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Housing, Husbandry, Care & Welfare of Selected Birds
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Abbate, F., C. Pfarrer, C.J. Jones, E. Ciriaco, G. Germana, and R. Leiser (2007). Age-dependent changes in the pigeon bursa of Fabricius vasculature: a comparative study using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of vessel casts. Journal of Anatomy 211(3): 387-98. ISSN: 0021-8782.
Abstract: The present study was carried out to analyse the vascularization of the pigeon bursa cloacalis of Fabricius and to determine whether it undergoes age-dependent changes during its functionally most important growth period after hatching of the pigeon. Morphological assessment of vascular corrosion casts, studied qualitatively and quantitatively, was applied for the first time to investigate the vascularization of the pigeon pigeon bursa of Fabricius. This also allowed us to analyse the microvasculature and morphological aspects of the vessel interrelationships as occurring in the natural state. The casts were compared with histological sections stained by haematoxylin-eosin and by binding of the lectin e-PHA (Phaseolus vulgaris, erythroagglutinin) to blood vessels. The vascular architecture of the bursa of Fabricius of the pigeon revealed that the organ is irrigated via two pathways, first through the terminal capillary system of lymphoid follicles arising from the internal pudendal artery, and secondly through arteries originating from the cloacal vasculature of the collum of the organ supplying the periluminal capillary system of the pigeon bursa of Fabricius. Both systems are drained by a venous system which is collateral to the system of the internal pudendal artery and clearly functions as a direct link between the lumen and vasculature of the cloaca or gut, respectively, and the bursa fabricii. This could allow the lymphocytes to be confronted with antigens from the contents of the gut, and their subsequent transport into the secondary lymphoid organs of the organism. Our results demonstrate that the blood vessels, as major and supplying part of the lymphoid system of the bursa Fabricii, clearly reflect three different phases of development: the evolution phase from about day 20 until day 50 post-hatching, the mature phase from days 50 to 90, and the involution phase after day 90. During the evolution phase the density of the vessel system rapidly increases, while in the mature phase the vascular architecture is maintained. The involution phase is dominated by vascular degeneration combined with shrinkage of the whole organ. Therefore, the morphology of the vasculature distinctly reflects the functional status of this primary lymphoid organ during its lifespan.
Descriptors: pigeon, bursa of Fabricius, vasculature, changes, age dependent, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, blood vessel casts.

Abdalla, K.E.H., A.M. Salma, and M.A. Sabour (2004). Stifle joint in the ostrich. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal 50(103): 1-19. ISSN: 1012-5973.
Descriptors: ostrich, anatomy, stifle joint, femur, ligaments, tibia.
Language of Text: Arabic.

Altunay, H. (2004). Fine structure of the retinal pigment epithelium, Bruch's membrane and choriocapillaris in the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia 33(1): 38-41. ISSN: 0340-2096.
Abstract: The fine structure of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), Bruch's membrane and choriocapillaris in the ostrich (Struthio camelus) was investigated by using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In this species, the RPE consisted of a single layer of low columnar cells. The epithelial cells were joined laterally by two type junctions, zonulae occludentes and zonulae adherentes located in the midregion of the cells. These cells displayed numerous deep basal infoldings and thick extensive apical processes, which enclosed the outer segments of the rods. The epithelial cell nuclei were large, vesicular and located basally within the epithelial cells. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum was very abundant, while rough endoplasmic reticulum was scarce. Mitochondria of various shapes were abundant basally while polysomes were plentiful and widespread. In the light-adapted state melanosomes were located in the apical region and in apical processes of the epithelial cells. Myeloid bodies were large, numerous and often showed ribosomes on their outer surface. Bruch's membrane (complexus basalis) was typical pentalaminate throughout the retina, as noted in the majority of other vertebrates. The endothelium of the choriocapillaris facing Bruch's membrane was extremely thin but only moderately fenestrated. Some of the fenestrations displayed a double-layered diaphragm while the majority showed the more typical single-layered diaphragm noted in most species.
Descriptors: ostrich, pigment epithelium, retinal, eye ultrastructure, struthioniformes anatomy, histology, capillaries ultrastructure, endoplasmic reticulum ultrastructure, electron microscopy, mitochondria ultrastructure, Bruch's membrane.

