N. Jr.; Shane, Simone M. (eds.). Krieger Publishing Co., 1996, i-xvii. 1-188 p. Chapter pagination: 1-10. ref. ISBN: 0894648748.

NAL call no: SF995.5.R37 1996

Descriptors: ostriches, emus, rhea, birds, body parts, animal anatomy.

 

Perspectives on the structure and function in birds. Maina, J.N. Diseases of Caged and Aviary Birds, 3rd ed. Rosskopf, W.L.; Woerpel, R.W. (eds). Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, MD. 1996. ISBN: 0683073826.

NAL call no: SF994.2.A1D57 1996

Descriptors: anatomy, evolution, zoology, physiology.

 

Tibiofibular junction of the south African ostrich (Struthio camelus australis). Fuss, Franz K. Journal of Morphology, Feb. 1996, v. 227 (2), p. 213-226. ISSN: 0362-2525.

NAL call no: 444.8 J826

Descriptors: biomechanics, tibiofibular junction, hindlimb skeleton, anatomy.

 

 

1995

 

Anatomy of ostriches, emus, and rheas. Hopkins, Brett A.; Constantinescu, Gheorghe Mircea. The Ratite Encyclopedia: Ostrich, Emu, Rhea. Drenowatz, Claire (ed.). Ratite Records Inc. San Antonio, TX, 1995, i-ix. 1-478 p. Chapter pagination: 30-61. ISBN: 0964294028.

NAL call no: SF511.R23 1995

Descriptors: general morphology, anatomy, ostrich, emu, rhea.

 

[Anatomy of the pigeon stomach artery.] Yu, Shiyuan; Liu, Zongzhi; Zhang, Delu; Gong, Yun. Chinese Journal of Zoology, Dec. 1995, v. 30 (6), p. 5-7. ISSN: 0250-3263. Note: In Chinese.

NAL call no: QL1.T8

Descriptors: gizzard, arteries, stomach artery anatomy, Columba livia.

 

[Anatomy of the visceral organs in a swan.] Cheng, HuiChang; Yin, HuaLong; Xuan, QingFeng; Jin, YeYe; Chen, XiuLan; Wang, YuXin; Ji QingYun; Wang, JianTang; Cheng, H.C.; Yin, H.L.; Xuan, Q.F.; Jin, Y.Y.; Chen, X.L.; Wang, Y.X.; Ji, Q.Y.; Wang, J.T. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology, 1995, v. 25 (4), p. 46-47. ISSN: 1000-6419. Note: In Chinese.

Descriptors: aviary birds, anatomy, digestive system, respiratory system.

 

The avian coxofemoral joint: A review of regional anatomy and report on an open-reduction technique for repair of a coxofemoral luxation. Martin, Howard D.; Kabler, Ronna; Sealing, Les. Journal of the Association of Avian Veterinarians, Apr. 1995, v. 8 (4), p. 164-172. ISSN: 1044-8324.

NAL call no: SF994.J6

Descriptors: articulation, coxofemoral joint, regional anatomy, surgical techniques, birds.

 

Ciliary muscle anatomy in three avian species. Pardue, M.T.; Sivak, J.G. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 1995, v. 36 (4), p. S761. ISSN: 0146-0404.

Descriptors: muscular system, sense organs, corneal accommodation.

 

Comparative anatomy of the external and middle ear of palaeognathous birds. Starck, J. Matthias. Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology, v. 131. Berlin; New York: Springer, c1995. vii, 1-137 p. ill. ref. ISBN: 3540589910.

NAL call no: QL697.S83 1995

Descriptors: Ratites anatomy, ear anatomy.

 

Comparative anatomy of nitrergic innervation in avian choroid. Bergua, A.; Neuhuber, W.L.; Mayer, B. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 1995, v. 36 (4), p. S121. ISSN: 0146-0404.

Descriptors: cell biology, sense organs, nervous system, Aves, birds.

 

Diet and internal anatomy of male sharp-tailed grouse, Tympanuchus phasianellus, as related to age and position on the lek. Tsuji, Leonard J.S.; Karagatzides, Jim D.; Sokolowski, Maria B. Canadian Field Naturalist, Oct./Dec. 1995, v. 109 (4), p. 433-436. ISSN: 0008-3550.

NAL call no: 410.9 Ot8

Descriptors: age, heart size, digestive system morphology, relationships.

 

Effects of hand-rearing on physiology and anatomy in the grey partridge. Putaala, Ahti; Hissa, Raimo. Wildlife Biology, 1995, v. 1 (1), p. 27-31. ISSN: 0909-6396.

NAL call no: SK351.W663

Descriptors: Aves, cardiovascular system, digestive system, muscular system, effects of artificial rearing.

Abstract: Artificial rearing may result in changes in the physiology and anatomy of gallinaceous birds. This may partially explain the poor survival of released birds. To study the effects of hand-rearing on grey partridges, Perdix perdix, we measured the anatomical and physiological characteristics of 14 wild and 15 hand-reared partridges. Captive partridges were heavier, had relatively larger breast muscles but lighter hearts and livers than wild birds. Wild birds had longer small intestines, longer caeca and relatively heavier gizzards than hand-reared birds. They also had higher glycogen content and cytochrome-c oxidase activity in the pectoral muscles, indicating their better flying endurance compared to hand-reared birds. The results suggest that captivity results in altered anatomical and physiological characteristics, and hand-reared partridges may therefore be poorly predisposed for an abrupt release into the wild.

 

Functional anatomy of the pigeon hand (Columba livia): A muscle stimulation study. Vazquez, Rick J. Journal of Morphology, Oct. 1995, v. 226 (1), p. 33-45. ISSN: 0362-2525.

NAL call no: 444.8 J826

Descriptors: digit movement, flight kinematics, flight stress, hand movement.

Abstract: The morphology and function of all muscles controlling the pigeon hand were analyzed. Muscle action was determined in situ by inducing contraction via silver wire electrodes in anesthetized birds. EMG electrodes were implanted in the test muscle and an adjacent muscle to monitor contraction and volume conduction respectively. Results indicate that pigeons have fine control of hand and digit movements. However, the directions of movements are restricted. Movements have been eliminated or severely limited in those directions that experience strong stress during flight. Such restrictions may be reduce the amount of muscular activity required for stabilization of the hand and its components. Mobility is retained in directions not subject to large stresses and where movement is essential for the kinematics of flight to be executed properly.

 

The gross and microscopic anatomy of the carotid body of native (Iraqi) pigeons. Al Abodi, A.S. Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 1995, v. 8 (1), p. 31-34. ref.

Descriptors: cardiovascular system, neck, arteries, histology, anatomy.

 

Innervation of orbital and choroidal blood vessels by the pterygopalatine ganglion in birds. Cuthbertson, S.; Fitzgerald, M.E.C.; Shih, Y.F.; Toledo, C.B.; Jackson, B.; Reiner, A. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 1995, v. 36 (4), p. S121. ISSN: 0146-0404.

Descriptors: cardiovascular system, cell biology, sense organs.

 

Mechanics of the avian propatagium: Flexion-extension mechanism of the avian wing. Brown, R.E.; Baumel, J.J.; Klemm, R.D. Journal of Morphology, N.Y., N. Y., Wiley-Liss, Jul. 1995, v. 225 (1), p. 91-105. ref. ISSN: 0362-2525.

NAL call no: 444.8-J826

            Descriptors: birds, wings, flight muscle, ligaments, mechanics, anatomy. birds.

Abstract: The supporting elements of the avian propatagium were examined in intact birds and as isolated components, using static force-length measurements, calculated models, and airflow observations. The propatagial surface supported between Lig. propatagiale (LP) and brachium-antebrachium is equally resistant to distortion over the range of wing extension used in flight. The lengths LP assumes in flight occur across a nearly linear, low-stiffness portion of the force-length curve of its extensible pars elastica. In an artificial airflow, intact wings automatically extend; their degree of extension is roughly correlated with the airflow velocity. Comparisons between geometric models of the wing and the passive force-length properties of LPs suggest that the stress along LP balances the drag forces acting to extend the elbow. The mechanical properties (stiffness) of the LP vary and appear to be tuned for flight-type characteristics, e.g. changes in wing extension during flight and drag. Lig. limitans cubiti and LP combine to limit elbow extension at its maximum, a safety device in flight preventing hyperextension of the elbow and reduction of the propatagium’s cambered flight surface. Calculations using muscle and ligament lengths suggest that M. deltoideus, pars propatagialis, via its insertions onto both the propatagial ligaments, controls and coordinates propatagial deployment, leading edge tenseness, and elbow/wing extension across the range of wing extensions used in flight. The propatagial ligaments and M. deltoideus, pars propatagialis, along with skeleto-ligamentous elbow/carpus apparatus, are integral components of the wing’s extension control mechanism.

 

Normal anatomy of the avian skin and feathers. Pass, David A. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine, Oct. 1995, v. 4 (4), p. 152-160. ISSN: 1055-937X.

NAL call no: SF994.2.A1S36

Descriptors: Aves, skin and feather anatomy, dermis, epidermis, birds, review.

 

Surgical anatomy of the avian carpometacarpus. Orosz, Susan E. Journal of the Association of Avian Veterinarians, Apr. 1995, v. 8 (4), p. 179-183. ISSN: 1044-8314.

NAL call no: SF994.J6

Descriptors: Aves, surgical techniques, wings, forelimb skeleton, surgical anatomy, birds.

 

 

1994

 

Anatomy of the propatagium: The great horned owl (Bubo virginianus). Brown, Richard E.; Baumel, Julian J.; Klemm, Robert D. Journal of Morphology, Feb. 1994, v. 219 (2), p. 205-224. ISSN: 0362-2525.

NAL call no: 444.8 J826

Descriptors: carpus, flight, elastic tissue, elbow, skinfold, wing, structure and function.

Abstract: Skinfolds and feathers form the profile of the avian airfoil. The wing of birds has a nearly flat profile from shoulder to carpus, without the presence of the propatagium. The propatagium is the largest skinfold of the wing; it fills the angle formed by the partially flexed elbow, and with its feathers forms a rounded leading edge and dorsally cambered profile added to the cranial aspect of the wing. The propatagium is variably deployed, relative to elbow extension, in flight, support for its cambered shape is maintained by multilayered collagenous and elastic tissue networks suspended between leading edge and dorsal antebrachium. The leading edge ligament (Lig. propatagiale) courses from deltopectoral crest to carpus and, with its highly distensible center section, supports the leading edge of the propatagium across a range of wing extensions. The elbow extension limiting ligament (Lig. limitans cubiti) courses from deltopectoral crest to proximal antebrachium and limits maximum elbow extension. M. deltoideus, pars propatagialis inserts on the proximal end of the common origin of the propatagial ligaments and, by way of the insertions of the two ligaments, coordinates (1) automatic flexion/extension actions of the elbow and wrist, (2) propatagial deployment, and (3) tension along the length of Lig. propatagiale supporting the leading edge.

 

[Applied anatomy in medical imaging of the lower limb blood vessels.] Li, Yueying; Ma, Zhaolong; Wang; Weixi; et.-al. Xian Yike Daxue Xuebao, 1994, v. 15 (4), p. 359-361. ISSN: 0258-0659. Note: In Chinese.

Descriptors: femoral artery, anterior tibial artery, cardiovascular system.

 

Applied avian anatomy and physiology. Orosz, S.E. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Jan. 15-20, 1994. Eastern States Veterinary Association, 1994, p. 800-801.

NAL call no: SF605.N672

Descriptors: aviary birds, animal anatomy, animal physiology, veterinary medicine.

 

The automating skeletal and muscular mechanisms of the avian wing (Aves). Vazquez, R.J. Zoomorphology. Mar. 1994, v. 114 (1), p. 59-71. ISSN: 0720-213X.

NAL call no: 442.8 Z33

Descriptors: Aves, wings, skeletal musculature, functional anatomy.

 

The avian coxofemoral joint: a review of regional anatomy and report of an open-reduction technique for repair of a coxofemoral luxation. Martin, H.D.; Kabler, R.; Sealing, L. Journal of the Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1994, v. 8 (4), p. 164-172. Reprinted from Journal of the Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1989, v. 1 (1), ref.

NAL call no: SF994.J6

Descriptors: pathology, surgery, hips, dislocations, diagnosis.

Abstract: The regional anatomy of the psittacine coxofemoral joint is reviewed and compared to that of mammals. Differences included angle of the femoral head and neck to the femoral shaft, type of joint and range of motion, and thigh musculature. A 2.5 year-old, 240 g, yellow-collared macaw (Ara auricollis) had a coxofemoral luxation confirmed upon physical and radiographic examination. An open-reduction technique was successfully applied under isoflurane anaesthesia. On re-examination 2 months following surgery the range of motion was 80 to 90% of normal and the bird appeared to use the limb well. Four months following surgery a single egg was laid and hatched, indicating weight-bearing sufficient for copulation.

 

Blood pressure regulation by aortic baroreceptors in birds. Smith, Frank M. Physiological Zoology, 1994, v. 67 (6), p. 1402-1425. ISSN: 0031-935X.

NAL call no: 410.P56

Descriptors: aortic nerve, arterial blood pressure, cardiovascular control.

Abstract: This review summarizes current knowledge of avian baroreceptor location, innervation pattern, and function. Birds have one set of arterial baroreceptors associated with the root of the aortic arch and innervated bilaterally by the aortic nerves, branches of the vagus originating from the nodose ganglia. There is a tonic level of bareceptor input to the baroregulatory mechanisms in the brain stem, and this braoreceptor input is necessary for the maintenance of normotensive pressure in birds. Arterial blood pressure rises acutely and remains chronically elevated after barodenervation. Few studies of baroreceptor of baroreflex function have been made in birds. Baroreceptors discharge in systole with properties similar to high-threshold, slowly adapting mammalian baroreceptors. Evaluating the results of studies of baroreflex function in birds is problematic, since these studies were inconsistent in methodology. They were done in either awake or anesthetized animals, and several different methods for varying arterial pressure were used. It is recommended that baroreflex function be assessed by examining the correlation between spontaneously occurring values of heart rate or cardiac output and arterial pressure measured simultaneously in awake, unrestrained animals. The contribution of baroreceptors to cardiovascular control during exercise and submersion, and possible roles of the baroreflex in homeostasis, are discussed. This review emphasizes the lack of data about the nature of baroreceptors and their participation in the integrated control of the circulation in birds.

 

Centriole development and formation of the flagellum during spermiogenesis in the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Soley, J.T. Journal of Anatomy, 1994, v. 185 (2), p. 301-313. ref. ISSN: 0021-8782.

NAL call no: 447.8 J826

Descriptors: spermatogenesis, spermatozoa, ultrastructure, male birds.

 

Functional anatomy of the “flight” apparatus in penguins. Bannasch, R. Mechanics and Physiology of Animal Swimming. Bionik, Linda; Bone, Quentin; Rayner, Jeremy M.V. (eds.). Cambridge University Press, 1994. i-x. 1-250 p. Chapter pagination: 163-192. ISBN: 0521460786.

Descriptors: skeletal muscles, flight muscles, functional anatomy, penguins.

 

Functional anatomy of forebrain auditory pathways in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). Brauth, Steven E.; Heaton, James T.; Durand, Sarah E.; Liang, Wenru; Hall, William S. Brain, Behavior and Evolution, Oct./Nov. 1994, v. 44 (4-5), p. 210-233. ISSN: 0006-8977.

Descriptors: brain, neurons, forebrain, learning, sound reception, acoustic signals, parakeet.

 

Liver anatomy/physiology/medicine. Rosenthal, Karen. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Mid-Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1994, v. 15, p. 118-123.

NAL call no: SF994.M52

Descriptors: Aves, diagnostic techniques, anatomy, hepatic medicine, physiology, birds.

 

A note on the musculature of the proximal part of the pelvic limb of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Mellett, F.D. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, Mar. 1994, v. 65 (1), p. 5-9. ISSN: 0038-2809.

NAL call no: 41.8 SO12

Descriptors: hindlimbs, musculature anatomy, skeletal musculature, pelvic limb.

 

The olfactory mucosa of micrsomatic birds. Donat, K.; Schaefer, C. Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia, 1994, v. 23 (1), p. 69. From the 19th Congress of the European Association of Veterinary Anatomists, Ghent & Antwerp, Belgium, Aug. 24-28, 1992. ISSN: 0340-2096.

NAL call no: SF761.Z4

Descriptors: mucosa, anatomy, olfactory organs.

 

Renal anatomy/physiology/medicine. Rosenthal, Karen. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Mid-Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1994, v. 15, p. 109-116.

NAL call no: SF994.M52

Descriptors: Aves, anatomy, kidney, diagnostic techniques, birds.

 

Respiratory system anatomy, physiology and disease response. Orosz, S.E. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Jan. 15-20, 1994. Eastern States Veterinary Association, 1994, p. 804.

NAL call no: SF605.N672

Descriptors: birds, respiratory system, respiratory diseases.

 

Surgical anatomy of the avian carpometacarpus. Orosz, S.E. Journal of the Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1994, v. 8 (4), p. 179-183. Reprinted from Journal of the Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1990, v. 4 (1), ref. ISSN: 1044-8314.

NAL call no: SF994.J6

Descriptors: wild birds, surgery, joints, animal anatomy.

 

 

1993

 

An additional bone in the carpal region of raptorial birds. Smith, B.J.; Smith, S.A.; Holladay, S.D. Anatomia, Hostologia, Embryologia, 1993, v. 22 (2), p. 105-113. ref. ISSN: 0340-2096.

NAL call no: SF761.Z4

Descriptors: predatory birds, anatomy, limb bones, carpus, comparative study.

Abstract: In a series of 4 species of owls and 12 species of diurnal raptors, an additional bone was present bilaterally in the area of the carpus. Designating the bone as an “additional bone of the raptorial carpal region” is suggested pending appropriate embryological studies to determine the origin of the bone. Generally, the bone was present in owls and in diurnal raptors with relatively short, rounded wings, but was absent in species with longer, more tapered wings. The bone lies at the cranial edge of the carpal area near the radial carpal bone, and is fixed to the surrounding skeleton by ligaments. The tendon of the tensor patagium longus muscle has one slip that attaches to the additional bone and another that passes over its craniodorsal surface en route to insertion. Awareness of the occurrence of this bone in some raptors, but not in others, is essential in clinical evaluation of wing injuries, as well as in forming a prognosis for the return of soundness, the potential for release, and, therefore, the life of an injured raptor.

 

Anatomical, histological and histochemical investigations on the oesophagus of two birds with different diet preference. El Banhawy, Mahmoud A.; Mohallal, Mahmoud E; Rahmy, Tarek R.; Moawad, Tarek I. Journal of the Egyptian German Society of Zoology, Apr. 1993, v. 11 (C), p. 175-193.

NAL call no: QL1.E49

Descriptors: biochemistry, diet, esophagus, anatomy, histology, histochemistry.

 

Anatomy of the avian thalamofugal pathway. Gunturkun, Onur; Miceli, Dom; Watanabe, Masami. Vision, Brain and Behavior in Birds. Zeigler, H. Philip; Bischof, Hans Joachim (eds.). MIT Press, Cambridge, MA & London. 1993. i-xxiii. 1-415 p. Chapter pagination: 115-135. ISBN: 026224036X.

Descriptors: Aves, brain, eye, visual system, birds, review.

 

The anatomy of the cloacal bursa (bursa of Fabricius) in the helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris galeata). Onyeanusi, B.I.; Ezeokoli, C.D.; Onyeanusi, J.C.; Ema, A.N. Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia, Sept. 1993, v. 22 (3), p. 212-221. ref. ISSN: 0340-2096.

NAL call no: SF761.Z4

Descriptors: lymphatic system, bursa of Fabricius, anatomy, development.

Abstract: The cloacal bursa in guineafowls appeared either as an oval blind sac with thick stalk in one group or had a pointed cranial blind end with slightly bulging middle part that was followed by a thick caudal stalk in the other group. Both groups of bursa originated from the proctodeal wall of the cloaca and were placed dorsal to the rectum. The average length of the bursa was 18 mm while the average width at the mid-section was 15 mm. The internal surface showed about 10-12 primary folds. Histologically, by the 18 day of incubation the outline was well established, the primary folds had been formed, and lymphocytes had already been encountered within the framework of the bursa. The epithelium bordering the tunica propria was composed principally of 2 layers of cuboidal cells. Epithelial buds had also formed and some were already detached from the epithelial lining. The blood vessels present were positioned just beneath the outer covering. At day 19 of incubation, most of the epithelial buds had 2 layers of cells arranged in a circumscribed manner while a few had 3 layers of cells. Blood vessels had increased in number and were deeper placed inside the bursa than previously. At day 20, the cells of the upper layer of the epithelium were dorsoventrally flattened and stained paler than the cells of the lower layer. The cortex was distinguishable from the medulla and the basement lining between both zones was distinct. Macrophages were also observed within the gland. By day 25, dead cells had increased in number and there was an increase in the number of medium and small-sized lymphocytes within the gland. By day 26 the upper layer of the surface epithelium was composed of primarily of tall columnar cells with numerous large vacuoles. Macrophages had suddenly increased within the thin interfollicular spaces and most of them were crowded internally with various sized of debris. By day 1 post-hatch, each fold was completely filled with follicles that were separated by thin connective tissue strands.

 

Arthrologia. Baumel, Julian J.; Raikow, Robert J. Publications of the Nuttall Ornithological Club, 1993, v. 23, p. 133-187. ISSN: 0550-4082.

NAL call no: QL697.H26

Descriptors: Aves, articulation, arthrological anatomy and terminology, birds.

 

The central nervous system of birds: A study of functional morphology. Hartwig, H.G. Avian Biology, 1993; 9: p. 1-119. Farner, D.S.; King, J.R.; Parkes, K.C. (eds.). Academic Press, Inc. San Diego, CA. ISBN: 0122494091.

NAL call no: QL671.S8

Descriptors: Aves, nervous system, birds, anatomy.

 

Clinical anatomy of ratites. Fowler, Murray E. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy, 3rd ed. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, London etc. 1993, i-xxv. 1-617 p. Chapter pagination: 194-198.

NAL call no: SF996.Z66

Descriptors: musculature, skeleton, digestive system, general morphology.

 

General avian radiographic anatomy. Smith, Bonnie J.; Smith, Stephen A. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Mid-Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1993, v. 14, p. 121-124.

NAL call no: SF994.M52

Descriptors: Aves, anatomical techniques, skeleton, radiographic anatomy, birds.

 

Handbook of Avian Anatomy: Nomina Anatomica Avium. 2nd ed. Baumel, Julian J. Cambridge, MA. Nutall Ornithological Club, 1993. i-xxiv, 1 -779 p. ill. ref.

NAL call no: QL697.H26 1993

Descriptors: birds, anatomy, dictionaries.

 

Interconnections of muscles in the adductor mandibulae complex of birds. Elzanowski, A. Annals of Anatomy, Feb. 1993, v. 175 (1), p. 29-34. ISSN: 0940-9602.

Descriptors: morphology, muscular system, movement, support.

 

Recognizing radiographically abnormal avian anatomy. Smith, Stephen A.; Smith, Bonnie J. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Mid-Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1993, v. 14, p. 126-127.

NAL call no: SF994.M52

Descriptors: Aves, anatomical techniques, radiographic anatomy, abnormality, birds.

 

A review of the methods used to study the anatomy of avian sperm storage. Briskie, J.V.; Birkhead, T.R. Ornis Scandinavica, Oct./Dec. 1993, v. 24 (4), p. 323-329. ISSN: 0030-5693.

Descriptors: sperm storage tubules, preservation, sperm competition, techniques, birds.

Abstract: We describe and evaluate a simple technique for studying the anatomy of sperm storage in birds by using whole mount preparations of unstained oviductal tissue. Unlike sectioned material, this technique can be used to estimate the number and size of sperm storage tubules (SST) and study the arrangement of stored sperm in situ. Using whole mount preparations, we compared fresh material with that fixed and preserved in either formalin or alcohol for up to 6 months. SSTs and their contents were easily counted and measured using either fresh or formalin preserved material: however, material fixed in formalin shrunk by approximately 12% and size measurements must be corrected if direct comparisons with fresh material are to be made. Tissue fixed in alcohol gave poor visibility and should not be used to preserve specimens. The use of whole mount preparations provides new possibilities for addressing both the evolution of different sperm storage patterns across species and the proximate mechanisms of sperm competition within a species. We recommend that systematic efforts be made to include formalin fixed and preserved oviducts in museum collections.

 

Sperm competition and the reproductive anatomy of male superb fairy-wrens. Mulder, Raoul A.; Cockburn, Andrew. Auk. 1993 (1994); v. 110 (3), p. 588-503. ISSN: 0004-8038.

NAL call no: 413.8 AU4

Descriptors: Aves, testes mass, reproductive system, cloacal protuberance, ejaculates.

Abstract: In Superb Fairy-Wrens (Malurus cyaneus), groups of males cooperate with a single female to rear young, yet offspring are usually sired by males from outside the group. In this unusual mating system there is potential for intense sperm competition. During the breeding season, males develop a sperm storage structure (cloacal protuberance) and testes that proportionally are among the largest found in passerines. We compared the development pattern and size of cloacal protuberances of males differing in age and social status. Protuberance size increased with body mass. Age, intragroup dominance, and pairing status did not influence the overall size of the protuberance, but old males had a larger tip on their protuberance. This prominent tip has not been reported in other species, and we speculate that it serves as an intromittent organ. Other birds with large testes and cloacal protuberances have high copulation rates but copulation of superb Fairy-Wrens is only very rarely observed. We propose that the cloacal protuberance and large testes of superb Fairy-Wrens provide large sperm reserves primarily for extrapair copulations. These may occur frequently, or involve the transfer of large ejaculates.

 

Systema cardiovasculare. Baumel, Julian J. Publications of the Nuttall Ornithological Club, 1993, v. 23, p. 407-475. ISSN: 0550-4082.

NAL call no: QL697.H26 1993

Descriptors: Aves, circulatory system, cardiovascular anatomy and terminology, birds.

 

 

1992

 

 

[Anatomy on digestive system of rough-legged hawk.] Zhang, Shuyun et. al. Chinese Wildlife, Nov. 1992, v. 6, p. 31-32. ISSN: 1000-0127. Note: In Chinese.

Descriptors: digestive system, morphology, Aves, Buteo lagopus.

 

Atlas of Avian Radiographic Anatomy. Smith, Stephen A.; Smith, Bonnie J. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co. c1992. xii. 1-226 p. ill. ref. ISBN: 0721636527.

NAL call no: SF767.B57S65 1992

Descriptors: birds, anatomy atlases, veterinary radiography.

 

Atlas of Radiographic Anatomy and Diagnosis of Cage Birds. Krautwald, Maria Elisabeth; Tellhelm, B.; Hummel, G.H.; Kostka, v.M.; Kaleta, E.F. Berlin: Hamburg. Paul Parey Scientific Publ. 1992. 1-211 p. ill. ref. ISBN: 348952716X. Note: In English and German.

NAL call no: SF757.8.A85 1992 Ov

Descriptors: cage birds anatomy atlases, cage bird diagnosis atlases, radiography.

Abstract: This bilingual atlas, written in German and translated into English by W.G. Siller and A.G. Burnie, provides veterinarians and veterinary students with a reference for diagnosing healthy and diseased cage birds using radiography. After some general remarks on bird anatomy, the technical principles of radiography and special procedures are covered. A subsequent chapter describes and illustrates the positioning of the bird during the x-ray procedure. The next section provides information on the radiological anatomy of parrots, pigeons, birds of prey and hill mynahs. Finally, physiological variations and pathological changes are discussed. The appendix includes a bibliography, subject index and list of species referred to in the text. The atlas features 183 radiographs, 114 illustrations and two tables.

 

Automating the kinematics of avian flight. Vazquez, R.J. American Zoologist, 1992, v. 32 (5), p. 153A. ISSN: 0003-1569. Annual meeting of the American Society of Zoologists with the Animal Behavior Society, American Microscopical Society, The Canadian Society of Zoologists, The Crustacean Society, The International Association of Astacology, Vancouver, B.C. Canada, Dec. 26-30, 1992.

NAL call no: 410 AM3

Descriptors: muscle anatomy, forelimb movement, wing morphology, birds.

 

The avian fascia pectoralis: Anatomy and functional implications. Meyers, Ron A. Zoologische Jahrbuecher Abteilung fuer Anatomie und Ontogenie der Tiere, Nov. 1992, v. 122 (3), p. 381-384. ISSN: 0044-5177.

Descriptors: skeletal musculature, sternum, anatomy and functional implications, birds.

 

The avian muscle spindle. Maier, A. Anatomy and Embryology, 1992, v. 186 (1), p. 1-25. ISSN: 0340-2061.

Descriptors: birds, muscle, anatomy, physiology.

Abstract: The literature on the morphology and physiology of the avian muscle spindle is reviewed, with emphasis placed on the period from 1960 to 1992. Traits similar to or different from mammalian spindles are recognized. Apart from receptors with low intrafusal fiber counts, bird spindles contain two or three types of intrafusal fiber. Unlike that of mammals, the equatorial fiber structure in birds does not lend itself to classification into nuclear bag and nuclear chain types. Avian intrafusal fibers are separable into types based on differences in myosin heavy chain composition and motor innervation, but apportionment of these fiber types of individual spindles is more variable in birds than in mammals. There is morphological evidence in birds for the existence of both gamma and beta innervation; however, confirmation of these systems by physiological experiments is at best sketchy. A general lack of physiological data is currently the greatest drawback to a better understanding of how the avian receptor works, and what role it plays in sensorimotor integration.

 

Avian Surgical Anatomy: Thoracic and Pelvic Limbs. Orosz, Susan E.; Ensley, Philip K.; Haynes, Carol J. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders, Co.c1992. i-xi, 1-139 p. ill. ref. ISBN: 0721636543.

NAL call no: SF994.O76 1992

Descriptors: birds surgery, birds anatomy, extremities surgery, extremities anatomy.

 

A brief overview of the avian crop. Paster, M.B. Journal of the Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1992, v. 6 (4), p. 229-230. ISSN: 1044-8314.

NAL call no: S994.J6

Descriptors: Aves, crop, anatomy and physiology, birds, overview.

 

Clinical anatomy of ratites. Fowler, M.E. Proceedings of the Annual Conference Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1992, p. 307-309.

NAL call no: SF994.M52

Descriptors: ratites, clinical anatomy, general account.

 

The comparative anatomy of the pancreas lobi and ducts in the domestic ducks (Anas domestica L.). Jiwu, L.; Qianzheng, L.; Shizhong, X.; Xianbai, D.; Hauncheng, D.; Liu Jiwu; Li, Qianzheng; Xu, Shizhong; Deng, Xianbai; Dong, Hauncheng. Proceedings, 9th International Symposium on Waterfowl, Pisa, Italy, Sept. 16-18, 1992. P. 73-75. ref.

Descriptors: anatomy, animal anatomy, pancreas, poultry.

 

The development of the perichondrium in the avian ulna. Rooney, P.; Archer, C.W. Journal of Anatomy, 1992, v. 181 (3), p. 393-401. ref. ISSN: 0021-8782.

NAL call no: 447.8 J826

Descriptors: embryonic development, cartilage, ulna, bones, birds.

 

Functional anatomy of the penguin flipper. Kouw, G.J. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 1992, v. 63 (3), p. 113-120. ISSN: 0038-2809.

NAL call no: 41.8 SO8

Descriptors: flipper, thermoregulation, wing, anatomy.

Abstract: This study investigates the functional anatomy of the flipper of the jackass penguin (Speniscus demersus). The flippers of birds (n=15) were dissected and described. Several adaptations from the typical avian wing were noted and reasons were proposed for these. The conclusion is that the osteological and myological adaptations of the flipper are designed to enable the penguin to progress very effectively through the water, while the vascular adaptations provide a highly efficient mechanism for thermoregulation.

 

The humeroscapular bone of the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) and other raptors. Smith, B.J.; Smith, S.A. Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia, 1992, v. 21 (1), p. 32-39. ISSN: 0340-2096.

NAL call no: SF761.Z4

Descriptors: Falconiformes, appendicular skeleton, gross anatomy and histology.

 

Lehrbuch der Anatomy der Haustiere, Band V. Anatomie der Voegel. [Anatomy of Domestic Animals. Vol. V. Anatomy of Birds]. Vollmerhaus, B.; Sinowatz, F.; Frewein, J.; Waibi, H. Verlag Paul Parey; Berlin. 1992, ed. 2, xvi. 446 p. ISBN: 3489576160. Note: In German.

Descriptors: domestic animals, anatomy, poultry.

Abstract: The first edition, prepared by Prof. A.Schummer (who died in 1977), was published in 1973, and an English translation followed in 1977. There has been much revision for the present edition, and the range of birds has been extended to include fowls, ducks, geese and pigeons. Although the Latin nomenclature of Nomina Anatomica Avium (1979) has been adopted, there are discrepancies with Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (1973), and these are pointed out.

 

Light bones in birds. Buehler, P. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Science Series, 1992, (36), p. 385-393. ISSN: 0076-0943.

NAL call no: QL475.C3H63

Descriptors: weight reducing adaptation, skeleton, evolution, Aves, bones.

 

Makroskopische und mikroskopische Untersuchungen am Verdauungstrakt von Amazonenpapageien (Amazona Less., 1830). [Macroscopic and Microscopic Study of the Digestive Tract of Amazon Parrots.] Barth, U. Tieraztliche Fakultat, Ludwig Maximillians Universitat, Minchen, Germany. 1992, 101 p. ref. Note: In German.

Descriptors: anatomy, histology, gizzard, intestines, digestive system.

 

Quantitative pulmonary anatomy of a ground-dwelling bird, the white-breasted water-hen (Amaurornis phoenicurus). King, A.S.; Vidyadaran, M.K.; Kassim, H. Journal of Zoology (London), 1992, v. 227 (2), p. 185-191. ISSN: 0952-8369.

NAL call no: QL1.J68

Descriptors: biometrics, quantitative anatomy, pulmonary anatomy.

 

Spinal neurons projecting to anterior or posterior cerebellum in the pigeon. Necker, R. Anatomy and Physiology, 1992, v. 185 (4), p. 325-334. ISSN: 0340-2061.

Descriptors: birds, spinal afferent fibers, anatomy, nervous system.

Abstract: Spinal afferent fibers have ben shown to project both to lobules III-VI and lobule IX of the cerebellum in the pigeon. In the present investigation the cells of origin of these projections and the course of the axons at spinal levels have been studied by the retrograde transport of fluorescent dyes injected into both parts of the cerebellum. In the upper cervical segments labeled neurons are located predominantly in the ventral horn; the axons cross to the contralateral side. In the cervical enlargement labeled neurons concentrate in the avian cervical Clark’s column (CIC) and in cervical “spinal border cells” (SBC). The axons of CIC neurons project ipsilaterally into the dorsolateral funiculus and SBC project ipsilaterally into the ventrolateral funiculus. In caudal cervical and in thoracic segments dorsal horn neurons (laminae IV/V) are at the origin of an ipsilateral spinocerebellar pathway in the dorsalmost part of the lateral funiculus. In the lumbosacral enlargement there are mainly three spinocerebellar cell groups all of which project contralaterally in the ventral funiculus: CIC, SBC and paragriseal cells. During its ascent this pathway shifts to the lateral funiculus. In addition there is a crossed pathway from ventral horn cells throughout the spinal cord. Whereas approximately equal numbers of dorsal horn cells project to lobules III-IV and th lobule IX, the number of CIC neurons is strongly reduced after lobule IX injections and SBC neurons are nearly absent. Altogether lobule IX gas a substantial input from dorsal horn neurons (cutaneous mechanoreception) whereas that to lobules III-IV is dominated by CIC and SBC proprioreception.

 

Temporal patterns of muscle formation in the avian limb bud. Lance, Jones C.; Van Swearingen, J. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, 1992, v. 18 (1-2), p. 621. ISSN: 0190-5296.

Descriptors: development, muscular system, movement and support, Aves, birds.

 

Tomographic anatomy of the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). Orosa, S.E.; Toal, R.L. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 1992, v. 23 (1), p. 39-46. ISSN: 1042-7260.

NAL call no: SF601.J6

Descriptors: general morphology, thorax, tomographic anatomy.

 

Vergleichende Anatomie der Nasenhohle und Nasennebenhohlen bei Greifvogeln (Falconiformes) und Eulen (Strigiformes). [Comparative Anatomy of the Nasal Cavity and the Associated Sinuses of the Nasal Chamber of Diurnal Birds of Prey (Falconiformes) and Owls (Strigiformes).] Petersen, Anja. Hannover: [s.n.], 1992, 157 p. ill. ref. Doctoral Thesis. Note: In German with an English summary.

NAL call no: DISS F-1992034

Descriptors: Falconiformes, Strigiformes, nasal cavity, sinuses, comparative anatomy.

 

 

1991

 

The avian respiratory system: Anatomy and physiology. Meintjes, R. Pluimvee Bulletin, 1991, No. 11, p. 479-480. ISSN: 1042-7260.

NAL call no: 47.8 SO89

Descriptors: lungs, air sacs, animal anatomy, physiology, respiratory system, birds.

 

A Color Atlas of Avian Anatomy. McLelland, J. W.B. Saunders Co., 1991, 127 p. col. ill. ref. ISBN: 0721635369.

NAL call no: QL697.M341 1991

Descriptors: birds, anatomy, atlases.

 

Comparative clinical anatomy of ratites. Fowler, M.E. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 1991, v. 22 (2), p. 204-227. ISSN: 1042-7260.

NAL call no: SF996.Z66

Descriptors: general morphology, digestive system, comparative clinical anatomy.

Abstract: Ratites, particularly the ostrich (Struthio camelus) and emu (Dromalus novaehollandiae), have become popular as livestock. This paper provides single source of information based on the author’s dissections of the ostrich, emu, and the rhea (Rhea americana), selected data accumulated from museum specimens, and additional information extracted from the literature. The musculoskeletal, digestive, and reproductive systems are emphasized because of their importance in clinical medicine and management of these animals. All ratites have heavily muscled legs for running and defence against enemies. Unique characteristics are a noncarinate sternum and lack of breast muscles. Stomach and intestinal morphology is highly variable among the families represented. All male ratites have an intromittent organ (phallus), and ostrich and emu females have a diminutive organ.

 

Fine structure of the pecten oculi of the red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). Braekevelt, C.R. Anatomia, Hisologia, Embryologia, 1991, v. 20 (4), p. 354-362. ref. ISSN: 0340-2096.

NAL call no: SF761.Z4

Descriptors: eyes, anatomy, sense organs, tissue ultrastructure.

Abstract: The pecten oculi of the red-tailed hawk has been examined by light and electron microscopy. In this species the pecten is very large and of the pleated type. It consists of 17-18 accordion folds which are joined apically by a heavily pigmented bridge of tissue which holds the pecten in a fan-like shape, widest at its base. It is situated over the optic nerve head and extends into the vitreous. Within each fold are numerous capillaries, larger supply and drainage vessels and melanocytes. The capillaries are specialized and display extensive microfolds on both the luminal and abdominal borders. The endothelial cell bodies are thin with most organelles present in a paranuclear location. The capillaries are surrounded by thick fibrillar basal laminae which are probably structurally important and which often enclose pericytes. The melanocytes which are most plentiful in the bridge region and peripherally in the pecten, form an incomplete sheath around the capillaries and other blood vessels. These melanocytes are also felt to be fulfilling a structural role within the pecten. The morphology of the pecten of the red-tailed hawk is indicative of a heavy involvement in the transport of materials to the avascular avian retina.

 

The functional anatomy of the shoulder in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Dial, K.P.; Goslow, G.E. Jr.; Jenkins, F.A. Jr. Journal of Morphology, 1991, v. 207 (3), p. 327-344. ISSN: 0362-2525.

NAL call no: 444.8 J826

Descriptors: biomechanics, skeletal musculature, flight, shoulder functional anatomy.

 

Normal xeroradiographic and radiographic anatomy of the bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus), with reference to other galliform species. Smith, B.J.; Smith. S.A. Veterinary Radiology, 1991, v. 32 (3), p. 127-134. ISSN: 0196-3627.

NAL call no: SF757.8.A4

Descriptors: general morphology, anatomy, head, abdomen, limbs.

 

Normal xeroradiographic anatomy of the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), with special reference to the barn owl (Tyto alba). Smith, S.A.; Smith, B.J. Veterinary Radiology, 1991, v. 32 (1), p. 6-16. ISSN: 0196-3627.