Altunay, H. and T. Kozlu (2004). The fine structure of the Harderian gland in the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia 33(3): 141-5. ISSN: 0340-2096.
Abstract: The Harderian gland of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) is a tubuloalveolar gland containing holocrine secreting epithelial cells. The gland epithelium is composed of two different cell types, which can be classified as type I and type II. These cells contain dense secretory vesicles in their cytoplasm and they are connected laterally with desmosomes. At the basal site of these cells, myoepithelial cells are present. Plasma cells are observed in the subepithelial region of the gland. In the interlobular trabeculae, forming the gland stroma, fibroblasts, blood vessels and nerve fibres are included. Another important finding in the ostrich Harderian gland is the presence of homogeneous material.
Descriptors: ostrich, Harderian gland ultrastructure, Struthioniformes anatomy, histology, cell differentiation, harderian gland cytology, electron microscopy.

Ando, K., Y. Nakajima, T. Yamagishi, S. Yamamoto, and H. Nakamura (2004). Development of proximal coronary arteries in quail embryonic heart: multiple capillaries penetrating the aortic sinus fuse to form main coronary trunk. Circulation Research 94(3): 346-52. ISSN: 0009-7330.
Abstract: Studies have shown that the proximal coronary artery (PCA) develops via endothelial ingrowth from the peritruncal ring (PR) of the coronary vasculature. However, the details of PCA formation remain unclear. We examined the development of PCAs in quail embryonic hearts from 5 to 9 days of incubation (embryonic day [ED]) using double-immunostaining for QH1 (quail endothelial marker) and smooth muscle alpha-actin. At 6 to 7 ED, several QH1-positive endothelial strands from the PR penetrated the facing sinuses, and in some embryos, several endothelial strands penetrated the posterior (noncoronary) sinus. At 7 to 8 ED, the endothelial strands penetrating the facing sinuses seemed to fuse, forming a proximal coronary stem that was demarcated from the aortic wall by the nascent smooth muscle layer of the coronary artery. By 9 ED, two coronary stems were completely formed, and the endothelial strands previously penetrating the noncoronary sinus had disappeared. Confocal microscopy at 6 ED revealed discontinuous QH1-positive endothelial progenitors in the aortic wall at sites where the endothelial strands would later develop. Observations demonstrate that during the formation of the PCA, endothelial strands from the PR penetrate the facing sinuses and then fuse, whereas those strands penetrating the noncoronary sinus disappear. Thereafter, the coronary artery tunica media demarcates the definitive PCA from the aortic media.
Descriptors: quail, embryonic heart, coronary arteries, embryology, blood supply, heart embryology, capillaries embryology, embryonic development, capillaries, aortic sinus fuse, coronary trunk.

Babic, K., T.T. Vukievic, D. Mihelic, and V.G. Kantura (2004). The anatomy of the female and male ostrich (Struthio camelus) genital system as a base of reproductive physiology. Proceedings of the 11th Ostrich World Congress, Island Great Brijun, Croatia, 15 17 October 2004: 70-73.
Descriptors: ostrich, male, female, genital system, anatomy, reproductive physiology, conference proceedings.
Notes: Meeting Information: Proceedings of the 11th Ostrich World Congress, Island Great Brijun, Croatia, 15-17 October 2004.

Basha, S.H., C. Vijayaragavan, and Geetha Ramesh (2004). Light and electron microscopic studies on the interrenal tissue of the adrenal gland in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 74(10): 1021-1023. ISSN: 0367-8318.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, adrenal gland, interrenal tissue, light studies, electron microscopic studies.

Basha, S.H., M. Sivakumar, and G. Ramesh (2007). Histogenesis of the adrenal gland in japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 77(3): 222-224. ISSN: 0367-8318.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, adrenal gland, histogenesis, Coturnix coturnix japonica.

Cevik Demirkan, A., R. Haziro lu, and Kcortcol (2007). Gross morphological and histological features of larynx, trachea and syrinx in Japanese quail. Anatomia Histologia, Embryologia 36(3): 215-219. ISSN: 0340-2096.
Abstract: This study aimed at observing gross morphological and histological characteristics of the larynx, trachea and syrinx in Coturnix coturnix japonicum (Japanese quail). Sixteen mature quails were divided into two groups. Eight animals were stained with 0.1% methylene blue for 15 min, followed by 50% and 70% ethyl alcohol solution for gross morphological examination. For the observation of histological characteristics the larynx, trachea and syrinx were fixed in 10% formaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. Six-micron sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin. There were three rows of papillae which were located oral (one row) and aboral (two rows) aspects of the mound. The cricoid cartilage was triangular in shape. Only the inlet of the larynx was covered by the olfactory mucosa whereas the rest was covered by the respiratory mucosa. There were 83-91 tracheal rings which were gradually narrowed from the cranial to the caudal direction. No overlapping occurred between the rings. The last few tracheal rings did not fuse dorsally and formed the tympanium. The pessulus possessed connection with the last tracheal ring and the first bronchial ring. Moreover, it was like a semiprism in shape at the region of bifurcation being vertical in direction. The syrinx was formed by the paired, C-shaped and incomplete bronchial syringeal cartilages. The mucosa of the syrinx was lined with a pseudo-stratified layer of prism-shaped epithelium. There were nine or 14 C-shaped cartilaginous primary bronchi.
Descriptors: Japaneses quail, larynx, trachea, syrnix, gross morphological, histological, features, anatomy.

Chen WenQin, Liu HuaZhen, Luo GuanZhong, and Peng KeMei (2005). Cytoarchitecture of 5 nerve nuclei in the medulla oblongata of ostrich. Journal of Huazhong Agricultural University 24(2): 185-188. ISSN: 1000-2421.
Descriptors: ostrich, nerve nuclei, medulla oblongata, cytoarchitecture, anatomy, brain, morphology.
Language of Text: Chinese, summary in English.

Cooper, R.G. and K.M. Mahroze (2004). Anatomy and physiology of the gastro-intestinal tract and growth curves of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Animal Science Journal 75(6): 491-498. ISSN: 1344-3941.
Descriptors: ostrich, anatomy, physiology, gastrointestinal tract, growth curves, digestive system.

Cooper, R.G. and K.M. Mahroze (2004). Anatomy and physiology and growth curves of the of the gastro-intestinal tract ostrich (Struthio camelus). Animal Science Journal 75(6): 491-498. ISSN: 1344-3941.
Descriptors: ostrich, anatomy, physiology, growth curves, gastrointestinal tract, digestive system.

Cooper, R.G. and K.M. Mahroze (2004). Anatomy and physiology of the gastro-intestinal tract and growth curves of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Animal Science Journal 75(6): 491-498. ISSN: 1344-3941.
Descriptors: ostrich, growth curves, anatomy, physiology, gastro-intestinal tract, Struthio camelus, digestive system.

Dickman, J.D., D. Huss, and M. Lowe (2004). Morphometry of otoconia in the utricle and saccule of developing Japanese quail. Hearing Research 188(1-2): 89-103. ISSN: 0378-5955.
Abstract: The development of otoconia in the utricular and saccular maculae from initial embryonic formation to adult stages was examined in Japanese quails. Both the morphology and size of the otoconia were quantified at different developmental stages. It was observed that the otoconia were initially formed on embryologic stage E5 in the saccule and E6 in the utricle. Otolith mass areas increased in a sigmoidal growth pattern, with saccular otolith areas being smaller than the utricular mass areas. Saccular otolith masses reached adult values at embryonic stage E12 and utricular areas reached adult values at post-hatch day 7. Mature individual otoconia were characterized by a barrel shape with two trihedral faceted ends. However, initial formation of otoconia at E5 (saccular) and E6 (utricular) maculae was characterized by a double fluted morphology that consisted of an hourglass shape with extended fins forming trihedral angles of 120 degrees. Double fluted otoconia rapidly filled, so that by embryonic day 8 mature otoconia dominated the maculae for the remainder of development through adulthood. Thus, a progression from double fluted to mature forms was noted. Mature utricular otoconia in adult quails averaged 11 microm in length and 5 microm in width, with length/width ratios of approximately 2.5:1, for all size ranges. Saccular otoconia were smaller, having about 70% the size of utricular otoconia in both length and width. During development, the average size and range of individual otoconia increased nearly linearly for both otolith organs. In the utricular macula, large otoconia were concentrated in the lateral regions of the epithelium. In contrast, otoconia of various sizes were distributed uniformly across the surface of the saccular macula.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, Coturnix, otolithic membrane embryology, otolithic membrane ultrastructure, saccule and utricle embryology, acoustic maculae embryology, electron microscopy, scanning, animal models, saccule and utricle ultrastructure, morphometry.