NAL call no: SF757.8.A4

Descriptors: Stringifromes, general morphology, radiographic anatomy.

 

Normal xeroradiographic and radiographic anatomy of the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) with reference to other anserine species. Smith, B.J.; Smith, S.A. Veterinary Radiology, 1991, v. 32 (2), p. 87-95. ISSN: 0196-3627.

NAL call no: SF757.8.A4

Descriptors: Anseriformes, general morphology, head, abdomen, limbs.

 

Phylogenetic Analysis of Avian Hindlimb Musculature. McKitrick, Mary C. Ann Arbor, MI. Museum of Zoology, the University of Michigan, 1991. iv. 85 p. ill. no. 179.

NAL call no: 410.9 M58M no. 179

Descriptors: birds phylogeny, birds anatomy, birds classification.

 

Quantitative observations on the pulmonary anatomy of the domestic Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata). Vidyadaran, M.K.; King, A.S.; Kassim, H. Journal of Zoology, 1991, v. 2224 (1), p. 113-119. ref. ISSN: 0952-8369.

NAL call no: QL1.J68

Descriptors: respiratory system, anatomy, physiology.

Abstract: The lungs of five domestic Muscovy ducks, mean body weight 1.627 kg, total lung volume 48.07 cm; were analysed by standard morphometric methods. Principal results obtained are: lung volume per unit body weight, 30.17 cm3/g; volume densities of exchange tissue relative to lung volume, 49.24%, blood capillaries relative to exchange tissue, 29.63%, tissue of the blood gas (tissue) barrier relative to exchange tissue, 5.88%; surface area of the blood-gas (tissue) barrier per unit body weight, 30.04 cm2/g; ratios of the surface area of the blood-gas (tissue) barrier per unit volume of the lung and per unit volume of exchange area, 979 cm2/cm3 and 200.06 mm2/mm3, respectively; harmonic and arithmetic mean thickness of the tissue barrier, 0.199 um and 0.303 um respectively. The anatomical diffusing capacity of the tissue barrier for oxygen (DTO²) and the total pulmonary diffusing capacity (DLO²), 49.58 ml O2/min/mmHg/kg and 4.55 ml O²/min/mmHg/kg, respectively. The lungs of the domestic Muscovy duck appear to be about as well adapted anatomically for gas exchange as the lungs of wild anatid species, and there is no clear evidence that domestication has been associated with any deterioration in the anatomical capacity for oxygen uptake. The weight-specific anatomical diffusing capacity of the lung for oxygen (DLO²/W) was about 3.6 times greater than the weight-specific physiological value, a factor which falls within the expected range.

 

Radiology of the avian skull. Kostka, V.; Krautwald-Junghanns, M.E.; Tellhelm, B. Journal of Veterinary Medicine: Series A, 1991, v. 38 (3), p. 175-186. ISSN: 0931-184X.

NAL call no: 41.8 Z5

Descriptors: Buteo buteo, Psittaciformes, Cacatua, skull, radiographic anatomy, hawks.

 

 

1990

 

Anatomical and physiological characteristics of birds and how they differ from mammals. McDonald, S.E. Proceedings Annual Conference Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1990, p 372-389.

NAL call no: SF994.M52

Descriptors: general morphology, whole animal physiology, skeleton, skull, anatomy.

 

A Colour Atlas of Avian Anatomy. McLelland, J. London, Wolfe Pub. c1990. 1-127 p. col. ill. ref. ISBN: 0723415757.

NAL call no: QL697.M341 1990

Descriptors: birds, anatomy, atlases, photographic guide, illustrations.

 

A light microscopic and immunocytochemical study of the grastrointestinal tract of the ostrich (Struthio camelus L.). Bezuidenhout, A.J.; Aswegen, G. Van; Aswegen, G. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 1990, v. 57 (1), p. 37-48. ref. ISSN: 0030-2465.

NAL call no: 41.8 On1

Descriptors: anatomy, digestive system, histology stomach, intestines.

Abstract: The superficial proventricular glands were simple, branched tubular glands, while the deep proventricular glands were restricted to a slipper-shaped area and extended into the muscularis mucosae. The gizzard had a variably developed muscularis mucosae, a feature that seems to be unique to the ostrich. The villi of the small intestine were long and branched profusely, forming a lbyrinthine surface. No Paneth cells were observed. The mucosa of the caeca and the first part of the rectum was thrown into large circular folds, forming a compressed spiral. Numerous melanocytes were seen in the submucosa and the connective tissue around the blood vessels of the muscle layers at the tips of the caeca. A well developed subserosa was present throughout the gastro-intestinal tract. Endocrine cells immunoreactive to somatostatin, glucagon, gastrin, bombesin, neurotensin, substance P and pancratic polypeptide were detected in the gastro-intestinal tract of the ostrich. The topographical distribution of those endocrine cells immunoreactive to glucagon, bombesin, neurotensin and substance P differed from that of the chicken. The results of this investigation inferred that at least one of the gut peptides of the ostrich (secretin) is structurally different from its counterparts in mammal and chicken. Molecular heterogeneity of somatostatin was observed in endocrine cells situated in the deep ventricular glands of the ostrich.

 

The normal xeroradiographic and radiographic anatomy of the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandis). Smith, B.J.; Smith, S.A.; Spaulding, K.A.; Flammer, K.; Smallwood, J.E. Veterinary Radiology, 1990, v. 31 (5), p. 226-234. ISSN: 0196-3627.

NAL call no: SF757.8.A4

Descriptors: general morphology, head, abdomen, limbs, anatomy.

 

The normal xeroradiographic and radiographic anatomy of the orange-winged Amazon parrot (Amazona amazonica). Smith, B.J.; Smith, S.A.; Flammer, K.; Spaulding, K.A.; Smallwood, J.E. Veterinary Radiology, 1990, v. 31 (3), p. 114-124. ISSN: 0196-3627.

NAL call no: SF757.8.A4

Descriptors: Psittacidae, anatomy, skeleton, digestive system, anatomy.

 

Normal xeroradiographic and radiographic anatomy of the red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), with reference to other diurnal raptors. Smith, S.A.; Smith, B.J. Veterinary Radiology, 1990, v. 31 (6), p. 301-312. ISSN: 0196-3627.

NAL call no: SF757.8.A4

Descriptors: Falconiformes, general morphology, head, abdomen, limbs, anatomy.

 

The physiology of bird flight. Butler, P.J.; Woakes, A.J. Bird Migration: Physiology and Ecophysiology. Gwinner E. (ed.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 1990. i-xii. 1-435 p. Chapter pagination: 300-318.

NAL call no: QL698.9 B57 1990

Descriptors: Aves, metabolic rate, flight muscles, thermoregulation, functional anatomy.

 

Psittacine skull radiography. Paul-Murphy, J.R.; Koblik, P.D.; Stein, G.; Penninck, D.G. Veterinary Radiology, 1990, v. 31 (3), p. 125-131. ISSN: 0196-3627.

NAL call no: SF757.8.A4

Descriptors: Psittacidae, skull, anatomy, anatomical techniques, parrots.

 

Psittacine skull radiology. Anatomy, radiographic technique, and patient application. Paul-Murphy, J.R.; Koblik, P.D.; Stein, G.; Pennick, D.G. Veterinary Radiology, 1990, v. 31, (4), p. 218-224. ref. ISSN: 0196-3627.

NAL call no: SF757.8.A4

Descriptors: anatomy, skull, radiography, beak, parrots, case reports.

 

Recent findings on the development of dimorphic anatomy in the avian song system. DeVoogd, T.J. Journal of Experimental zoology Supplement, 1990, No. 4, p. 183-186. ISSN: 1059-8324.

NAL call no: 410.J825

Descriptors: brain, hormones, song system structure, sexual dimorphism, birds.

 

Surgical anatomy of the avian carpometacarpus. Orosz, S.E. Journal of the Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1990, v. 4 (1), p. 40-45. ISSN; 1044-8314.

NAL call no: SF994.J6

Descriptors: Aves, surgical techniques, forelimb skeleton, birds.

 

Surgical anatomy of the propatagium. Brown, R.E.; Klemm, R.D. Proceedings Annual Conference Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1990, p. 176-181.

NAL call no: SF994.M52

Descriptors: forelimbs, anatomy, blood vessels, surgical anatomy, birds.

 

 

1989

 

Anatomy of the avian cecum. McLelland, J. Journal of Experimental Zoology Supplement, 1989, No.3, p. 2-9. ISSN: 1059-8324.

NAL call no: 410.J825

Descriptors: Aves, caecum, gross anatomy, birds, review.

 

Anatomy of the lungs and air sacs. McLelland, J. Form and Function in Birds, vol 4. King, A.S.; McLelland, J. (eds.). Academic Press, London, San Diego, 1989. i-xiv, 1-591 p. Chapter pagination: 221-279.

NAL call no: QL698.F67

Descriptors: Aves, lung innervation, lungs, anatomy, nervous system, birds.

 

Aspects of the limb anatomy of the brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis). McSweeney, T,; Stoskopf, M.K. Journal of Zoo & Wildlife Medicine, 1989, v. 20 (2), p. 191-198. ISSN: 1042-7260.

NAL call no: SF996.Z66

Descriptors: surgical techniques, repair of limb fractures, wing anatomy.

 

Feather anatomy and function. Part 1. Joseph, V. Journal of the Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1989, v. 3 (3), p. 136-137. ref. ISSN: 0892-9904.

NAL call no: SF904.A2

Descriptors: anatomy, feathers, birds.

 

Feather anatomy and function. Part 2. Joseph, V. Journal of the Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1989, v. 3 (4), p. 196. ISSN: 0892-9904.

NAL call no: SF904.A2

Descriptors: Aves, plumage, feather tracts, feathers, growth, molting, birds.

 

Gross anatomy of the tongue, pharynx and esophagus of the domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos). Rao, T.S.C.; Hafeezuddin, M. Cheiron, 1989, v. 18 (6), p. 242-246. ref. ISSN: 0379-542X.

NAL call no: SF604.C56

Descriptors: tongue, pharynx, oesophagus, animal anatomy, digestive system.

 

Larynx and trachea. McLelland, J. Form and Function in Birds, vol. 4, 1989. i-xiv, 1-591 p. Chapter pagination: 69-103.

NAL call no: QL698.F67

Descriptors: Aves, skeletal musculature, larynx and trachea, functional anatomy, birds.

 

The lateral femur in selected avian species: Anatomy and surgical approaches. Orosz, S.E. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 1989, v. 4 (1), p. 441-445. ISSN: 1042-7260.

NAL call no: SF996.Z66

Descriptors: Falconiformes, Psittaciformes, Strigiformes, surgical techniques, anatomy, birds.

 

Light microscopic morphometry of the kidneys of fourteen avian species. Wauri, C.N. Journal of Anatomy, 1989, v. 162, p. 19-31. ISSN: 0021-8782.

NAL call no: 447.8.J826

Descriptors: kidney morphometrics, Aves, comparatives study, measurements, birds.

 

Relationship of cecal and colonic motility to diet, habitat and cecal anatomy in several avian species. Duke, G.E. Journal of Experimental Zoology Supplement, 1989, No. 3, p. 38-47. ISSN: 1059-8324.

NAL call no: 410.J825

Descriptors: Aves, peristalsis, diet, caecal and colonic motility, habitat and anatomy, birds.

 

Respiration and gas exchange in birds. Piiper, J.; Scheid, P. NATO-ASI (Advanced Science Institutes) Series; Series A Life Sciences, 1998, v. 173, p. 153-162. ISSN: 0161-0449.

NAL call no: QH301.N32

Descriptors: Aves, lungs, anatomy review, respiratory gas exchange.

 

Selected features of the abdominal and thoracic anatomy of the brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis). McSweeney, T.; Stoskopf, M.K. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 1989, v. 20 (2), p. 184-190. ISSN: 1042-7260.

NAL call no: SF996.Z66

Descriptors: general morphology, abdominal and thoracic anatomy, anatomy.

 

[Study on skeleton of the red-crowned crane.] Chang, J.C.; Li, P. Journal of Northeast Forestry University, 1989, v. 17 (1), p. 31-39. ISSN: 1000-5382. Note: In Chinese.

NAL call no: SD221.J67

Descriptors: Grus japonensis, measurements, skeleton, anatomy.

 

Surgical anatomy of the ventral thoracic girdle of raptors and psittacines. Orosz, S.E. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 1989, v. 20 (4), p. 435-440. ISSN: 1042-7260.

NAL call no: SF996.Z66

Descriptors: surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, sternum, pectoral girdle.

 

Thermoregulation in turkey vultures: Vascular anatomy, arteriovenous heat exchange, and behavior. Arad, Z.; Midtgard, U.; Bernstein, M.H. Condor, 1989, v. 91 (3), p. 505-514. ISSN: 0010-5422.

NAL call no: QL671.C6

Descriptors: thermoregulation, circulatory system, heat exchange with veins, skin.

 

 

1988

 

Anatomical study of the wulst in the parakeet (Aratinga canicularis). Diaz-Cintra, S.; Cintra, L.; Ortega, A.; Perez, B.; Ayala, F. Boletin de Estudios Medicos y Biologicos Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 1988, v. 36 (1-4), p. 25-34. ISSN: 0067-9666.

Descriptors: brain, wulst anatomy, cell types, Psittacidae.

 

The anatomy of the middle ear of the Tinamiformes (Aves: Tinamidae). Saiff, E. Journal of Morphology, 1988, v. 196 (1), p, 107-116. ISSN: 0362-2525.

NAL call no: 444.8 J826

Descriptors: ear, middle ear morphology, comparisons, skull, phylogeny, birds.

 

Image analysis of avian pituitaries. Rahman, Zur; Chiasson, R.B.; Olson, G.B.; Zia, Ur Rahman. Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia, 1988, v. 17 (4), p. 381. ISSN: 0340-2096.

NAL call no: SF761.Z4

Descriptors: histology, pituitary, anatomy, birds.

 

Selected anatomical features of the neck and gular sac of the brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis). McSweeney, T.; Stoskopf, M.K. Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine, 1988, v. 19 (3), p. 116-121. ISSN: 0093-4526.

NAL call no: SF601.J6

Descriptors: neck, anatomy, throat, larynx, gular sac anatomy.

 

An ultrastructural study of the cere of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia). Purton, M.D. Journal of Anatomy, 1988, v. 157, p. 43-56. ISSN: 0021-8782.

NAL call no: 447.8 J826

Descriptors: skin, functional histomorphology, Columbidae.

 

 

1987

 

Microscopic and ultrastructural anatomy of the trachea and bronchi of Melopsittacus undulatus (Aves, Psittaciformes). Smith, J.H.; Meier, J.L.; Lampke, C.; Neill, P. J.G.; Box, E. Zoomorphology (Berlin), 1987, v. 107 (1), p. 1-10. ISSN: 0720-213X.

NAL call no: 442.8 Z33

Descriptors: bronchi, trachea, ultrastructure, anatomy, Psittacidae, buderigars.

 

Radiographic anatomy of the Texas barred owl, Strix varia helveola. Shively, M.J. Southwestern Veterinarian, 1987, v. 38 (1), p. 61-70. ISSN: 0038-495X.

NAL call no: 41.8 So82

Descriptors: skeleton, radiographic anatomy, distribution, natural history.

 

 

1986

 

Alimentary canal: Anatomy, regulation of feeding, and motility. Duke, G.E. Avian Physiology, Sturkie, P.D. (ed.). Springer-Verlag, New York, Berlin, 1986, 1-516 p. Chapter pagination: 269-288.

NAL call no: QL698.S7

Descriptors: passage of food, digestive system, anatomy, regulating factors, birds.

 

Anatomy of the avian membrana nictitans. Sivak, J.G,; Glover, R.F. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 1986, v. 64 (4), p. 963-972. ISSN: 0008-4301.

NAL call no: 470 C16D

Descriptors: membrana nictitans anatomy, Aves, Anatidae, Anseriformes, ducks.

 

Anatomy of the Temporal Bone with Surgical Implications. Schuknecht, H.F.; Gulya, A.J. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1986, i-xiv, 1-350 p.

Descriptors: Pisces, Amphibia, Aves, Reptilia, skull, temporal bone morphology.

 

Clinical anatomy with emphasis on the Amazon parrot. McKibben, J.S.; Harrison, G.J. Clinical Avian Medicine and Surgery Including Aviculture, Harrison, G.J.; Harrison, L.R. (eds.). W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, London, 1986, i-xviii, 1-717 p. Chapter pagination: 31-66.

NAL call no: SF994.2.A1C5

Descriptors: Aves, general morphology, musculature, skeleton, nervous system.

 

Heart and circulation: Anatomy, hemodynamics, blood pressure, blood flow. Sturkie, P.D. Avian Physiology, Sturkie, P.D. (ed.). Springer-Verlag, New York, Berlin. 1986, i-xiii, 1-516 p. Chapter pagination: 130-166.

NAL call no: QL698.S7

Descriptors: Aves, circulatory system, anatomy, haemodynamics, blood flow, birds.

 

The major blood vessels of the wing of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Bezuidenhout, A.J.; Coetzer, D.J. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 1986, v. 53 (4), p. 201-203. ISSN: 0030-2465.

NAL call no: 41.8 ON1

Descriptors: forelimbs, wings, major blood vessels, anatomy.

 

Microscopic and submicroscopic anatomy of the parabronchi, air sacs, and respiratory space of the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). Smith, J.H.; Meier, J.L.; Lamke, C.; Neill, P.J.G.; Box, E.D. American Journal of Anatomy, 1986, v. 177 (2), p. 221-242. ISSN: 0002-9106

NAL call no: 447.8 AM32

Descriptors: bronchi, lungs, air sacs, microscopic and submicroscopic anatomy.

 

 

1985

 

Anatomy and histology of the gut of the emu, Dromaius novaehollandiae. Herd, R.M. Emu, 1985, v. 85 (1), p. 43-46. ISSN: 0158-4197.

Descriptors: digestion, fiber, anatomy, histology, Aves.

 

Foraging behavior and bill anatomy in sandpipers. Gerritsen, A.F.C.; Sevenster, J.G. Progress in Zoology, 1985, v. 30, p. 237-239. ISSN: 0071-7991.

Descriptors: Calidris, bill, chemoreception, foraging behavior, anatomy.

 

A radiological study of the kiwi, Apteryx australis mantelli. Beale, G. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 1985, v. 15 (2), p. 187-200. ISSN: 0303-6758.

NAL call no: QH301.R62

Descriptors: size, volume, weight, anatomy, skeleton, general morphology.

 

 

1984

 

Anatomy and evolution of the feeding apparatus in the avian orders Coraciiformes and Piciformes. Burton, P.K.J. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Zoology, 1984, v. 47 (6), p. 331-443. ISSN: 0007-1498.

NAL call no: 410.9 B772B

Descriptors: neck, skeletal musculature, beak, skull, bill, vertebral column, birds.

 

Comparative gross anatomy of ratites. Cho, P.; Brown, R.; Anderson, M. Zoo Biology, 1984, v. 3 (2), p. 133-144. ISSN: 0733-3188.

NAL call no: QL77.5.Z6

Descriptors: general morphology, anatomy, digestive system, kidneys.

 

The emu as a model for studies into avian respiratory physiology. Love, J.B.; Pierce, R.J.; Baudinette, R.V.; Gannon, B.J.; Skowronski, G.A.; Ilsley, A.H.; Runciman, W.B. Proceedings of the Australian Physiological and Pharmacological Society, 1984, v. 15 (2), 226 p. ISSN: 0067-2084.

NAL call no: RM1.A9

Descriptors: lungs, anatomy, gas flow, respiratory exchange.

 

Surgical anatomy of the pectoral and pelvic limbs of condor-related species. Orosz. S.E.; Ensley, P.K.; Janssen, D.L. American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Annual Proceedings, 1984, p. 157-158. ISSN: 0095-0610.

NAL call no: SF605.A4

Descriptors: surgical techniques, skeletal musculature, skeleton, anatomy.

 

 

1983

 

The anatomy of the middle ear region of the rheas (Aves: Rheiformes, Rheidae). Saiff, E.I. Historia Natural (Corrientes), 1983, v. 3 (6), p. 45-55. ISSN: 0326-1778.

Descriptors: skull, ear, middle ear anatomy, base and quadrate morphology.

 

[The functional anatomy of the sanderling and other members of the Scolopacidae.] Gerritsen, A.F.C. Copeia, 1983, v. 56 (4), p. 269. ISSN: 0045-8511. Note: In Dutch.

Descriptors: bill structure, beak structure, skeleton, skull.

 

Nervous organization of the pineal organs in birds anatomy, cytology, includes domestic fowl. Sato, T.; Wake, K. Avian endocrinology: Environmental Ecological Perspectives. Ed. By Shin, Ichi Mikami; Kazutaka, Homma; Masaru, Wada. Japan Scientific Press, 1983, p. 57-65. ill.ref. ISBN: 4762263443.

NAL call no: QL698.A9

Descriptors: pineal organs, anatomy, cytology.

 

 

1982

 

Anatomia Funzionale degli Uccelli Domestici. [Functional Anatomy of Domestic Birds.] Botte, Virgilio; Pelagalli, Gaetano V. Milano; E.E. Ediermes. 1982, xv, 385 p. ill. ISBN: 8885019196. Note: In Italian.

NAL call no: QL697.B6

Descriptors: birds, anatomy.

 

The anatomy of the avian digestive tract as related to feed utilization. Turk, D.E. Poultry Science, 1982, v. 61 (7), p. 1225-1244. ISSN: 0032-5791.

NAL call no: 47.8 AM33P

Descriptors: Aves, digestive tract anatomy, anatomy, digestive system.

 

The feeding system of the pigeon (Columbia livia L.). Zweers, Gart. Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology, v. 73. Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1982, vii, 108 p. ill. ISBN: 0387113320.

NAL call no: QL696.C63Z98

Descriptors: pigeons anatomy, food, mouth, pharynx, larynx, birds foot.

 

The leg muscles of the American coot (Fulica americana Gmelin). Rosser, B.W.C.; Secoy, D.M.; Riegert, P.W. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 1982, v. 60 (6), p. 1236-1256. ISSN: 0008-4301.

NAL call no: 470 C16D

Descriptors: hindlimbs, musculature, morphology, skeletal musculature, gross anatomy.

 

The microanatomy of the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the starling kidney. Nicholson, J.K. Journal of Anatomy, 1982, v. 134 (1), p. 11-23. ISSN: 0021-8782.

NAL call no: 447.8 J826

Descriptors: kidney, distal and collecting tubules, microanatomy.

 

The middle ear of the skull of the kiwi. Saiff, E.I. Emu, 1982, v. 82 (2), p. 75-79. ISSN: 0158-4197.

Descriptors: skull, ear, middle ear anatomy.

 

The wing musculature of the brown kiwi, Apteryx australis mantelli, and its bearing on ratite affinities. McGowan, C. Journal of Zoology (London), 1982, v. 197 (2), p. 173-219

NAL call no: QL1.J68.

Descriptors: wings, musculature, skeletal musculature, gross muscle anatomy.

 

 

1981

 

The epididymis and its development in ratite birds (ostrich, emu, rhea). Budras, K.D.; Meier, U. Anatomy and Embryology, 1981, v. 162 (3), p. 281-299. ISSN: 0340-2061.

Descriptors: sperm ducts, anatomy and ontogenesis, epididymis.

 

Form and Function in Birds. Vol. 2. King, A.S.; McLelland, J (eds.). Academic Press, London, New York. 1981, i-xi, 1-496 p.

NAL call no: QL698.F67

Descriptors: Aves, functional anatomy, anatomy, textbooks.

 

Functional anatomy of the avian jaw apparatus. Buhler, P. Form and Function in Birds, Vol.2. King, A.S.; McLelland, J (eds.). Academic Press, London, New York. 1981, i-xi. 1-496 p. Chapter pagination: 439-468.

NAL call no: QL698.F7

Descriptors: Aves, jaws, functional anatomy, birds.

 

Jaw muscles of the common parakeet, Psittacula eupatria L. Vasisht, H.S.; Singla, P.K. Research Bulletin of the Punjab University Science, 1981, v. 26 (1-4), p. 27-30. ISSN: 0555-7631.

NAL call no: 513 EA72

Descriptors: skeletal musculature, jaw, gross muscle anatomy.

 

The middle ear of the skull of birds: The ostrich, Struthio camelus L. Saiff, E.I. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 1981, v. 73 (2), p. 210-212. ISSN: 0024-4082.

NAL call no: 410.9 L64

Descriptors: skull, cranial nerves, ear, middle ear anatomy, blood vessels.

 

 

1980

 

[The anatomy of brain and cytology of the cerebral hemispheres in penguins.] Bogoslovskaya, L.S.; Krushinskaya, E.L. Sensory Systems and the Brain in Birds, Ilichev, V.D.; Bogoslovskaya, L.S. (eds.). Nauka, Moscow. 1980, 1-219 p. Chapter pagination: 180-195. Note: In Russian.

Descriptors: brain, cerebral hemispheres, anatomy and cytology.

 

Arteriovenous anastomosis and vascularity in the feet of eiders and gulls (Aves). Midtgard, U. Zoomorphology (Berlin), 1980, v. 96 (3), p. 263-270. ISSN: 0720-213X.

NAL call no: 442.8 Z33

Descriptors: hindlimbs, foot arteriovenous anastomosis, anatomy, thermoregulation.

 

The blood vessels of the ostrich heart. Murakami, T.; Saito, I.; Mochizuki, K. Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture Miyazaki University, 1980, v. 27 (1), p. 1-6. ISSN: 0544-6066.

NAL call no: 22.5 M6932B

Descriptors: heart blood supply, anatomy, Struthio camelus.

 

Functional anatomy of the respiratory system. Duncker, H.R. Acta Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici, 1980, v. 1, p. 350-354.

Descriptors: Aves, capillaries, respiratory system, functional anatomy, birds.

 

Middle ear anatomy of the Struthioniformes. Saiff, E. Acta Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici, 1980, v. 1, p. 631-634.

Descriptors: middle ear anatomy, ear, phylogeny, evolutionary significance, ostrich family.

 

The neuroanatomical basis of avian neuroendocrine systems. Oksche, A. Acta Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici, 1980, v. 1, p. 217-222.

Descriptors: Aves, brain, neurons, neuroendocrine system, birds.

 

Studies of the functional anatomy in birds utilizing museum specimens. Burton, P.J.K. Acta Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici, 1980, v. 1, p. 190-194.

Descriptors: Aves, museum collections, use in functional anatomy research.

 

 

1979

 

The anatomy of the eye of the Adelie penguin with special reference to optical structure and intraocular musculature. Sivak, J.G.; Vrablic, O.E. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 1979, v. 57 (2), p. 346-352. ISSN: 0008-4301.

NAL call no: 470 C16D

Descriptors: musculature, eye, anatomy, intraocular musculature.

 

Anatomy of the vascular system of the head and neck of the helmeted guineafowl, Numida meleagris. Crowe, T.M.; Crowe, A.A. Journal of Zoology (London), 1979, v. 188 (2), p. 221-233.

NAL call no: QL1.J68

Descriptors: head, neck, vascular system anatomy, blood vessels.

 

The comparative anatomy of the circulatory system. Lawson, R. Hyman’s Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy, Wake, M.H. (ed.). University of Chicago Press, Chicago, London. 1979, i-xi. 1-788 p. Chapter pagination: 448-554.

NAL call no: QL812.H87 1979

Descriptors: comparative anatomy, circulatory system, Aves, Mammalia, Pisces, fish, birds.

 

The comparative anatomy of the coelom and of the digestive and respiratory systems. Lawson, R. Hyman’s Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy, Wake, M.H. (ed.). University of Chicago Press, Chicago, London. 1979, i-xi. 1-788 p. Chapter pagination: 378-447.

NAL call no: QL812.H87 1979

Descriptors: comparative anatomy, digestive system, respiratory system, birds.

 

The comparative anatomy of the integumental skeleton. Krejsa, R.J. Hyman’s Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy, Wake, M.H. (ed.). University of Chicago Press, Chicago, London. 1979, i-xi, 1-788 p. Chapter pagination: 112-191.

NAL call no: QL812.H87 1979

Descriptors: Aves, bone, cartilage, integument, skin, function and development, birds.

 

The comparative anatomy of the muscular system. Radinsky, L. Hyman’s Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy, Wake, M.H. (ed.). University of Chicago Press, Chicago, London, 1979, i-xi. 1-788 p. chapter pagination: 327-377.

NAL call no: QL812.H87 1979

Descriptors: comparative anatomy, Pisces, Aves, Reptilia, Amphibia, Mammalia, fish, birds.

 

The comparative anatomy of the nervous system and the sense organs. Northcutt, R.G. Hyman’s Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy, Wake, M.H. (ed.). University of Chicago Press, Chicago, London, 1979, i-xi. 1-788 p. Chapter pagination: 615-769.

NAL call no: QL812.H87 1979

Descriptors: comparative anatomy, Pisces, Aves, Reptilia, Amphibia, Mammalia.

 

The endoskeleton: The comparative anatomy of the vertebral column and ribs. Wake, D.B. Hyman’s Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy, Wake, M.H. (ed.). University of Chicago Press, Chicago, London, 1979, i-xi, 1-788 p. Chapter pagination: 193-237.

NAL call no: QL812.H87 1979

Descriptors: appendicular skeleton, comparative anatomy, vertebral column, birds.

 

Form and Function in Birds. Vol. 1. King, A.S.; McLelland, J. Academic Press, London, New York. 1979, i-xi, 1-459 p.

NAL call no: QL698.F67

Descriptors: Aves, functional anatomy, anatomy, textbooks.

 

Hyman’s Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. Wake, M.H. (ed.). University of Chicago Press, Chicago, London, 1979, i-xi, 1-788 p.

NAL call no: QL812.H87 1979

Descriptors: Aves, Pisces, Amphibia, Reptilia, Mammalia, anatomy, textbooks, birds, fish.

 

Radiographic anatomy of the barred owl (Strix varia). Shively, M.J. Veterinary Medicine and Small Animal Clinician, 1979, v. 74 (4), p. 552-558.

NAL call no: 41.8 M69

Descriptors: skeleton, anatomy, Strix varia.

 

 

1978

 

The anatomy and physiology of the avian nasal salt glands. Thomas, D.H.; Phillips, J.G. Pavo, 1978, v. 16 (1-2), p. 89-104. ISSN: 0031-3297.

NAL call no: 275.29 W27MI

Descriptors: Aves, excretory glands, nasal salt glands, anatomy, physiology, birds.

 

The middle ear of the skull of birds: The Pelecaniformes and the Ciconiiformes. Saiff, E.I. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 1978, v. 63 (4), p. 315-370. ISSN: 0024-4082.

NAL call no: 410.9 L64

Descriptors: skull, ear, middle ear anatomy, Pelecaniformes, Ciconiiformes.

 

 

1977

 

Anatomia i biologia ptakow na przykladzie golebia domowego. [Anatomy and biology of birds with the domestic pigeon as an example.] Bednarz, M. Hodowca Drobnego Inwentarza, 1977, v. 25 (1), p. 19-20. Note: In Polish.

NAL call no: 49 H662

Descriptors: birds, anatomy, domestic pigeon.

 

 

1975

 

Outlines of Avian Anatomy. King, Anthony Stuart; McLelland, J. London: Bailliere tindall, 1975, 154 p. ill. 22 cm.

NAL call no: QL697.K5

Descriptors: bird anatomy, outlines.

 

 

1972

 

[On the anatomy of the pancreas of domestic birds.] Batoeva, S.T.S.; Batoev, T.S. Zh. Arkh Anat Gistol Embriol, Nov. 1972, v. 63 (11), p. 105-108. Note: In Russian with an English summary.

NAL call no: QL801.A7

Descriptors: domestic birds, pancreas, anatomy.

 

The Avian Brain. Pearson, Ronald George. New York, Academic Press, 1972, xi, 658 p. ill.

NAL call no: QL697.P4

Descriptors: brain, birds, anatomy, physiology.

 

 

1971

 

The Lung Air Sac System of Birds a Contribution to the Functional Anatomy of the Respiratory Apparatus. Duncker, Hans Rainer. Berlin, N.Y., Springer Verlag, 1971, 171 p. ill. 25cm.

NAL call no: QL855.D8

Descriptors: air sacs of birds, lungs, structure.

 

 

1968

 

Anatomy and Flight Biology of Birds. Herzog, Karl. Stuttgart, G. Fischer, 1968, 179 p.

NAL call no: QL698.7.H47

Descriptors: flight, birds, anatomy.

 

 

1964

 

Avian Anatomy. McLeod, W.M.1892-1997; Minneapolis, Burgess Press Co., 1964, ii, 143 p. ill.

NAL call no: QL697.M17 1964

Descriptors: birds, anatomy.

 


Return to:    Contents


CARE / BEHAVIOR / HUSBANDRY / BIOLOGY / ENRICHMENT

 

 

2003

 

California condors and DDE: a re-evaluation. Snyder, N.F.R.; Meretsky, V.J. Ibis, London. 2003, v. 145 (1), p. 136-151.

            NAL call no: SB359.5.B78

Descriptors: California Condors, Gymnogyps californianus, DDE, reproductive effect, re-evaluation, eggshell thickness, DDT, eggshell breakage, pre and past 1960's, population decline.

Abstract: Eggshells of wild California Condors Gymnogyps californianus were much thinner in the 1960s, when DDT was used heavily, than during earlier pre-DDT and later reduced-DDT periods. However, eggshell thickness was more strongly linked to egg size (mass) than to measured levels of p,p’DDE (the primary metabolite of DDT). Egg size was consistent within the individual females and yielded correlation coefficients with shell thickness ranging from 0.49 to 0.97, depending on the period and the analysis assumptions used. Measured DDE levels, although often substantial, provided only a weak correlation r=0.33) with shell thickness. In part, the absence of a strong DDE/thickness correlation may have been an artefact of losses of DDE from fragment membranes over time. Nevertheless, the extreme (28-29%) shell thinning of the 1960s was not linked with clearly increased egg-breakage or nest-failure rates, and one female of the 1980s with 25.6% shell thinning was the most productive female of her era. Some eggs with over 30% shell thinning hatched successfully, and broken eggs closely resembled hatched eggs in shell thickness, strongly suggesting that shell thinning was not an important cause of breakage. The apparent absence of harmful effects from the extreme shell thinning of the 1960s may have resulted from (1) the fact that historic pre-DDT condor eggs were on average 16.7% thicker shelled for their mass than predicted by the overall egg mass/shell thickness curve for birds, and (2) a possible egg-size decline or sampling bias toward small-egged females in the 1960s. That DDE was an important cause of the Condor’s decline appears unlikely from overall available data.


Colour polymorphism in birds: Causes and functions. Galeotti, P.; Rubolini, D.; Dunn, P.O.; Fasola, M. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Jul. 2003, v. 16 (4), p. 635-646. ISSN: 1010-061X.

            NAL call no: QH359.J68

Descriptors: color polymorphism, birds, function, plumage, evolutionary causes, sexual selection.

Abstract: We studied polymorphism in all species of birds that are presently known to show intraspecific variation in plumage colour. At least three main mechanisms have been put forward to explain the maintenance of polymorphism: apostatic, disruptive and sexual selection. All of them make partly different predictions. Our aims were to investigate evolutionary causes and adaptive functions of colour polymorphism by taking into account a number of ecological and morphological features of polymorphic species. Overall, we found 334 species showing colour polymorphism, which is 3.5% of all bird species. The occurrence of colour polymorphism was very high in Strigiformes, Ciconiiformes, Cuculiformes and Galliformes. Phylogenetically corrected analysis using independent contrasts revealed that colour polymorphism was maximally expressed in species showing a daily activity rhythm extended to day/night, living in both open and closed habitats. All these findings support the hypothesis that colour polymorphism probably evolved under selective pressures linked to bird detectability as affected by variable light conditions during activity period. Thus, we conclude that selective agents may be prey, predators and competitors, and that colour polymorphism in birds may be maintained by disruptive selection.

 

The effect of night transportation on the heart rate and skin temperature of ostriches during real transportation. Crowther, C.; Davis, R.; Glass, W. Meat Science, Aug. 2003, v. 64 (4), p. 365-370. ref. ISSN: 0309-1740.

            NAL call no: TX373.M4

            Descriptors: skin temperature, heart rate, night transportation, heat stress, animal welfare.

Abstract: Literature has identified a number of stressors that have negative impacts on the welfare of ostriches during transportation. In order to maintain or improve the welfare of animals it is important to minimise or eliminate the impact of such stressors. Literature suggested that ostrich welfare during transit might be improved by using darkened vehicles. A preliminary study was carried out which the response of ostrich heart rate and skin temperature (indicators of stress) to transportation. Comparisons were made between transportation during the day and at night. Statistical tests suggested that heart rates and skin temperatures recorded during the night were lower than those recorded during the day. The usual response of ostriches to darkness is to sit, which provides greater stability for the bird while the transportation unit is in motion. Temperatures inside the transportation unit were significantly lower at night. This may also contribute to the lowering of heart rate and skin temperature as it reduces effects of heat stress. The conclusion has been drawn that transporting ostriches at night is potentially beneficial for the reduction of stress and maintenance of welfare.

 

Establishing appropriate measures for monitoring aging in birds: Comparing short and long lived species. Ottinger, M.A.; Reed, E.; Wu, J.; Thompson, N.; French, J.B. Jr. Experimental Gerontology, Jul. 2003, v. 38 (7), p. 747-750. ISSN: 0531-5565.

            NAL call no: QP86.E85

Descriptors: aging in birds, monitoring, short and long lived, comparison study, Japanese quail, American kestrel.

Abstract: In order to reveal patterns of reproductive aging in birds we focus on a short lived species, the Japanese quail and the American kestrel, which has a life span of medium length. Quail have been studied extensively in the laboratory as models for understanding avian endocrinology and behavior, and as a subject for toxicological research and testing. In the lab, Japanese quail show age-related deterioration in endocrine, behavioral, and sensory system responses; the American kestrel is relatively long lived and shows moderate evidence of senescence in the oldest birds. Using data collected from captive kestrels at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, a database was designed to document selected parameters over the life cycle of the kestrels. Life table data collected from many species indicate that longer lived species of birds show senescence in survival ability but this pattern has not been established for reproduction function. We suggest that useful comparisons among species can be made by identifying stages in reproductive life history, organized on a relative time scale. Preliminary data from quail and kestrels, admittedly only two species, do not yet indicate a pattern of greater reproductive senescence in longer-lived birds.

 

Isosexual pair housing improves the welfare of young Amazon parrots. Meehan, C.L.; Garner, J.P.; Mench, J.L. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Mar. 20, 2003, v. 81 (1), p. 73-88. ISSN: 0168-1591.

            NAL call no: QL750.A6

Descriptors: Amazona amazonica, illness, diseases, behavior, handler response test, environmental enrichment.

Abstract: It has been suggested that isolation from conspecifics may contribute to the development of abnormal behaviors that are common in captive parrots, including sterotypy, feather plucking, excessive fearfulness and aggression (e.g. [Proceedings of the European Symposium on Bird diseases, Beerse, Belgium (1987), p. 98; Kleintierpraxis 38 (1993) 511]. Thus, we assessed the influence of isosexual pair housing on the development of these behaviors, as well as the incidence of illness and injury, in young Orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). Parrots (n=21) were parent raised to 6 months of age and then housed either singly or in isosexual pairs. All cages included inanimate enrichments that were changed regularly, and all parrots were handled regularly. Behavioral activity was recorded 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the parrots were housed in the experimental cages, and responses (e.g. willingness to approach, tolerance to touch, flight distance) to familiar and strange human handlers and to novel objects introduced into the home cage were recorded periodically. Paired parrots used their enrichments more (GLM:F1, 10 = 13.74; P=0.004), and spent less time screaming (F1, 10 = 4.90; P=0.051), less time preening (F1, 10 = 5.12; P=0.047), and less time inactive (F1, 10 = 9.24; P<0.012) than singly housed parrots. Time spent climbing, walking and flying decreased in both groups during the study, but the decrease was greater in the singly housed parrots (F1,54 = 4.50; P = 0.038). None of the paired parrots developed stereotypy by month 12, while 57% of the singly housed parrots did. Responses to familiar handlers did not differ, but paired parrots responded increasingly significantly less fearfully and aggressively to unfamiliar handlers during the study than did singly housed parrots (F1,54= 6.37; P = 0.015). Latency to approach novel objects was significantly reduced in the paired group when the two birds were tested together (F1, 15 = 7.69; P=0.005). No parrots in the single group sustained injuries while 21% of the parrots in the paired condition experienced injuries, although none of these could be directly linked to intr-pair aggression. Rates of illness did not differ between the two groups. Isosexual pair housing resulted in a more active and diverse behavioral repertoire, eliminated the development of sterotypy and reduced fear responses to novel objects without imparting significant risk of illness and injury or jeopardizing the ability of parrots to relate positively with humans. Thus, it appears that pair housing can significantly improve environmental quality and positively affect the welfare of captive parrots.