Dzemski, G. and A. Christian (2007). Flexibility along the neck of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) and consequences for the reconstruction of dinosaurs with extreme neck length. Journal of Morphology 268(8): 701-14. ISSN: 0362-2525.
Descriptors: ostrich, neck, flexibility, reconstruction, extreme neck length, giraffe, camel, relevance to dinosaurs.

Elias, M.Z., T.A. Aire, and J.T. Soley (2007). Macroscopic features of the arterial supply to the reproductive system of the male ostrich (Struthio camelus). Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia 36(4): 255-62. ISSN: 0340-2096.
Abstract: The macroscopic features of the arterial supply to the reproductive system of the male ostrich was studied in 16 pre-pubertal and eight sexually mature and active birds. The left and right cranial renal arteries arise from the aorta, between the cranial divisions of the kidneys. These vessels supply the cranial divisions of the kidneys, the testes, the epididymides and the cranial segments of the ducti deferentia. Accessory testicular arteries which arise directly from the aorta are present in 45.8% of the specimens. They supply the testes and cranial parts of the ducti deferentia. They are variable in number and origin, and four variants are identified. A cranial ureterodeferential branch originates from the cranial renal artery, supplies the cranial portion of the ductus deferens and ureter, and runs caudally to anastomose with the middle renal artery. The sciatic artery arises laterally from the aorta, just caudal to the acetabulum, and gives rise, ventrally, to a common trunk, the common renal artery, which divides into the middle and caudal renal arteries. The middle renal artery gives rise to the middle ureterodeferential branch which supplies the middle part of the ductus deferens and ureter. A few centimetres caudal to the kidney, the aorta terminates in three branches, namely, the left and right internal iliac arteries and the median caudal artery. The internal iliac artery divides into the lateral caudal artery and the pudendal artery; the latter gives off caudal ureterodeferential branches that supply the caudal segments of the ductus deferens and ureter. In addition, the pudendal artery gives off vessels that supply the cloaca, some of which continue to the base of the phallus, where they form an arterial network. In conclusion, the pattern of the blood supply to the reproductive organs of the male ostrich is, in general, similar to that of the domestic fowl and pigeon, although there are a few highlighted distinctive features.
Descriptors: ostrich, male, arteries, anatomy, histology, Struthioniformes, testis, blood supply, epididymis, epididymis, regional blood flow, sexual maturation, physiology, vas deferens, blood supply.

Elias, M.Z.J., J.T. Soley, and T.A. Aire (2005). The microvasculature of the testis, epididymis and proximal ductus deferens of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) as revealed by India ink injection. Microscopy Society of Southern Africa Proceedings 35: 75. ISSN: 1028-3455.
Descriptors: ostrich, microvasculature, testis, epididymis, proximal ductus deferens, India ink injection, Struthio camelus.

Flores, M.L., R.P. Fontoura, C.L.B. Godoy, and S.D. Segabinazi (2006). Anatomia radiografica de ema (Rhea americana) - resultados preliminares. [Great rhea (Rhea americana) radiographic anatomy - preliminary results]. A Hora Veterinaria 26(152): 64-66. ISSN: 0101-9163.
Descriptors: greater rhea, radiographic anatomy, abdomen, image analysis, pelvis, preliminary results, Rhea.
Language of Text: Portuguese, summary in English.

Gangl, D., G.E. Weissengruber, M. Egerbacher, and G. Forstenpointner (2004). Anatomical description of the muscles of the pelvic limb in the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia 33(2): 100-14. ISSN: 0340-2096.
Abstract: Dissections of 12 formalin-fixed ostriches were performed to give anatomical descriptions of the muscles and tendons of the pelvic, femoral, tibiotarsal, tarsometatarsal and digital regions. In the pelvic limb of the ostrich, 36 muscles can be determined. The ostrich lacks those muscles to the first and second toes (with exception of the M. flexor hallucis longus), which can be found in birds with four toes. The Mm. iliotrochantericus medius, plantaris, extensor proprius digiti IV and adductor digiti IV, which are present in other birds, are also absent, whereas the Mm. pectineus and femorotibialis accessorius additionally occur in the ostrich. The Pars supramedialis is a tendineous part of the M. gastrocnemius, on which the Mm. flexor cruris lateralis and flexor cruris medialis insert by means of a fascial sheet. The caudal part of the M. iliofibularis terminates within the caudal aspect of the superficial fascia cruris. The caudal heads of the Mm. flexor perforatus digiti III and flexor perforatus digiti IV as well as the M. flexor hallucis longus have a common origin on the Fossa poplitea of the femur. The lateral head of the M. flexor perforatus digiti IV and the femoral head of the M. flexor perforans et perforatus digiti III originate on the tendon of origin of the Caput laterale of the M. flexor perforatus digiti III. Furthermore, the last named tendon fuses with the tendon of insertion of the M. ambiens. The M. extensor proprius digiti III originates on a plate-like fascial sheet part of the dorsal joint capsule of the intertarsal joint.
Descriptors: ostrich, hindlimb anatomy, histology, muscle, skeletal anatomy, histology, Struthioniformes anatomy, histology, pelvic limb, anatomical description.

Imam, H.M.E. and O.M. El Mahdy (2004). Some anatomical studies on the quadratomandibular articulation of ostrich (Struthio camelus) and flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber). Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal 50(102): 1-21. ISSN: 1012-5973.
Descriptors: ostrich, flamingo, quadratomandibular articulation, anatomical studies, joint, morphological features.
Language of Text: Arabic.

Kurtul, I. and R.M. Hazroglu (2004). Horoz, erkek ordek ve guvercinde aorta descendens'in seyri ve dallanmas uzerinde karslastrmal makroanatomik arastrmalar. [Comparative macroanatomical investigations on the pattern and branches of the descending aorta among the rooster, drake and pigeon]. Ankara Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi 51(1): 1-6. ISSN: 1300-0861.
Descriptors: pigeon, anatomy, aorta, blood circulation, species differences, rooster, drake.
Language of Text: Turkish, summary in English.

Madekurozwa, M.C. (2005). Morphological features of the luminal surface of the magnum in the sexually immature ostrich (Struthio camelus). Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia 34(6): 350-3. ISSN: 0340-2096.
Abstract: Observations were made, using scanning electron microscopy, of the surface features of the magnum in the immature ostrich during periods of ovarian inactivity, activity and regression. In birds with inactive ovaries the luminal surface of the magnum was lined with non-ciliated cells, which were densely covered by microvilli. In contrast, the magnum in birds with active ovaries was composed of ciliated and non-ciliated cells. The distribution of ciliated cells was not uniform, with clumps of cilia occurring next to non-ciliated areas. Samples collected from birds with regressing ovaries, during periods of decreasing daylength, revealed that the magnum was undergoing involution. The deciliation of ciliated cells and the presence of short microvilli on non-ciliated cells characterized magnal regression. These results suggest that ovarian activity and changes in daylength have a profound effect on the surface features of the magnum in the immature ostrich.
Descriptors: ostrich, sexually immature, magnum, morphological features, ovarian activity, daylength, ciliated cells, non ciliated cells.

Madekurozwa, M.C. and W.H. Kimaro (2006). Ultrastructural features of the follicular wall in developing follicles of the sexually immature ostrich (Struthio camelus). Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 73(3): 199-205. ISSN: 0030-2465.
Descriptors: ostrich, reproductive system, sexually immature, follicular wall, developing follicles, ultrastructure features, Struthio camelus.

Maxwell, E., A. Michel, H. Larsson, and A. Heppleston (2006). The anatomy of the emu wing: an example of primary digital reduction in archosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 26(3, Suppl. S): 97A. ISSN: 0272-4634.
Descriptors: emu wing anatomy, primary digital reduction, archosaurs, example, meeting.
Notes: 66th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Ottawa, Canada; October 18 -21, 2006.