 

Oral biology and beak disorders of birds. Olsen, G.H. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice, Sept. 2003, v. 6(3), p. 505-521. ISSN: 1094-9194.

            NAL call no: SF997.5.E95E97

            Descriptors: beak disorders, oral biology, beak anatomy, trauma, diseases, birds.

Abstract: The beak, or bill of the bird is a complicated structure. This article describes beak anatomy as well as disorders of the beak, including trauma and diseases.

 

Raptors. Forbes, N.A.; Coles, G. (ed); Dobsen, J. (ed); Elliott, J. (ed); Elwood, C. (ed); Hall, E. (ed); Heath, S. (ed); Hill, P. (ed); Moore, P.H. (ed); Innes, J. (ed); Jeffery, A. (ed); Redrobe, S. (ed); Tasker, S. (ed); Williams, J. (ed); Yam, P. Scientific Proceedings Veterinary Programme: British Small Animal Veterinary Association, 46th Annual Congress, Birmingham, UK. Apr. 3-6, 2003, p. 517-520. ref. ISBN: 0905214773.

            Descriptors: raptors, biology, care, nutrition, medicine, birds.

 

Small birds. Chitty, J.R.; Coles, G. (ed); Dobson, J. (ed); Elliott, J. (ed); Elwood, C. (ed); Hall, E. (ed); Heath, S. (ed); Hill, P. (ed); Moore, P.H. (ed); Innes, J. (ed); Jeffery, A. (ed); Redrobe, S. (ed); Tasker, S. (ed); Williams, J. (ed); Yam, P. Scientific Proceedings Veterinary Programme: British Small Animal Veterinary Association, 46th Annual Congress, Birmingham, UK. Apr. 3-6, 2003, p. 520-522. ref. ISBN: 0905214773.

            Descriptors: small birds, aviary birds, pets, care, diseases.

 

 

2002

 

Attachment of radiotransmitters to one-day-old sage grouse chicks. Burkepile, N.A.; Connelly, J.W.; Stanley, D.W.; Reese, K.P. Wildlife Society Bulletin. The Wildlife Society, Bethesda, MD. Spring, 2002, v. 30 (1), p. 93-96. ref. ISSN: 0091-7648.

            NAL call no: SK357.A1W5

            Descriptors: telemetry, wild birds, young animals.

 

Avian incubation: Behavior, environment and evolution. Deeming, D.C. (ed.). Oxford Ornithology Series, 2002, No. 13, i-xiv. p. 1-421. ISSN: 1363-3201.

            NAL call no: QL675.A95

            Descriptors: parental care in birds, Aves, embryo development, comprehensive review.

 

Environmental enrichment for parrots in naturalistic settings. Ng, San San. IZN, International Zoo News, Mar. 2002, v. 49 (2), p. 74-81; No. 315. ISSN: 0020-9155.

            NAL call no: QL76.I58

            Descriptors: diet in captivity, housing techniques, environmental enrichment.

 

The grey parrot in aviculture. Silva, Moraton; Derian, A.L. Avicultural Magazine, 2002, v. 108 (1), p. 8-16. ISSN: 0005-2256.

            NAL call no: QL671.A9

            Descriptors: care in captivity, review and recommendations, reproductive techniques.

 

The influence of stress from transport and handling on hematologic and clinical chemistry blood parameters of racing pigeons (Columbia livia domestica). Scope, A.; Filip, T.; Gabler, C. Resch, F. Avian Diseases, Jan/Mar. 2002, v. 46 (1), p. 224-229. ref. ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL call no: 41.8 Av5

            Descriptors: stress, transport, handling, hematology, blood chemistry.

Abstract: In the present study, the influence of stress from handling and transport on some frequently examined blood parameters of racing pigeons was evaluated. After 3 hr. there was a highly significant (P<0.01) increase in the number as well as in the percentage of heterophils and decrease of lymphocytes. In clinical chemistries, increases of creatine kinase and glucose and a decrease or uric acid were observed. There was a mean decrease of the total white blood count of >15% that was less significant (P<0.05). Changes in lactate dehydrogenase, basophils, and monocytes did not prove to be significant; eosinophils, aspartate aminotransferase, total protein, and the packed cell volume were not influenced by stress.

 

Intersensory redundancy facilitates prenatal perceptual learning in bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) embryos. Lickliter, Robert; Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Honeycutt, Hunter. Developmental Psychology (US), Jan. 2002, v. 38 (1), p. 15-23. ISSN: 0012-1649.

            NAL call no: BF712.D46      

            Descriptors: conditioning, physiology, perception, sense organs. embryology.

Abstract: Information presented redundantly and in temporal synchrony across sensory modalities (intersensory redundancy) selectively recruits attention and facilitates perceptual learning in human infants. This comparative study examined whether intersensory redundancy also facilitates perceptual learning prenatally. The authors assessed quail (Colinus virginianus) embryos’ ability to learn a maternal call when it was (a) unimodal, (b) concurrent but asynchronous with patterned light, or (c) redundant and synchronous with patterned light. Chicks’ preference for the familiar over a novel maternal call was assessed 24 hr following hatching. Chicks receiving redundant , synchronous stimulation as embryos learned the call 4 times faster than those who received the unimodal exposure. Chicks who received asynchronous bimodal stimulation showed no evidence of learning. These results provide the first evidence that embryos are sensitive to redundant, bimodal information and that it can facilitate learning during the prenatal period.

 

Introduction to basic husbandry, handling and nutrition of caged birds. Keeble, E.J. Irish Veterinary Journal, 2002, v. 55 (5), p. 232-236. ref. ISSN: 0368-0762.

            NAL call no: 41.8 IR4

            Descriptors: animal feeding, husbandry, nutrition, diets, aviary birds.

Abstract: This paper provides information regarding the proper housing, welfare, nutrition and handling of budgerigars, parrots, canaries and other commonly kept pet birds.

 

Noninvasive methods for an individually relevant marking and identification of parrots and birds of prey. Kummerfeld, N.; Meyer, W.; Herrmann, R. Kleintierpraxis, 2002, v. 47 (4), p. 239-243. ref. ISSN: 0023-2076.

            NAL call no: 41.8 K67

Descriptors: identification, markers, photography, analytical methods, scale patterns, pedigram, craniograms, iridograms.

Abstract: Considering the currently used marking methods of birds by foot rings or microchip transponders, that might cause harm to the animals, the present study discusses the identification of parrots and birds of prey based on important natural markings that are registered as craniograms or iridograms. As a new approach in this connection, the making of a pedigram is demonstrated, which nay be done a photography of the pattern of the horny scales of the toes, or by the preparation of plastic castings of this scale pattern. The latter technique causes no pain, is non-invasive, and the resulting documents can be stored and managed in a practice-oriented way.

 

Pigeon allergens in indoor environments: A preliminary study. Curtis, L.; Lee, B.S.; Cai, D.; Morozova, I.; Fan, J.L.; Scheff, P.; Persky, V. Allergy (Denmark), Jul. 2002, v. 57 (7), p. 627-531. ISSN: 0105-4538 and, Comment in Allergy, Jul. 2002, v. 57 (7), p. 566-569.

            NAL call no: RC583.A5

            Descriptors: air pollution, allergens, dust, pigeons, immunology.

Abstract: Background: Few studies have measured pigeon allergens in non pigeon coop environments. This study was conducted to determine approximate coop pigeon dropping allergen concentrations in indoor environments. Methods: Polyclonal antibody serum was prepared by injecting a rabbit three times with Freund’s adjuvant. One hundred and fifteen dust samples were collected in a pigeon infested school, pigeon coops, homes and hospitals and analyzed by a direct competitive pigeon enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The highest level pigeon allergen inhibitory activity were recorded in four samples from pigeon coop bedding samples with a median activity of 11.2% relative to pigeon droppings. The second highest level of pigeon allergens was in a pigeon-infested high school with a median of 7.4% activity related to pigeon droppings. At an entrance underneath pigeon roosts, one sample had a relative inhibitory activity of 62.3%. Pigeon allergen inhibitory levels were generally low in the home and hospital samples, but nevertheless 46 out of 89 of these samples were still above detection limit. Conclusions: This study suggests that large concentrations of pigeon allergens can be found in buildings without domestic pigeons such as the pigeon-infested high school.

 

Pigeons. Redrobe, S. BSAVA Manual of Exotic Pets, 2002, Ed. 4. P. 168-178. British Small Animal veterinary Association, Quedgeley, UK. ISBN: 0905214471.

            NAL call no: SF981.B78

            Descriptors: anesthetics, aviaries, diagnosis, restraint, surgery, diseases.

 

A portable aviary for field observations of behavior. Van Why, Kyle R.; Williams, Christopher K.; Applegate, Roger D.; Flock, Brian E. Journal of Field Ornithology, Winter 2002, v. 73 (1), p. 20-22. ISSN: 0273-8570.

            NAL call no: 413.8 B534

            Descriptors: bird observation techniques, housing techniques, portable aviary.

 

[Some principles of canary breeding and rearing.] Florou, Paneri P. Deltion tes Ellenkes Kteniatrikes Etairelas. Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society, 2002, v. 53 (2), p. 162-171. ref. ISSN: 0257-2354. Note: In Greek.

            NAL call no: 41.8 So18

            Descriptors: animal anatomy, animal nutrition, aviary birds, feeding, reviews.

 

The Technology of Bobwhite Management: The Theory Behind the Practice. Guthery, F.S.; Guthery, F.S., 2002, xi. 215 pp. ref. ISBN: 0813808936.

            Descriptors: animal husbandry, physiology, habitats, wildlife management, dynamics.

Abstract: This book elaborates on the management of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), stressing theory-based management technologies. Population declines that started in the 2880s prevail over approximately three-fourths of the original range of C. virgininaus in the United States, indicating the threat of extinction. The different chapters discuss the bioenergetic and biophysical properties of bobwhites as well as their water requirements, a mathematical model to determine energy-based carrying capacity for subsequent application in the theory of habitat management, population dynamics of the species from a continental perspective, and demographic aspects in relation to the theory and practice of harvest management and population viability. Theories of habitat and habitat management are addressed.

 

 

2001

 

African Grey Parrots Everything about History, Care, Nutrition, Handling and Behavior. Wright, Maggie. Hauppauge, N.Y.: Barron’s c 2001. 95 p. ill. map. ref. ISBN: 0764110357.

            NAL call no: SF473.P3 W75 2001

            Descriptors: African grey parrot, husbandry, management.

 

Behavior of captive Bulwer’s wattled pheasants, Lophura bulweri (Galliformes: Phasianidae). Rowden, John. Zoo Biology, 2001, v. 20 (1), p. 15-25. ISSN: 0733-3188.

            NAL call no: QL77.5.Z6

Descriptors: captive observations, behavior, breeding programs, husbandry, male and female differences.

Abstract: Bulwer’s wattled pheasant (Lophura bulweri) have traditionally been housed in pairs in captivity, although it is unknown whether monogamy is the species natural mating system. In1998 we placed our group of 3.3 L. Bulweri together in a complex outdoor habitat, in order to investigate several questions. These included whether monogamous pairing was the natural mating system for the species, how the new grouping would affect their behavior, and what microhabitats the individuals preferred within the complex habitat. Initially, all six individuals remained in the same enclosure without conflict. After a period of approximately 6 weeks, 2.1 of these individuals were removed for their safety, due to increasingly aggressive interactions. The data we collected indicate that the species may have an exploded lek type of mating system in the wild and that individuals may flock together in the nonbreeding season. In addition, males and females seem to prefer different types of shade regimes. These results suggest ways to improve husbandry and breeding success of the species in captivity.

 

Behavioral aspects of captive birds of prey. Jones, Michael P. Veterinary Clinics of North America Exotic Animal Practice, Sept. 2001, v. 4 (3), p. 613-632. ISSN: 1094-0104.

            NAL call no: SF997.5.E95E97

            Descriptors: care in captivity, behavior, management, Falconiformes, Strigiformes.

 

Biting and screaming behavior in parrots. Wilson, Liz. Veterinary Clinics of North America Exotic Animal Practice, Sept. 2001, v. 4 (3), p. 641-650. ISSN: 1094-9194.

            NAL call no: SF997.5.E95E97

            Descriptors: care in captivity, biting, aggressive behavior, screaming, management.

 

The blue-faced parrotfinch, Erythrura trichroa. Kingston, Russell. Australian Aviculture, Dec. 2001, v. 55 (12), p. 273-275. ISSN: 1030-5440.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, Aves, Passeriformes, Erythrura trichroa.

 

Body condition and immune response in wild zebra finches: Effects of capture, confinement and captive rearing. Ewenson, E.L.; Zann, R.A.; Flannery, G.R. Die Naturwissenschaften (Germany), Sept. 2001, v. 88 (9), p. 391-394. ISSN: 0028-1042.

            NAL call no: SD79.A3E5

            Descriptors: songbirds, physiology, immunology, leucocyte count.

Abstract: Behavioral ecologists attempt to predict fitness in birds from estimates of body condition and immune capacity. We investigated how the stresses associated with capture, confinement and captive-rearing of wild zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) affected different elements of the immune system and body condition. Wild birds had higher heterophil:lymphocyte ratios and total leucocyte counts than aviary birds, presumably an outcome of mounting specific resistance to pathogens, but this response diminished significantly within 10 days of confinement. Wild birds had lower phytohaemagglutinin-A (PHA) responses than their aviary-bred counterparts possibly because energetic costs limited a general resistance response. Wild birds were heavier and had higher haematocrits than their aviary counterparts, but had less fat, although just 10 days of captivity significantly increased fat levels. Measures of body condition were of limited use for predicting immune responsiveness. We concluded that the different elements of the immune system and body condition respond independently, and often unpredictably, to many ecological and behavioural stressors.

 

Common fallacies about psittacine care. Ryan, Thomas. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Mid Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians, 2001, v. 22, p. 155-161.

            NAL call no: SF994.M52

            Descriptors: care in captivity, discussion of common fallacies, Psittaciformes, parrot family.

 

Corticosterone and insulin interact to regulate glucose and triglyceride levels during stress in a bird. Remage, Healey Luke; Romero, L. Michael. American Journal of Physiology, Sept. 2001, v. 281 (3 Part 2): R.994-R1003. ISSN: 0002-9513.

            NAL call no: 447.8.AM3

            Descriptors: hyperglycemia, metabolic disease, behavior, endocrine system.

Abstract: Captive European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were exposed to the stress of handling and restraint while corticosterone, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations were monitored in blood plasma. In saline-injected controls, basal samples ere taken within 3 min of disturbance with subsequent samples taken at 40, 70, and 150 min. This was repeated at two times during the daily cycle (day and night) on two different photoperiods: short and long days. During both photoperiods, corticosterone concentrations approximately tripled (compared with a sixfold increase in free-living starlings) and triglyceride concentrations decreased 25-45% in response to stress at both times of the day, whereas, an approx 25% stress-induced hyperglycemia occurred only at night. Exogenous corticosterone (200mug), 1.0 or 4.0 IU/kg of insulin, or a combination of corticosterone with each insulin dose was then separately administered to alter the above responses. Insulin did not affect corticosterone or triglyceride concentrations but resulted in a dose-dependent hypoglycemia of 10-40%. Injected corticosterone resulted in supraphysiological corticosterone concentrations (three to five fold higher than normal), yet it did not affect the already altered plasma glucose or triglyceride concentrations. This suggests that glucose output and triglyceride decreases were already maximal in response to handling and restraint. However, the low glucose concentrations resulting from exogenous insulin returned to basal quicker with exogenous corticosterone but only during the day. No response to either hormone showed photoperiodic differences. These data suggest that corticosterone’s role in metabolism changes to meet varying energetic demands throughout the day.

 

Deflighting procedures and their welfare implications in captive birds. Hesterman, H.; Gregory, N.G.; Boardman, W.S.J. Animal Welfare, Nov. 2001, v. 10 (4), p. 405-419. ISSN: 0962-7286.

            NAL call no: HV4701.A557

            Descriptors: deflighting procedures, animal welfare implications, captive birds.

Abstract: Deflighting is used to prevent large captive birds from escaping by limiting their ability to fly. This practice deprives birds of this normal behavior, but can allow them to express other behaviours that would be suppressed if they were confined to cages or aviaries. The potential negative welfare issues associated with deflighting include the stress of capture and restraint, pain and discomfort associated with the procedure and during recovery, risk of post-operative infections, risk of neuroma formation which could lead to pain, and loss of the ability to fly. The potential practical and welfare advantages of deflighting include a reduction in the need to closely confine or cage the birds to prevent them from escaping, and deflighting may be the only way of keeping particular birds in an open situation for display, such as in parks or zoos. In these respects, there must be a balance between the requirement for this practice and the welfare compromises it introduces for birds. By outlining temporary and permanent methods and the complications involved, the following review highlights potential welfare problems and discusses ways of avoiding them. It also evaluates the necessity of deflighting and the need for careful risk assessment.

 

Effect of melatonin on circadian rhythm, locomotor activity and body temperature in the intact house sparrow, Japanese quail and owl. Murakami, N.; Kawano, T.; Nakahara, K.; Nasu, T.; Shiota, K. Brain Research (Netherlands), Jan. 2001, v. 889 (1-2), p. 220-224. ISSN: 0006-8993.

            Descriptors: antioxidants, pharmacology, body temperature, drug effects, melatonin.

Abstract: We compared the effect of melatonin on circadian body rhythm, body temperature, and locomotion in the intact house sparrow, Japanese quail and owl. Daily treatment with melatonin at a fixed time did not entrain the free-running rhythm of locomotor activity in the house sparrow and the disrupted rhythm in Japanese quail under constant dim light. However, melatonin clearly inhibited movement for several hours after treatment. The duration of resting after injection of melatonin was dose-dependent. Body temperature was significantly decreased after melatonin treatment, the effect being more potent during the active phase than in the resting phase. Although this effect of melatonin on body temperature was also dose-dependent, the magnitude of the decrease in body temperature after injection of melatonin was greater in the house sparrow than in the Japanese quail. On the other hand, melatonin induced a further large decrease of body temperature in a nocturnal bird, the owl, whose pineal gland is degenerate. The decrease of body temperature was larger in the active phase than in the resting phase, and melatonin did not prevent movement in spite of the decrease in body temperature. These results suggest that the effects of melatonin differ among avian species, and that these mechanisms may not be linked to each other.

 

Elements for a turtle dove (Streptotelia turtur) management plan. Boutin, J.M. Game and Wildlife Science, Mar. 2001, v. 18 (1), p. 87-112. ref. ISSN: 1622-7662.

            Descriptors: Columbiformes, management, diet, habitats, wild animals.

 

Environmental enrichment for pet parrots. Evans, M. In Practice, Nov./Dec. 2001, v. 23 (10), p. 596-605. ref. ISSN: 0263-841X.

            NAL call no: SF601.I4

            Descriptors: parrots, pets, cage size, environmental enrichment, perches.

 

Fabricated trees. Grams, Kayla; Roletto, Jan. Animal Keeper’s Forum, 2001, v. 28 (2), p. 58-60. ISSN: 0164-9531.

            NAL call no: QL77.5.A54

            Descriptors: housing techniques, fabricated trees, enrichment for zoo enclosures, aviaries.

 

The Gouldian finch. Murray, Ray. Australian Aviculture, Nov. 2001, v. 55 (11), p. 245-249. ISSN: 1030-5440.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, restraint, sedation, surgery techniques, management.

 

High security housing. Oschadleus, Dieter. Africa Birds and Birding. Dec./Jan. 2001, v. 5 (6), p. 16. ISSN: 1025-8264.

            Descriptors: breeding site, barbed wire of security enclosure, habitat, captive birds.

 

Laboratory birds: Refinements in husbandry and procedures. Lab Animal. London: Royal Society Press Ltd. Oct. 2001, v. 35 (Suppl. 1), p. S1-S163. ref. ISSN: 0023-6772. Available: www.catchword.com/rsm/00236772/v35n4x1/contp1-1.htm

            NAL call no: QL55.A1L3

            Descriptors: birds, laboratory animals, diets, training, blood sampling, anesthesia.

 

Optimal conditions for breeding of captive Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti): a survey of British zoos. Blay, Nicola; Cote, Isabelle M. Zoo Biology, 2001, v. 20 (6), p. 545-555. ISSN: 0733-3188.

            NAL call no: QL77.5.Z6

            Descriptors: care in captivity, breeding programs, captive breeding.

Abstract: We surveyed 16 British zoos and bird gardens to assess the optimal conditions for breeding of captive Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti). We obtained information on population, enclosure, and husbandry characteristics and related these variables to three measures of per capita breeding success, namely, per capita egg productivity, chick productivity, and hatching success (measured as the proportion of eggs laid that hatched). All three fitness measures increased with an increasing number of breeding pairs and total population size bur were not related to population density. Once the effect of number of breeding pairs was removed statistically, chick productivity was found to be highest when nesting boxes were lined with sand and gravel instead of alternative substrata such as twigs or vegetation. Hatching success increased with increasing pool size and was highest in enclosures with concrete floors. Adult mortality in zoos was generally low and appeared related to the use of chlorine in freshwater pools and to the presence of other penguin species in Humboldt penguin displays. Several enclosures and husbandry parameters were not variable enough to assess their impact on reproduction of captive Humboldt penguins. Recommendations for optimising conditions for captive breeding of Humboldt penguins include keeping as large a population as possible in a concrete enclosure with a large pool area, while providing sand and gravel as nesting material. Bird density may be important but we did not detect detrimental effects on breeding for densities up to 0.25 birds m-2. Adult mortality can be minimised by exhibiting Humboldt penguins in single-species display and avoiding chlorination of pool water. An experimental approach is recommended to confirm the results of this correlation study.

 

Order Anseriformes (ducks, geese, swans). Captive management and medicine. Fowler, Murray E. Biology, Medicine and Surgery of South American Wild Animals. Fowler, Murray E.; Cubas, Zalmir S. (eds.). Iowa State University Press, Ames. 2001. i-x. 1-536 p. Chapter pagination: 105-114. ISBN: 0813828465.

            NAL call no: SF996.4.B56

            Descriptors: care in captivity, sedation, anesthesia, surgical techniques, management.

 

Order Ciconiiformes (herons, storks ibises). Management in captivity. Prudente do Amaral, Priscilla; Sanfilippo, Luiz Francisco. Biology, Medicine and Surgery of South American Wild Animals, Iowa State University Press, Ames. 2001. i-x. 1-536 p. Chapter pagination: 83-84. ISBN; 0813828465.

            NAL call no: SF996.4.B56

            Descriptors: care in captivity, captive management, Aves, Ciconiiformes.

 

Order Columbiformes (pigeons, doves). Medicine. Werther, Karin. Biology, Medicine and Surgery of South American Wild Animals, Fowler, Murray E.; Cubas, Zalmir S.; (eds.). Iowa State University Press, Ames. 2001, i-x. 1-536 p. Chapter pagination: 141-145. ISBN: 0813828465.

            NAL call no: SF996.4.B56

            Descriptors: Columbiformes, care in captivity, diseases, management, disorders.

 

Order Galliformes, family Cracidae. Crax blumenbachii preservation project. Motta de Avelar Azeredo, Roberto; Simpson, James G.P.; Barros, Lucia Paolinelli. Biology, Medicine and Surgery of South American Wild Animals, Fowler, Murray E.; Cubas, Zalmir S. (eds.). Iowa State University Press, Ames. 2001. i-x. 1-536 p. Chapter pagination: 136-138. ISBN: 0813828465.

            NAL call no: SF996.4.B56

            Descriptors: conservation measures, endangered status, care in captivity, Brazil.

 

Order Gruiformes (sun bitterns, trumpeters, rails). Cziulik, Marcia. Biology, Medicine and Surgery of South American Wild Animals. Fowler, Murray E.; Cubas, Zalmir S. (eds.). Iowa State University Press, Ames. 2001. i-x. 1-536 p. Chapter pagination: 133-135. ISBN: 0813828465.

            NAL call no: SF996.4.B56

            Descriptors: care in captivity, biology, captive management, reproductive techniques.

 

Order Phoenicopteriformes (flamingos). Fowler, Murray E. Biology, Medicine and Surgery of South American Wild Animals. Fowler, Murray E.; Cubas, Zalmir S. (eds.). Iowa State University Press, Ames. 2001. i-x. 1-536 p. Chapter pagination: 95-102. ISBN: 0813828465.

            NAL call no: SF996.4.B56

            Descriptors: care in captivity, physical restraint techniques, biology, anesthesia.

 

Order Piciformes (toucans, woodpeckers). Captive management: Family Ramphastidae (toucans). Jennings, Jerry. Biology, Medicine, and Surgery of South American Wild Animals. Fowler, Murray E.; Cubas, Zalmir S. (eds). Iowa State University Press, Ames. 2001, i-x. 1-536 p. Chapter pagination: 180-199. ref. ISBN: 0813828465.

            NAL call no: SF996.4.B56

            Descriptors: care in captivity, captive management, reproductive techniques.

 

Order Sphenisciformes (penguins). Fowler, Gene S.; Fowler, Murray E. Biology, Medicine and Surgery of South American Wild Animals. Fowler, Murray E.; Cubas, Zalmir, S. (eds). Iowa State University Press, Ames. 2001. i-x. 1-536 p. Chapter pagination: 53-64. ISBN: 0813828465.

            NAL call no: SF996.4.B56

            Descriptors: care in captivity, sedation, anesthesia, biology, surgical techniques.

 

Order Strigiformes (owls). Fowler, Murray E. Biology, Medicine and Surgery of South American Wild Animals. Fowler, Murray E; Cubas, Zalmir S. (eds.). Iowa State University Press, Ames. 2001. i-x. 1-536 p. Chapter pagination: 125-132. ISBN: 0813828465.

            NAL call no: SF996.4.B56

            Descriptors: care in captivity, physical restraining techniques, surgical techniques.

 

Order Tinamiformes (tinamous). Biology. Silveira, Luis Fabio; Hoefling, Elizabeth. Biology, Medicine and Surgery of South American Wild Animals, Iowa State University Press, Ames. 2001, i-x. 1-536 p. Chapter pagination: 72-74. ISBN: 0813828465.

            NAL call no: SF996.4.B56

            Descriptors: Tinamiformes, care in captivity, biology, captive management.

 

Order Trochiliiformes (hummingbirds). Orr, Kathlyn A.; Fowler, Murray E. Biology, Medicine and Surgery of South American Wild Animals, Fowler, Murray E.; Cubas Zalmir S. (eds.). Iowa State University Press, Ames. 2001, i-x. 1-536 p. Chapter pagination: 174-179. ISBN: 0813828465.

            NAL call no: SF996.4.B56

            Descriptors: care in captivity, physical restraining techniques, anesthesia, sedation.

 

Ostrich flock health. Black, Doug. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine, Jul. 2001, v. 10 (3), p. 117-130. ISSN: 1055-937X.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1S36

            Descriptors: care in captivity, flock health management, Struthio camelus.

 

Parrot behavior and management for avian veterinarians and avian technicians. Wilson, Liz. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Mid Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians, 2001, v. 22, p. 175-188.

            NAL call no: SF994.M52

            Descriptors: care in captivity, treatment techniques, behavior management.

 

Photo-schedule management in bird rearing. Zhang, LuQiang; Yang, ZenCai; Sun, RuYong; Zhang, L.Q.; Yang, Z.C.; Sun, R.Y. Chinese Journal of Zoology, 2001, v. 36 (4), p. 70-73. ref. ISSN: 0250-3263.

            NAL call no: QL1.T8

            Descriptors: light regime, artificial light, photoperiod, lighting, reproduction.

Abstract: Serving as an important ecological factor, light may be used to alter the rules of bird reproduction. Photo-schedule management may potentially extend the reproductive period and break the seasonality of reproduction. The principles of using a photo-schedule for bird-rearing are presented, and the effects of light management on reproduction are discussed.

 

Quail raising tips. Anon. Agriculture, Apr. 2001, v. 5 (4), p. 24-25. ISSN: 0118-8577.

            Descriptors: quail, breeds, housing, feeding, temperature, waste.

 

The Sibley Guide to Bird Life & Behavior. 1st Ed. Sibley, David, 1961; Elphick, Chris.; Dunning, John B.; New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2001. 588 p. ill. maps. ISBN: 0679451234.

            NAL call no: QL681.S495 2001

            Descriptors: birds, North America, behavior.

 

 

2000

 

Aerodynamic control by the avian tail. Rayner, J.M.V..; Maybury, W.J.; Couldrick, L.B. American Zoologist, Dec. 2000, v. 40 (6), p. 1183. ISSN: 0003-1569.

            NAL call no: 410 AM3

            Descriptors: aerodynamic control, body drag reduction, flight stability, tails, body drag.

Abstract: The bird tail has been credited as a means of controlling stability and manoeuverability in flight and as a supplementary lifting organ, but others have emphasized its role in sexual selection and display. Theoretical models of tail aerodynamics based on slender wing theory have not hitherto been tested. Flow visualization and force measurements with mounted European starling Stumus vulgaris reveal the geometry of vortices around the tail, and the effect of the tail on airflow around the body. Lift from the spread starling tail at low speeds is strongly influenced by the presence of the body and does not correspond to predictions of slender wing theory. A furled tail has an important effect on body aerodynamics, it acts as a splitter plate, controlling the onset of separation on the anterior part of the body, and reducing parasite drag significantly. Flow control and body drag reduction is hypothesized to be the major role of the tail in normal forward flight, although the tail plays varied roles in different species. It probably evolved from a balancing, and heavy, bony tail in bipedal theropods.

 

Behavior dysfunction in captive psittacine birds: A “F-T-H-R” in your cap: Practical guidelines to parrot behavior. D’Arezzo, C.; Pepperberg, I.M. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, 2000, v. 14, p. 904-906.

            NAL call no: SF605.N672

            Descriptors: Psittaciformes, behavior problems, parrot family, pets.

 

Bird Nests and Construction Behaviour. Hansell, Michael H., 1940. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000, xii. 280 p. ref. ISBN: 0521460387.

            NAL call no: QL675.H34 2000

            Descriptors: bird nests, design and construction, birds behavior.

 

The care and maintenance of the captive cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo. Finney, J.K. Animal Technology, 2000, v. 51 (1), p. 37-46. ref. ISSN: 0264-4754.

            NAL call no: QL55.I5

            Descriptors: animal husbandry, health, enrichment, behavior, welfare, hygiene.

 

Care of orphan birds. Ackermann, J.; Bonagura, J.D. Kirk’s Current Veterinary Therapy XIII: Small Animal Practice, 2000, p. 1101-1104. ref. ISBN: 0721655238. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia.

            NAL call no: SF745 K57

            Descriptors: artificial rearing, animal housing, nutrition, diets.

 

A criacao de tuins (Forpus spp.) em cativeiro. [Captive breeding of parrots (Forpus spp.).] Antunes, S. Melopsittacus, 2000, v. 3 (1), p. 45-47. ref. Note: In Portuguese.

            Descriptors: animal breeding, animal husbandry, Psittaciformes.

 

Environmental enrichment for psittacines at Edinburgh Zoo. Feld, D.A.; Thomas, R. International Zoo Yearbook, 2000, v. 37, p. 232-237. ISSN: 0074-9664.

            NAL call no: QL76.I5

            Descriptors: bird care in captivity, environmental enrichment, Psittaciformes, Aves, UK.

 

Galliformes. Coles, Brian H. Avian Medicine, Tully, Thomas N. Jr.; Lawton, Martin P.C.; Dorrestein, Gerry M. (eds.). Butterworth, Heinemann, Oxford & Woburn. 2000. i-xiv. 1-411 p. Chapter pagination: 266-295. ISBN: 0750635983.

            NAL call no: SF994.A93

            Descriptors: care in captivity, fowl, diseases, parasites, disorders, veterinary procedures.

 

Husbandry and breeding of blue-eyed cockatoos Cacatua ophthalmica at Chester Zoo 1966-1998. Wilkinson, R.; Pilgrim, M.; Woolham, A.; Morris, A.; West, B. International Zoo Yearbook, 2000, v. 37, p. 116-125. ISSN: 0074-9664.

            NAL call no: QL76.I5

            Descriptors: care in captivity, husbandry, breeding programs.

 

Husbandry, breeding and hand rearing of salmon-crested cockatoo Cacatua moluccensis at Loro Parque Fundacion, Puerto de la Cruz. Sweeney, R.G. International Zoo Yearbook, 2000, v. 37, p. 130-137. ISSN: 0074-9664.

            NAL call no: QL76.I5

            Descriptors: care in captivity, hand rearing, rearing techniques, captive breeding.

 

Husbandry and breeding of palm cockatoos Probosciger aterrimus at Rotterdam Zoo. King, C.E. International Zoo Yearbook, 2000, v. 37, p. 69-80. ISSN: 0074-9664.

            NAL call no: QL76.I5

            Descriptors: care in captivity, husbandry, reproductive techniques.

 

The husbandry of fairy wrens. O’Grady, Bob. Bird Keeping in Australia, Jul. 2000, v. 43 (7), p. 100-103. ISSN: 0045-2076.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, husbandry notes, fairy wrens.

 

Husbandry and management of Kea Nestor notabilis at Paradise Park, Hayle. Woolcock, D. International Zoo Yearbook, 2000, v. 37, p. 146-152. ISSN: 0074-9664.

            NAL call no: QL76.I5

            Descriptors: care in captivity, husbandry, breeding programs, captive breeding.

 

Keeping Indian scops owl. Chester, Mark. Tyto, Sept. 2000, v. 5(3), p. 134-137. ISSN: 1363-4380.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, housing techniques, aviary layout, nest sites.

 

A madarak egyedi azonositasi lehetosegei. [Possibilities for individual identification of birds.] Molnar, V.; Beregi, A.; Lukacs, Z.J. Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja, 2000, v. 122 (5), p. 259-262. ref. ISSN: 0025-004X. Note: In Hungarian.

            NAL call no: 41.8 V644

            Descriptors: identification, birds.

Maintenance of a captive flock of house finches free of infection by Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Nolan, P.M.; Duckworth, R.A.; Hill, G.E.; Roberts, S.R. Avian Diseases, Oct./Dec. 2000, v. 44 (4), p. 948-952. ref. ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL call no: 41.8 Av5

            Descriptors: flocks, epidemics, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, incidence, bacterial disease, eyes.

Abstract: Since the beginning of an epidemic of conjunctivitis in wild house finches caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), all captive colonies established by capturing free-ranging house finches from the eastern population have also either been infected at the time of capture or developed infection shortly after capture. In an attempt to avoid this infection in captive flocks being maintained for studies of the finches’ behavior and ecology, we compared two different flock management strategies and were able to prevent the development of mycoplasmal conjunctivitis with one of the strategies. Single-sex flocks were built by introducing only seronegative wild-caught birds showing no clinical signs of conjunctivitis and covering their outdoor flight cages with netting to prevent interaction with other wild birds although only the female flocks were initially treated with a 6-wk course of tylosin tartrate (0.3 mg/ml). The female flocks never developed conjunctivitis although the disease did develop in the male flocks. Furthermore, serologic assessments of the healthy flock by serum plate agglutination assays for MG indicated that the females remained free of MG infection in the final 7 wk of the study, during which they were unmedicated. We concluded that any low-level MG infection not diagnosed by the initial test for seroconversion was cleared by the prolonged drug treatment.

 

Management guidelines for the welfare of zoo animals. Birds of prey in flying demonstrations. Second edition. Parry-Jones, Jemima. Federation of Zoological Gardens of Great Britain and Ireland, London, 2000. i-iii. p. 1-44, i-xiii.

            NAL call no: QL76.L44

            Descriptors: flying demonstrations, welfare, care in captivity, management guidelines.

 

Management guidelines for the welfare of zoo animals. Falconiformes (diurnal birds of prey). Parry-Jones, Jemima. Federation of Zoological Gardens of Great Britain and Ireland, London, 2000, i-iii. 1-44 p., i-xiii.

            NAL call no: QL76.L44

            Descriptors: welfare, care in captivity, falcons, management guidelines, welfare in zoos.

 

Management and husbandry of black cockatoos Calyptorhynchus spp. In captivity. King, C.E.; Heinhuis, H.; Brouwer, K. International Zoo Yearbook, 2000, v. 37, p. 87-116. ISSN: 0074-9664.

            NAL call no: QL76.I5

            Descriptors: care in captivity, captive management and husbandry, review.

 

Neonatal handling of Amazon parrots alters the stress response and immune function. Collette, J.C.; Millam, J.R.; Klasing, K.C.; Wakenell, P.S. Applied animal Behavior Science, Mar. 2000, v. 66 (4), p. 335-349. ref. ISSN: 0168-1591.

            NAL call no: QL750.A6

            Descriptors: Amazona, tameness, restraint, blood serum, antibody formation.

 

Owl play. Marshall, Ian. Tyto, Feb. 2000, v. 4 (5), p. 145-146. ISSN: 1363-4380.

            Descriptors: housing techniques, courtship, play items, interactions.

 

Passerines and exotic softbills. Dorrestein, Gerry M. Avian Medicine, Tully, Thomas N. Jr.; Lawton, Martin P.C.; Dorrestein, Gerry M. (eds.). Butterworth, Heinemann, Oxford & Woburn. 2000, i-xiv. 1-411 p. Chapter pagination: 144-179. ISBN: 0750635983.

            NAL call no: SF994.A93

            Descriptors: bird care in captivity, veterinary techniques, diseases, parasites.

 

Pigeon therapeutics. Harlin, R.W. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice, Jan. 2000, v. 3 (1), p. 19-34. ISSN: 1094-9194.

            NAL call no: SF997.E95E97

            Descriptors: bird diseases, drug therapy, nutrition, bacterial infections, prevention.

Abstract: This article examines therapeutics for pigeons, discussing their physiology and reproduction, housing, and nutrition. The author also looks at ways to prevent infection, while discussing treatments for various viral diseases, such as paramyxovirus and pigeon herpesvirus, bacterial infections, such as paratyphoid, and parasitic diseases. Drug dosages are listed for antibiotics, antifungals, antiparasitics, and vaccines.

 

Psittacine birds. Harcourt-Brown, Nigel H. Avian Medicine, Tully, Thomas N. Jr.; Lawton, Martin P.C.; Dorrestein, Gerry M. (eds.). Butterworth, Heinemann, Oxford & Woburn. 2000. i-xiv. 1-411 p. Chapter pagination: 112-143. ISBN: 0750635983.

            NAL call no: SF994.A93

            Descriptors: care in captivity, diseases, parasites, Psittaciformes, parrot family.

 

The purple-bellied parrot Triciaria malachitacea: Its biology and husbandry. Cornejo. Juan. Avicultural Magazine, 1999, v. 105 (1), p. 26-39. ISSN: 0005-2256.

            NAL call no: QL671.A9

            Descriptors: care in captivity, husbandry, biology and conservation.

 

Raptors. Redig, Patrick T.; Ackermann, Janette. Avian Medicine, Tully Thomas N. Jr.; Lawton, Martin P.C.; Dorrestein, Gerry M. (eds.). Butterworth, Heinemann, Oxford & Woburn. 2000, i-xiv. 1-411 p. Chapter pagination: 180-214. ISBN: 0750635983.

            NAL call no: SF994.A93

            Descriptors: care in captivity, birds of prey, pathological techniques, diseases, parasites.

 

Refinements in Laboratory Bird Husbandry. Hawkins, P.; Balls, M. (ed); Zeller, A.M.(ed); Halder, M.E. Progress in the Reduction, Refinement and Replacement of Animal Experimentation: Proceedings of the 3rd World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences, Bologna, Italy. Aug. 29-Sept 2, 1999. 2000. p. 1313-1318. ref. Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, NE.

            NAL call no: QL1.D48

            Descriptors: animal experiments, animal welfare, cages, laboratory animals.

 

Seabirds. Robinson, Ian. Avian Medicine, Tully, Thomas N. Jr.; Lawton, Martin P.C.; Dorrestein, Gerry M. (eds.). Butterworth, Heinemann, Oxford & Woburn, 2000, i-xiv. 1-411 p. Chapter pagination: 339-363.

            NAL call no: SF994.A93

            Descriptors: Aves, care in captivity, sea birds, diseases, veterinary procedures.

 

The Swift Parakeet. Laubscher, Cyril. Published by the author for the Parrot Society UK, Opington, 1999. p. 1-48. ISBN: 0950030651.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, housing and breeding, diet in captivity.

 

Training and enrichment models for avian exhibits. Mellen, Jill. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Annual Conference Proceedings, 2000, p. 49-54.

            NAL call no: QL76.5.U6A472

            Descriptors: Aves, bird care in captivity, training, enrichment models for exhibits.

 

Transportation of ostriches - a review. Wotton, S.B.; Hewitt, L. Veterinary Record, 1999, v. 145 (25), p. 725-731. ref. ISSN: 0041-4900.

            NAL call no: 41.8 V641

            Descriptors: reviews, transport of animals, behavior, stress, mortality, handling, animal welfare.

 

Waterfowl. Routh, Andy; Sanderson, Stephanie. Avian Medicine, Tully, Thomas N. Jr.; Lawton, Martin P.C.; Dorrestein, Gerry M. (eds.). Butterworth, Heinemann, Oxford & Woburn, 2000, i-xiv, 1-411 p. Chapter pagination: 234-265. ISBN: 0750635983.

            NAL call no: SF994.A93

            Descriptors: care in captivity, Anseriformes, veterinary procedures, diseases, ducks, geese.

 

 

1999

 

Australian Model Code of Practice for the Welfare of Animals: Husbandry of Captive Bred Emus. Australia, Standing Committee on Agriculture and Resource Management, 1999, 12 pp. SCARM report 69. CSIRO Publishing Co. Collingwood, Australia. ISBN: 0643064125.

            NAL call no: SF511.5 E46A35 1999

            Descriptors: emu husbandry, animal welfare, guidelines, code of practice.

Abstract: This Code is intended as a guide for all people responsible for the welfare and husbandry of emus that are bred and/or reared in captivity.

 

Behaviour in natural and captive environments. Deeming, D.C.; Bubier, N.E.; Deeming, D.C. The Ostrich: Biology, Production and Health, 1999, p. 83-104. ref. CABI Publishing Co. Wallingford, UK. ISBN: 0851993508.

            NAL call no: SF511.0774-1999

            Descriptors: animal husbandry, reviews, animal behavior, age, ostrich.

 

A behavioral test of presbycusis in the bird auditory system. Langermann, U.; Hamann, I.; Friebe, A. Hearing Research, Nov. 1999, v. 137 (1-2), p. 68-76. ISSN: 0378-5955.

            Descriptors: presbycusis, ear disease, auditory system, behavior, starlings, various ages.

Abstract: Absolute auditory thresholds were determined behaviorally in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) between the age of 6 months and up to 13 years using a GO/NOGO procedure. The thresholds that we observed in individual starlings over a time period of 11 years showed no systematic increase over time. When comparing young starlings (age 6 to 12 months) with old starlings (age 8 to 13 years), we discovered no substantial age-related hearing loss. In the frequency range from 0.5 to 4 kHz, the thresholds of old subjects were on average increased by 1.5 to 3 dB. For frequencies of 6 and 8 kHz, the mean threshold increase of old subjects was 6.1 and 4.9dB, respectively. This demonstrates excellent hearing in subjects that had lived on average more than five times the starlings demographic life-span of 22 months. This result is discussed with respect to the large threshold shift usually found in aging mammals and tp differences between the bird and the mammalian auditory system.

 

Breeding Neophema parrots in suspended cages. Powells, Barry. Australian Aviculture, Nov. 1999, v. 53 (11), p. 254-255. ISSN: 1030-5440.

            Descriptors: diet in captivity, housing techniques, suspended cages, relationships.

 

Care and management of poultry in the laboratory. Klopp, S. Poultry and Avian Biology Reviews, 1999, v. 10 (2), p. 97-99. ref.

            NAL call no: QL698.C7

            Descriptors: poultry, laboratory animals, research, animal husbandry.

 

Criacao de azulhao. [Grosbeak rearing.] Pacini-Tostes, Aloisio. Atualidades Ornitologicas, Jul./Aug. 1999, v. 90, p.6. ISSN: 0104-2386. Note: In Portuguese.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, husbandry and breeding, biological notes.

 

Criacao de pintassilgo. [Rearing of finches of the genus Carduelis.] Pacini-Tostes, Aloisio. Atualidades Ornitologicas, May/Jun. 1999, v. 89, p. 5. ISSN: 0104-2386. Note: In Portuguese.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, husbandry and breeding, reproductive techniques.

 

Development of body temperature regulation in ostrich chicks. Brown, C.R.; Prior, S.A. British Poultry Science, Sept. 1999, v. 40 (4), p. 529-535. ISSN: 0007-1668.

            NAL call no: 47.8 B77

            Descriptors: body temperature regulation, young ostriches, growth and development.

Abstract: Information in the literature indicates that young ostrich chicks, despite being precocial, are poor thermoregulators and may take between 8 and 12 weeks to develop efficient homeothermy. We measured the body temperatures (Tb) of young ostrich chicks (1 to 10 d) at ambient temperatures between 13° and 28° C under controlled conditions in the laboratory and under typical farm-rearing conditions to assess their ability to thermoregulate. Even 1-d-old ostriches could maintain a Tb above 36° C at temperatures of 20 degrees C and older chicks maintained a Tb above 36° C at temperatures of 13° C in a constant temperature room. Chicks from 2-d-old could maintain adult T(b)s outdoors under a wide range of ambient temperatures and weather conditions. We concluded that ostrich chicks have well developed homeothermy soon after hatching and that some of the higher rearing temperatures recommended in the literature are unnecessary. In appropriate climates, chicks can be allowed outdoors soon after hatching provided they are not exposed to unfavorable weather conditions. Thermoregulation is, however, energetically expensive and thermoregulatory behavior such as huddling may compete with other important activities like feeding.

 

Enrichment Notebook, 2nd ed. Stark, Beth. American Association of Zoo Keepers, Enrichment Committee. c1999. 1 v. (loose leaf): ill, forms.

            NAL call no: SF408.45.A44 1999

            Descriptors: zoo animals, environmental enrichment, feeding, feeds, manuals.

 

Evidence of sperm storage in the female ostrich. Swan, R.A.; Sicouri, O. Australian Veterinary Journal, Oct. 1999, v. 77 (10), p. 649-650. ISSN: 0005-0423.

            NAL call no: 41.8 AU72

            Descriptors: fertility, physiology, ostriches physiology, spermatozoa physiology, fertile eggs.

Abstract: Objective: To determine the length of time following mating that fertile eggs can be laid by an ostrich (Struthio camelus). Design: A clinical reproductive problem in a pair of breeding ostriches provided the opportunity to mate the birds at intervals of 5 to 8 days and assess the fertility of eggs laid. Procedure: Following prolapse of the phallus of the male ostrich during the breeding season, the pair were immediately separated. The hen was reintroduced to the cock at intervals of 5 to 8 days over a 6 week period for supervised mating. Records were kept of dates of mating and laying, number of eggs laid, egg weights, and fertility determined by candling after 2 weeks incubation. Results: Over the 6 week period, 10 eggs were laid, of which 8 were fertile and 2 infertile. Fertile eggs weighed 1020 to 1285 g (mean 1143). The two infertile eggs weighed 1160 and 925 g. Six fertile eggs were laid 2 to 7 days after mating. The remaining two fertile eggs were laid the same days that mating occurred, suggesting that fertilization resulted from the last matings 5 and 8 days previously, or from earlier matings. Conclusions: Sperm storage occurs in ostrich hens and fertile eggs can be laid for at least 5 to 8 days after copulation. Further studies are required to demonstrate the maximum period during which stored sperm are capable of successful fertilization.

 

Grooming. Ryan, Thomas. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Mid Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1999, v. 20. p. 42-46.

            NAL call no: SF994.M52

            Descriptors: Aves, bird care in captivity, wing, nail and beak trimming, recommendations.

 

Husbandry (aviary birds). Ryan, T.; Roston, M.A. (ed); Marx, K.L. Proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference on Avian Medicine and Surgery, Apr. 25-27, 1999, Mid-Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians. Baltimore, MD. 1999. p 42-45. ref.

            NAL call no: SF994.M52

            Descriptors: pets, aviary birds, diets, cages, perches.

 

Husbandry. Ryan, Thomas. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Mid Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1999, v. 20, p. 42-45.

            NAL call no: SF994.M52

            Descriptors: Aves, bird care in captivity, review, recommendations.

 

Husbandry and breeding of the Papuan mountain pigeon Gymnophaps albertisii at Vogelpark Walsrode. Muller, Martina. Avicultural Magazine, 1999, v. 105 (2), p. 72-76. ISSN: 0005-2256.

            NAL call no: QL671.A9

            Descriptors: care in captivity, husbandry, Aves.

 

Husbandry and care of quail. Ottinger, M.A.; Rattner, B.A. Poultry and Avian Biology Reviews, 1999, v. 10 (2), p. 117-120. ref. ISSN: 1357-048X.

            NAL call no: QL698.C7

            Descriptors: physiology, biochemistry, quail, husbandry, care.

 

Husbandry and care of passerine birds. Harding, C.F. Poultry and Avian Biology Review, Middlesex, UK: Science and Technology Letters, 1999, v. 10 (2), p. 79-83. ISSN: 1357-048X.

            NAL call no: QL698.C7

            Descriptors: husbandry, care, passerine birds, perching birds.

 

Husbandry and care of research parrot colonies. Millam, J.R. Poultry and Avian Biology Reviews, 1999, v. 10 (2), p. 85-89. ref. ISSN: 1357-048X.

            NAL call no: QL698.C7

            Descriptors: animal husbandry, laboratory animals, aviary birds, animal health.

 

Keas in captivity. Roberts, Jennie. Ratel, Oct. 1999, v. 26 (5), p. 189-200. ISSN: 0305-1218.

            NAL call no: QL77.5.R37

            Descriptors: care in captivity, Nestor notabilis, Psittacidae.

 

Medical management of the California condor. Ensley, Philip K. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy, 4th ed. Fowler, Murray E.; Miller, R. Eric. W.B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia, London. 1999, i-xxiii, 1-747 p. Chapter pagination: 277-292. ISBN: 0721686648.

            NAL call no: SF996 Z66 1999

            Descriptors: care in captivity, medical management, captive husbandry.

 

New handling techniques for the avian patient. Davis, Christine. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine. Oct. 1999, v. 8 (4), p. 178-182. ISSN: 1055-937X.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1S36

            Descriptors: handling techniques, treatment methods, restraining techniques, birds.

 

The Ostrich: Biology, Production and Health. Deeming, D.C. CABI Publishing; Wallingford, UK. ISBN: 0851993508.

            NAL call no: SF511.O774 1999

            Descriptors: animal production, animal health, biology.

Abstract: This multiauthor book is intended to serve as the reference text on ostrich biology, production and health, for many yers to come. Following an introductory chapter on the species, the subsequent 12 chapters cover (1) anatomy, (2), physiology, (3) behavior in natural and captive environments, (4) basic concepts and recent advances in digestion and nutrition, (5) reproduction, (6) factors affecting success of commercial incubation, (7) rearing environments around the world, (8) welfare, (9) slaughter and products, (10) breeding and genetics, (11) veterinary problems, and (12) health management and veterinary procedures. There is a subject index.

 

Parrot behavior and management for avian veterinarians and avian technicians. Wilson, Liz. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Mid Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1999, v. 20, p. 1-14.

            NAL call no: SF994.M52

            Descriptors: care in captivity, behavior management techniques, behavior in captivity.

 

Reproductive management of captive parrots. Millam, J.R. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice, Jan. 1999, v.2 (1), p. 93-110. ISSN: 1094-9194.

            NAL call no: SF997.5.E95E97

            Descriptors: animal husbandry, parrots, physiology, reproduction, behavior, egg laying.

Abstract: Studies of the behavior of Amazon parrots throughout a reproductive trial indicate that activities such as food gathering, which may occupy large fractions of the activity budget of wild parrots, occupy little time in captivity. This may be one factor contributing to the large percentage of time during which Amazon parrots are generally inactive in typical captive conditions. The extent of inactivity in captive Amazons creates an open time niche wherein enrichment devices might play a role in improving their well being. Studies of the reproductive endocrinology and the behavior of parrots suggest that hand rearing may impair adult fertility and nest box use. Hand rearing may also cause Cockatiels to lay eggs on cage floors rather than in nest boxes. However, the use of nest boxes with oversized nest entrances can be very effective in alleviating chronic floor laying Cockatiels. Another egg-laying problem in Cockatiels, unwanted egg laying, can be prevented by the use of long-acting formulations of the superactive GnRH agonists, leuprolide acetate, which presumably [figure: see text] acts in birds, as in mammals, by down-regulating pituitary GnRH receptors. Manipulations to limit the increase in prolactin normally seen during incubation in poultry can significantly increase egg production. As clutch size in Cockatiels may also be limited by raising prolactin levels, such manipulations may be effective in stimulating egg production in parrots. An alternative approach for increasing flock-egg production is to place foster eggs in nests of Cockatiel pairs that are slow to lay. This technique stimulates males to increase their nest-oriented behavior and, subsequently, may stimulate egg laying in some females that might not otherwise have laid eggs. The parental phases of reproduction in Amazon parrots are often a time of heightened aggressiveness towards humans, but low levels of serum testosterone in males during that time suggests that this particular interspecies aggressiveness may not be dependent on elevated testosterone levels. Occasional human handling during the nestling stage may produce a degree of tameness comparable with hand-reared chicks, yet not impair adult reproductive performance. Such handling mau also alter the immune status of captive parrots, and possibly reduce the serum corticosterone response to handling. If so, occasional human handling during the nestling stage could improve the adaptation of parrots to captivity.

 

Taming parent-reared orange-winged Amazon parrots by neonatal handling. Aengus, W.L.; Millam, J.R. Zoo Biology, 1999, v. 18 (3), p. 177-187. ref. ISSN: 0733-3188. www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0733-3188

            NAL call no: QL77.5.Z6

            Descriptors: Amazona, tameness, animal husbandry, aggressive behavior.

 

Transportation of ostriches-a review. Wotton, S.B.; Hewitt, L. The Veterinary Record, Dec. 18/25, 1999, v. 145 (25), p. 725-731. ref. ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL call no: 41.8 V641

            Descriptors: ostriches, transport, handling, stress, space requirements.

 

A tropical owl called spectacled owl. Krahe, R.G. S.C.R.O. Annual Report, 1999, v. 4, p. 12-23.

            NAL call no: SF82.W57

            Descriptors: diet in captivity, housing techniques, rearing techniques.

 

Turacos: Husbandry, management, and medical considerations. Phalen, David N.; Tocidlowski, Maryanne; Faske, Jay; Faske, Suzanne. Birds and All That Jazz. Proceedings of the 20th Annual conference & Expo, Sept. 1-3, 1999. Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1999, i-x. 1-449 p, Chapter pagination: 187-203.

            NAL call no: SF994.M52

            Descriptors: biological notes, bird care in captivity, blood, hematological parameters.

 

The UFAW Handbook on the Care and Management of Laboratory Animals, Vol. 1. Terrestrial Vertebrates. Poole, T. Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, 1999, ed. 7, xiii. 840 pp. ref. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, UK. ISBN: 0632051310.

            NAL call no: QL55.U5 1999

            Descriptors: animal husbandry, animal welfare, animal housing, laboratory animals.

Abstract: The new edition of this leading textbook on laboratory animals is the work of 60 contributors, and it incorporates numerous improvements in husbandry, arising from experience gained since the previous edition of 1987. The text deals with mammals (30 chapters), birds (6 chapters) and reptiles (one chapter). Each chapter describes biological features, housing, breeding, feeding and common welfare problems of a given species. Thus there are 31 pages on mice, 18 on rats, 22 on guinea pigs, and 20 on dogs. Primates are the subject of 9 chapters. Amphibians and fish are dealt with in the accompanying volume 2.

 

Use of light in aviculture and avian medicine. Ryan, Thomas. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Mid Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1999, v. 20, p. 69-76.

            NAL call no: SF994.M52

            Descriptors: bird care in captivity, treatment techniques, light and behavior modification.

 

Waterfowl: Health and Management. UK Wildlife Information Network. 1999.

            Descriptors: waterfowl, diseases, management, husbandry, toxicology.

Abstract: This multimedia CE-ROM contains text and pictures on the diseases and the management of many different species of waterfowl from around the world. The information is backed up by references and includes techniques on general field procedures, recording and submitting specimens, specimen collection and preservation, specimen shipment, and disease control operations. The data can be accessed via the species of waterfowl, the infectious or non-infectious agents, or by the environmental factors. The species list, which contains about 160 species of mainly geese, ducks and swans includes common names in several languages. The CD can be searched through a web browser and contains Internet links. This will be of great interest to veterinarians and others those involved in management of waterfowl in zoos or in the wild.

 

Water quality for a water fowl collection. Cambre, Richard C. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, 4th ed. Fowler, Murray E.; Miller, R. Eric. W.B. Saunders, Co. Philadelphia, London. 1999, i-xxiii. 1-747 p. Chapter pagination: 292-299. ISBN: 0721686648.
NAL call no: SF996 Z66 1999

            Descriptors: water quality requirements, housing techniques, man made habitat, captive birds.

 

Welfare. Mitchell, M.A.; Deeming, D.C. The Ostrich: Biology, Production and Health, 1999, p. 217-230. ref. ISBN: 0851993508.

            NAL call no: SF511.O774 1999

            Descriptors: reviews, animal welfare, animal husbandry, ostriches.

 

 

1998

 

Abnormal behavior in caged birds kept as pets. Van Hoek, Caroline S.; Ten Cate, Carel. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 1998, v. 1 (1), p. 51-64. ISSN: 1088-8705.

            NAL call no: HV701.J68

            Descriptors: housing techniques, abnormal behavior, caged individuals, prevention.

 

Appreciating avian intelligence: The importance of a proper domestic environment. Davis, C. 1997 AVMA Animal Welfare Forum: Pet Bird Welfare, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 1998, v. 212 (8), p. 1220-1222. ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL call no: 41.8 AM3

            Descriptors: aviary birds, animal behavior, mental ability, environment, pets.

 

[Basic studies on the practical farming of the ostrich]. Saito, T.; Rasa, F.S.T.; Osaka, H.; Sitizyo, K. Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, 1998, v. 51, p. 117-122. ref. ISSN: 0372-0349. Note: In Japanese.

            NAL call no: 513 T64

            Descriptors: animal husbandry, animal housing, ostriches.

 

Beginners’ tips for pigeon and dove keeping. Brickell, N.; Thomason, N. Avizandum, Mar. 1998, p. 9-11.

            Descriptors: feeding, pigeons, doves, Columbiformes, useful animals, pets.

 

Behavioral evidence for individual recognition in Japanese quail. Riters, L.V.; Balthazart, J. Behaviour, Jul. 1998, v. 135 (5), p. 551-578. ISSN: 0005-7959.

            NAL call no: 410 B393

            Descriptors: quails, behavior, reproduction, males, females, physiological functions.

 

Bird Care and Training. Higdon, Pam. Howell Book House, N.Y., c 1998. 126 pp. ill. ref. ISBN: 0876052278.

            NAL call no: SF461.H54 1998

            Descriptors: cage birds, training, animal care.

 

Captive birds of prey and environmental enrichment: Results of a field survey. Tardona, Daniel R.; Tardona, Jayne H. Animal Keeper’s Forum, Dec. 1998, v. 25 (12), p. 471-481. ISSN: 0164-9531.

            NAL call no: QL77.A54

            Descriptors: housing techniques, environmental enrichment, raptors.

 

Captive management of birds for a lifetime. Clubb, S.L. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Apr. 15, 1998, v. 212 (8), p. 1243-1245. ref. ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL call no: 41.8 Am3

            Descriptors: birds, pet care, lifespan, animal welfare, developmental stages.

 

Code of recommendations and minimum standards for the welfare of ostrich and emu. New Zealand, Animal Welfare Advisory Committee, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, 1998. 21 p; 30 cm. Code of Animal Welfare, no. 21. ISBN: 047807476X. ISSN: 1171-090X.

            NAL call no: HV4890.4.A3C63 no. 21

            Descriptors: code of recommendations, minimum standards, ostrich, emu.

 

The Complete Guide to Bird Care. Alderton, David. Howell Book House, N.Y. c1998, 112 pp. ill. ISBN: 0876050380.

            NAL call no: SF461.A547 1998

            Descriptors: cage birds, care.

 

Development of microsatellite markers for parentage typing of chicks in the ostrich, Struthio camelus. Kimwele, C.N.; Graves, J.A.; Burke, T.; Hanotte, O.; Molecular Ecology, 1998, v. 7 (2), p. 249-251. ref. ISSN: 0962-1083.

            NAL call no: QH540.M64

            Descriptors: microsatellites, ostrich, DNA, genetics, ancestry.

 

Effect of winter climatic conditions on the behaviour of adult ostriches (Struthio camelus) on a British farm. Deeming, D.C. Animal Welfare, 1998, v. 7 (3), p. 307-315. ref. ISSN: 0962-7286.

            NAL call no: HV4701.A557

            Descriptors: ostriches, winter, rain, foraging, physical activity, animal husbandry.

 

Feeding and vigilance behaviour of breeding ostriches (Struthio camelus) in a farming environment in Britain. Ross, E.J.; Deeming, D.C. British Poultry Science, May 1998, v. 39 (2), p. 173-177. ref. ISSN: 0007-1668.

            NAL call no: 47.8 B77

            Descriptors: ostriches, feeding behavior, animal behavior, physical activity.

Abstract: 1. Vigilance and feeding behaviour of male and female adult breeding ostriches were recorded to determine feeding and scanning bout lengths, a time budget and the pattern ov vigilance immediately after food was provided. 2. Males were more vigilant and fed for shorter periods than females immediately after concentrate food was delivered but not throughout the whole day. 3. Most interscan periods of males were below 50 s with a maximum of 90 s compared with most interscan periods of females lasting less than 70 s with a maximum of 160 s. 4. Gender differences in behaviour are attributed to increased male vigilance for predators and/or conspecifics, and increased female feeding required for egg production and greater opportunity to feed because of male vigilance.

 

Finken in Kafig und Voliere. [Finches in cages and aviaries.] Egidius, Hans. Gefiederte Welt, Feb. 1998, v. 122 (2), p. 57-59. ISSN: 0016-5816. Note: In German.

            Descriptors: housing techniques, cage and aviary conditions.

 

Gruppenhaltung von Blaustirn-Amazonen und Graupapageien - Moglichkeiten und Grenzen. [Keeping blue-fronted amazons and grey parrots in groups - possibilities and limitations.] Lantermann, Werner. Gefiederte Welt, Jun. 1998, v. 122 (6), p. 210-213. ISSN: 0016-5816. Note: In German.

            Descriptors: housing techniques, mixed group, possibilities and limits.

 

Hand rearing owlets. Catlow, Peter. Tyto, De c. 1998, v. 3 (5), p. 133-135. ISSN: 1363-4380.

            Descriptors: diet in captivity, nestling feeds, housing techniques, rearing techniques.

 

The husbandry, breeding and European regional studbook of the red spectacled amazon at Loro Parque. Sweeney, Roger G. International Zoo News (IZN), Sept. 1998, v. 45 (6), p. 352-362. No. 287. ISSN: 0020-9155.

            NAL call no: QL76.I58

            Descriptors: care in captivity, husbandry, breeding programs.

 

Hypothermia in birds. Miller, Erica A. Wildlife Rehabilitation, 1998, v. 16, p. 37-46. ISSN: 0737-1829.

            NAL call no: SF996.45.J69

            Descriptors: Aves, care in captivity, body temperature, diagnosis and treatment.

 

Integrating ostrich behaviour in commercial farming systems. Lambrechts, H.; Huchzermeyer, F.W.; Swart, D.; Huchzermeyer, F.W. Proceedings of the Second International Scientific Ratite Congress, Oudtshoorn, South Africa. Sept. 21-25, 1998. p. 167-169. ref.

Descriptors: farming systems, animal behavior, stress, aggression, husbandry, production systems.

 

Perspectives on pet bird welfare from the pet industry. Meyers, N.M. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Apr. 15, 1998, v. 212 (8), p. 1238-1242. ref. ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL call no: 41.8 Am3

            Descriptors: birds, animal welfare, quarantine, transport of animals.

 

1997 AVMA animal welfare forum: Pet bird welfare. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 1998, v. 212 (8), p. 1215-1249. ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL call no: 41.8 Am3

            Descriptors: animal husbandry, animal welfare, nutrition, diets, pets, aviary birds.

Abstract: Ten papers on various aspects of pet bird husbandry and welfare are presented. Topics include creating the correct environment for pet birds, selecting the appropriate bird as a pet, bird nutrition, bird anaesthesia and surgery, pet bird welfare, and pet birds and ecotourism. 1

 

Partridges and Francolins: Their Conservation, Breeding and Management. Robbins, G.E.S. World Pheasant Association, Reading. 1998, i-iv. p. 1-114. ISBN: 0906964453.

            NAL call no: SF510.P3R6

            Descriptors: care in captivity, captive management and breeding, parasites, diseases.

Abstract: The volume covers 92 species which include partridges, francolins, snowcocks and spurfowl, each species having its own data sheet giving details of country of origin, habitat and general description in addition to captive breeding, research and conservation; Aviaries; Breeding management; General management and husbandry.

 

Pet birds: Historical and modern perspectives on the keeper and the kept. Graham, D.L. 1997 AVMA Animal Welfare Forum: Pet Bird Welfare, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 1998, v. 212 (8), p. 1216-1219. ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL call no: 41.8 Am3

            Descriptors: pets, animal husbandry, aviary birds, history, veterinary history.

 

Restraint and housing of ratites. Raines, A.M. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 1998, v. 14 (3), p. 387-399. ref. ISSN: 0749-0720.

            NAL call no: SF601.V535

            Descriptors: restraint, housing, transport of animals, ratites.

 

Restraint and housing of ratites. Raines, A.M. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, Nov. 1998, v. 14 (3), p. 387-399. ISSN: 0749-0720.

            NAL call no: SF601.V535

            Descriptors: emus, physiology, housing, ostriches, restraint.

Abstract: Large animal practitioners are called upon to assist producers to prevent and control disease and to manage flocks. The concerns that exist in traditional livestock and poultry management are also applicable to ratites. Adequate ventilation, shelter, and space allocation are the foundations of flock health. Practitioners need to know how to handle ratites in order to perform a through physical examination and collect diagnostic samples.

 

A review of fine avian abodes. Swann, Karen; Green, Deborah. Proceedings of the Joint Conference AAZK, EMA, AZH, 1998, Indianapolis Zoological Society, Inc. 1-286 p. Chapter pagination: 67-72.

            Descriptors: Aves, bird housing techniques, nest and roost boxes, review.

 

Sex identification of parrots, toucans, and curassows by PCR: Perspectives for wild and captive population studies. Miyaki, C.Y.; Griffiths, R.; Orr, K.; Nahum, L.A.; Pereira, S.L.; Wajntal, A. Zoo Biology, 1998, v. 17 (5), p. 415-423. ref. ISSN: 0733-3188.

            NAL call no: QL77.5.Z6

            Descriptors: parrots, wild birds, sec diagnosis, polymerase chain reaction.

 

The sun conure. Osborne, Tod. Australian Aviculture, Aug. 1998, v. 52 (8), p. 187-189. ISSN: 1030-5440.

            Descriptors: diet in captivity, bird care in captivity, captive breeding, housing techniques.

 

Why Does my Bird do That?: A Guide to Parrot Behavior. Rach, Julie. New York: Howell book House, c.1998. xvi. 208 p. ill. ref. ISBN: 0876050119.

            NAL call no: SF473.P3.R328 1998

            Descriptors: parrots behavior, caged birds behavior, pet birds.

 

 

1997

 

Bau einer Volierenanlage - was muss bei der Planung berucksichtigt werden? [The construction of an aviary - what does the planning have to take into account?] Dorge, Ray. Papageien, Mar. 1997, v. 10 (3), p. 73-78. ISSN: 0934-327X. Note: In German.

            Descriptors: Aves, housing, aviary construction, detailed account.

 

Der Bau eines Papageienhauses. [The construction of a parrot house.] Seum, Wolfgang. Papageien, 1997, v. 10 (12), p. 366-368. ISSN: 0934-327X. Note: In German.

            Descriptors: Psittaciformes, housing techniques, aviary construction.

 

Behavior of captive American kestrels hatched from o.p’-dicofol exposed females. MacLellan, K.N.M.; Bird, D.M.; Shutt, L.J.; Fry, D.M. Archives of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology, New York, Springer-Verlag. May 1997, v. 32 (4), p. 411-415. ref. ISSN: 0090-4341.

            NAL call no: TD172.A7

            Descriptors: Falco sparverius, behavior patterns, dicofol, exposure.

 

Behaviour of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) in semi-natural aviaries. Schmid, I.; Wechsler, B. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Dec. 1997, v. 55 (1-2), p. 103-112. ref. ISSN: 0168-1591.

            NAL call no: QL750.A6

            Descriptors: Japanese quails, animal behavior, aviaries.

 

Behaviour and management of pigeons. Mahmound, E.A.A. Thesis in Animal Poultry ethology and Management, 1997, 295 p. notes, photo, tables, bibliography. Available: Library, Fac. of Vet. Med., Moshtohor, Zagazig Univ., Egypt.

            Descriptors: pigeons, feeding, sexual behavior, biological development, behavior.

 

Behaviour and thermogenesis of racing pigeons housed under transport conditions. Gorssen, J.; Koene, P. Animal Welfare, 1997, v. 6 (2), p. 153-168. ref. ISSN: 0962-7286.

            NAL call no: HV4601.A557

            Descriptors: racing pigeons, transport, heat production, crowding, animal welfare.

 

Birds of Prey: Medicine and Management. Heidenreich, M. 1997, 304 p. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, UK. ISBN: 0632041862.

            Descriptors: animal husbandry, treatment, surgery, breeding, nutrition, behavior.

 

Breeding and hand rearing the southern sulawesi hornbill Penelopides exarhatus sanfordi for the Zoological Society of San Diego. Mace, Michael; Azua, John. International Zoo Yearbook, 1997, v. 35, p. 247-253. ISSN: 0074-9664.

            NAL call no: QL76.I5

            Descriptors: diet in captivity, housing, rearing techniques, hand rearing.

 

The burrowing owl (Speotyto cunicularia). Turk, Tony. Tyto, Apr. 1997, v. 2 (1), p. 18-22. ISSN: 1363-4380.

            Descriptors: housing techniques, aviary requirements, care in captivity.

 

Causation and influence of environmental enrichment on feather picking of the crimson-bellied conure (Pyrrhura perlata perlata). Hoek, C.S. van; King, C.E. Zoo Biology, 1997, v. 16 (2), p. 161-172. ref. ISSN: 0733-3188.

            NAL call no: QL77.5.Z6

            Descriptors: Psittaciformes, feather picking, enrichment, behavior patterns.

 

Courtship and breeding behavior in the Sacramento Zoo’s flamingo flock. Johnston, Georgann B. Exotic Bird Report, Fall, 1997, v. 9 (3), p. 2-3.

            Descriptors: housing techniques, courtship, hatching success, influencing factors.

 

Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae (Ziegensittisch) - Studien zum arteigenen Verhalten unter Volierenbedingungen und zur Ableitung eines optimierten Haltungssystems nach Kriterien der Tiergartenbiologie. [Behaviour of Red-Fronted New Zealand Parakeets (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae) kept in Aviaries and Proposal for Optimum Husbandry.] Schumann, K. 1997, 144 pp. ref. Tierarztliche Hochschule, Hannover, Germany. Thesis. Note: In German.

            Descriptors: animal husbandry, animal behavior, aviary birds.

 

Diurnal behavioural patterns in the houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata) in captivity: Effects of temperature and daylight. Jacquet, J.M.; Launay, F. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 1997, v. 55 (1-2), p. 137-151. ref. ISSN: 0168-1591.

            NAL call no: QL750.A6

            Descriptors: temperature, photoperiod, diurnal activity, feeding behavior.

Abstract: Twenty adult male houbara were allocated to 4 groups: 12 h light, 12 h dark (12L:12D) at 20° C or 30° C, 8L:16D at 20 degrees C and 16L:8D at 20° C. The temperature was constant and food and water were available ad libitum. The birds were observed fot 96 h and behaviour was analysed for locomotor activity and feeding. Both behaviours were distributed in bouts of high activity in the morning and in the afternoon. At high temperature, the activity pattern was enhanced through an increased midday resting period and reduced food intake was associated with less total feeding activity. Short days contracted the patterns, while long days extended them. Total activity during the day was not modified by daylength, which in short days resulted from a significantly increased activity per hour of light. The evening feeding peak and the increased alertness of the birds at the endo of the night revealed an anticipation of both dawn and dusk. Observations of houbara in the wild have shown bimodal patterns of activity, which have been related to diurnal fluctuations in temperature and food availability. It is suggested that the distribution of activity in 2 bouts constitutes in the houbara a response to inner behavioural or nutritional requirements, independent from daily changes in environmental conditions.

 

Effect of climatic conditions on the behaviour of adult ostriches (Struthio camelus) in Britain. Deeming, D.C. Animal Welfare, 1997, v. 6 (4), p. 349-356. ref. ISSN: 0962-7286.

            NAL call no: HV4701.A557

            Descriptors: animal welfare, animal behavior, weather, climatic factors, rain, UK.

Abstract: This study recorded the frequency of behaviours of adult ostriches kept on a farm in Oxfordshire, UK, during the spring of 1996. Adult ostriches came from farmed flocks (originally from Namibia, Zimbabwe and Israel), were older than 3 years of age, in breeding condition and producing eggs. Nine trios of 1 male and 2 females were observed from a distance of at least 50 m using binoculars and the naked eye. ‘Rainy’, ‘dull and dry’, ‘bright and dry’, and ‘sunny’ weather categories were used to assess the influence of climate on behaviour. Six main behaviours (sitting, standing, pacing, walking, foraging and feeding) were observed together with a variety of low frequency ‘other’ behaviours which were combined for analysis. Gender had no significant effect on any of the behaviour frequencies. During ‘rainy’ periods both males and females showed sitting behaviour five times more than during ‘dull’ and ‘bright’ weather and two and a half times more than during ‘sunny’ weather. Increased sitting behaviour during rainy periods was due to a significant reduction in pacing and ‘other’ behaviours with no significant effect on feeding and foraging behaviours. Sitting during sunny weather also occurred more often than during dull and bright weather but not at the expense of any other particular behaviour. It is concluded that adult ostriches in the UK alter their behaviour in response to prevailing weather conditions, particularly rain.

 

The effect of cover on the behaviour of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Buchwalder, T.; Wechsler, B. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 1997, v. 54 (4), p. 335-343. ref. ISSN: 0168-1591.

            NAL call no: QL750.A6

            Descriptors: cages, nesting, activity, flight, animal welfare.

 

Effects of foraging enrichment on the behaviour of parrots. Coulton, L.E.; Waran, N.K.; Young, R.J.; Animal Welfare, 1997, v. 6 (4), p. 357-363. ref. ISSN: 0962-7286.

            NAL call no: HV4701.A557

            Descriptors: behavior, foraging, housing , feeding, Psittaciformes, parrots.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to enrich parrot enclosures by creating foraging opportunities for the species and to investigate the possible preference for a variable versus a constant food supply. The subjects were housed as single-species groups, which comprised 2 male and 2 female red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys), a male-female pair of thick-billed parrots (Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha), a male-female pair of green-winged macaws (Ara chloroptera) and a male-female pair of yellow-backed chattering lorys (Lorius garrulus). The foraging device comprised of a length of wood (2x0.08x0.08 m) with 50 holes (0.02 m diameter x 0.02 m depth) drilled into one face. Food was placed in the holes of the foraging device in one of two distributions: ‘constant’, one food item in every hole (total = 50 food items) or ‘variable’, 5 food items in 10 of the holes (total = 50 food items). The holes were then covered with starch paper. During the enrichment period the parrots spent significantly more time allopreening than in baseline or post-enrichment periods. Use of the foraging device implied that birds were performing contrafreeloading since identical free food was available in their food bowls. There was no preference for a variable over a constant food source. It is concluded that providing extra foraging opportunities for parrots is a useful form of enrichment.

 

Enrichment or good husbandry? Dow, Susan M. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Environmental Enrichment, Aug. 21-25, 1995, Copenhagen Zoo, Frederiksberg. 1997, 1-372 p., Chapter pagination: 232-238. ISBN: 8789431146.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, environmental enrichment, good husbandry.

 

Feather mites are potentially an important source of allergens for pigeons and budgerigar keepers. Collof, M.J.; Merrett, T.G.; Merrett, J.; McSharry, C.; Boyd, G. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 1997, v. 27 (1), p. 60-67. ISSN: 0954-7894.

            Descriptors: allergy, occupational health, clinical immunology, human medicine.

Abstract: Background: Previous studies on allergy to feathers have not addressed whether organisms living on feathers (mites, lice, molds) are a source of allergens. Objective: To investigate whether feather mites produced allergens of clinical relevance to bird keepers. Methods: We examined serum IgE responses of 96 pigeon breeders to an extract of feather mites from pigeons (predominately Diplaegidia columbae), using western blotting, specific IgE assay using AlaSTAT EIA and RAST inhibition. Results: Feather mites are a major source of soluble proteins derived from feathers, accounting for up to 10% of the total weight of the feather. Forty-three sera had a negative score (0) for anti-feather mite IgE, 27 were weakly positive (1-2) and 26 had strongly positive scores (3-4). Fewer pigeon breeders with scores gtoreq 3 were asymptomatic than those with negative scores (12 versus 40%), more had late onset symptoms (with or without early onset symptoms; 77% versus 44%) and had IgE antibody against house dust mite (89% versus 23%). Western blotting of eight sera against the extract of Diplaegidia columbae revealed 20 IgE-binding components ranging from 22 to 200 kDa. A high diversity of components was recognized by each serum:arithmetic mean 7 (range 2-14). RAST inhibition indicated feather mites had species-specific epitopes as well as ones that cross-reacted with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Conclusion: Strongly-positive alaSTAT scores to pigeon feather mite were associated with allergic symptoms of late onset in pigeon breeders. We conclude that feather mites are a major source of clinically-relevant allergens for pigeon breeders.

 

Feeding and pecking behaviour in ostrich (Struthio camelus) chicks in captivity. Paxton, C.G.M.; Bubier, N.E.; Deeming, D.C. British Poultry Science, May 1997, v. 38 (2), p. 151-155. ref. ISSN: 0007-1668.

            NAL call no: 47.8 B77

            Descriptors: ostrich, chicks, behavior, feeding, animal welfare.

Abstract:1. Three sets of experiments were performed on two batches of ostrich chicks to investigate the factors affecting the pecking and feeding behaviour of grouped individuals. 2. Chicks showed no significant alteration of their feeding behaviour in response to raising pen walls in the rearing facility from 30 to 60 cm. 3. Further analysis on a different set of birds revealed consistent short term individual differences in the frequency of feeding and non-feeding pecks. 4. There were significant pen effects on behaviour suggesting the possible development of a pen “culture” of pecking behaviour. 5. Pecking behaviours in 26 to 33 d-old chicks, with the exception of drinking, were generally negatively correlated, so any non-food pecking by a chick was generally associated with fewer pecks targeted at food. 6. By the age of two months chicks were pecking at food on the floor to a far greater extent than at any food presented in food trays.

 

The Grain Eating Birds of Sub-Saharan Africa: Identification, Biology and Management. Allan, R. 1997, viii, 191 p. ref. Natural Resources Institute (NRI), Chatham, UK. ISBN: 0859544648.

            Descriptors: biology, morphology, chemical control.

Abstract: This book is divided into 4 chapters on grain-eating birds (morphology, biology and classification); cereal crops; bird pest surveys and monitoring (Quelea surveys, monitoring and use of mist nets); crop protection (protection methods for breeding and non-breeding season crops, and use of chemical products).

 

Haltung und Zucht des Grunwangen-Rotschwanzsittichs Pyrrhura molinae. [Care and rearing of the parakeet (Pyrrhura molinae).] Wurth, Volker. Papageien, Mar. 1997, v. 10 (3), p. 70-72. ISSN: 0934-327X. Note: In German.

            Descriptors: housing techniques, optimum conditions, rearing techniques.

 

Haltung und Zucht des Ziegensittichs Cyanoramphus n. novaezelandiae. [The care and rearing of the parakeet Cyanoramphus n. novaezelandiae.] Schmidt, Ralph. Papageien, Apr. 1997, v. 10 (4), p. 109-112. ISSN: 0934-327X. Note: In German.

            Descriptors: housing techniques, rearing techniques, Psittacidae, Aves.

 

Haltung und Zucht von Hellroten Aras (Ara macao). [Keeping and rearing macaws Ara maco.] Schwarzwalder, Erich. Papageien, Jan. 1997, v. 10 (1), p. 6-9. ISSN: 0934-327X. Note: In German.

            Descriptors: housing techniques, hand rearing, optimum conditions, Psittacidae.

 

Haltung und Zucht von Molukkenkakadus (Cacatua moluccensis). [The keeping and rearing of the cockatoo Cacatua moluccensis.] Spreen, Horst. Papageien, Oct. 1997, v. 10 (10), p. 294-296. ISSN: 0934-327X. Note: In German.

            Descriptors: housing techniques, rearing techniques, general account.

 

Haltung und Zucht von Schmalschnabelsittichen Brotogeris. [Care and breeding of the Brotogeris parakeets.] Derks, Dinand. Papageien, Apr. 1997, v. 10 (4), p. 102-104. ISSN: 0934-327X. Note: In German.

            Descriptors: housing, rearing, detailed account.

 

Housing and presenting owls. Sayers, Bernard Charles. Tyto, Jun. 1997, v. 2(2), p. 1-78. ISSN: 1363-4380.

            Descriptors: Strigiformes, housing techniques, aviary design and layout.

 

Husbandry and breeding of the Mount Apo lorikeet Trichoglossus johnstoniae at Loro Parque. Sweeney, Roger G. Avicultural Magazine, 1997, v. 103 (1), p. 6-14. ISSN: 0005-2256.

            NAL call no: QL671.A9

            Descriptors: care in captivity, husbandry, captive breeding.

 

A method for restraining penguins. Wilson, Rory P. Marine Ornithology, 1997, v. 25 (1-2), p. 72-73. ISSN: 1018-3337.

            Descriptors: handling techniques, physical restraint techniques, field restraint.

 

Monitoring the health and productivity of farmed ostrich flocks. More, S.J. Australian Veterinary Journal, Aug. 1997, v. 75 (8), p. 583-587. ref. ISSN: 0005-0423.

            NAL call no: 41.8 Au72

            Descriptors: ostriches, animal health, monitoring, animal husbandry.

 

Non invasive methods developed for studies of captive wild birds. Millam, J.R.; Delwiche, M.J. Exotic Bird Report, Fall, 1997, v. 9 (3), p. 1, 6-7.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, nutrition, behavior, activity patterns, housing.

 

North American wood warbler collection and management at the North Carolina Zoological Park. Reininger, Kenneth T. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Regional Conference Proceedings, 1997, p. 353-359. ISSN: 1088-0402.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, quarantine and husbandry, netting, acclimation.

 

Pigeons and doves. Hooimeijer, Jan; Dorrestein, Gerry M. Avian Medicine and Surgery. Altman, Robert B.; Clubb, Susan L.; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Quesenberry, Katherine. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, London, etc. 1997. i-xv. 1-1070 p. Chapter pagination: 886-909. ISBN: 0721654460.

            NAL call no: SF994 A95 1997

            Descriptors: common diseases, treatment, diagnosis, parasites.

 

Planting for environmental enrichment at the Melbourne Zoo. Embury, Amanda S. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Environmental Enrichment, Aug. 21-25, 1995. Copenhagen Zoo. Frederiksberg. 1997, 1-372 p. Chapter pagination: 290-298. ISBN: 8789431146.

            Descriptors: bird housing techniques, planting for environmental enrichment, Australia.

 

Psittacula roseata. [Psittacula roseata.] Baumgartner, Benno. Papageien, Jun. 1997, v. 10 (6), p. 170-171. ISSN: 0934-327X. Note: In German.

            Descriptors: reproductive techniques, optimum housing and feeding.

 

Regarding pigeons, their keeper, and their keeping. Harrison, G.J. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Sept. 1997, v. 211 (5), p. 539. ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL call no: 41.8Am3

            Descriptors: animal husbandry, standards, breeding, injuries, genetics.

 

A safer method of handling shrikes and other biting birds. Craig, Susan H. North American Bird Bander, Jul.-Sept. 1997, v. 22 (3), p. 123. ISSN: 0363-8979.

            Descriptors: Laniidae, handling techniques, safer handling method.

 

Strutsar och andra ratiter, del 1. Biologi och farmning. [Ostriches and other ratites, part 1. Biology and farming.] Jansson, D.S. Svensk Veterinartidning, 1997, v. 49 (4), p. 177-184. ref. Note: In Swedish.

            NAL call no: 41.9 SV23

            Descriptors: meat animals, taxonomy, reproductive physiology.

 

Wildlife Care for Birds and Mammals: Volume 7 Basic Manual Wildlife Rehabilitation Series. 3rd ed. Carlson, Dale Bick; Ruth, Irene. Madison, CT: Bick Pub. House. c1997. 7 v. in 1, 286 pp. ill. ref. ISBN: 1884158161.

            NAL call no: SF996.45.C37 1997

            Descriptors: wildlife rehabilitation, wildlife rescue of birds.

 

World directory of institutions housing penguins 1997. Cheney, Cynthia. Penguin Conservation, Jacksonville. 1997. 1-8 p.

            Descriptors: directories, institutions housing penguins.

 

 

1996

 

The ABC’s of housing raptors. Gibson, Marjorie J. Journal of Wildlife Rehabilitation, Fall, 1996, v. 19 (3), p. 23-31 (Special Topics Issue). ISSN: 1071-2232.

            NAL call no: SF996.45.J69

            Descriptors: Aves, housing techniques, raptors, care in captivity.

 

Aspergillosis outbreaks: A facilities management approach to control. McGill, Patricia A. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Regional Conference Proceedings, 1996, p. 683-686. ISSN: 1088-0402.

            Descriptors: Aves, housing, fungal diseases, care in captivity, aspergillosis.

 

Aviculture medical management. Clipsham, Robert. Diseases of Cage and Aviary Birds, 3rd ed. 1996. p. 880-903. Rosskopf, W.J.; Woerpel, R.W. (eds.) Williams & Wilkins Co. Baltimore, MD, London. ISBN: 0683073826.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1D57

            Descriptors: aviculture, medical management, breeding, housing, veterinary medicine.

 

Avian exhibit substrate of “the bottom line”. Bohmke, Bruce W. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Regional Conference Proceedings, 1996, p. 457-459. ISSN: 1088-0402.

            Descriptors: Aves, bird housing, aviary substrates, overview.

 

Baby bird science and medicine. Speer, Brian L. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Mid Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1996, v. 17, p. 40-58.

            NAL call no: SF994.M52

            Descriptors: Aves, diagnostic techniques, diseases and disorders, diagnosis, young animals.

 

Behavioral considerations in a captive breeding program for houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii). Warren, S.M. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 1996, v. 10 (3), p. 187-193. ref.

            NAL call no: SF994.J6

Descriptors: breeding, animal housing, sexual differences, aggression, behavior, zoo animals, wild caught, inter-sex association.

Abstract: Houbara bustards were observed in 3 adjacent aviaries at the National Avian research Center’s Al Ain Zoo site (United Arab Emirates) during the 1995 breeding season. All birds had been taken from the wild as adults and had not previously exhibited sexual behaviour. Both males and females exhibited strong diurnal patterns of behaviour. Birds were most active during the afternoon and early evening; male courtship display was also most prominent at this time. Individuals spent most of their time (approximately 70%) resting and the remainder of their time in other activities, such as locomotion, feeding, drinking and social and comfort behaviours. Four of the six males under observation were seen to display. Females were never seen to be sexually active. Stereotypic typic behaviour was observed in 56% of females, and 17% of males. Social interactions (aggression) were quite common, with males being more involved in more actions than females. No obvious pattern of dominance status in relation to gender was observed, yet it was clear that dominance status was related to male sexual status; the displaying male in each aviary was also the male of higher dominance status. Birds tended to use the space at the rear of the aviaries in preference to the space at the front, and this behaviour was more prevalent in females than males. Cluster analysis revealed an absence of intersex association. The different social and environmental requirements of males and females are discussed in light of the results of this study and studies on the biology of the species in the wild. It is proposed that a more naturalistic approach to the management of houbara bustards is taken.

 

Behavioral management. Swengel, Scott R.; Archibald, George W.; Ellis, David H.; Smith, Dwight G. Cranes: Their Biology, Husbandry and Conservation. Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M. (eds.). Hancock House Publishers, Blaine, WA. 1996. i-xii. 1-308 p. Chapter pagination: 105-122. ISBN: 0888393857.

            NAL call no: QL696.G84C73 1996

Descriptors: Gruidae, bird care in captivity, behavior management, reproductive behavior, cranes.

 

Breeding problems. Cooper, John E. BSAVA Manual of Psittacine Birds, New Edition, 1996, p. 198-204. Beynon, P.H.; Forbes, N.A,; Lawton, M.P.C. (eds.). Iowa State university Press, Ames, IA. ISBN: 0813823498.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1M37 1996

            Descriptors: bird breeding problems, diagnosis, low fertility, egg quality.

 

Breeding the thick-billed parrot Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha at Jersey Wildlife Preserve Trust. French, Hilary. Dodo, 1996, v. 32, p. 126-132. ISN: 0265-5640.

            Descriptors: diet in captivity, housing breeding, hand reared parents.

 

BSAVA Manual of Psittacine Birds. New Edition. Beynon, Peter H.; Forbes, Neil A.; Lawton, Martin P.C. (eds.). British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Cheltenham. 1996. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA. ISBN: 0813823498.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1M37 1996

            Descriptors: manual of husbandry, care in captivity, veterinary manual.

Abstract: This manual aims to serve as an easily accessible source of information on the clinical aspects of birds of the family Psittacidae belonging to the order Psittaciformes. The book is a new edition and comprises twenty-three chapters. The beginning chapters cover basic aspects of nutrition and husbandry. Other chapters deal with such topics as breeding and behavioral problems of the birds as well as problems associated with their pelvic limbs, wings, head, and respiratory system. Management of diarrhoea, trauma, polydipsia, and fits in psittacines is also covered. An appendix with names of generic drugs mentioned in the text, a subject index, tables, and black-and-white and color illustrations are incorporated into the text. This volume will be of immense help to veterinary surgeons and aviculturists.

 

Cage bird behavior, taming, and psychology with common behavioral problems and solutions. Davis, Christine. Diseases of Cage and Aviary Birds, 3rd ed. 1996. p. 19-29. Rosskopf, W.J.; Woerpel, R.W. (eds.). Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, MD, London. ISBN: 0683073826.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1D57 1996

            Descriptors: behavioral management, caged behavior, behavior problems.

 

Caging and environment. McCluggage, David M. Diseases of Cage and Aviary Birds, 3rd ed. 1996, p. 39-42. Rosskopf, W.J.; Woerpel, R.W. (eds.). Williams & Wilkins Co. Baltimore, MD, London. ISBN: 0683073826.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1D57 1996

            Descriptors: aviary design, cage cover, care placement, environmental requirement.

 

Chick rearing. Wellington, Marianne; Burke, Ann; Nicolich, Jane M.; O’Malley, Kathleen. Cranes: Their Biology, Husbandry and Conservation. Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M. (eds.). Hancock House Publishers, Blaine, WA. 1996. i-xii. 1-308 p. Chapter pagination: 77-104. ISBN: 0888393857.

            NAL call no: QL696.G84C73 1996

            Descriptors: Gruidae, cranes, rearing techniques.

 

Companion avian bond. Harris, James M. Diseases of Cage and Aviary Birds, 3rd ed. Rosskopf, W.J.; Woerpel, R.W. (eds.). 1996, p. 71-74. Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, MD, London. ISBN: 0683073826.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1D57

            Descriptors: behavior problems, diseases, human-bird bond, training.

 

Crane biology. Archibald, George W.; Lewis, James C. Cranes: Their Biology, Husbandry and Conservation. Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M. (eds.). Hancock House Publishers, Blaine, WA. 1996. i-xii. 1-308 p. Chapter pagination: 1-29. ISBN: 0888393857.

            NAL call no: QL696.G84C73 1996

            Descriptors: Gruidae, biological notes, Aves.

 

Cranes: Their Biology, Husbandry and Conservation. Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M. (eds.). Hancock House Publishers, Blaine, WA. 1996. i-xii. 1-308 p. ISBN: 0888393857.

            NAL call no: QL696.G84C73 1996

            Descriptors: Gruidae, biology, husbandry and conservation, care in captivity.

 

Developmental problems in young ratites. Speer, Brian L. Ratite Management, Medicine, and Surgery. Tully, Thomas N. Jr.; Shane, Simon M. (eds.). Krieger Publishing Co. Malabar, FL 1996. i-xvii. 1-188 p. Chapter pagination: 147-154. ISBN: 0894648748.

            NAL call no: SF995.5.R37 1996

            Descriptors: Ratitae, diseases and disorders, developmental disorders, review.

 

Exhibit design workshop piano/harp wire enclosures. Macek, Michael. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Regional Conference Proceedings, 1996, p. 668-669. ISSN: 1088-0402.

            Descriptors: bird housing techniques, care in captivity, piano wire enclosures, evaluation.

 

Facilities. Swengel, Scott R.; Besser, Richard W. Cranes: Their Biology, Husbandry and Conservation. Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M. (eds.). Hancock House Publishers, Blaine, WA. 1996. i-xii. 1-308 p. Chapter pagination: 253-262. ISBN: 0888393857.

            NAL call no: QL696.G84C73 1996

            Descriptors: care in captivity, facilities, reproductive techniques, cranes.

 

General husbandry. Swengel, Scott R.; Carpenter, James W. Cranes: Their Biology, Husbandry and Conservation. Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M. (eds.). Hancock House Publishers, Blaine, WA. 1996, i-xii. 1-308 p. Chapter pagination: 31-43. ISBN: 0888393857.

            NAL call no: QL696.G84C73 1996

            Descriptors: Gruidae, care in captivity, cranes.

 

Haltung und Zucht des Hartlaubturakos im Vogelpark Bobenheim-Roxheim (Tauraco hartlaubi). [Care and breeding of Hartlaub’s turaco (Tauraco hartlaubi) in Bobenheim Roxheim, Germany.] Berenz, Reiner. Voliere, Nov. 1996, v. 19 (11), p. 347-350. ISSN: 0344-9270. Note: In German.

            Descriptors: housing techniques, optimum conditions, reproductive techniques.

 

Haltung und Zucht des Keas (Nestor n. notabilis). [The keeping and breeding of keas (Nestor n. notabilis).] Pfeffer, Franz. Voliere, Jan. 1996, v. 19 (1), p. 6-10. ISSN: 0344-9270. Note: In German.

            Descriptors: housing techniques, optimum conditions, reproductive techniques.

 

Housing of ornamental birds. Kummerfeld, N. Medycyna Weterynaryjna, 1996, v. 52 (3), p. 150-151. ref. ISSN: 0025-8628.

            NAL call no: 41.8 M463

            Descriptors: animal husbandry, behavior, housing, cages, aviary birds.

 

Husbandry and diseases of domestic pigeons. Harlin, Roger W. Diseases of Cage and Aviary Birds, 3rd ed. 1996. p. 944-950. Rosskopf, W.J.; Woerpel, R.W. (eds.). Williams & Wilkins Co. Baltimore, MD, London. ISBN: 0683073826.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1D57

            Descriptors: infection, parasitology, Aves, treatment.

 

Husbandry and management of ostriches. Black, Doug. University of Sydney Post Graduate Foundation in Veterinary Science Proceedings, 1996, v. 279, p. 259-298. ISSN: 1362-5091. (Misnumbered on front cover as 278).

            Descriptors: care in captivity, husbandry, management, ostrich.

 

Husbandry and nutrition. Forbes, Neil A.; Richardson, Tony. BSAVA Manual of Raptors, Pigeons and Waterfowl. Beynon, Peter H.; Forbes, Neil A.; Harcourt-Brown, Nigel H. (eds.). Small animal Veterinary Association Ltd., 1996, 1-360 p. Chapter pagination: 289-298. ISBN: 0905214293.

            NAL call no: SF994.B73 1996

            Descriptors: Anseriformes, care in captivity, review, ducks, geese, swans.

 

Husbandry practices employed by private aviculturists, bird markets and zoo collections, which may be conducive to fostering infectious diseases. Wolff, P.L. Revue Scientifique et Technique International des Epizooties. Mar. 1996, v. 15 (1), p. 55-71. ref. ISSN: 0253-1933.

            NAL call no: SF781.R4

            Descriptors: care in captivity, optimum conditions for reduction of infectious diseases.

Abstract: The husbandry practices (caging, nutrition, transport, quarantine) which can reduce the incidence and spread of infectious disease are reviewed. Significant avian pathogens (bacteria, viruses, parasites) are listed, together with their host range and modes of transmission.

 

Husbandry practices as related to infectious and parasitic diseases of farmed ratites. Tully, T.N.; Shane, S.M. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties, 1996, v. 15 (1), p. 73-89. ref. ISSN: 0253-1933.

            NAL call no: SF781.R4

            Descriptors: husbandry, bacterial diseases, viral diseases, mycoses, parasites, control.

Abstract: Since the mid 1980s there has been a world-wide increase in the numbers of farm-raised ratites. The focus of ostrich production remains in South Africa, but other countries are initiating production of this bird in addition to the emu and rhea. Ostriches, emus and rheas are being produced commercially outside their native habitat, resulting in new and unique disease presentations. The authors describe bacterial, viral and parasitic diseases which are emerging in production settings. It is suggested that biosecurity, together with adequate management and nutrition, will reduce the likelihood of flock exposure and limit mortality in the event of infection. The problem currently facing the industry is that most ratite facilities do not incorporate separate quarantine areas. Newly-introduced birds may contaminate soil and facilities with pathogens such as Mycobacterium spp. and Salmonella spp. Ratites have excellent production potential if producers can profitably multiply and rear healthy stock. Diseases which may affect the viability of an intensive production facility are discussed.

 

Inexpensive housing perches, and bathing containers for raptors. Middleton, Kim. Wildlife Rehabilitation, 1996, v. 14, p. 109-115. ISSN: 0737-1829.

            NAL call no: SF996.45.J69

            Descriptors: birds of prey, housing, perches, bathing containers, inexpensive.

 

Management and husbandry. Forbes, Neil A.; Parry-Jones, Jemima. BSAVA Manual of Raptors, Pigeons and Waterfowl. Beynon, Peter H.; Forbes, Neil A.; Harcourt-Brown, Nigel H. Small Animal Veterinary Association Ltd. 1996, 1-360 p. Chapter pagination: 116-128. ISBN: 0905214293.

            NAL call no: SF994.B73 1996

            Descriptors: Falconiformes, Strigiformes, care in captivity.

 

Neonate husbandry and problems. Scott, Peter W. ; Stoodley, John. BSAVA Manual of Psittacine Birds, New Ed. 1996, p. 205-210. Beynon, P.H.; Forbes, N.A.; Lawton, M.P.C. (eds.) Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA. ISBN: 0813823498.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1M37 1996

            Descriptors: anesthesia, hand rearing, neonatal care, infectious diseases, baby birds.

 

Neonate husbandry and related diseases. Butterworth, Graham; Harcourt-Brown, Nigel H. BSAVA Manual of Raptors, Pigeons and Waterfowl. Beynon, Peter H.; Forbes, Neil A.; Harcourt-Brown, Nigel H. (eds.). Small Animal Veterinary Association Ltd. Cheltenham. 1996, 1-360 p. Chapter pagination: 216-223. ISBN: 0905214293.

            NAL call no: SF994.B73 1996

            Descriptors: diet in captivity, young, rearing techniques, diseases and disorders.

 

Pet avian grooming. Allen, Karen L. Diseases of Cage and Aviary Birds, 3rd ed. 1996, p. 50-53. Rosskopf, W.J.; Woerpel, R.W. (eds.). Williams & Wilkins Co. Baltimore, MD, London. ISBN: 0683073826.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1D57 1996

            Descriptors: bathing, beak trimming, wing clipping, pet bird care.

 

Reproductive physiology. Gee, George F.; Russman, Shirley E. Cranes: Their Biology, Husbandry and Conservation. Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M. (eds.). Hancock House Publishers, 1996. i-xii. 1-308 p. Chapter pagination: 123-136. ISBN: 0888393857.

            NAL call no: QL696.G84C73 1996

            Descriptors: hormones, reproductive physiology, hormonal control, Gruidae, cranes.

 

Restraint and handling of the emu. Mouser, David. Ratite Management, Medicine, and Surgery, Tully, Thomas N. Jr.; Shane, Simon M. (eds.). Krieger Publishing Co., Malabar, FL. 1996. i-xvii. 1-188 p. Chapter pagination: 41-45. ISBN: 0894648748.

            NAL call no: SF995.5.R37 1996

            Descriptors: handling techniques, housing, restraint, transportation, review.

 

Restraint and handling of the ostrich. Wade, John R. Ratite Management, Medicine, and Surgery. Tully, Thomas N. Jr.; Shane, Simon M. (eds.). Krieger Publishing Co. Malabar, FL. 1996, i-xvii. 1-188 p. Chapter pagination: 37-40. ISBN: 0894648748.

            NAL call no: SF995.5.R37 1996

            Descriptors: handling techniques, restraint, housing, care in captivity.

 

Special techniques, part A: Crane artificial insemination. Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M. Cranes: Their Biology, Husbandry and Conservation. Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M. (eds.). Hancock House Publishers, Blaine, WA. 1996. i-xii. 1-308 p. Chapter pagination: 205-217. ISBN: 0888393857.

            NAL call no: QL696.G84C73 1996

            Descriptors: Gruidae, artificial insemination, reproductive techniques, cranes.

 

Special techniques, C: Sex determination. Swengel, Scott R. Cranes: Their Biology, Husbandry and Conservation. Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M. (eds.). Hancock House Publishers, Blaine, WA. 1996, i-xii. 1-308 p. Chapter pagination: 223-229. ISBN: 0888393857.

            NAL call no: QL696.G84C73 1996

            Descriptors: Gruidae, sexing techniques, cranes.

 

Special techniques, D. Reintroduction techniques. Nagendran, Meenakshi; Urbanek, Richard P.; Ellis, David H. Cranes: Their Biology, Husbandry and Conservation. Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M. (eds.). Hancock House Publishers, Blaine, WA. 1996. i-xii. 1-308 p. Chapter pagination: 231-240. ISBN: 0888393857.

            NAL call no: QL696.G84C73 1996

            Descriptors: Gruidae, release and relocation programs. reintroduction techniques, cranes.

 

Special techniques, part E: Flight restraint. Ellis, David H.; Dein, F. Joshua. Cranes: Their Biology, Husbandry and Conservation. Ellis, David, H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M. (eds.). Hancock House Publishers, Blaine, WA. 1996. i-xii. 1-308 p. Chapter pagination: 241-244. ISBN: 0888393857.

            NAL call no: QL696.G84C73 1996

            Descriptors: Gruidae, handling techniques, physical restraining techniques, cranes.

 

Special techniques, part F: Predator and pest management. Lewis, Thomas E. Cranes: Their Biology, Husbandry and Conservation. Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M. (eds.). Hancock House Publishers, Blaine, WA. 1996. i-xii. 1-308 p. Chapter pagination: 245-252. ISBN: 0888393857.

            NAL call no: QL696.G84C73 1996

            Descriptors: Gruidae, care in captivity, predator and pest management, cranes.

 

Um nytjar af aetharfugli. [Eider husbandry in Iceland.] Snaebjornsson, Arni. Bliki (Reykjavik). Dec. 1996, v. 17, p. 55-63. ISSN: 0256-4181. Note: In Icelandic.

            Descriptors: economic husbandry, conservation, animals and man, sea ducks, down.

 

Wildlife and husbandry diseases. Fowler, M.E. (Coordinator). Revue Scientifique et Technique, Office International des Epizooties, 1996, v. 15 (1), 354 pp. ref. ISSN: 0253-1933.

            NAL call no: SF781.R4

            Descriptors: diseases, husbandry, parasitoses, wildlife, conservation.

Abstract: This volume is designed to provide a resource for animal control officers, administrators, government officials, veterinarians and legislators who may require information on the management of wild animals in captivity. 20 papers by 31 contributors review the effect of husbandry practices on infectious and parasitic diseases of reptiles, amphibians, birds, ratites, carnivores, suids, camelids and cervids.

 

Zoo mesh. Smith, Kim. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Regional Conference Proceedings, 1996, p. 800-801. ISSN: 1088-0402.

            Descriptors: bird care in captivity, education and entertainment, zoo exhibit barriers.

 

 

1995

 

Andean condor medicine, reproduction and husbandry. Olsen, Glenn H.; Carpenter, James W. Association of Avian Veterinarians Main Conference Proceedings, 1995, p. 147-152.

            NAL call no: SF994.M52

            Descriptors: care in captivity, blood, haematological values, medical management.

 

Aviary constructions and birds at Cobham. Sawyer, R.C.J. Aviculture Magazine, 1995 (Centenary celebration issue). V. 101 (4), p. 187-191. ISSN: 0005-2256.

            NAL call no: QL671.A9

            Descriptors: housing techniques, aviary design and construction, Aves.

 

Aviaries, and the selection of sites. Baxter, Eric. Bird Keeping in Australia, Apr. 1995, v. 38 (4), p. 49-51. ISSN: 0045-2076.

            Descriptors: Aves, housing techniques, aviary site selection and construction.

 

Behavior problems of companion birds. Reisner, J.R. Applied Animal Behavior Science, 1995, v. 46 (1-2), p. 134. ISSN: 0168-1591.

            NAL call no: QL750.A6

            Descriptors: aggression, feather picking, husbandry, management, behavior, vices.

 

Bird health and the importance of full spectrum light. Brain, Susie. Journal of Wildlife Rehabilitation, Fall, 1995, v. 18 (3), p. 3-9 (Special Topics Issue). ISSN: 1071-2232.

            NAL call no: SF996.45.J69

            Descriptors: care in captivity, diseases, disorders, treatment techniques.

 

The captive propagation of three species of shrikes at the San Diego Zoo and Wild Animal Park. Azua, John V.; Lieberman, Alan. Proceedings of the Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology, 1995, v. 6 (1), p. 254-257. ISSN: 0511-7550.

            Descriptors: housing and diet, captive breeding, reproductive behavior.

 

Constructing an aviary. Shears, Alan. Australian Aviculture, 1995, v. 49 (7), p. 149-150. ISSN: 1030-5440.

            Descriptors: housing techniques, aviary construction, general guidelines, Aves.

 

The Eclectus parrot: Medicine and aviculture. Speer, B.L.; Roston, M.A.; Marx, K.L. Proceedings of the 16th Annual Conference Mid Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians, Williamsburg, VA. Apr. 29-May 2, 1995, p. 156-166. ref.

            NAL call no: SF994.M52

            Descriptors: aviculture, physiology, nutrition, sex diagnosis, viral diseases.

 

Environmental Enrichment Information Resources for Laboratory Animals: 1965-1995. Birds, Cats, Dogs, Farm Animals, Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents, AWIC Resource Series No. 2. Nicol, C.; McCube, S.; Appleby, M.C.; Elnon, D.; Gunn, D.; Morton, D.B.; Weered, H.A. van de; Baumans, V. 1995, ix 294 pp., Animal Welfare Information Center, Beltsville, MD. ISBN: 090076791X.

            NAL call no: aHv4701 A94 no. 2

Descriptors: birds, animal welfare, behavior, enrichment, environment, reviews, animal husbandry, laboratory animals, bibliographies.

 

Erfahrungen bei der Haltung und Zucht des Kapuzenloris. [Experience in care and breeding of the violet-necked lory.] Becker, Astrid; Haase, Matthias. Voliere, Jul. 1995, v. 18 (7), p. 214-218. ISSN: 0344-9270. Note: In German.

            Descriptors: housing techniques, optimum conditions, reproductive techniques.

 

Haltung und Zucht des Humboldtpinguins im Zoologischen Garten Koln (Spheniscus humboldti). [The keeping and breeding of the Humboldt penguin in the Koln Zoological Garden (Spheniscus humboldti).] Pagel, Theo. Voliere, Jun. 1995, v. 18 (6), p. 182-185. ISSN: 0344-9270. Note: In German.

            Descriptors: housing techniques, optimum conditions, reproductive techniques.

 

Haltung und Zucht des Jendayasittichs (Aratinga solstitialis jendaya). [Care and breeding of the Jendaya sun conure (Aratinga solstitialis jendaya).] Wuetz, Ditmar. Voliere, Sept. 1995, v. 18 (9), p. 283-285. ISSN: 0344-9270. Note: In German.

            Descriptors: housing techniques, optimum conditions, care in captivity, breeding.

 

Haltung und Zucht des Weissburzelloris (Pseudeos fuscata). [Care and breeding of the dusky lory (Pseudeos fuscata).] Wuetz, Dietmar. Voliere, Apr. 1995, v. 18 (4), p. 114-116. ISSN: 0344-9270. Note: In German.

            Descriptors: housing techniques, care in captivity, optimum conditions, breeding.

 

Management of substrate in aviaries to reduce exposure to fungus and mold. Raphael, Bonnie L.; Sheppard, Christine; Bruning, Don; Maher, Eileen; Cooper, Patti. Junge, Randall e. (Ed.). Proceedings Joint Conference American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, Wildlife Disease Association, American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians & Wildlife Disease Association. Place of publication not given. 1995, i-xxviii. 1-546 p. chapter pagination: 220-222.

            NAL call no: SF605.A4

            Descriptors: Aves, housing, aviary substrate management, reduce exposure to fungus.

 

A roosting appliance for finches. Whitaker, Gerald. Australian Aviculture, Jun. 1995, v. 49 (6), p. 143. ISSN: 1030-5440.

            Descriptors: housing techniques, roosting appliance design and construction, care.

 

Shocking facts about electric fences. Philpot, Bob. Bird Keeping in Australia, Mar. 1995, v. 38 (3), p. 40-42. ISSN: 0045-2076.

            Descriptors: housing techniques, electric fencing for predator exclusion, Aves, bird enclosures.

 

Socialization pen for crane pairing. Businga, Nancy K. Animal Keeper’s Forum, Jan. 1995, v. 22 (1), p. 32. ISSN: 0164-9531.

            NAL call no: QL77.5.A54

            Descriptors: Gruidae, crane, housing techniques, socialization pen, design, pairing behavior.

 

Stella’s lorikeet. Cooke, Dulcie. Avicultural Magazine, 1995, v. 101 (2), p. 58-62. ISSN: 0005-2256.

            NAL call no: QL671.A9

            Descriptors: Loridae, diet in captivity, housing techniques, recommendations.

 

On the sulphur crested cockatoo Cacatua sulphurea Gremlin 1788. Vit, Rudolf. Gefiederte Welt, Aug. 1995, v. 119 (8), p. 254-256. ISSN: 0016-5816.

            Descriptors: housing techniques, aviary conditions, Aves, care in captivity.

 

Understanding the Bird of Prey. Fox, Nick. Hancock House Publishers Ltd. Surrey, British Columbia. 1995. p. 1-375. ISBN: 0888393172.

            Descriptors: Falconiformes, Strigiformes, falcons, owls, management, care in captivity, prey.

 

Zebra finch behavior and effect of modest enrichment of standard cages. Jacobs, H.; Smith, N.; Smith, P.; Smyth, L.; Yew, P.; Saibaba, P.; Hau, J. Animal Welfare, Feb. 1995, v. 4 (1), p. 3-9. ref. ISSN: 0962-7286.

            NAL call no: HV4701.A557

            Descriptors: housing techniques, behavior, enrichment of standard cages, effects.

Abstract: Zebra finches are often housed in monogamous pairs in small barren cages. In the present study it was investigated whether modest enrichment resulted in behavioural changes. Four plywood box cages of 2 different lengths were compared. A small and a large cage were used fir the barren environment. Another small and large cage were used for the enriched environment, and included additional perches, twigs as well as sand and water baths. A ethogram consisting of 19 different behavioural patterns was used. The behaviour of the wild birds was studied using a combination of alternating (20s) one-zero and instantaneous sampling, 1 hour per day during a continuous 4-week period. Locomotor activity, vocalisation and singing was significantly increased in the enriched cages and flying was more frequent in the large enriched cage than in any of the other cages. It was concluded that this study demonstrated the usefulness of behavioural analyses to determine to what extent simple enrichment allows the birds to exhibit a wider range of their natural behaviour.

 

 

1994

 

Alcids in North American zoos and aquaria. Gunther, Mary Roman. International Zoo Yearbook, 1994, v. 33, p. 136-141. ISSN: 0074-9664.

            NAL call no: QL76.I5

            Descriptors: auk type birds, care in captivity, husbandry, captive breeding and rearing.

 

Amelioration of laboratory conditions for pigeons (Columbia livia). Huber, L. Animal Welfare, 1994, v. 3 (4), p. 321-324. ref. ISSN: 0962-7286.

            NAL call no: HV4701.A557

            Descriptors: laboratory animals, housing, animal welfare.

 

The avian flock. Clubb, Susan L.; Flammer, Keven. Avian Medicine, Principles and Application. Ritchie, Branson W.; Harrison, Greg J.;Harrison, Linda R. Wingers Publishing, Inc. Lake Worth, FL. 1994, 1-1348 p. Chapter pagination: 45-62. ISBN: 0963699601.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1A94 1996

            Descriptors: bird care in captivity, flock husbandry and treatment, treatment techniques.

 

Behavior and social organization. Ellis, Susie. Penguin Husbandry Manual. First Edition. Feb. 1994. Ellis, Susie; Branch, Sherry (eds.). American Zoo and Aquarium Association (place of publication not given). 1994. i-v. 1-197 p. Chapter pagination: 34-53.

            Descriptors: birds, care in captivity, behavioral considerations, social organization, overview.

 

Breeding amazons in captivity. Thompson, Dale R. Proceedings Annual Conference Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1994, p. 409-415.

            NAL call no: SF994.M52

            Descriptors: Amazona parrots, care in captivity, husbandry guidelines for captive breeding.

 

Breeding productivity, microhabitat requirements, and parental care of neotropical migrant bird in the Ozarks of Arkansas. Li, Pingjun. 1994, vi, 136 leaves. ill. ref. Thesis, University of Arkansas.

            NAL call no: ArUQL684.A8L5 1994

            Descriptors: birds, breeding, Arkansas, habitat, wild birds.

 

Building an aviary. United Bird Societies of SA Inc. Bird Keeping in Australia, Jul. 1994, v. 37 (7), p. 104-105. ISSN: 0045-2076.

            Descriptors: Aves, housing techniques, aviary construction.

 

Canaries. Lupu, Corina. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Mid Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1994, v. 15, p. 67-74.

            NAL call no: SF994.M52

            Descriptors: diagnostic techniques, treatment techniques, parasites, diseases, disorders.

 

The Complete Bird Owner’s Handbook. New Ed. Gallerstein, Gary A. 1952; Acker, Heather. Howell book House, New York, Toronto. Maxwell Macmillian International, c1994. xxiv, 320 p. plates, ill. ISBN: 0876059035.

            NAL call no: SF461.G35 1994

            Descriptors: cage birds, diseases, pets.

 

Directory of Institutions Housing Penguins: 11/94. Anon. Penguin Conservation, Nov. 1994, v. 7 (3), 7 p. (Unpaginated leaflet).

            Descriptors: directories, Spheniscidae, penguins, institutions holding specimens.

 

Everybird: A Guide to Bird Health. Rev. Macwhirter, Pat. Melbourne: Inkata Press, 1994. X, 190 p. ill. ref. ISBN: 0409308684.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1E94 1994

            Descriptors: cage birds, diseases, treatment, handbooks, wounds, feeding.

 

Der Feinsittich (Neophema chrysostoma Kuhl, 1820). [The blue-winged parrot Neophema chrysostoma Kuhl, 1820.] Ehlenbroker, Jorg. Voliere, Oct. 1994, v. 17 (10), p. 308-310. ISSN: 0344-9270. Note: In German.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, housing techniques, biological notes.

 

Gouldians benefit from exercise. Grigg, Ted. Australian Aviculture, Apr. 1994, 48 (4), p. 95-96. ISSN: 1030-5440.

            Descriptors: bird, housing techniques, provisions for exercise, importance.

 

Health. Walsh, Michael; Cramm, Anita. Penguin Husbandry Manual. First Edition. Feb. 1994. Ellis, Susie; Branch, Sherry (eds.). American Zoo and Aquarium Association (place of publication not given). 1994. i-v. 1-197 p. Chapter pagination: 126-140.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, veterinary care, parasites, diseases and disorders, penguins.

 

Housing and enclosure requirements. Beall, Fred.;Branch, Sherry. Penguin Husbandry Manual. First Edition. Feb. 1994. Ellis, Susie; Branch, Sherry (eds.). 1994. i-v. 1-197 p. Chapter pagination: 1-13.

            Descriptors: housing techniques, housing and enclosure requirements, penguins.

 

The husbandry of the cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus) in North American zoos. Diebold, Edward N.; White, Elizabeth S. 1994 North American Regional Studbook for the Cinereous Vulture (Aegypius monachus). Fourth edition. Milwaukee County Zoological Park, 1994. 100 p. Chapter pagination: 12 p.

Descriptors: care in captivity, zoo husbandry, reproductive techniques.

 

The husbandry, medical, and surgical management of domestic water fowl (Anseriformes) collections. LaBonde, Jerry. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Mid Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1994, v. 15, p. 42-65.

            NAL call no: SF994.M52

            Descriptors: swans, geese, ducks, care in captivity, husbandry and medical management, treatment methods.

 

Husbandry and reproduction of the red-faced mousebird. Macek, Michael; Bohmke, Bruce. Avicultural Magazine, 1994, v. 100 (1), p. 49-51. ISSN: 0005-2256.

            NAL call no: QL671.A9

            Descriptors: Urocolius indicus, captive breeding and rearing records, St. Louis Zoo.

 

Identificazione elettronica negli uccelli: esperienze di impianto intramuscolare e sottocutaneo. [Electronic identification in birds: Experience with intramuscular and subcutaneous implants.] Gandini, G.; Rampin, T.; Cerutti, F.; Sironi, G.; Restelli, R.; Cavalchini, L.G. Obiettivi e Documenti Veterinari, 1994, v. 15 (5), p. 47-51. ref. ISSN: 0392-1913. Note: In Italian.

            Descriptors: identification, transponders, techniques, Japanese quail, pectoral muscles.

Abstract: Electronic transponders (Trovan, AEG), 1.8 x 12 mm in size, were implanted in the pectoral muscles or s.c. in the neck region of 10 Japanese quails. There was no effect on their flight or walking activities over a 30-day observation period, and at the end of this period no inflammatory reactions or lesions were found at the implantation site. An i.m. implant was also evaluated in 57 psittaciform birds; no lesions or changes in behaviour were found 2 years later.

 

Komfortverhalten beim Afrikanischen Strauss (Struthio camelus). [Comfort behaviour of the African ostrich (Struthio camelus).] Sambraus, H.H. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift, 1994, v. 101 (8), p. 307-308. ref. Note: In German.

            NAL call no: 41.8 D82

            Descriptors: plumage, production, behavior, diurnal activity, sun bathing.

Abstract: Comfort behaviour of ostriches consists of caring of plumage and sand bathing. From studies of 120 ostriches in relation to the possibilities for ostrich production in central Europe it is concluded that care of plumage will be possible, but special devices must be constructed to allow sand bathing in every season.

 

Lexicon of Parrots. Arndt, Thomas. Verlag Arndt & Muller, Papageien, Bruckenfeldstrasse 30, 7518 Bretten, Germany, undated ?1994, 229 p. Unpaginated. Separately paginated loose leaf sheets. In two volumes with sheets issued at different times.

            Descriptors: morphology, behavior, care in captivity, housing techniques, diet, flight.

 

Management. Schneider, Tom. Penguin Husbandry Manual, First Edition. Ellis, Susie; Branch, Sherry (eds.). American Zoo and Aquarium Association. (place of publication not given). 1994, i-v. 1-197 p. Chapter pagination: 14-33.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, management techniques, sexing techniques, penguins.

 

Perception and Motor Control in Birds: An Ecological Approach. Davies, Mark N.O. 1960; Green, Patrick R. Berlin; New York: Springer-Verlag, c1994. xiv. 364 p. ill. ref. ISBN: 3540528555.

            NAL call no: QL698.P47 1994

            Descriptors: birds sense organs, behavior, physiology, perceptual motor processes.

 

Penguin Husbandry Manual. First Edition. Feb. 1994. Ellis, Susie; Branch, Sherry (eds.). American Zoo and Aquarium Association (place of publication not given). 1994. i-v. 1-197 p.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, husbandry manual, Spheniscidae, penguins.

 

Pigeons. Harlin, Roger W. Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice, 1994, v. 24 (1), p. 157-173. ISSN: 0195-5616.

            NAL call no: SF601.V523

            Descriptors: diagnosis, disease, drug therapy, health care, nutrition, housing.

 

Reproduction. Henry, Linda; Sirpenski, Gayle. Penguin Husbandry Manual, First Edition. Ellis, Linda; Branch, Sherry (eds.). Feb. 1994. American Zoo and Aquarium Association (place of publication not given). 1994, i-v. 1-197 p. Chapter pagination: 54-94.

            Descriptors: rearing techniques, hand rearing guidelines, captive breeding, penguins.

 

Techniques for prolonged confinement and transport of small insectivorous passerines. Bocetti, Carol I. Journal of Field Ornithology, Spring, 1994, v. 65 (2), p. 232-236. ISSN: 0273-8570.

            NAL call no: 413.8 B534

Descriptors: song birds, perching birds, housing techniques, prolonged confinement in captivity, transportation.

 

U.C. Davis Amazon breeding project. Millam, J.R. Proceedings Annual Conference Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1994, p. 403-408.

            NAL call no: SF994.M52

Descriptors: Amazona parrots, breeding programs, care in captivity, handling techniques, U.C. Davis.

 

Veterinary care of wild Australian birds: 1. Husbandry. Vogelnest, Larry. University of Sydney Post Graduate Committee in Veterinary Science Proceedings, 1994, v. 233, p. 117-138. ISSN: 0814-6829.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, pathological techniques, husbandry.

 

Welfare of ducks in intensive units. Raud, H.; Faure, J.M. Revue Scientifique et Technique, Office International des Epizootics. 1994, v. 13 (1), p. 119-129. ref. ISSN: 0253-1933. Note: In English and French.

            NAL call no: SF781.R4

            Descriptors: abnormal behvior, intensive husbandry, animal welfare.

 

Wildfowl. Ogilvie, Malcom; Pearson, Bruce. Hamlyn, London. 1994, p. 1-160. ISBN: 0600579735.

            Descriptors: feeding behavior, nutrition, reproduction, locomotion, feeding.

 

 

1993

 

Accommodation [sic] of lories and lorikeets. Van Dooren, Gert. Lori Journal Internationaal, 1993, (2), p. 34-38. ISSN: 1381-5253.

            Descriptors: care in captivity housing techniques, notes, Loriidae.

 

The bathtub cage for lories. Taylor, Jim. Lorinae, Jun. 1993, v. 9 (2), p. 16-21: Issue 34.

            Descriptors: housing techniques, new cage design, care in captivity.

 

Building baby bird incubators. Watson, Joe; Heckly, Susan. Journal of Wildlife Rehabilitation, Winter 1993, v. 16 (4), p. 3-6. ISSN: 1071-2232.

            NAL call no: SF996.45.J69

            Descriptors: housing techniques, rearing techniques, incubator for nesting, Aves, young birds.

 

Captive management and husbandry of red-crowned cranes in Europe. Belterman, R.; King, C.E. IZN-International Zoo News, 1993, v. 40 (1), p. 6-20. No. 242. ISSN: 0020-9155.

            NAL call no: QL76.I58

            Descriptors: care in captivity, breeding programs, reproductive techniques.

 

Care, behavior, and growth of captive-reared American woodcocks. Vander-Haegen, W. Matthew; Krohn, William B.; Owen, Ray B. Jr. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report, Jul.1993, v. 16, p. 57-65. ISSN: 0895-1926.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, diet and housing techniques, behavior, cage construction.

 

Care of oiled seabirds. Brain, L.T.A. Veterinary Record, 1993, v. 133 (19), p. 484. ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL call no: 41.8 V641

            Descriptors: oil spills, pollution, mineral oils, animal welfare, rescuing and cleaning wild birds.

 

Cave swallows. Levy, C.; Brown, J.; Degia, C. Gosse Bird Club Broadsheet, Mar. 1993, v. 60, p. 32. ISSN: 1017-348X.

            Descriptors: avian prey, behavior, ecology, predators, avoidance behavior.

 

A comparison of the behavior of solitary and group-house budgerigars. Pope, S.J.; Nicol, C.J. Animal Welfare, Aug. 1993, v. 2 (3), p. 269-277. ISSN: 0962-7286.

            NAL call no: HV4701.A557

Descriptors: care in captivity, solitary vs group housing, effects on behavior, food consumption, activity levels.

Abstract: The behaviour of budgerigars housed in aviaries in a group of 6, or caged individually was studied over 2 months. Budgerigars in the aviary consumed more food and were more active, performing more wing stretching and flying. Caged birds vocalized more. When tested individually, the aviary birds were more active in a novel test chamber and were more likely to approach an unfamiliar bird than were caged birds.

 

Constructing perches for healthier feet. Jones, Maggie. Journal of Wildlife Rehabilitation, Spring, 1993, v. 16 (1), p. 13-16. ISSN: 1071-2232.

            NAL call no: SF996.45.J69

            Descriptors: Falconiformes, falcons, Strigiformes, owls, housing techniques, perch construction.

 

Le diamant mandarin. [The Zebra Finch.] Pomarede, Maurice. Maisons Alfort: Editions du Point Veterinaire, 1993, 216 p. plates, ill. map. ISBN: 2863261002. Note: In French.

            NAL call no: SF473.Z42P65 1993

            Descriptors: zebra finch, aviculture.

 

Emerald lorikeet (Neopsittacus pullicauda pullicauda). Baur, Frederick. Loriinae, Jun. 1993, v. 9 (2), p. 2-10. Issue 34.

            Descriptors: diet in captivity, housing techniques, aviary design, optimum conditions.

 

Housing, Husbandry, and Welfare of Selected Birds (Quail, Pheasant, Finches, Ostrich, Dove, Parrot): Jan. 1980-Dec. 1993, Quick Bibliography Series. Kreger, Michael D. Animal Welfare Information Center, No. 94-26. Available: www.nal.usda.gov/awic/pubs/oldbib/qb9426.htm

            NAL call no: aZ5071.N3 no. 94-26

            Descriptors: birds bibliography, housing, handling, bibliography.

 

Introducing the ostrich. Kimminau, K.M. Veterinary Technician, 1993, v. 14 (8), p. 459-467. ref. ISSN: 8750-8990.

            NAL call no: SF406.A5

            Descriptors: animal behavior, housing, anatomy, restraint, anesthesia, drug therapy.

 

Mixed species aviary breeding. Rakos, Tom. Bird Keeping in Australia, Aug. 1993, 36 (8), p. 119-120. ISSN: 0045-2076.

            Descriptors: Aves, housing techniques, mixed species aviaries, observations on breeding.

 

Notes on the husbandry and breeding of musk lorikeets at Chester Zoo. Wilkinson, Roger; Woodham, Andrew; Morris, Paul; Morris, Anne. Avicultural Magazine, 1993, v. 99 (4), p. 188-192. ISSN: 0005-2256.

            NAL call no: QL671.A9

            Descriptors: care in captivity, captive breeding and rearing, records.

 

The ostrich Struthio camelus: Capture, care accommodation, and transportation. Keffen, R.H. The Capture and Care Manual: Care, Accommodation and Transportation of Wild African Animals. McKenzie, Andrew A. (ed.). Wildlife Decision Support Services and The South African Veterinary Foundation. Lynnwood Ridge & Menlo Park. 1993. i-xxviii. 1-729 p. Chapter pagination: 634-652.

            NAL call no: SK571 C63 1993

            Descriptors: care in captivity, diet in captivity, housing techniques, parasites, diseases.

 

The pheasant aviary environment. Johnson, K. WPA News, 1993, p. 34-37, No. 40. ISSN: 0963-3278.

            Descriptors: housing techniques, aviary design and landscaping, native vegetation.

 

Pheasants of the World: Their Breeding and Management. Howman, K. 1993, 184 pp. Hancock House Publishers Ltd. Surrey, Canada. ISBN: 088839280X.

            NAL call no: SF509.H68

            Descriptors: breeding, genetics, husbandry, farming, management.

Abstract: This is the second edition, the 1st edition having been published in 1978. After a brief introduction, the book has chapters on housing, feeding and diseases of pigeons, breeding season, incubation and brooding, and the different pheasant species. The book is profusely illustrated with excellent colour photographs.

 

Zur Problematik der Flugunfahigmachung von Geflugel und zu Fragen der Teichhaltung von Wassergeflugel aus der Sicht des Tierschutzrechts. [On the problems of rendering birds flightless and keeping of waterfowl on ponds from the point of animal welfare.] Kosters, J.; Jakoby, J.R.; Korbel, R. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift, 1993, v. 100 (2), p. 73-76. ref. Note: In German.

            NAL call no: 41.8 D482

            Descriptors: animal husbandry, cosmetic surgery, animal welfare.

Abstract: Methods of rendering birds flightless are described and evaluated from the point of animal welfare. Animal welfare and other laws, that should be considered when waterfowl are kept on ponds are discussed.

 

Small indoor flights for finches. White, David, Australian Aviculture, Jun. 1993, v. 47 (6), p. 125-127. ISSN: 1030-5440.

            Descriptors: housing techniques, small indoor flights, care in captivity.

 

Soziale Deprivation bei Amazonenpapageien (Amazona, Aratingidae) in Menschenhand. [Social deprivation in captive Amazon parrots (Amazona, Aratingidae).] Lantermann, W. Kleintierpraxis, 1993, v. 38 (8), p. 511-520. ref. ISSN: 0023-2076. Note: In German.

            Descriptors: housing, nutrition, therapy, behavior, aviary birds.

Abstract: Conditions of captivity for 43 Amazon parrots (housing, nutrition, relationship between owner and pet) are described. Animal:man relations, behaviour changes of the bird, amazon parrots and partner birds, birds without behaviour problems, therapeutical possibilities for behavioural problems are discussed. Most of the birds showed significant behavioural aberrations when reaching sexual maturity, attributable to social isolation from other parrots on the one hand and a very intimate attachment to the pet owner on the other hand. There are effective therapeutical possibilities by keeping the birds in pairs or little groups and by changing the external housing, nutritional and housing conditions. Even long-term isolated parrots with evident behavioural aberrations could be resocialized in this way.

 

[Strange birds penguins! The king penguin (2).] Dekker, D. Dieren, 1993, v. 9 (6), p. 165-167. ISSN: 0168-6631. Note: In Dutch.

            Descriptors: housing techniques, captive breeding, reproductive techniques.

 

Die Versorgung und Rehabilitation von vorubergehend in Menschenhand geratenen Greifvogeln - ein Tierschutzproblem. [Animal welfare aspects of the care and rehabilitation of birds of prey.] Richter, T.; Hartmann, S. Tierarztliche Umschau,1993, v. 48 (4), p. 239-250. ref. Note: In German.

            NAL call no: 41.8 T445

            Descriptors: biology, veterinary services, animal welfare, predatory birds.

Abstract: The reception, temporary housing and rehabilitation of indigenous birds of prey are discussed with respect to the legal, biological and medical aspects. Although against German hunting rights, involvement of veterinarians in the care of birds of prey is required for welfare reasons. Such involvement would not affect the size of the free-living population. The ethological and medical requirements for the successful rehabilitation of predatory birds are discussed.

 

 

1992

 

The Atlas of Quails. Alderton, D. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, N.J. 1992. 1-144 p.

            NAL call no: SF510.Q2A38 1992Ov

            Descriptors: housing and care in captivity, handling techniques, rearing.

 

Aviary design and construction. Johnson, Tom; Clubb, Kevin. Psittacine Aviculture: Perspectives, Techniques and Research. Schubot, Richard M.; Clubb, Kevin J.; Clubb, Susan. Aviculture Breeding and Research Center, Loxahatchee. 1992. i-x. p. 1.1-28.4, Glossary 1-11, Index 1-24, Chapter pagination: 4.1-4.12.

            Descriptors: Psittaciformes, housing techniques, aviary design and construction.

 

The biology and husbandry of whydahs and combassous. Baptista, L.F. A.F.A. Watchbird, 1992, v. 19 (1), p. 40-45. ISSN: 0199-543X.

            NAL call no: QL671.A33

            Descriptors: nest parasitism, parasite biology, nest and roost boxes, avicultural needs.

 

Bustard husbandry. Weeks, Louise. AAZPA Regional Conference Proceedings, 1992, p. 810-816. ISSN: 0731-0539.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, husbandry protocol, reproductive techniques.

            NAL call no: QL76.5 U6A47

 

Care and management of caged birds. Kruckenberg, S. The College, c1992 [Manhattan Kan.]. videocassette (51 min) sd. col

            NAL call no: Videocassette no. 2104

            Descriptors: aviculture, care, husbandry, housing.

 

The cassowary in captivity. Perron, R. IZN- International Zoo News, 1992, v. 39 (7), p. 4-14. ISSN: 0020-9155.

            NAL call no: QL76.I58

            Descriptors: care in captivity, housing techniques, handling techniques, rearing.

 

Conures. Colpman, P. Bird Keeping in Australia, 1992, v. 35 (1), p. 1-5. ISSN: 0045-2076.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, nutrition, feeding behavior, diet in captivity, housing.

 

Habitat enrichment for two species of pheasants. Bruce, Dan. Shape of Enrichment, Nov. 1992, v. 1 (2), p. 8-9. ISSN: 1088-8152.

            NAL call no: HV737.S53

            Descriptors: housing techniques, habitat enrichment, Lophura edwardsi, Tragopan t.

 

Health risks of housing small psittacines in galvanized wire mesh cages. Howard, B.R. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 1992, v. 200 (11), p. 1667-1674. ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL call no: 41.8 Am3

            Descriptors: housing techniques, galvanized wire mesh cages, health risks, adult cockatiels, Nymphicus hollandicus.

Abstract: Each week over a 6 week period, 80 adult cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) of either gender were dosed orally with fine particles of pure zinc or galvanized coating removed from welded wire mesh. At dosage of 32 mg/wk, all birds became severely ill and either died or were killed within 2 weeks. Dosage of 2 mg/wk induced chronic illness marked by dullness, weight loss, and intermittent excretion of greenish droppings. PM examination findings were unremarkable, except for signs suggestive of impaired gastrointestinal tract motility and histological degenerative changes associated with focal mononuclear infiltration in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas. Tissue, especially pancreatic, contents of zinc were markedly high. Pure zinc was as toxic as galvanizing zinc. White rust, an oxidation product, also was toxic. The galvanized coating on cages and flights must be carefully wire brushed and examined before housing psittacine birds.

 

The husbandry of the noisy Pitta versicolor. Hobcroft, D. Australian Aviculture, 1992, v. 46 (4), p. 77-79. ISSN: 1030-5440.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, husbandry notes, Pittidae.

 

A note on keeping the houbara bustard in captivity. Shkolnaya, YeA. Bustard Studies, 1992, v. 5, p. 194-195. ISSN: 0254-0878.

            Descriptors: housing techniques, care in captivity, stress relief, rearing techniques.

 

Parrot wellbeing. Does it deserve more attention? King, C.E. Psitta Scene, 1992, v. 4 (2), p. 7-8. ISSN: 1363-3368.

            Descriptors: housing techniques, requirements for well-being, Psittaciformes.

 

The Pesquet’s parrot (Psittrichas fulgidus). Norman, Denise. Psittacine Aviculture: Perspectives, Techniques and Research. Schubot, Richard M.; Clubb, Kevin J.; Clubb, Susan L. Aviculture Breeding and Research Center, Loxahatchee. 1992. i-x. p. 1.1-28.4. Glossary 1-11. Index 1-24. Chapter pagination: 28.1.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, avicultural status and husbandry, Psittacidae.

 

Population density and breeding success of birds. Fletcher, Mark R.; Jones, Sian A.; Greig-Smith, Peter W.; Hardy, Anthony R.; Hart, Andrew D.M. Pesticides, Cereal Farming and the Environment. Grieg-Smith, Peter; Frampton, Geoff; Hardy, Tony. (eds.). The Boxworth project. HMSO. London. 1992. 1-288 p. Chapter pagination: 160-174. ISBN: 0112428726.

            NAL call no: QH545.P4P4814 1992

            Descriptors: Aves, prey, pesticide impact, pesticide effects, breeding effects.

 

Seed-Eating Birds: Their Care and Breeding: Finches and Allied Species-Doves, Quail and Hemipodes. Trollope, Jeffrey; Trollope, Jeffrey. London: Blandford: New York, N.Y. Dist. In US by Sterling Pub. Co. 1992, 336 pp. col. ill. ref. ISBN: 0713722703.

            NAL call no: SF461.T76 1992

            Descriptors: cage birds, cage birds breeding.

 

 

1991

 

Avian-Exotic Animal Care Guides. Woerpel, Richard W.; Rosskopf Walter J. American Veterinary Publications, c1991. 83 pp. ref. ISBN: 0939674246 (loose leaf).

            NAL call no: SF413.W63

            Descriptors: wild birds as pets, guides.

 

Avian restraint and handling. Vogt, S.L. Veterinary Technician, 1991, v. 12 (4), p. 351-357. ref. ISSN: 8750-8990.

            NAL call no: SF406.A5

            Descriptors: animal husbandry, aviary birds, restraint of animals.

 

Basic avian health care and nutrition for the new bird owner. Vogt, S.L. Veterinary Technician, 1991, v. 12 (6), p. 461-464, 466-467. ref. ISSN: 8750-8990.

            NAL call no: SF406.A5

            Descriptors: pets, cages, diets, aviary birds, nutrition.

             

Breeding, biology and captive husbandry of the plate-billed mountain toucan (Andigena laminirostris). Shannon, Peter W. AAZPA Regional Conference Proceedings, 1991, p. 188-195. ISSN: 0731-0439.

            NAL call no: QL76.5 U6A47

            Descriptors: reproductive techniques, breeding techniques, observations in captivity.

 

Captive propagation of the collard sunbird (Anthreptes collaris). Dellinger, R.M.; Eckart, C.J. A.F.A. Watchbird, 1991, v. 18 (2), p. 40-45. ISSN: 0199-543X.

            NAL call no: QL671.A33

            Descriptors: care in captivity, diet in captivity, housing techniques.

 

Curassow husbandry at the Houston Zoological Gardens. Plasse, Rochelle. AAZPA Regional Conference Proceedings, 1991, p. 229-236. ISSN: 0731-0439.

            NAL call no: QL76.5 U6A47

            Descriptors: diet in captivity, captive breeding, diseases and disorders, review.

 

Emu husbandry. Padget, D. Journal of the Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1991, v. 5 (1), p. 48-49. ISSN: 1044-8314.

            NAL call no: SF994.J6

            Descriptors: care in captivity, sexing techniques, Dromaiidae.

 

Facilities. Weaver, James D. Falcon Propagation: A Manual on Captive Breeding. Revised edition. The Peregrine Fund, Inc. Boise, ID. 1991. i-viii. 1-100 p. Chapter pagination: 3-10.

            Descriptors: housing techniques, care in captivity, Falco peregrinus, peregrin falcon.

 

High rise housing for waterfowl. Molesky, D.M. Bios, 1991, v. 61 (1-2), p. 26-32. ISSN: 0005-3155.

            Descriptors: nest and roost boxes, elevated nest baskets, design and evaluation.

  

Learning principles as they apply to animal husbandry. Mellen, Jill D.; Ellis-Joseph, Sue. AAZPA Annual Conference Proceedings, 1991, p. 548-552. ISSN: 0731-0390.

            NAL call no: QL76.5.U6A472

            Descriptors: care in captivity, Aves, birds, captive management applications, learning.

 

Macaw breeding and conservation. Abramson, J. A.F.A. Watchbird, 1991, v. 18 (3), p. 40-43. ISSN: 0199-543X.

            NAL call no: QL671.A33

            Descriptors: care in captivity, housing techniques, captive breeding, parrots.

 

Nesting and hand rearing of ramphastids. San Antonio Bird Department. AAZPA Regional Conference Proceedings, 1991, p. 203-207. ISSN: 0731-0439.

            NAL call no: QL76.5.U6A472

            Descriptors: housing techniques, hand rearing, rearing techniques, nest management.

 

Ramphastid husbandry and medicine at Riverbanks Zoo. Calhoon, Kevin. AAZPA Regional Conference Proceedings, 1991. P. 208-212. ISSN: 0731-0439.

            NAL call no: QL76.5.U6A472

            Descriptors: care in captivity, husbandry techniques, diseases and disorders.

 

Studies on abnormal reproductive behaviours in Baladi pigeons kept under intensive system breeding. Kamel, M.M. Veterinary Medical Journal Giza, 1991, v. 39 (3), p. 755-762. ref. ISSN: 1110-1423.

            NAL call no: SF604.C13

            Descriptors: animal behavior, intensive husbandry, abnormal behavior, mating.

 

The welfare of pet parrots. Roe, D. Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW), 1991, 32 pp. ref. ISBN: 0900767758.

            NAL call no: SF473.P3R63

            Descriptors: pets, aviary birds, behavior, animal welfare.

Abstract: This booklet is intended for people who are thinking about keeping a parrot as a pet, particularly one of the larger species and contains basic information in a easy-to-read format on : parrots as pets, appearance, choosing a parrot, how many to have, housing, furniture, position of the cage, freedom in the house, diet, diseases, plumage, handling and wing clipping. Sources of information are listed at the end of the book.

 

 

1990

 

Bird injuries, cause of death, and recuperation from collisions with windows. Klem, D. Jr. Journal of Field Ornithology, 1990, v. 61 (1), p. 115-119. ISSN: 0273-8570.

            NAL call no: 413.8 B534

            Descriptors: injuries, mortality, window collisions, survival, treatment, recovery.

 

Companion bird management and nutrition. Taylor, M. Proceedings Annual Conference Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1990, p. 409-414.

            NAL call no: SF994.M52

            Descriptors: diet in captivity, housing techniques, caging systems, design and sanitation.

 

Concepts in flamingo exhibit design. Shannon, Peter. AAZPA Annual Conference Proceedings, 1990. P. 226-230. ISSN: 0731-0390.

            NAL call no: QL76.5.U6A472

            Descriptors: housing techniques, exhibit design concepts, Phoenicopteridae, captive birds.

 

Establishing an enclosure for gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua). Stronge, John. Penguin Management: Proceedings of a Symposium held at Cotswald Wildlife Park Ltd. Burford, Oxford. Blackwell, Simon (Ed.). 1990. 1-64 p. Chapter pagination: 23-27.

            Descriptors: housing techniques, enclosure design and construction, Aves.

 

Genus Amazona. Stoodley, J.; Stoodley, P. Bezels Publications, Portsmouth. 1990. i-xi. 1-135 p.

            NAL call no: SF473.P3S75

            Descriptors: diet in captivity, housing techniques, care in captivity, biology, parrots.

 

Husbandry and propagation of the black-napped fruit dove, Ptilinopus melanospila, at the St. Louis Zoo. Bohmke, B.W. Avicultrual Magazine, 1990, v. 96 (4), p. 178-180. ISSN: 0005-2256.

            NAL call no: QL671.A9

            Descriptors: care in captivity, observations, notes, reproduction.

 

L'elevage des autriches. [Ostrich husbandry.] Campodonico, P.; Masson, C. Bulletin des G.T.V., 1990, No. 2, p. 59-73. ISSN: 0399-2519. Note: In French.

            NAL call no: SF602.G7

            Descriptors: anesthesia, anthelmintics, drug therapy, diseases, parasitoses, captive birds.

Abstract: The first part of this series on ostrich husbandry summarizes knowledge on the geographical distribution of ostriches, emus, rheas and cassowaries, their adaptability to captivity, diseases and parasites and their treatment, and anaesthesia.

 

Successful propagation of three Halcyon kingfisher species H. s. smymensis, H. a. albiventris and H. c. cinnamomina at the Cincinnati Zoo. Oehler, D.A. Avicultural Magazine, 1990, v. 96 (1), p. 1-9. ISSN: 0005-2256.

            NAL call no: QL671.A9

            Descriptors: breeding techniques, diet in captivity, housing techniques.

 

Uber Einfang und Versorgung verletzter Weiss- und Schwarzstorche. [Capture and care of injured white storks and black storks.] Hatlapa, H.H. Praktische Tierarzt, 1990, v. 71 (4), p. 46-47. ref. ISSN: 0032-681X. Note: In German.

            NAL call no: 41.8 P882

            Descriptors: wild animals, fractures, storks, care, treatment.

 

Vulture management and research at the Paris menagerie. Schlee, M.A. Vulture News, 1990, p. 11-16, No. 23.

            Descriptors: caging systems, nest platforms, reproductive behavior, care & observations.

 

 

1989

 

The Bird Care Book: All You Need to Know to Keep Your Bird Healthy and Happy. Rev. and updated. Gerstenfeld, Sheldon L. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co. c1989. xxi. 229 p. ill. bibl. ISBN: 0201095599.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1G47 1989

            Descriptors: cage birds diseases, management, care, health, diet.

 

Caging as a technique for rearing wild passerine birds. de Hamel, R.; McLean, I.G. Journal of Wildlife Management, 1989, v. 53 (3), p. 852-856. ISSN: 0022-541X.

            NAL call no: 410. J827

            Descriptors: caged chick rearing, caging systems, survival in captivity, rearing.

 

The captive maintenance and propagation of the genus Polyplectron. Searle, K.C. World Pheasant Association Journal, 1989, v. 14, p. 16-32. ISSN: 0963-326X.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, review, diet in captivity, housing techniques.

 

The care and feeding of marbled murrelets in captivity. Nelson, Kristine; Douma, Barbara. AAZPA Regional Conference Proceedings, 1989, p. 390-397. ISSN: 0731-0439.

            NAL call no: QL76.5.U6A472

            Descriptors: care in captivity, husbandry requirements and observations, Aves.

 

The finch carrying cage. Barham, K. Australian Aviculture, 1989, v. 43 (3), p. 53-54. ISSN: 1030-5440.

            Descriptors: caging systems, transportation cage design, Passeriformes.

 

Free flight aviaries: Balancing display and conservation. Pichner, Jimmy. AAZPA Regional Conference Proceedings, 1989, p. 167-171. ISSN: 0731-0439.

            NAL call no: QL76.5.U6A472

            Descriptors: free flight aviary design, housing techniques, review and discussion.

 

Humboldt penguin husbandry at Woodland Park Zoo, Seattle. Harris, E.L. SPN-Spheniscus Penguin Newsletter, 1989, v. 1 (2), p. 1, 10-13. ISSN: 1045-0076.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, husbandry, techniques.

 

Husbandry and captive breeding of fairy bluebirds (Irena puella). Silveri, A.; Bohmke, B. Avicultural Magazine, 1989, v. 95 (4), p. 161-169. ISSN: 0005-2256.

            NAL call no: QL671.A9

            Descriptors: care in captivity, husbandry, diet in captivity, caging systems.

 

An improved waterfowl enclosure: Considering animal welfare as a research priority. Davis, D.S.; Allan, H.A, Jr. Journal of Field Ornithology, 1989, c. 60 (2), p. 162-167. ISSN: 0273-8570.

            NAL call no: 413.8 B534

            Descriptors: caging systems, new enclosures, housing techniques, animal welfare.

 

Introduction to Southern African Cage and Aviary Birds. Volume 2, Seed Eating Birds. Brickell, N. ARU, Durban, 1989, p. 1-294.

            Descriptors: diet in captivity, caging systems, morphology, behavior, biology.

 

Planning and managing a semi-tropical free flight aviary. Salisbury, C. Lex. AAZPA Regional Conference Proceedings, 1989, p. 480-487. ISSN: 0731-0439.

            NAL call no: 76.5.U6A472

            Descriptors: Aves, housing techniques, planning and management.

 

Quail. Their breeding and management. Robbins, G.E.S. World Pheasant Association, Reading, 1989, p. 1-108.

            Descriptors: breeding and management, diet in captivity, parasites, diseases, disorders.

 

Recognizing and caring for the sick bird. Texler, K.H. Australian Aviculture, 1989, v. 43 (3), p. 58-61. ISSN: 1030-5440.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, disease recognition, treatment of disease, review.

 

Simplified cage modification to reduce self-inflicted injury in confined birds. Parrish, J.W.; Saunders, D.K. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 1989, v. 17 (1), p. 80-81. ISSN: 0091-7648.

            NAL call no: SK357.A1W5

            Descriptors: caging systems, injuries, self inflicted injuries, fiberglass screens.

 

 

1988

 

Aviary materials and construction. White, D. Australian Aviculture, 1988, v. 42 (10), p. 246-251. ISSN: 1030-5440.

            Descriptors: caging systems, aviary materials and construction, Aves.

 

Birds. Nebraska 4-H Small Animal and Pet Series. Nebraska Cooperative Extension 4-H; no. 279. 15 pp. ill.

            NAL call no: NBU S533.F66N42-no. 279

            Descriptors: cage birds, juvenile literature.

 

Cabinet or aviary breeding zebra finches. Pinch, R. Australian Aviculture, 1988, v. 42 (9), p. 216-217. ISSN: 1030-5440.

            Descriptors: caging systems, cabinet or aviary breeding, discussion and notes.

 

Captive management of the California condor Gymnogyps californianus. Toone, W.D.; Risser, A.C. Jr. International Zoo Yearbook, 1988, v.27, p. 50-58. ISSN: 0074-9664.

            NAL call no: QL76.I5

            Descriptors: captive management, diet in captivity, housing techniques.

 

Captive management of aquatic birds. Pokras, M.A. AAV Today, 1988, v. 2 (1), p. 24-33. ISSN: 0892-9904.

            NAL call no: SF994.A2

            Descriptors: diet in captivity, housing techniques, parasites and disorders.

 

Diamonds are forever. Schultz, B. Bird Keeping in Australia, 1988, v. 31 (5), p. 81-83. ISSN: 0045-2076.

            Descriptors: birds, care in captivity, housing, diet in captivity, caging systems.

 

Hand-rearing the secretary bird Sagittarius serpentarius at Oklahoma City Zoo. Todd, W.T. International Zoo Yearbook, 1988, v. 27, p. 258-263. ISSN: 0074-9664.

            NAL call no: QL76.I5

            Descriptors: captive management, housing techniques, diet in captivity, captive care.

 

Husbandry, breeding and post-embryonic growth of Abdim’s stork Ciconia abdimi hand reared at London Zoo. Duignan, P.J.; Nuttall, C.; Kirkwood, J.K.; Olney, P.J.S. International Zoo Yearbook, 1988, v. 27, p. 245-252. ISSN: 0074-9664.

            NAL call no: QL75.I5

            Descriptors: care in captivity, diseases, mortality, breeding and rearing relationships.

 

Keeping and Breeding Zebra Finches: The Complete Type Standard Guide. Blackwell, Chris. 1988, 192 pp., plates, ill. ref. Blandon Press, N.Y., N.Y. ISBN: 0713719591.

            NAL call no: SF473.Z42B58

            Descriptors: zebra finch, behavior, management, housing, breeding.

 

Weather and Bird Behaviour. 2nd ed. Elkins, Norman. Calton, Staffordshire, England: T. & A. D. Poyser, c1988. 239 p. plates. ill. maps. ISBN: 0856610518.

            NAL call no: QL698.3.E45 1988

            Descriptors: birds, behavior, climatic factors.

 

 

1987

 

Aviary design at Aviculture Institute: A 1987 update. Hanson, J.T.; Thompson, D.R. Proceedings of the Jean Delacour/IFCB Symposium on Breeding Birds in Captivity. 1987. i-xxv. 1-574 p. Chapter pagination: 102-108.

            Descriptors: caging systems, aviary design, Psittaciformes, housing techniques.

 

Caging and environment. Giddings, R.F. Companion Bird Medicine. Burr, E.W. (ed.). Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA. 1987. i-x. 1-247 p. Chapter pagination: 8-14.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1C66 1987

            Descriptors: Aves, caging systems, optimum environments for captive species.

 

The canary and other passerine cage birds. Keymer, I.F. The UFAW Handbook on the Care and Management of Laboratory Animals. T.B. Poole (ed).; R. Robinson. 6th ed. London: Longman. p. 687-700. ISBN: 058240911X.

            NAL call no: QL55.U5 1987

            Descriptors: laboratory animals, aviary birds, canaries, biology, husbandry.

 

Captive breeding. Eagles. Carpenter, J.W.; Gabel, R.R.; Wiemeyer, S.N. National Wildlife Federation Scientific and Technical Series, 1987, p. 349-356. No. 10. ISSN: 1044-4971

            NAL call no: QL696.F3M52 1991

            Descriptors: caging systems, rearing techniques, breeding techniques.

 

Care and rehabilitation of injured owls. A user’s guide to the medical treatment of raptorial birds and the housing, release, training and captive breeding of native owls. McKeever, K. The Owl Rehabilitation Research Foundation, Vinland, Ontario. 1987, p. 1-196.

            Descriptors: captive breeding, release, training, manual, care in captivity, anesthesia.

 

Cool water. Schultz, B. Bird Keeping in Australia, 1987, v. 30 (9), p. 130-131. ISSN: 0045-2076.

            Descriptors: bird care in captivity, housing techniques, Aves.

 

European wild birds. Cooper, J.E. UFAW Handbook on the Care and Management of Laboratory Animals. T.B. Poole (ed); R. Robinson. 6th ed. p. 709-715. ISBN: 058240911X

            NAL call no: QL55.U5 1987

            Descriptors: laboratory animals, wild birds, animal husbandry, Europe.

 

Evaporative airconditioning. Schultz, B. Bird Keeping in Australia, 1987, v. 30 (9), p. 132-133. ISSN: 0045-2076.

            Descriptors: caging systems, aviary evaporative air conditioning system design.

 

Hand Rearing Parrots and Other Birds. Low, R. Blandford Press, Poole, N.Y., Sydney. 1987, 1-128 p.

            NAL call no: QL698.3.L68 1991

            Descriptors: diet in captivity, digestion, incubators, environmental control devices.

 

Hooded parrots - their housing, care and breeding. Birdbrain. Bird Keeping in Australia, 1987, v. 30 (4), p. 60-61. ISSN: 0045-2076.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, Psittacidae, Aves.

 

Housing and feeding of Psittaculirostris. Van Oosten, J.R. Fig Parrot, 1987, v. 1 (1), p. 3-5, 8.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, general account, Psittacidae.

 

Introduction to birds. Cooper, J.E. The UFAW Habdbook on the Care and Management of Laboratory Animals. T.B. Poole (ed).; R. Robinson. 6th ed. London: Longman. p. 628-639. ISBN: 058240911X.

            NAL call no: QL55.U5 1987

            Descriptors: laboratory animals, birds, biology, husbandry, disease control.

 

The penguin encounter at Sea World, San Diego. Todd, F.S. International Zoo Yearbook, 1987, v. 26, p. 104-109. ISSN: 0074-9664.

            NAL call no: QL76.I5

            Descriptors: care in captivity, exhibit husbandry, environmental control, aquaria, California.

 

Propagation of captive eastern screech owls. Wiemeyer, S.N. Journal of Raptor Research, 1987, v. 21 (2), p. 49-56. ISSN: 0892-1016.

            NAL call no: QL696.F3J682

            Descriptors: diet in captivity, housing techniques, maintenance and pairing procedure.

 

White cockatoo husbandry. Silva, T. Avicultural Magazine, 1987, v. 93 (4), p. 202-208. ISSN: 0005-2256.

            NAL call no: QL761.A9

            Descriptors: care in captivity, husbandry, breeding techniques, Cacatua.

 

 

1986

 

Biology of birds of paradise and bowerbirds. Diamond, J. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 1986, v. 17, p. 17-37. ISSN: 0066-4162.

            NAL call no: QH540.A55

            Descriptors: anatomy, feeding behavior, skeletal musculature, skull, diet.

 

The Complete Cage and Aviary Bird Handbook. Alderton, D. Pelham, London. 1986. 1-160 p.

            Descriptors: care and breeding in captivity, diet, parasites, diseases, disorders.

 

Electrified fences for aviaries and enclosures. Nash, R.G.; Nash, D.M. Avicultural Magazine, 1985, v. 91 (4), p. 208-211. ISSN: 0005-2258.

            NAL call no: QL671.A9

            Descriptors: Aves, caging systems, electrified fencing, predators.

 

Husbandry and captive breeding of birds of prey. Enderson, J. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Fowler, M.E. (ed.). W.B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia, London. 1986. i-xxiv. 1-1127 p. Chapter pagination: 376-379.

            NAL call no: SF996.Z66

Descriptors: Falconiformes, falcons, Strigiformes, owls, care in captivity, breeding techniques, review.

 

Husbandry of Galliformes. Amand, W.B. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. Fowler, M. E. (ed.). W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, London, 1986. i-xxiv.. 1-1127 p. Chapter pagination: 466.

            NAL call no: SF996.Z66

            Descriptors: Galliformes, care in captivity, fowl.

 

Husbandry practices. Harrison G.J. Clinical Avian Medicine and Surgery Including Aviculture. Harrison, G.J.; Harrison, L.R. (eds.). W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, London. 1986, i-xviii. 1-717 p. Chapter pagination: 12-19.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1C5

            Descriptors: Aves, care in captivity, birds.

 

Plants suitable for use in aviaries. Staples, G. Clinical Avian Medicine and Surgery Including Aviculture. Harrison, G.J.; Harrison, L.R. (eds.). W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, London. 1986. i-xviii. 10717 p. Chapter pagination: 667-668.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1C5

            Descriptors: caging systems, aviaries, food plants, diet, Aves.

 

 

1985

 

Bird Behavior. Burton, R. Granada, London. 1985, p. 1-224.

            Descriptors: Aves, diet, feeding, flight, behavior, communication, reproduction.

 

Pheasant rearing: Associated husbandry and disease problems. Swarbrick, O. Veterinary Record, 1985, v. 116 (23), p. 610-617. ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL call no: 41.8.V641

            Descriptors: rearing techniques, diseases and disorders, mortality.

 

 

1984

 

Canary, bengalese and zebra finch. Ellis, M. Evolution of Domesticated Animals, 1984, Chapter pagination: 357-360. ref. ISBN: 0582460468.

            NAL call no: S41.E93

            Descriptors: aviary birds, canaries, domesticated birds, varieties.

 

The capture and care of birds exported from south west Africa. Panagis, K.; Stutterheim, I.M. Bokmakierie, 1984, v. 36 (1), p. 4-6. ISSN: 0006-5838.

            Descriptors: techniques, care in captivity, housing, caging, Aves.

 

A hazard of plastic litter. Sharrock, R.; Sharrock, L. Bird Observer, 1984, v. 94, No. 632. ISSN: 0313-5888.

            Descriptors: injuries, accidental entrapment, plastic litter, hazards for birds.

 

Hummingbirds. Their Life and Behavior. A Photographic Study of the North American Species. Tyrrell, E.Q. Crown Publishers, Inc., New York, 1984, i-xii. 1-212 p.

            Descriptors: anatomy, general morphology, metabolic rate, diet, flight, behavior.

 

Indoor aviary maintenance. Schmitt, E.C. American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums Regional Conference Proceedings, 1984, p. 408-412. ISSN: 0731-0439.

            NAL call no: QL76.5.U6A472

            Descriptors: care in captivity, housing techniques, indoor aviaries.

 

Nest Building and Bird Behavior. Collias, N.E.; Collias, E.C. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J. 1984, i-xix. 1-336 p.

            Descriptors: nest building behavior, evolution, courtship, Aves.

 

 

1983

 

The maintenance and captive breeding of the pink pigeon Nesoenas mayeri. Jones, C.G.; Jeggo, D.F.; Hartley, J. Dodo, 1983, p. 16-26, No. 20. ISSN: 0265-5640.

            Descriptors: diet, caging systems, hand rearing, breeding, food preferences.

 

Perches to limit feather picking. Swan, M. Game Conservancy Annual Review, 1983, 99-100 p. No. 14. ISSN: 0533-9979.

            NAL call no: SK351.G3

            Descriptors: caging systems, behavior, feather picking, housing techniques.

 

 

1982

 

The American kestrel as a laboratory research animal. Bird, D.M. Nature (London), 1982, v. 299, p. 300-301. No. 5881. ISSN: 0028-0836.

            NAL call no: 472 N21

            Descriptors: diet in captivity, housing techniques, pen design, laboratory animal.

 

Caging and environment. Dilger, W.C.; Bell, J. Diseases of Cage and Aviary Birds, 2nd ed. 1982, p. 11-17. ill. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia. Margaret L. Petrak (ed). ISBN: 081210692X.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1D57 1982

            Descriptors: cage birds, cleaning, feeding, care.

 

Controlled environment aviaries. Kenyon, G. Avicultural Magazine, 1982, v. 88 (1), p. 36-39. ISSN: 0005-2256.

            NAL call no: QL671.A9

            Descriptors: caging systems, design and construction, controlled environment.

 

Hummingbirds. Mobbs, A.J. Triplegate Ltd., Surrey. 1982. i-xi. 1-192 p.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, diet, caging systems, feeding behavior, nutrition.

 

Looking after Cage Birds: Keep and Care. Alderton, D. Ward Lock, Ltd., London. 1982: 1-128 p.

            Descriptors: diet in captivity, breeding, housing, behavior, communication.

 

Medical and husbandry aspects of captive Andean condors: A model for the California condor. Carpenter, J.W. American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Annual Proceedings, 1982, p. 13-19. ISSN: 0095-0610

            NAL call no: SF605.A4

            Descriptors: medical and husbandry aspects, care in captivity, wildlife management.

 

Radiant heat. Fisher (Lord). Proceedings International Symposium Zoo Design, 1982, v. 3, p. 52-53.

            Descriptors: bird housing techniques, heating system, Aves.

 

Waterfowl exhibit techniques at Sea World. Drieschman, W.S. Proceedings International Symposium Zoo Design, 1982, v. 3, p. 5-7.

Descriptors: housing techniques, water fowl exhibition techniques, zoological gardens, aquarium, California.

 

 

1981

 

Animal, bird and plant compatability. Bland, G.E. Ratel, 1981, v. 8 (3), p. 23-27. ISSN: 0305-1218.

            NAL call no: QL77.5.R37

            Descriptors: housing techniques, plant selection and compatibility in enclosures.

 

The Bird Care Book: Everything you Need to Know to Keep any Bird Healthy and Happy. Gerstenfeld, Sheldon L.1943. Reading, MA. Addison-wesley Pub. Co. c 1981. 186 p. ill. bibl. ISBN: 0201039087; 0201039095 (pbk).

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1G47

            Descriptors: caged bird diseases, birds diseases.

 

Housing and facility considerations for small animal and bird producers. Skinner, J.L.; Brevik, T.J. Pap. Am. Soc. Agric. Eng. Microfiche Collect., St. Joseph, Mich. The Society, 1981. (fiche no. 81-4550) 1 microfiche. ill. ref.

            NAL call no: FICHE S-72

            Descriptors: housing, bird, small animals, considerations.

 

 

1980

 

Amazon parrot husbandry. Noegel, R. Avicultural Magazine, 1980, v. 86 (4), p. 232-245. ISSN: 0005-2256.

            NAL call no: QL671.A9

            Descriptors: care in captivity, Amazona, Psittacidae.

 

Breeding and husbandry of Adelie penguins, Pygascelis adeliae, at Sea World of Florida. Beldegreen, R.A.; Asper, E.D. International Zoo Yearbook, 1980, v. 20, p. 197-200. ISSN: 0074-9664.

            NAL call no: QL76.I5

            Descriptors: care in captivity, diet in captivity, housing, reproductive behavior.

 

Cleaning of cages for laboratory animals. Haigh, P.B. Journal of the Institute of Animal Technicians, 1980, v. 31 (1), p. 49-54.

            NAL call no: QL55.I5

Descriptors: Aves, Mammalia, care in captivity, cage cleaning techniques, birds as animal models.

 

The husbandry of falcons for return to the wild. Cade, T.J. International Zoo Yearbook, 1980, v. 20, p. 23-35. ISSN: 0074-9664.

            NAL call no: Q76.I5

            Descriptors: care in captivity, husbandry in preparation for release, Falconiformes.

 

The husbandry and medicine of captive penguins. Stosfkopf, M.K.; Beall, F.B. American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Annual Proceedings, 1980, p. 81-96. ISSN: 0095-0610.

            NAL call no: SF605.A4

            Descriptors: care in captivity, diseases, parasites, review.

 

Keeping and breeding the waldrapp ibis. Schenker, A.; Hirsch, U.; Mallet, M.; Pechlaner, H.; Thaler, E.; Wackernagel, H. International Zoo News (IZN), 1980, v. 27 (2-3), p. 9-15. ISSN: 0020-9155.

            NAL call no: QL76.I58

            Descriptors: breeding techniques, care in captivity, diet in captivity, rearing.

 

Parrots. Their Care and Breeding. Low, R. Blandford Press, Poole, Dorset. 1980. i-xiii. 1-654 p.

            NAL call no: SF473.P3L682

            Descriptors: care in captivity, diseases, diet, caging systems, taming, hand rearing.

 

 

1979

 

Cage and aviary design and construction. Jones, C.G. First Aid and Care of Wild Birds. Cooper, J.E.; Eley, J.T. (eds.). David & Charles, Newton, Abbot, London & North Pomfret (Vancouver). 1979, 1-288 p. Chapter pagination: 246-258.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, housing techniques, caging systems.

 

Care and Rehabilitation of Injured Owls. A User’s Guide to the Medical Treatment of Raptorial Birds, and the Housing, Release, Training and Captive Breeding of Native Owls. McKeever, K. The Owl Rehabilitation Research Foundation, Vineland, Ontario. 1979, 1-112 p.

            Descriptors: Strigiformes, care in captivity, housing techniques, release training.

 

Husbandry of the chukar partridge. Woodard, A.E. Game Bird Breeders, Aviculturists, Zoologists, and Conservationists Gazette, 1979, v. 28 (3), p. 7-16. Also: v. 28 (1-2), p. 28-32, 42. ISSN: 0164-3711.

            NAL call no: 47.8 G144

            Descriptors: daylength effect, photoperiod, fertility effect.

 

Methods of keeping birds cool. Poultry Industry. Sutton. Apr. 1979 (Suppl. 1) p. 9. ill. ISSN: 0032-5759.

            NAL call no: 47.8 P8644

            Descriptors: birds, housing keeping cool.

 

 

1978

 

Care of Wild Feathered & Furred: Treating and Feeding Injured Birds and Animals. Rev. ed. Hickman, Mae; Buy, Maxine; Levine, Stephen. New York: Michael Kesend Pub., 1978. xvi. 143 pp. ill. ISBN: 093557607X.

            NAL call no: QL83.2.H5 1978

            Descriptors: wildlife rescue, wildlife diseases, captured birds, care, handling, diets.

 

Falconry and Hawking. Glasier, P. Batsford, London. 1978. 1-312 p.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, diet, handling and housing, housing techniques.

 

The influence of housing and cage design on bird behaviour. Polach, M. Poultry. Advisor. Jun. 1978 v. 11 (6), p. 37-41.

            NAL call no: SF481.P622

            Descriptors: housing, cage design, behavior.

 

Perching birds, parrots, cockatoos and macaws (psittacines and passerines). Passeriform husbandry. Thompson, D.R. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. Fowler, M.E. (ed.). W.B. Saunders, Co., Philadelphia, London & Toronto. 1978. i-xvi. 1-951 p. Chapter pagination: 353-355.

            NAL call no: SF996.Z66

            Descriptors: care in captivity, housing and nesting requirements, rearing, breeding.

 

Perching birds, parrots, cockatoos and macaws (psittacines and passerines). Psittacine husbandry. Rundel, R.S. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. Fowler, M.E. (ed.). W.B. Saunders, Co. Philadelphia, London & Toronto. 1978. i-xvi. 1-951 p. Chapter pagination: 350-353.

            NAL call no: SF996.Z66

            Descriptors: care in captivity, housing, breeding, rearing, structure.

 

Raptors (Falconiformes and Strigiformes). Husbandry and captive breeding. Enderson, J. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. Fowler, M.E. (Ed.). W.B. Saunders, Co. Philadelphia, London & Toronto. 1978. i-xvi. 1-951 p. Chapter pagination: 232-236.

            NAL call no: SF996.Z66

            Descriptors: care in captivity, rearing and breeding techniques, artificial insemination.

 

Sanitation and disinfection. Fowler, M.E. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. Fowler, M.E. (ed.). W.B. Saunders, Co. Philadelphia, London & Toronto. 1978. i-xvi. 1-951 p. Chapter pagination: 21-29.

            NAL call no: SF996.Z66

            Descriptors: Aves, birds, Reptilia, Mammalia, housing, sanitation and disinfection.

 

Territory in Bird Life. Howard, Henry Eliot, 1873-1940. New York. Arno Press, 1978. xiii. 308 p. ill. Reprint of 1920 ed. Published by J. Murray, London. ISBN: 0405106963.

            NAL call no: QL698.c.H6-1978.

            Descriptors: birds behavior, territoriality, zoology.

 

 

1977

 

Ways of the Bird. Van Vleck, Sarita. New York, N.Y. Lyons & Burford, c1993. xi. 141 p. ill. ref. ISBN: 155821223X. Originally published Growing wings. Dublin, N.H.: W.L. Bauhan, 1977.

            NAL call no: QL698.3.V3 1993

            Descriptors: birds, behavior, habits.

 

 

1976

 

Birds: Their Life, Their Ways, Their World. Christopher Perrins; illustrations by Ad Cameron. New York: A.H. Abrams, 1976. 160 p. col. ill.

            NAL call no: QL674.P4

            Descriptors: behavior, anatomy, identification, habitats.

 

The overhead mist line. A method of controlling humidity in aviaries. Robbins, G.E.S. World Pheasant Association Journal, 1976, v. 1, p. 58. ISSN: 0963-326X.

            Descriptors: care in captivity, housing, aviary humidity control, Aves.

 

 

1975

 

Bird Life. Rowley, Ian. New York, Taplinger Pub. Co. 1975, 284 p. 14 leaves of plates. ill.

            NAL call no: QL693.R68

            Descriptors: birds, Australia, behavior.

 


Return to: Contents


DISEASES / PARASITES / CONDITIONS

 


2003

 

Analysis of field and laboratory data to derive selenium toxicity thresholds for birds. Adams, W.J.; Brix, K.V.; Edwards, M.; Tear, L.M.; DeForest, D.K.; Fairbrother, A. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Sept. 2003, p. 2020-2029. ISSN: 0730-7268.

             NAL call no: QH545.A1E58

Descriptors: selenium toxicity, birds, chronic egg thresholds, laboratory mallard ducks, wild black-necked stilts.

Abstract: In this paper, we critically evaluate the statistical approaches and datasets previously used to derive chronic egg selenium thresholds for mallard ducks (laboratory data) and black-necked stilts (field data). These effect concentration thresholds of 3%, 10% (EC10), or 20% have been used by regulatory agencies to set avian protection criteria and site remediation goals, thus the need for careful assessment of the data. The present review indicates that the stilt dataset used to establish a frequently cited chronic avian egg selenium threshold of 6 mg/kg dry weight lacks statistical robustness (r2=0.19-0.28) based on generalized linear models), suggesting that stilt embryo sensitivity to selenium is highly variable or that factors other than selenium are principally responsible for the increase in effects observed at the lower range of this dataset. Hockey stick regressions used with the stilt field dataset improve the statistical relationship (r2=0.90-0.97) but result in considerably higher egg selenium thresholds (EC10=21-31 mg/kg dry wt). Laboratory-derived (for mallards) and field derived (for stilts) teratogenicity EC10 values are quite similar (16-24 mg/kg dry wt). Laboratory data regarding mallard egg inviability and duckling mortality data provide the most sensitive and statistically robust chronic mean egg selenium EC10 values of 12 to 15 mg/kg dry weight (r2=0.75-0.90).

 

Avian cryptococcosis. Malik, R.; Krockenberger, M.B.; Cross, G.; Doneley, R.; Madill, D.N.; Black, D.; McWhirter, P.; Rozenwax, A.; Rose, K.; Alley, M.; Forshaw, D.; Russell-Brown, I.; Johnstone, A.C.; Martin, P.; O’Brian, C.R.; Love, D.N. Medical Mycology, Apr. 2003, v. 41 (2), p. 115-124. ISSN: 1369-3786.

            NAL call no: RC117.A1J68

            Descriptors: Cryptococcosus, avian, birds, Australia, captive parrots, pigeon, kiwis, respiratory system.

Abstract: Clinical and laboratory findings in 15 unreported cases of avian cryptococcosis from Australia were collected and contrasted with 11 cases recorded in the literature. Cryptococcosus species produced localized invasive disease of the upper respiratory tract of captive parrots living in Australia. This resulted in signs referable to mycotic rhinitis or to involvement of structures contiguous with the nasal cavity, such as the beak, sinuses, choana, retrobulbar space and palate. Parrots of widely differing ages were affected and of the seven birds for which sex was determinable, six were male. Cryptococcosus bacillisporus (formerly C. neoformans var. gatti) accounted for four of five infections in which the species or variety was determinable, suggesting that exposure to eucalyptus material may be a predisposing factor. In these cases, Cryptococcus appeared to behave as a primary pathogen of immunocompetent hosts. One tissue specimen was available from an Australian racing pigeon with minimally invasive subcutaneous disease; immunohistology demonstrated a C. neoformans var. grubii (formerly C. neoformans var. neoformans serotype A) infection, presumably subsequent to traumatic inoculation of yeast cells into the subcutis. Two similar cases had been reported previously in pigeons domiciled in America. Data for parrots, one pigeon and other birds studied principally in America and Europe (and likely infected with C. neoformans) suggested a different pattern of disease, more suggestive of opportunistic infection of immunodeficient hosts. In this cohort of patients, the organism was not restricted to cool superficial sites such as the upper respiratory tract or subcutis. Instead, infections typically penetrated the lower respiratory tract or disseminated widely to a variety of internal organs. Finally, three captive North Island brown kiwis, one residing in Australia, the other two in New Zealand, died as a result of sever diffuse cryptococcal pneumonia (two cases) or widely disseminated disease (one case). C. bacillisporus strains were isolated from all three cases, as reported previously for another kiwi with disseminated disease in New Zealand.

 

Comparison of methods to detect Pasteurella multocida in carrier waterfowl. Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Johnson, W.P. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 2003, v. 39 (1), p. 125-135. ref. ISSN: 0090-3558.

            NAL call no: 41.9 W64B

            Descriptors: waterfowl, Pasteurella, carrier, detection, mallard ducks, Anas platyrhynchos.

Abstract: We conducted laboratory challenge trials using mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) to compare methods for detecting carriers of Pasteurella multocida, the bacterium that causes avian cholera, in wild birds. Birds that survived the initial infection were euthanized at 2-to 4-week intervals up to 14 weeks post-challenge. Isolates of Pasteurella multocida were obtained at necropsy from 23% of the birds that survived initial infection. We found that swab samples (oral, cloacal, nasal, eye, and leg joint) were most effective for detecting carrier birds up to 14 weeks postinfection. No detectable differences in isolation were observed for samples stored in either 10% dimethyl sulfoxide or brain heart infusion broth. The frequency of detecting carriers in our challenge trials appeared to be related to mortality rates observed during the trial, but was not related to a number of other factors including time after challenge, time delays in collecting tissues postmortem, and route of infection. In our trials, there was little association between antibody levels and carrier status. We concluded that swab samples collected from recently dead birds, stored in liquid nitrogen, and processed using selective broth provide a feasible field method for detecting P. multocida carriers in wild waterfowl.

 

Detection of West Nile Virus infection in birds in the United States by blocking ELISA and immunohistochemistry. Jozan, M.; Evans, R.; McLean, R.; Tangredi, B.; Reed, L.; Scott, J. Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Fall 2003, v. 3 (3), p. 99-110. ISSN: 1530-3667.

            NAL call no: RA639.5.V43

Descriptors: West Nile Virus, detection from sera, ELISA, immunohistochemistry, sentinel chickens, wild birds, New Jersey, New York.

Abstract: A blocking ELISA targeting an immunodominant West Nile epitope on the West Nile Virus NSI protein was assessed for the detection of West Nile-specific antibodies in blood samples collected from 584 sentinel chickens and 238 wild birds collected in New Jersey from May-December 2000. Ten mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) experimentally infected with West Nile virus and six uninfected controls were also tested. The ELISA proved specific in detecting WNV antibodies in 9/10 chickens and 4/4 wild birds previously confirmed as positive by Plaque Reduction Neutralization test (PRNT) at the Center for Disease Control, Division of Vector Borne Diseases, fort Collins, CO, USA. Nine out of the ten experimentally infected mallard ducks also tested positive for WN antibodies in the blocking ELISA, while 6/6 uninfected controls did not. Additionally, 1705 wild birds, collected in New Jersey from December 2000-November 2001 and Long Island, New York between November 1999 and August 2001 were also tested for WN antibodies by the blocking ELISA. These tests identified 30 positive specimens, 12 of which had formalin-fixed tissues available to allow detection of WN specific viral antigen in various tissues by WN -specific immunohistochemistry. Our results indicate that rapid and specific detection of antibodies to WN virus in sera from a range of avian species by blocking ELISA is an effective strategy for WN Virus surveillance in avian hosts. In combination with detection of WN-specific antigens in tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC) the blocking ELISA will also be useful for confirming WN infection in diseased birds.

 

Feather mites (Acari: Astigmata): Ecology, behavior, and evolution. Proctor, H.C. Annual Review of Entomology, 2003, v. 48, p. 185-209. ISSN: 0066-4170. ref.

            NAL call no: 421 An72

            Descriptors: feather mites, adaptation, host-parasite relationships, bird parasite.

 

International standards for the control of avian influenza. Pearson, J.E. Avian Diseases, 2003, v. 47 (3 Suppl), p. 972-975. ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL call no: 41.8 AV5

Descriptors: avian influenza, international standards, control, Office International des Epizooties, reporting procedures.

Abstract: The Office International des Epizooties (OIE) has developed international standards to reduce the risk of the spread of high-pathogenicity avian influenza through international trade. These standards include providing a definition of high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI), procedures for prompt reporting of HPAI outbreaks, requirements that must be met for a country or zone to be defined as free of HPAI, requirements that should be met to import live birds and avian products to reduce the risk of spread of HPAI through trade. The goal of these standards is to facilitate trade while minimizing the risk of the introduction of HPAI.

 

Pathogenicity of a ratite-origin influenza A H5 virus in ostriches (Struthio camelus). Clavijo, A.; Riva, J.; Pasick, J. Avian Diseases, 2003, v. 47 (3 Suppl), p. 1203-1207. ISSN: 0005-2806.

            NAL call no: 41.8 AV5

            Descriptors: influenza virus, ostrich, pathogenicity, avian influenza, pathogenic isolate.

Abstract: Ostriches were inoculated with a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of ratite origin, A/emu/Texas/39924/93 (H5N2) done clB. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pathogenicity of this isolate for ostriches and to assess the ability of routine virologic and serologic tests to detect infection. Avian influenza virus (AIV) was isolated from tracheal swabs from 2 to 12 days postinfection and from cloacal swabs from 3 to 10 days postinfection. AIV was also isolated from a wide range of tissues. Birds seroconverted as early as 7 days postinfection. This study indicates that HPAI virus of ratite origin replicates extensively in infected ostriches without causing significant clinical disease of mortality.

 

 

2002

 

Avian diseases at the Salton Sea. Friend, Milton. Hydrobiologia, 2002, Apr. 1, 2002, v. 473, p. 293-306. ISSN: 0018-8158. www.kluweronline.com/issn/0018-8158

            NAL call no: 410 H992

Descriptors: Aves, diseases and disorders, avian botulism, avian cholera, Salmonella, Newcastle disease, cattle egrets Bubulcus ibis, eared grebes, Podiceps nigricollis, pelicans, Pelecanus occidentali, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, Mullet Island cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus, literature review, Salton Sea.

Abstract: A review of existing records and the scientific literature was conducted for occurrences of avian diseases affecting free-ranging avifauna within the Salton Sea ecosystem. The period for evaluation was 1907 through 1999. Records of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Biological Survey and the scientific literature were the data sources for the period or 1907-1939. The narrative reports of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Sonny Bono National Wildlife refuge Complex and the epizootic database of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Wildlife Health Center were the primary data sources for the remainder of the evaluation. The pattern of avian diseases at the Salton Sea has changed greatly over time. Relative to past decades, there was a greater frequency of major outbreaks of avian disease at the Salton Sea during the 1990s than in previous decades, a greater variety of disease agents causing epizootics, and apparent chronic increases in the attrition of birds from disease. Avian mortality was high for about a decade beginning during the mid-1920s, diminished substantially by the 1940s and was at low to moderate levels until the 1990s when it reached the highest levels reported. Avian botulism (Clostridium botulinum type C) was the only major cause of avian disease until 1979 when the first major epizootic of avian cholera (Pasteurella multocidia) was documented. Waterfowl and shorebirds were the primary species affected by avian botulism. A broader spectrum of species have been killed by avian cholera but waterfowl have suffered the greatest losses. Avian cholera reappeared in 1983 and has joined avian botulism as a recurring cause of avian mortality. In 1989, avian salmonellosis (Salmonella typhimurium) was first diagnosed as a major cause of avian disease within the Salton Sea ecosystem and has since reappeared several times, primarily among cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis). The largest loss from a single epizootic occurred in 1992, when an estimated 155,000 birds, primarily eared grebes (Podiceps nigricollis), died from an undiagnosed cause. Reoccurrences of that unknown malady have continued to kill substantial numbers of eared grebes throughout the 1990s. The first major epizootic of type C avian botulism in fish-eating birds occurred in 1996 and killed large numbers of pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis & P. erythrorhynchos). Avian botulism has remained as a major annual cause of disease in pelicans. In contrast, the chronic on-Sea occurrence of avian botulism in waterfowl and shorebirds of previous decades was seldom seen during the 1990s. Newcastle disease became the first viral disease to cause major bird losses at the Salton Sea when it appeared in the Mullet Island cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) breeding colony during 1997 and again during 1998.

 

Avian GI tract morphology and diseases. Orosz, S.E.; Marx, K.L. (ed.); Roston, M.A. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference on Avian Medicine and Surgery, Mid Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians, Fredericksburg, VA Apr. 28-30, 2002, p. 116-120.

            NAL call no: SF994.J6

Descriptors: anatomy, aviary birds, gastrointestinal diseases, diagnosis.

 

Avian polyomavirus vaccines in psittacine birds. Poet, Steven; Ritchie, Branson W.; Burnley, Victoria; Pesti, Denise. Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents, Dec. 10, 2002, v. 1265 (2), No pagination. ISSN: 0098-1133.

            NAL call no: T223.A21

Descriptor: avian polyomavirus, pathogen, infection, viral disease.

Abstract: The invention provides a nucleic acid vaccine which is protective against avian polyomavirus infection in a bird which is classified as being a member of the Psittaciformes order comprising a nucleic acid vaccine vector comprising a suitable eukaryotic cis-acting transcription/translation regulatory sequence functionally linked to a nucleic acid encoding an immunogenic avian polyomavirus polypeptide. Methods for preventing avian polyomavirus infection in a bird classified as being a member of the Psittaciformes order, are also provided.

 

Avian reservoirs of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis? Daniels, Thomas J.; Battaly, Gertrude R.; Liveris, Dionysios; Falco, Richard C.; Schwartz, Ira. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Dec. 2002, v. 8 (120, p. 1524-1525. ISSN: 1080-6040.

            NAL call no: RA648.5.E64

Descriptors: granulocytic ehrlichosis, bacterial disease, Aves, infection, zoonotic disease.

 

Avian vacuolar myelinopathy: A newly recognized fatal neurological disease of eagles, waterfowl and other birds. Fischer, John R.; Lewis, Lynn A.; Augspurger, Tom; Rocke, Tonie E. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference, 2002, v. 67, p. 51-61. Rham, Jennifer (Ed.), Wildlife Management Institute, 1101 14th St., N.W., Suite 801, Washington, C.D. 20005. ISSN: 0078-1355.

Descriptors: avian vacuolar myelinopathy, epidemiology, nervous system disease.

 

Avian wildlife diseases in New Zealand: Current issues and achievements. Alley, M.R. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 2002, v. 50 (3 Supplement), p. 118-120. ref. ISSN: 0048-0169.

            NAL call no: 41.8 N483

Descriptors: animal health, wild birds, wildlife.

 

Birds and Borrelia. Humair, Pierre Francois. International Journal of Medical Microbiology, Jun. 2002, v. 291 (Supplement 33), p. 70-74. VIth International Potsdam Symposium on tick Borne Diseases, Berlin, Germany, Apr. 26-27, 2001. ISSN: 1438-4221.

            NAL call no: OR1.Z443

Descriptors: borreliosis, bacterial disease, ticks, birds.

 

A bird in the hand. Dick, A.D. British Journal of Ophthalmology, Dec. 2002, v. 86 (12), p. 1324-1325. ISSN: 0007-1161.

            Descriptors: eye diseases, ophthalmology, pathology, symptoms.

 

Blood parasites of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and fish crows (Corvus ossifragus) in Florida, USA. Dusek, Robert; Forrester, Donald J. Comparative Parasitology, Jan. 2002, v. 69 (1), p. 92-96. ref. ISSN: 1049-233X.

            NAL call no: QL392 J68

Descriptors: blood, lymphatics, crows, blood parasites, Haemoproteus, Trypanosoma.

Abstract: Blood films from 46 fish crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and fish crows (Corvus ossifragus) from Florida, U.S.A., were examined for blood parasites. Haemoproteus picae Coatney and Roudabush, Haemoproteus danilewski Kruse, Trypanosoma avium (Danilewsky), and microfilaria of an unidentified filarioid were identified from both species of crows. An unidentified species of Haemoproteus and Trypanosoma ontarioensis Woo and Bartlett were observed in American crow blood films. Fish crow blood films contained Plasmodium relictum Celli and Sanfelice. Prior to this study, T. avium and P. relictum had not been reported from fish crows.

 

A comparative analysis of PCR-based detection methods for avian malaria. Richard, F. Alexander; Sehgal, Ravinder N.M.; Jones, Hugh I.; Smith, Thomas B. Journal of Parsitology, Aug. 2002, v. 88 (4), p. 819-822. ISSN: 0022-3395.

            NAL call no: 448.8 J824

Descriptors: malaria, parasitic disease, blood and lymphatic disease, Plasmodium, Haemoproteus.

Abstract: Here, 4 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays are compared to test for the presence of avian malaria, including both the Plasmodium and Haemoproteus genera, in 29 different species of African rainforest birds. Two of these PCR assays use primer sets that amplify fragments of the cytochrome b (cyt b) gene of Plasmodium; the other 2 target the 18S ribosomal subunit gene. These PCR assays were performed using genomic DNA extracted from blood and subsequently compared with the results obtained by microscopic examination of blood smears taken from the same individuals. The 2 primer sets amplifying the cyt b gene were found to perform more reliably than those that target the 18S gene and yielded a substantial number of positive samples that were undetected by blood smear analysis. Of all the individuals screened by PCR, 40% tested positive for avian malaria, whereas 27% tested positive by blood smear analysis. Although sequence variation in the parasites may prohibit the specific alignment of primers and the subsequent PCR amplification of some individuals, PCR, once optimized, is faster, cheaper, and more reliable than blood smear analysis for large-scale screening.

 

Compendium of measures to control Chlamydophila psittaci (formerly Chlamydia psittaci) infection among humans (psittacosis) and pet birds, 2002: Diagnosis and treatment. Smith, K.A. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian, 2002, v. 24 (4), p. 328-331. ref. ISSN: 0193-1903.

            NAL call no: SF601.C66

Descriptors: diagnosis, disease control, human diseases, medical treatment, psittacosis, zoonotic diseases.

 

Compendium of measures to control Chlamydophila psittaci (formerly Chlamydia psittaci) infection among humans (Psittacosis) and pet birds, 2002: Recommendations and requirements. USA, National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian, 2002, v. 24 (5), p. 374-378. ref. ISSN: 0193-1903.

            NAL call no: SF601.C66

Descriptors: disease control, disease prevention, importation, pets, psittacosis, zoonotic diseases.

 

Criptosporidiosi negli uccelli. [Cryptosporidiosis in birds.] D’Agostino, C.; Papini, B.; Nannetti, C.; Tatantino, C.; Perrucci, S. Summa, 2002, v. 19 (3), p. 23-26. ref. Note: In Italian.

Descriptors: cryptosporidiosis, diagnosis, disease control, life cycle.

 

Detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of antibodies to West Nile virus in birds. Ebel, Gregory D.; Dupuis, Alan P. II; Nicholas, David: Young, Donna; Maffei, Joseph; Kramer, Laura D. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sept. 2002, v. 8 (9), p. 979-982. ISSN: 1080-6040.

            NAL call no: RA648.5.E46

Descriptors: Aves, diagnostic techniques, viral diseases, ELISA, West Nile virus.

Abstract: We adapted an indirect immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to facilitate studies of West Nile virus (WNV) and evaluated its application to taxonomically diverse avian species. Anti-WNV antibodies were detected in 23 bird species, including many exotic species, demonstrating its value in studies of WNV epizootiology.

 

Detection of West Nile virus in oral and cloacal swabs from bird carcasses. Komar, Nicholas; Lanciotti, Robert; Brown, Richard; Langevin, Stanley; Bunning, Michel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Jul. 2002, v. 8 (7), p. 741-742. ISSN: 1080-6040.

            NAL call no: RA648.5.E46

Descriptors: West Nile virus infection, infectious diseases, viral disease.

Abstract: We evaluated if postmortem cloacal and oral swabs could replace brain tissue as a specimen for West Nile virus (WNV) detection. WNV was detected in all three specimen types from 20 dead crows and jays with an average of >105 WNV PFU in each. These findings suggest that testing cloacal or oral swabs might be a low-resource approach to detect WNV in dead birds.

 

Diseases of farmed crocodiles and ostriches. Huchzermeyer, F.W. Revue Scientifique et Technique, Office International des Epizooties, 2002, v. 21 (2), p. 265-276. ref. ISSN: 0253-1933.

            NAL call no: SF781.R4

Descriptors: coccidiosis, mycoplasmosis, salmonellosis, stress, thermoregulation.

 

Diseases in wild (free-living) bird populations. Newton, I. Birds of Prey: Health & Diseases. 3rd ed. Cooper, John E. Blackwell Science Ltd. Oxford, Malden, etc. 2002. i-xvii. 1-345 p, Chapter pagination: 217 -234. ISBN: 0632051159.

Descriptors: Falconiformes, parasite, diseases, disorders, Strigiformes.

 

Diversification and host switching in avian malaria parasites. Ricklefs, Robert E.; Fallon, Sylvia M. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences Series B, May 2002, v. 269 (1494), p. 885-892. ISSN: 0962-8452.

Descriptors: malaria, parasitic disease, blood and lymphatic disease.

Abstract: The switching of parasitic organisms to novel hosts, in which they may cause the emergence of new diseases, is of great concern to human health and the management of wild and domesticated populations of animals. We used a phylogenetic approach to develop a better statistical assessment of host switching in a large sample of vector-borne malaria parasites of birds (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) over their history of parasite-host relations. Even with sparse sampling, the number of parasite lineages was almost equal to the number of avian hosts. We found that strongly supported sister lineages of parasites, averaging 1.2% sequence divergence, exhibited highly significant host and geographical fidelity. Event-based matching of host and parasite phylogenetic trees revealed significant cospeciation. However, the accumulated effects of host switching and long distance dispersal cause these signals to disappear before 4% sequence divergence is achieved. Mitochondrial DNA nucleotide substitution appears to occur about three times faster in hosts than in parasites, contrary to findings on other parasite-host systems. Using this mutual calibration, the phylogenies of the parasites and their hosts appear to be similar in age, suggesting that avian malaria parasites diversified along with their modern avian hosts. Although host switching has been a prominent feature over the evolutionary history of avian malaria parasites, it is infrequent and unpredictable on time scales germane to public health and wildlife management.

 

The evolutionary transition to coloniality promotes higher blood parasitism in birds. Tella J.L. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Jan. 2002, v. 15 (1), p. 32-41. ISSN: 1010-061X.

            NAL call no: QH359.J68

Descriptors: avian hosts, colonial breeding, evolution, protozoan parasites.

Abstract: Parasitism has been argued as one of the major costs of breeding sociality in birds. However, there is no clear evidence for an increased parasite pressure associated with the evolutionary transition from solitary to colonial breeding. I used the pairwise comparative method to test whether colonial bird species incur in a greater risk of infection and if they must to face with a greater diversity of blood parasites (Haematozoa), by comparing pairs of congeners that included one solitary and one colonial breeding species. The richness, both in terms of number of species and number of genera, as well as the prevalence of blood parasites resulted higher in colonial species than in their solitary breeding sisters, while controlling for differences in research effort and other potentially confounding effects. These results point towards higher transmission rates of blood parasites among colonial hosts. Given the detrimental effects of blood parasites on their host fitness, the higher risk of infection and the exposition to a more diverse parasite fauna may have imposed an important cost associated to the evolution of avian coloniality. This may help to explain why colonial species have larger immune system organs, as well as to explore differences in other host life history traits potentially shaped by blood parasites.

 

Ehrlichiosis, Ixodes ticks and migratory birds. Alekseev, A.N.; Dubinina, H.V. International Journal of Medical Microbiology, Jun. 2002, v. 291 (Supplement 33), p. 196. VIth International Potsdam Symposium on Tick Borne Diseases, Berlin, Germany. Apr. 26-27, 2001. ISSN: 1438-4221.

            NAL call no: OR1.Z443

Descriptors: ehrlichiosis, bacterial disease, ticks, migratory birds.

 

Emerging infectious diseases in wildlife. Williams, E.S.; Yuill, T.; Artois, M.; Fischer, J.; Haigh, S.A. Revue Scientifique et Technique, Office of International des Epizooties. Apr. 2002, v. 21 (1), p. 139-157. ISSN: 0253-1933.

            NAL call no: SF781.R4

Descriptors: pathogens, infectious diseases, population dynamics, vectors, bacterial diseases, viral diseases, fungal diseases.

Abstract: The process which gives rise to emerging infectious diseases of wildlife can be categorised as follows: ecosystem alterations of anthropogenic or natural origin; movement of pathogens or vectors, via human or natural agency; and changes in microbes or in the recognition of emerging pathogens due to advances in the techniques of epidemiology. These are simplistic divisions because factors influencing the emergence of diseases of wild animals generally fall into more than one category. Mycoplasmosis among passerines is related to habitat changes and artificial feeding resulting in increased bird densities and subsequent disease transmission. The origin of this strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum is not known. Hantavirus infections in rodents have emerged due to human-induced landscape alterations and/or climactic changes influencing population dynamics of hantavirus reservoir hosts, with disease consequences for humans. Movement of pathogens or vectors is a very important process by which diseases of wildlife expand geographic range. Although the origin of calciviruses of rabbits and hares is somewhat obscure, their movement by humans, either deliberately of accidentally, has greatly expanded the distribution of these viruses. Rabies is an ancient disease, but geographic expansion has occurred by both natural and anthropogenic movements of wild animals. Human movement of amphibians may explain the distribution of the highly pathogenic chytrid fungus around the world. Newly recognised paramyxoviruses may reflect both changes in these pathogens and the development of techniques of identification and classification. Many more such examples of emerging diseases will arise in the future, given the extensive alterations in landscapes world-wide and movements of animals, vectors and pathogens. Those who study and diagnose diseases of wildlife must be alert for emerging diseases so that the impact of such diseases on wild animals, domestic animals and humans can be minimized.

 

Engineering mosquito resistance to malaria parasites: The avian malaria model. James, A.A. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oct. 2002, v. 32 (10), p. 1317-1323. ISSN: 0965-1748.

            NAL call no: QL495.A1I57

Descriptors: malaria, transmission, Aedes aegypti, Plasmodium gallinaceum, blood and lymphatic disease.

Abstract: Genetic approaches to controlling the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases are being developed to augment the available chemical control practices and environmental manipulation methods. Much progress has been made in laboratory-based research that seeks to develop antipathogen or antivector effector genes and methods for genetically manipulating host vector strains. Research is summarized here in the development of a malarial-resistant phenotype using as a model system the avian parasite, Plasmodium gallinaceum, and the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Robust transformation technology based on number of transposable elements, the identification of promoter regions derived from endogenous mosquito genes, and the development of single-chain antibodies as effector genes have made it possible to produce malaria-resistant mosquitoes. Future challenges include discovery of methods for spreading antiparasite genes through mosquito populations, determining the threshold levels below which parasite intensities of infection must be held, and defining the circumstances in which a genetic control strategy would be employed in the field.

 

Four new species of feather mites (Acari: Analgoidea). Mironov, Sergei V.; Galloway, Terry D. Canadian Entomologist, Sept./Oct. 2002, v. 134 (5), p. 605-618. ISSN: 0008-347X.

            NAL call no: 421.C16

Descriptors: parasitology, systematics, taxonomy, morphology, Megniniella ratcliffi sp. nov., Metanalges holderi sp. nov., Metengrassia pelecani sp. nov., Vingrassia cygni sp. nov.

Abstract: Four new species of feather mites are described from birds in Canada: Megniniella ratcliffi sp. nov. (Analgidae) and Metanalges holderi sp. nov. (Analgidae) from the Sora, Prozana carolina (Linnaeus) (Gruiformes: Rallidae); Metengrassia pelecani sp. nov. (Xolalgidae) from the American White Pelican, Pelecanus erythrororhynchos Gmelin (Pelicaniformes: Pelicanidae); and Vingrassia cygni sp. nov. (Xolalgidae) from the Tundra Swan, Cygnus columbianus (Ord) (Anseriformes: Anatidae). The genus Vingrassia is reinstated from its previous synonymy with the genus Ingrassia based on the presence of an enlarged prodorsal shield in both sexes, by the shape of the idiosoma and the interlobar membrane on the lobar apices in the male, and by the shape of the hysteronotal shield and the absence of setae ps2 in the female.

 

Fowl cholera in pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) - etiological investigation and effect of therapy with thiamphenical. Popova, T. Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 2002, v. 5 (1), p. 23-28. ref. ill. ISSN: 1311-1477.

Descriptors: pheasants, fowl cholera, antibiotics, etiology, infectious diseases, Pasteurella multocida.

Abstract: In an outbreak of fowl cholera that occurred in a pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) flock, seventeen per cent of about 1000 birds from the flock died of an acute disease. The established pathological alterations were typical of fowl cholera. Pasteurella multocida was isolated in pure culture from hearts, livers and spleens of three dead birds. Examined characteristics included phenotypic and biochemical determination of the biotype (subspecies) and the in vitro susceptibility of isolates to antimicrobial agents. Isolates were identified as belonging to the multocida subspecies. Their drug susceptibility was identical. All isolates were highly susceptible in vitro to tested amphenicols, including thiamphenicol.

 

Haemoproteus lophortyx infection in bobwhite quail. Cardona, Carol J.; Ihejirika, Arthur; McClellan, Linda. Avian Diseases, Jan/Mar. 2002, v. 46 (1), p. 249-255. ref. ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL call no: 41.8 AV5

Descriptors: parasitic diseases, mortality, blood and lymphatic diseases.

Abstract: This report chronicles recurring outbreaks of Haemoproteus lophortyx infection in captive bobwhite quail. Clinically, the signs of infection included reluctance to move, ruffled appearance, prostration, and death. These signs were associated with parasitemia, anemia, and the presence of large megaloschizonts in skeletal muscles, particularly those of the thighs and back. The average cumulative mortality for flocks experiencing outbreaks was over 20%. In a typical outbreak, mortality rose when birds were 5-6 weeks of age, peaked in 8-10 wk old quail, and declined rapidly when quail were 9-11 wk old. Outbreaks occurred exclusively between the months of May and October, and warm weather was determined to be a risk factor for H. lophortyx mortality. This protozoan most likely overwinters in native California quail in the area and is transmitted to quail on the ranch by an insect vector that emerges in warm weather. Infection of the large population of naive bobwhite quail on the ranch leads to amplification of H. lophortyx, resulting in epidemics in successive flocks.

 

Helminth and arthropod parasites of the brown pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis, in Puerto Rico, with a compilation of all metazoan parasites reported from this host in the western hemisphere. Dyer, William G.; Williams, Ernest H. Jr.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Jiminez-Marrero, Nilda M.; Bunkley-Williams, Lucy; Moore, Debra P.; Pence, Danny B. Avian Pathology, Oct. 2002, v. 31 (5), p. 441-448. ISSN: 0307-9457. www.tandf.co.uk/journals/tf/03079457.html

            NAL call no: SF995.A1A9

Descriptors: parasitic diseases, pelican, infestation, Pelecanus, metazoan parasites, helminths, arthropods.

Abstract: Seven species of helminths and six species of arthropods are reported from 23 of 40 brown pelicans, Pelecanus occidentalis, collected from various localities in Puerto Rico. Helminth parasites include three nematodes (Contracaecum multipapillatum, Contracaecum mexicanum, and Eustrongylides sp.), three trematodes (Galactosomum darbyi, Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, and Ribeiroia ondatrae), and one cestode (Tetrabothrium sulae). Arthropod parasites include Colpocephalum occidentalis, Neottialges apunctatus, Ornithodoros capensis, Phalacrodectus pelecani, Phalacrodectus punctatissimus, and Phalacrodectus sp. The presence of R. ondatrae in the brown pelican is a new species host record, and P. pelecani, P. punctatissimus and N. apunctatus are new subspecies host records. C. multipapillatum, C. mexicanum, G. darbyi and M. appendiculatoides are new locality records for Puerto Rico, and N. apunctatus, P. punctatissimus and T. sulae are new locality records for the Caribbean. Necrosis produced by C. multipapillatum, C. mexicanum, and R. ondatrae may have contributed to the emaciation and death of the brown pelicans examined in the present study.

 

The importance of host spatial distribution for parasite specialization and speciation: A comparative study of bird fleas (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae). Tripet, Frederick; Christe, Philippe; Moller, Anders Pape. Journal of Animal Ecology, Sept. 2002, v. 71 (5), p. 735-748. ISSN: 0021-8790.

            NAL call no: 410 J826

Descriptors: parasitology, ecology, speciation, parasite-host range.

Abstract: 1. The environment of parasites is determined largely by their hosts. Variation in host quality, abundance and spatial distribution affects the balance between selection within hosts and gene flow between hosts, and this should determine the evolution of a parasite’s host-range and its propensity to locally adapt and speciate. 2. We investigated the relationship between host spatial distribution and (1) parasite-host range, (2) parasite mobility and (3) parasite geographical range, in a comparative study of a major group of avian ectoparasites, the bird fleas belonging to the Ceratophyllidae (Siphonaptera). 3. Flea species parasitizing colonial birds had a narrower host range than those infesting territorial nesters or birds with an intermediate level of nest aggregation. 4. The potential mobility and geographical ranges of fleas decreased with increasing level of aggregation of their hosts and increased with the fleas’ host range. 5. Birds with aggregated nest distribution harboured more flea species mainly due to a larger number of specialists than solitary nesting hosts. 6. These results emphasize the importance of host spatial distribution for the evolution of specialization, and for local adaptation and speciation in Ceratophyllid bird fleas.

 

Infectious agents associated with respiratory disease in pheasants. Welchman, D. de B.; Bradbury, J.M.; Cavaugh, D.; Aebischer, N.J.; de B. Welchman, D. Veterinary Record, 2002 v. 150 (21), p. 658-664. ref. ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL call no: 41.8 V641

Descriptors: aetiology, disease distribution, outbreaks, respiratory diseases, Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

Abstract: In a case-control study of the infectious agents associated with natural outbreaks of respiratory disease in pheasants, 28 batches of birds from sites affected by disease and eight batches of birds from unaffected sites were examined by six veterinary laboratories in England, Wales and Scotland during the 1998-1999 (April 1998) and 1999-2000 (February 2000) seasons and tested for mycoplasmas, other bacteria and viruses. Sinusitis was the commonest sign of disease and was associated with Mycoplasma gallisepticum as detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the trachea (P<0.05) and conjunctiva (P<0.01). Sinusitis was also associated with Pasteurella cultured from the sinus (P<0.05), antibody to avian pneumovirus (APV) (P<0.01) and avian coronaviruses as detected by reverse- transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) (P<0.05); there was no association between disease and APV as detected by PCR. Avian coronaviruses were the most common infectious agents detected. They were genetically close to infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) but differed in their gene sequence from all the serotypes of IBV previously identified in domestic fowl and serological tests with six known IBV types showed little cross reactivity. Mycoplasma species other than M. gallisepticum were cultured in 18 batches of pheasants but, with the exception of Mycoplasma gallisepticum, were not associated with disease.

 

Low humidity reduces ectoparasite pressure: Implications for host life history evolution. Moyer, Brett R.; Drown, Devin M.; Clayton, Dale H. Oikos, May 2002, v. 97 (2), p. 223-228. ISSN: 0030-1299. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0706.2002.970208.x

            NAL call no: 410 O14

Descriptors: ecology, evolution, parasitology, adaptation, effects of humidity, arid regions, parasite levels, lice.

Abstract: A parasite’s potential effect, or “pressure”, can influence the life history strategy of its host. In environments with high parasite pressure, hosts invest more in anti-parasite defense, which may limit their investment in other life history components, such as survival. This tradeoff is difficult to study in natural populations because pressure is hard to quantify. Pressure is not necessarily correlated with the abundance of the parasite. A host population can be under high pressure, yet have few parasites, because members of the population have invested heavily in defense. Therefore, the extent to which parasite pressure varies among host populations, and the cause of such variation, remain largely undocumented. In this paper we show that birds in arid regions have fewer ectoparasitic lice than birds in humid regions. We show experimentally that low humidity reduces the number of lice on birds, even when the host defense is held constant. Comparisons of ambient humidity to humidity beneath the plumage demonstrate that plumage does not provide a buffer for lice against low humidity. Our results confirm that an abiotic factor can cause substantial variation in parasite pressure among host populations. We suggest that humidity may influence host life history evolution through its impact on ectoparasites.

 

The metazoan parasite fauna of loons (Aves: Gaviiformes), its relationship to the bird’s evolutionary history and biology, and a comparison with the parasite fauna of grebes. Storer, Robert W. Miscellaneous Publications Museum of Zoology University of Michigan, Jun. 18, 2002, i-iv. 191 p. Chapter pagination: 1-44. ISSN: 0076-8405.

            NAL call no: 410.9 M58M

Descriptors: parasitism, host, parasite, evolution, relationships, helminths.

Abstract: The data base of this work parallels that of Storer (2000) on the grebes and contains lists of the multicellular parasites known to parasitize loons and a list of the known species of prey taken ny each species of loon. The former includes information on where in the bird the parasites are found, the distribution of the parasite species by continents, the degree of host specificity, and life cycles (whether in fresh of salt water), and lists of known intermediate and parasitic hosts. These data sets are used to show how the parasite faunas are related to the biology of the birds and their evolutionary histories. The known species of helminths of loons include 47 digeneans, 22 cestodes, 14 acanthocephalans, and 15 nematodes, most of which have aquatic life cycles. No families or subfamilies and only 2 genera and 23 species of helminths are considered loon specialists. Several factors appear to have contributed to the greater number of genera and species of parasites in grebes than in loons. Most loons spend the breeding season on bodies of oligotrophic water, which have fewer species and numbers of potential prey than eutrophic waters where most grebes nest. All species of loons winter on salt water, whereas many grebes are resident on fresh waters, although those nesting in regions where fresh waters freeze in winter spend that season on salt waters. Much of the difference can also be attributed to the greater number of genera (7 versus 1) and species (21 versus 5) in the two groups of birds, and the wider distribution (nearly cosmopolitan in the grebes versus holarctic in the loons). The difference is also consistent with the grebes’ greater age and degree of parasite-host specificity. Other factors affecting differences in the two helminth faunas are a presumed marine origin for the loon in contrast with a fresh-water one for the grebes’, and the greater size and hence greater speed of loons under water. The smaller size of grebes for which a greater number of prey species of optimal size is presumably available, the grebes’ breeding on eutrophic bodies of water in which a greater variety of prey species (and hence greater number of species of hosts for parasites) is available, and grebes’ greater diversity in bill form and foot proportions which are associated with specializations for taking a greater variety of prey, may all be involved. Adaptations for pursuit diving, include larger size, which makes possible a relatively larger mass of leg muscles, longer cnemial crests, which provide a larger area for the attachment of these muscles, and the possible effect of the coiled barbules on the outer part of grebe’s contour feathers, which act like capillaries in absorbing water, which may decrease buoyancy and may also cause this part of the combined feathers to act like a flexible skin which cause movement of the water in the feathers to act like the skin of a cetacean in producing laminar flow of water across the surface of the birds. There is still much to be done before an adequate knowledge of the multicellular parasites of loons and grebes is know. The larger number of species of external parasites found on grebes (12 mites and 13 lice versus 1 mite and 2 line on loons) is believed to have resulted from the association of grebes with coots and subsequent speciation on the larger number of species of grebes than loons.

 

Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a canary (Serinus canaria L.) And a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona amazona aestiva). Hoop, R.K. Avian Diseases, 2002, v. 46 (2), p. 502-504. ref. ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL call no: 41.8 AV5

Descriptors: clinical aspects, diagnosis, tuberculosis, new host records, case report.

 

Parasites from farmed ostriches (Struthio camelus) and rheas (Rhea americana) in Europe. Ponce, Gordo F.; Herrera, S.; Castro, A.T.; Garcia, Duran B.; Martinez, Diaz R.A. Veterinary Parasitology, 2002, v. 107 (1-2), p. 137-160. ref. ISSN: 0304-4017.

            NAL call no: SF810.V4

Descriptors: digestive tract, ectoparasites, parasitoses, lice, mites, helminths, ciliates, protozoa.

Abstract: During a 4 year period (1997-2000), more than 500 ostriches and several rheas, all born in European countries and raised in Spain and Portugal, have been analysed for the presence of ectoparasites and endoparasites. A total of 29 parasite species have been found, most of them of the gastrointestinal tract. Some of the helminth species found may represent spurious parasitoses, as only the eggs (of an ascarid and a trematode) were found in some samples. From the organisms identified, the ectoparasites (lice: Struthiolipeurus rhea, S. nandu; mites: Dermoglyphus pachycnemis, Gabucinia bicaudata), helminths (Cestoda: Houttuynia struthionis; Nematoda: Libyostongylus sp., Codiostomum struthionis) and the ciliate Balantidium struthionis are known as ratite specific parasites. Capillaria eggs and larvae were also found; there are no previous records of this parasite from ostriches, and the data available do not allow to do a tentative specific diagnosis. Among protozoa, most of the species now found are described for the first time in ratites. They include organisms also found in other birds (Trichomonas gallinae, Tetratrichomonas gallinarum, Chilomastix gallinarum, Spironucleus meleagridis and Pleuromonas jaculans), and organisms whose specific status cannot be established until further analysis are performed (Cryptosporidium sp., Elmeria sp. and/or Isospora sp., Entomoeba sp. of the one-nucleate and of the 8-nucleate mature cyst groups, Endolimax sp., Iodamoeba sp., Monocercomonas sp., Retortamonas sp., Giardia sp., Blastocystis sp. and euglenids.

 

Patterns of intermediate host use and levels of association between two conflicting manipulative parasites. Outreman, Yannick; Bollache, Loic; Plaistow, Stewart; Cezilly, Frank. International Journal for Parasitology, Jan. 2002, v. 32 (1), p. 15-20. ISSN: 0020-7519.

            NAL call no: QH547.I55

Descriptors: natural selection, selective constraints, transmission, incidence, infection level, Polymorphus minutus, Pomphorhynchus laevis.

Abstract: For many parasites with complex life cycles, manipulation of intermediate host phenotypes is often regarded as an adaptation to increase the probability of successful transmission. This phenomenon creates opportunities for either synergistic of conflicting interests between different parasite species sharing the same intermediate host. When more than one manipulative parasite infect the same intermediate host, but differ in their definitive host, selection should favour the establishment of a negative association between these manipulators. Both Polymorphus minutus and Pomphorhynchus laevis exploit the amphipod Gammarus pulex as intermediate host but differ markedly in their final host, a fish for P. laevis and a bird for P. minutus. The pattern of host use by these two conflicting manipulative parasites was studied. Their incidence and intensity of infection and their distribution among G. pulex were first examined by analysing three large samples of grammarids collected from the river Tille, Eastern France. Both parasites had low prevalence in the host population. However, temporal fluctuation in the level of parasitic infection was observed. Overall, prevalence of both parasite species was higher in male than in female G. pulex. We then assessed the degree of association between the two parasites among their intermediate hosts, using two different methods: a host-centered measure and a parasite-centered measure. Both measures gave similar results; showing random association between the two acanthocephalan species in their intermediate hosts. We discuss our results in relation to the selective forces and ecological constraints that may determine the pattern of association between conflicting manipulative parasites.

 

Pelecitus helicinus Railliet & Henry, 1910 (Filaroides, Dirofilariinae) and other nematode parasites of Brazilian birds. Oniki, Y.; Kinsella, J.M.; Willis, E.O. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 2002, v. 97 (4), p. 597-598. ref. ISSN: 0074-0276.

            NAL call no: 448.9 IN74

Descriptors: nematode infections, taxonomy, geographical distribution.

Abstract: We report Pelecitus helicinus from 13 species of birds of 2 orders and 7 families, collected from the states of Sao Paulo and Mato Grosso, Brazil during 1983-84 and 1987-88. All 13 constitute new host records for this nematode. In addition, we report the first record of Aprocta golvani from Brazil and Monasa nigrifrons (Bucconidae), as well as a number of other nematode records from neotropical birds.

 

Pet parrot taxonomy and disease predilections: A regional perspective. Speer, B.L.; Lightfoot, T.; Marx, K.L. (ed.); Roston, M.A. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference on Avian Medicine and Surgery, Mid Atlantic States Association of Avian Veterinarians, Fredericksburg, VA, Apr. 28-30, 2002, p, 134-158. ref.

            NAL call no: SF994.M52

Descriptors: aviary birds, diseases, clinical aspects, infectious diseases, taxonomy.

 

Pictorial guide to selected avian skin diseases. Schmidt, R.E. Exotic DVM, 2002, v. 4 (1), p. 27-32. ref. ISSN: 1521-1363.

            NAL call no: SF981.E96

Descriptors: dermatitis, diagnosis, feathers, skin diseases, skin lesions, pets.

 

Psittacosis/avian chlamydiosis. Eidson, Millicent. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Dec. 15, 2002, v. 221 (12), p. 1710-1712. ISSN: 0003-1488.

            NAL call no: 41.8 Am3

Descriptors: psittacosis, avian chlamydiosis, bacterial diseases, diagnosis, therapy.

 

Redescription and systematic status of Brachydistomum ventricosum (Rudolphi, 1809) comb. N. (Trematoda: Dicrocoeliidae) parasiting passeriformes birds. Sitko, J.; Okulewicz, J. Helminthologia, 2002, v. 39 (2), p. 103-110. ref.

            NAL call no: 436.8 H36

Descriptors: nomenclature, synonyms, taxonomy, new combinations, parasite.

Abstract: The morphometrical variability of 373 specimens of Brachydistomum ventricosum was studied. Brachylecithum emberizae, B. mosquensis, Lutztrema sinense, Platynosomum illeciens sensu, P. kirgisensis, P. macrorchis and P. tuvensis are considered synonyms of B. ventricosum.

 

Reovirus infection in psittacine birds (Psittacus erithacus): Morphologic and immunohistochemical study. Sanchez-Cordon, P.J.; Hervas, J.; de Lara, F. Chacon; Jahn, J.; Saiguero, F.J.; Gomez-Villamandos, J.C. Avian Diseases, Apr./Jun. 2002, v. 46 (2), p. 485-492. ref. ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL call no: 41.8 AV5

Descriptors: Pacheco disease, mycosis, grey parrots, herpesvirus infection, diagnosis, transmission, epidemiology.

Abstract: In this paper we report on an outbreak of reovirus, herpesvirus (Pacheco disease), and/or mycosis infection (Aspergillus spp. and Zygomyces spp.) Affecting a batch of young African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus), with 80% morbidity and 30% mortality. Study material was taken from five birds (four dead and one euthanized) with a range of clinical symptoms (depression, diarrhea, respiratory symptoms). Diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical detection of avian reovirus, electron microscopy, and virus isolation. Viral antigen of reovirus was detected mainly in large mononuclear cells in the bursa of Fabricus and the spleen, pancreas epithelial cells, and circulating cells; lymphoid organs displayed the largest number of immunopositive cells and severe lymphocyte depletion. Bacteriologic study was negative. Reovirus infection was common in all birds studied, whereas Pacheco disease and mycosis were found in only some, suggesting that reovirus could be the initial cause triggering the outbreak and facilitating infection by other agents and their swift spread through the batch.

 

A review of toxoplasmosis in wild birds. Dubey, J.P. Veterinary Parasitology, 2002, v. 106 (2), p. 121-153. ref. ISSN: 0304-4017.

            NAL call no: SF810 V4

Descriptors: animal pathology, blindness, diagnosis, clinical aspects, toxoplasmosis.

 

Some parasitic nematodes (Nematoda) of birds (Aves) in the Czech republic. Frantova, D. Acta Societatis Zoologicae Bohemicae, 2002, v. 66 (1), p. 13-28. ref. ISSN: 1211-376X.

            NAL call no: QL1.C4

Descriptors: parasitic nematodes, morphology, epidemiology, disease prevalence.

Abstract: More than 600 birds belonging to 50 species and 8 orders, coming mostly from southern Bohemia in the Czech Republic, were dissected during 1977-1983 and 1999. Parasitic nematodes seemed to be more prevalent in carnivorous than herbivorous birds. 13 species of birds of the orders Falconiformes, Charadriiformes (Larus ridibundus Linnaeus, 1766), Passeriformes and Pelecaniformes (Phalacrocorax carbo Linnaeus, 1758) were infected with 20 nematode species: Capillariidae (11 species), Ascarididae (3), Syngamida (2), Acuariidae (2), Anisakidae (1) and Aproctidae (1). The occurrence of some rare species (Aonchotheca longifilla) (Dujardin, 1845), Baruscapillaria carbonis (Dubinin et Dubonina, 1940), Capillaria cf. Tenuissima (Rudolphi, 1809), Cosmocephalus obvelarus (Creplin, 1825) was recorded. Detailed descriptions of Aonchotheca exilis (Dujardin, 1845) and A. longifilla are given. Baruscapillaria carbonis from Phalacrocorax carbo is new for the nematofauna of the Czech Republic. Parasites of the genus Aonchotheca (Lopex-Neyra, 1947) were recorded from Fringilla coelebs for the first time.

 

Spot-on formulations for combating parasites. Huet, Anne Marie; Julia, Bruno; Etchegaray, Jean Pierre; Weil, Andre; Jeannin, Philippe. Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office, Patents. (e-file) Jul 30, 2002, v. 1260 (5), no pagination. ISSN: 0098-1133.

            NAL call no: T223.A21

Descriptors: parasitic infection, drug therapy, parasitic disease, treatment, topical treatment.

Abstract: In particular this invention provides for spot-on compositions for the treatment or prophylaxis of parasite infestations in mammals or birds which comprise: (1) a composition compromising (A) an effective amount of a 1-phenylpyrazole derivative; and/or (B) an effective amount of a macrocyclic lactone antihelmintic or antiparasitic agent; (2) an acceptable liquid carrier vehicle; and (3) optionally, a crystallization inhibitor. The invention also provides for a method of treating parasitic infestations of for the prophylaxis of parasite infestations in mammals or birds which comprises topically applying to said mammal treating parasitic infestations or for the prophylaxis of parasite infestations in mammals or birds which comprises topically applying to said mammal or bird an effective amount of a composition according to the present invention.

 

Thyroid hyperplasia in birds. Schmidt, Robert A.; Reavill, Drury, R. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, Jun. 2002, v. 16 (2), p. 111-114. ISSN: 1082-6742.

            NAL call no: SF994.J6

Descriptors: Aves, thyroid gland, thyroid hyperplasia, occurrence rate, causes, various species.

Abstract: Thyroid hyperplasia (goiter) has been considered a common problem in birds and is most commonly observed in budgerigars and pigeons. Records of the Zoo/Exotic Pathology Service (West Sacramento, CA, USA) were reviewed for the period from October 1984 tp April 2001. From nearly 12, 500 avian accessions, 30 reported a morphologic diagnosis of thyroid hyperplasia. Twenty-nine of 30 birds from varying species had multiple diagnoses at necropsy, while the remaining bird was diagnosed with thyroid hyperplasia alone. The appearance of all thyroid glands submitted was similar-the glands were enlarged bilaterally (approximately 2.7 x 1.4 cm in size) and red-brown or purple in color. Histologic changes to the thyroid parenchyma were diffuse in all cases (30/30). Thyroid glands contained numerous follicles lined by large cuboidal or low columnar epithelial cells. The morphological diagnosis was thyroid follicular hyperplasia (hyperplastic goiter). Macaws were represented disproportionately (20/30), particularly blue and gold macaws (Ara ararauna), which represented 15/20 macaws. The cause of thyroid hyperplasia was not determined with certainty in the birds examined.

 

Two new rhabdoviruses (Rhabdoviridae) isolated from birds during surveillance for arboviral encephalitis, Northern United States. Travassos da Rosa, A.P.A.; Mather, T.N.; Takeda, T.; Whitehouse, C.A.; Shope, R.E.; Popov, V.L.; Guzman, H.; Coffey, L.; Araujo, T.P.; Tesh, R.B.; da-Rosa, A.P.A. Travassos. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2002, v. 8 (6), p. 514-618. ref. ISSN: 1080-6040.

            NAL call no: RA648.5.E6

Descriptors: taxonomy, viral diseases, birds.

Abstract: Two novel rhabdoviruses were isolated from birds (i.e. dead pigeons) during surveillance for arboviral encephalitis in the northeastern USA. The first, designated Farmington virus, is a tentative new member of the Vesiculovirus genus. The second, designated Rhode Island virus, is unclassified antigenically, but its ultrastructure and size are more similar to those of some of the plant rhabdoviruses. Both viruses infect birds and mice, as well as monkey kidney cells in culture, but their importance for human health is unknown.

 

Update on survey of diseases and causes of death in wild birds. Waine, Jason. Fair Isle Bird Observatory Report, 2002, v. 54, p. 16-20. ISSN: 0427-9190.

Descriptors: Aves, diseases and disorders, causes, Scotland, mortality causes.

 

Variation in tick infestation rate in passerine birds. Strub, O.; Seitz, A.; Kaiser, A. International Journal of Medical Microbiology, Jun. 2002, v. 291 (Supplement 33), p. 236. VIth International Potsdam Symposium on tick Borne Diseases, Berlin, Germany, Apr. 26-27, 2001. ISSN: 1438-4221.

            NAL call no: QR1.Z443

Descriptors: bird, host, tick, disease vector.

 

Virus neutralization assays used in exotic bird medicine. Phalen, David N. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine, Jan. 2002, v. 11 (1), p. 19-24. ISSN: 1055-937X.

            NAL call no: SF994.2.A1S36

Descriptors: psittaciformes, diagnostic technique, virus neutralization assays.

 

West Nile virus activity: United States, November 7-13, 2002. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Nov. 15, 2002, v. 51 (45), p. 1026-1027. ISSN: 0149-2195.

            NAL call no: RA407.3.M562

Descriptors: West Nile virus infection, epidemiology, Aves, disease vector, host, birds.

 

West Nile virus: A threat to North American avian species. McLean, Robert G. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference, 2002, v. 67, p. 62-74. ISSN: 0078-1355. Wildlife Management Institute, 1101 14th St., N.W., Suite 801, Washington, C.D. 20005.

            NAL call no: 412.9 N814

Descriptors: epidemiology, vector biology, disease surveillance in birds.

 

 

2001

 

Air borne transmission of avian pneumovirus (APV). Nagaraja, K.V.; Shin, H.; Halvorson, D.A. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, 2001, v. 101, p. 696. ISSN: 1060-2011.

            NAL call no: OR1.A5

Descriptors: viral infection, viral respiratory disease, vector biology, avian pneumovirus, metapneumovirus, turkeys.

Abstract: Avian pneumovirus (APV) is a Paramyxovirus that belongs to the genus Metapneumovirus, and is associated with catarrhal inflammation of upper respiratory tract in turkeys. APV has been a cause of serious economic problem in turkeys industry in Minnesota, but the mechanism of transmission of the virus is not clearly understood. We investigated the possibility of air borne transmission of APV. Briefly, twenty 2 week old turkey poults were experimentally exposed with 200 ul of vero cell cultured avian pneumovirus MN-2a strain (TCID50 5.3/ml) oculo-nasally. Another 20 birds were exposed with 200 ul of minimum essential media (MEM) through the same route. Turkeys in both groups were kept in two experimental nursery pens (1.2x1.2m) enclosed in 4 aluminum and plexiglass-clad chambers connected by a rectangular duct (0.6x0.6m) that was 1m long. The duct allowed ventilating air to flow from 1 pen housing exposed to the APV unexposed control turkeys. On 3, 6 and 15 days post inoculation (PI), choanal swabs were collected from each bird and examined by M. Gene based RT-PCR. In addition, serum samples were monitored for APV antibody. It is suggested from these results that APV is transmitted through the air. The results of RT-PCR revealed the presence of APV viral nucleic acid in samples from controls by 3 days post exposure of turkeys in one chamber. The serum samples from control showed the presence of APV antibody.

 

Birds and Borrelia. Humair, P.F.; Suss, J. (ed); Kahl, O. (ed); Dautel, H. International Journal of Microbiology, 2001, v. 291, Supplement 33, p. 70-74. ref. ISSN: 1438-4221.

Descriptors: disease vectors, epidemiology, Lyme disease, reservoir hosts, Borrelia burgdorferi.

Abstract: After several years of controversy, the contribution of birds in the ecology of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) has become more and more obvious on the three continents where the pathogens are distributed. Evidence of the reservoir competence of particular bird species has been obtained using tick xenodiagnosis. B. burgdorferi sl circulates not only in terrestrial environment involving Ixodes ricinus and undergrowth-frequenting birds but also in marine environment involving I. uriae and seabirds. Migrating birds contribute to the spread of B. burgdorferi sl and infected tick vectors along migration routes.

 

Bird schistosomes: do they die in mammalian skin? Horak, Petr; Kolarova, Libuse. Trends in Parasitology, Feb. 2001, v. 17 (2), p. 66-69. ISSN: 1471-4922.

            NAL call no: QL757.P374

Descriptors: avian hosts, human hosts, life cycle, skin invasion, transmission.

 

Bird and their ticks in northwestern California: Minimal contribution to Borrelia bugdorferi enzootiology. Slowik, Ted J; Lane, Robert S. Journal of Parasitology, Aug. 2001, v. 87 (4), p. 755-761. ISSN: 0022-3395.

            NAL call no: 448.8.J824

Descriptors: parasitology, vector biology, tick infestation, Aves, Lyme disease, California.

Abstract: Birds and their attendant ticks were surveyed for infection with the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, in chaparral and woodland-grass habitats in northwestern California from March to July, 1998 to 1999. In total, 234 birds were captured and recaptured (15%); nearly 2.5 times more birds were captured in chaparral than in woodland-grass. Overall, 34 species representing 15 families were collected during this study; of these, 24 species were caught in chaparral, 19 in woodland-grass, and 9 in both vegetational types. The most frequently captured birds were sage sparrows (Amphispiza belli) in chaparral, and American robins (Turdus migratorius) and oak titmice (Baelophus inornatus) in woodland-grass. Birds hosted 35 Ixodes pacificus (15 larvae, 20 nymphs) and 9 Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (3 larvae, 5 nymphs, 1 adult) ticks, of which 32 were removed from chaparral birds and 12 from woodland birds. The prevalence of tick infestation was 13% (21/167) in chaparral and 5% (3/67) in woodland-grass, but the relative and mean tick intensities of 0.19 and 1.5 for chaparral birds, and 0.18 and 4.0 for woodland birds, respectively, did not differ significantly by habitat. Spirochetes were not detected in either bird-blood or tick-tissue samples when tested by culture, immunofluorescence, or Giemsa-staining. In contrast, over 90% (86/94) of western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) collected in June or July were infested with an average of 6.9 and 8.9 immature I. pacificus in chaparral and woodland-grass, respectively. We concluded that birds contribute little to the enzootiology of B. burgdorferi in chaparral and woodland-grass habitats in northwestern California because of their limited parasitism by tick vectors and lack of detectable spirochetes.

 

Blood parasites of birds: A plea for more cautious terminology. Cooper, John E.; Anwar, M. Ali. Ibis, Jan. 2001, v. 143 (1), p. 149-150. ISSN: 0019-1019.

            NAL call no: SB359.5 B78

Descriptors: blood parasitism, blood and lymphatic diseases, parasitic diseases, taxonomy.

 

Detection and heterogeneity of herpesviruses causing Pacheco’s disease in parrots. Tomaszewski, E.; Wilson, V.G.; Wigle, W.L.; Phalen, D.N. Journal of clinical Microbiology, 2001, v. 39 (2), p. 533-538. ref. ISSN: 0095-1137.

            NAL call no: QL46.J6

Descriptors: animal diseases, diagnosis, epidemiology, polymerase chain reaction, alphaherpesvirus.

Abstract: Pacheco’s disease (PD) is a common, often fatal, disease of parrots. We cloned a virus isolate from a parrot that had characteristic lesions of PD. Three viral clones were partly sequenced demonstrating that this virus was an alphaherpesvirus most closely related to the gallid herpesvirus. Five primer sets were developed from these sequences. The primer sets were used with PCR to screen tissues or tissue culture media suspected to contain viruses from 54 outbreaks of PD. The primer sets amplified DNA from all but one sample. Ten amplification patterns were detected, indicating that PD is caused by a genetically heterogeneous population of viruses. A single genetic variant (psittacid herpesvirus variant) amplified with all primer sets was the most common virus variant (62.7%). A single primer set (23F) amplified DNA from all of the positive samples, suggesting that PCR could be used as a rapid postmortem assay for these viruses. PCR was found to be significantly more sensitive than tissue culture for the detection of psittacid herpesviruses.

 

Disease of aviary birds. Resanovic, R. Zivinarstvo, 2001, v. 36 (6-7), p. 143-145. ISSN: 0354-4036.

Descriptors: aviary birds, disease, pets.

Abstract: This is a discussion of handling and treating caged exotic birds at small animal practice.

 

Disease control in adult pheasants. Pennycott, T. In Practice, 2001, v. 23 (3), p. 132-140. ref. ISSN: 0263-841X.

            NAL call no: SF601.I4

Descriptors: diagnosis, disease control, helminths, game birds, peritonitis.

 

Disease emergence in birds: Challenges for the twenty-first century. Friend, M.; McLean, R.G.; Dein, F.J. Auk, 2001, v. 118 (2), p. 290-303. ref. ISSN: 0004-8038.

            NAL call no: 413.8 AU4

Descriptors: bacterial diseases, distribution, parasitoses, reviews, zoonoses.

Abstract: Disease occurrences in birds that have increased within the past 3 decades, or threaten to increase in the near future relative to populations affected, geographical distribution, or magnitude of effects are presented. Disease and disease emergence in birds are defined. This paper focuses on the microbes and parasites that cause diseases in unconfined biota and wild avifauna. The following topics are discussed: disease-distribution; geographical-distribution; mycoses; parasitoses; population-dynamics; and zoonoses.

 

Diseases of caged birds transmissible to humans. Resanovic, R. Zivinarstvo, 2001, v. 36 (11), p. 239-240. ref. ISSN: 0354-4036.

Descriptors: antibiotics, drug therapy, ivermectin, zoonoses, treatment, Knemidokoptes.

Abstract: A parrot beak and feather dystrophy (parvoviral infection), and Knemidokoptes spp. ectoparasitosis of birds are discussed. Parrot and beak and feather dystrophy can be treated by systemic antibiotics, antifungal disinfectants and glucocorticosteroids, and Knemidokoptes spp. ectoparasitosis with ivermectin.

 

Diseases of penguins. Duignan, P.J. Surveillance-Wellington, 2001, v. 28 (4), p. 5-11. ref. ISSN: 0112-4972.

            NAL call no: RA648.5.E46

Descriptors: bacterial diseases, starvation, viral diseases, animal welfare.

 

Ehrlichia-infected ticks on migrating birds. Bjoersdorff, A.; Bergstrom, S.; Massung, R.F.; Haemig, P.D.; Olsen, B. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2001, v. 7 (5), p. 877-879. ref. ISSN: 1080-6040.

            NAL call no: RA648.5.E46

Descriptors: disease transmission, disease vectors, human diseases, tickborne diseases.

Abstract: During the spring of 1996, and estimated 581395 Ehrlichia-infected ticks were imported into Sweden by migrating birds. Ehrlichia gene sequences found 9 of 165 ticks collected from these migrating birds were identical to those of granulocytic ehrlichiosis found in domestic animals and humans in Sweden. These findings support the idea that birds may play a role in dispersing Ehrlichia.

 

Ehrlichiosis, Ixodes ticks and migratory birds. Alekseev, A.N.; Dubinina, H.V.; Suss, J.(ed.); Kahl, O.(ed.); Dautel, H. Proceedings of the VIth International Potsdam Symposium on Tick Borne Diseases (IPS VI), Berlin, Germany, Apr. 26-27, 2001. International Journal of Medical Biology, 2001, v. 291 Supplement 33, p. 236. ISSN: 1438-4221.

            NAL call no: QR1.Z443

Descriptors: disease vectors, human diseases, mixed infections, reservoir hosts, Ehrlichia.

 

Emerging zoonotic diseases. Hansen, G.R.; Woodall, J.; Brown, C.; Jaax, N.; McNamara, T.; Ruiz, A. International Conference on Infectious Diseases, Jul. 2000, Atlanta, GA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2001, v. 7 (3) Supplement 537. ISSN: 1080-6040.

            NAL call no: RA648.5.E46

             Descriptors: bacterial diseases, cat-scratch disease, disease models, exotics.

 

Encephalitis virus persistence in California birds: Preliminary studies with house finches. Reisen, W.K.; Kramer, L.G.; Chiles, R.E.; Green, E.G.N.; Martinez, V.M. Journal of Medical Entomology, May 2001, v. 38 (3), p. 393-399. ref. ISSN: 0022-2585.

            NAL call no: 421.J828

Descriptors: Fringillidae, western equine encephalitis virus, chronic infections.

Abstract: Field collected house finches of mixed sex and age were infected experimentally with either western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) or St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses during the summer or fall of 1998 and maintained over the winter under ambient conditions. To detect natural relapse during the spring, 32 birds were bled weekly from February through June 1999, and then necropsied 1 yr after infection to detect chronic infections using a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). After 10 mo, 13/14 surviving birds previously infected with WEE were antibody positive by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and 11/14 had plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) antibody titers >1:20, whereas only of 8/13 birds previously infected with SLE were positive by EIA and all had PRNT titers < 1:20. When necropsied, 1/14 and 1/13 birds had WEE and SLE RT-PCR positive lung or spleen tissue, respectively; blood, brain, and liver tissues were negative as were all previous blood samples. All tissues from these birds including weekly blood samples tested negative for infectious virus by plaque assay on Vero cell culture. To determine if persistent antibody was protective, birds infected initially with WEE of SLE in November 1998 were challenged 6 mo later with homologous virus. WEE antibody persisted well (5/6 birds remained PRNT positive before challenge) and remained protective, because 0/6 birds were viremic after challenge. In contrast, SLE antibody decayed rapidly (0/6 birds remained PRNT positive before challenge) and was not protective, because 3/6 birds developed an ephemeral viremia on day 1 after infection (mean titer, 10(2.73) plaque forming units/0.1 ml). When necropsied 7 wk after challenge, 1/10 birds infected with WEE and 1/10 birds infected with SLE exhibited an RT-PCR positive spleen, despite the fact that both birds had PRNT antibody titers >1:40 at this time. To determine if immunosuppression would cause a chronic infection to relapse, eight birds initially infected with either WEE or SLE were treated with cyclophosphamide and then tested repeatedly for viremia; all samples were negative for virus by plaque assay. Collectively, our results indicated that a low percentage of birds experimentally infected with WEE or SLE developed chronic infections in the spleen or lung that could be detected by Rt-PCR, but not by plaque assay. Birds did not appear to relapse naturally or after immunosuppression. The rapid decay of SLE, but not WEE, antibody may allow the relapse of chronic infections of SLE, but not WEE, to produce viremias sufficiently elevated to infect mosquitoes.

 

Feather mites on birds: Costs of parasitism or conditional outcomes? Blanco, Guillermo; Tella, Jose L.; Potti, Jaime; Baz, Arturo. Journal of Avian Biology, Sept. 2001, v. 32 (3), p. 271-274. ISSN: 0908-8857.

Descriptors: Aves, host, feather mite, parasite, symbiont, cost-benefit relations.

Abstract: Feather mites (suborder Astigmata, superfamilies Analgoidea, Pterolichoidea and Freyaniidae) are among the commonest ectosymbionts of birds. Most researchers have assumed they are parasites, having negative effects on hosts. Here we present evidence that suggests that feather mites may not be parasites. We develop a framework for considering conditional outcomes in these interspecific associations, dealing with different kinds of relationships between symbionts. The non-parasitic status of feather mites is supported by a literature review as well as by preliminary data on mites’ food. We illustrate symbiotic relationships with a graphical model showing different scenarios in which hosts’ cost-benefit relations are determined by the interactions among their symbionts.

 

Fecal shedding and antimicrobial susceptibility of selected bacterial pathogens and a survey of intestinal parasites in free-living waterfowl. Fallacara, D.M.; Monahan, C.M.; Morishita, T.Y.; Wack, R.F. Avian Diseases, 2001, v. 45 91), p. 128-135. ref. ISSN: 0005-2086.

            NAL call no: 41.8 AV5

Descriptors: parasitic nematodes, bacitracin, parasitoses, multiple drug resistance, nematodes, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Pasteurella multocida.

Abstract: Free-living waterfowl residing in metropolitan parks in central Ohio, USA were surveyed between October 1998 and August 1999 for faecal shedding and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Pasteurella multocida. In addition, a survey for intestinal parasites was also conducted in these same waterfowl to determine parasite burdens in free-living waterfowl. Prevalences of 67, 50 and 0.2 % of E. coli, C. jejuni, and Salmonella, respectively, were observed for all waterfowl species. P. multocida was not isolated from the sample population. S. java was isolated from one mallard duck. Statistically, there was a significantly higher E. coli isolation rate for mallard ducks than for Canada geese, but no difference was observed for C. jejuni isolation rates between waterfowl species. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted via the disk diffusion method and multidrug resistance was exhibited for penicillin G, lincomycin, vancomycin, erythromycin and bacitracin. In addition, the prevalence of endoparasites in these sampled waterfowl ranged between 5 and 66%. Protozoan oocysts were most prevalent followed by nematode ova. No trematode or cestode ovum was recovered from this sampled population.

 

Gastrointestinal parasites in ostriches (Struthio camelus). Pennycott, T. Veterinary Record, 2001, v. 148 (5), p. 155-156. ISSN: 0042-4900.

            NAL call no: 41.8 V641

Descriptors: disease surveys, parasites, gastrointestinal, Libyostrongylus douglassii, Codiostomum struthionis, Balantidium sp., Entamoeba.

Abstract: In 1995 a small survey was carried out by the SAC Veterinary Science Division in which samples from 50 ostriches from Scotland, England and Wales were examined for the eggs or larvae of Libyostrongylus douglassii or Codiostomum struthionis. No evidence of these nematodes was found but in 1998, larger numbers of L. douglassii and their eggs were found in a 3 year old ostrich which had died on a farm in Scotland. Small to large numbers of eggs or larvae were found in faecal samples from 7 of 9 birds on the same site, with the highest counts found in birds from the same paddock as the bird which died. No further losses occurred after remaining birds were given ivermectin. Small numbers of Balantidium sp. cysts have been found in the faeces of several healthy ostriches in Scotland, but large numbers were found in the colon of a young ostrich, aged 3 months, that lost weight and died. Large numbers of Entamoeba-like protozoa were repeatedly found in the faeces of a heal