Mazzullo, G., G. Montalbano, A. Augello, A. Germana, and B. Macri (2007). A case of conjoined cephalopagus twinning in an ostrich (Struthio camelus). Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia 36(4): 263-5. ISSN: 0340-2096.
Abstract: Conjoined twinnings have been reported in most domestic animal species and in some avian species. Cases of conjoined twins have not been reported in the ostrich so far. A hybrid Blue neck x African black male ostrich conjoined twinning was born at the end of artificial egg incubation and died spontaneously 24 h after the hatching. It was frozen and sent to the Unit of Veterinary Pathology of the University of Messina for gross examination. The most important gross findings involved the external body and most of the internal organs. On the basis of the duplication, the conjoined twins were classified as a cephalopagus. Radiological features included: development of one head containing a single brain, two spinal cords, deviated vertebral columnae with fusion of the two first cervical vertebrae. In one twin, the synsacrum was absent as well as portions of the vertebral column. Grossly, both twins showed two upper and lower limbs each. The gastro-enteric apparatuses of the twins were not completely developed and fused at different levels. One liver and one heart localized in the centre of the conjoined twins were observed. The authors conclude that the possible causes of the malformation could be related to a genetic factor.
Descriptors: ostrich, twinning, conjoined cephalopagus, male, gross examination, artificial egg incubation, pathology, malformation, genetic.

Nasu, T. (2005). Scanning electron microscopic study on the microarchitecture of the vascular system in the pigeon lung. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science the Japanese Society of Veterinary Science 67(10): 1071-4. ISSN: 0916-7250.
Abstract: The resin casts of the respiratory and vascular systems in pigeon lung were examined using a scanning electron microscope. The primary bronchi branched to form many secondary bronchi that anastomosed with each other via the parabronchi. Numerous infundibula protruded from the parabronchi via the atria and ramified into the air capillaries. The pulmonary artery entered into the lung and branched into three vessels that coursed the interparabronchial parts. The intraparabronchial arterioles penetrated the gas-exchange tissue to form the anastomosing networks of blood capillaries. The observation of the double casts of the respiratory and vascular systems revealed three-dimensional complicated networks of air capillaries and blood capillaries.
Descriptors: pigeon lung, resin casts, vascular system, microarchitecture, capillaries ultrastructure, columbidae anatomy, histology, lung blood supply, lung ultrastructure, microscopy.

Ozegbe, P.C., T.A. Aire, and J.T. Soley (2006). The morphology of the efferent ducts of the testis of the ostrich, a primitive bird. Anatomy and Embryology 211(5): 559-65. ISSN: 0340-2061.
Abstract: The efferent duct of the ostrich consists of two segments, the proximal efferent duct (PED) and the distal efferent duct (DED) that are continuous, as in some other birds. Both segments of the duct possess an epithelium comprising non-ciliated and ciliated cells in varying proportions between the two segments. The non-ciliated cell (type I) of the PED contains a well-developed, subapical endocytic apparatus of apical tubules and endocytic vacuoles, a solitary, large, heterogeneous lipid droplet, and numerous, oval, dense bodies in the supranuclear region of the cell. Mitochondria tend to concentrate in the basal part of the cell. Intercellular spaces between the non-ciliated cells are enlarged, especially in the basal half of the epithelium. Together, these morphological features confer on the PED an efficient fluid absorption capability. The DED epithelium displays the type II non-ciliated cell whose poorly developed subapical endocytic apparatus as well as the absence of dilated basal intercellular spaces indicate its limited fluid absorptive capacity.
Descriptors: epididymis cytology, Struthioniformes, anatomy, histology, epithelial cells, ultrastructure, microscopy electron, microvilli ultrastructure, transport vesicles, vacuoles.

Ozkan, Z.-E. (2004). Macro-anatomical and osteometric investigations on ossa cinguli membri thoracici in quails. Indian Veterinary Journal 81(5): 549-552. ISSN: 0019-6479.
Descriptors: quails, macro anatomical, osteometric, investigations, ossa cinguli membri thoracici bones.

Ozkan, Z.E. (2004). Gross-anatomical and osteometric investigations on sternum in quails. Indian Veterinary Journal 81(3): 312-315. ISSN: 0019-6479.
Descriptors: quails, gross anatomical, osteometric, investigations, sternum.

Ozkan, Z.E. (2004). Macro-anatomical and osteometric investigations on apparatus hyobranchialis in quails. Indian Veterinary Journal 81(6): 691-694. ISSN: 0019-6479.
Descriptors: quail, apparatus hyobranchialis, macro anatomical, osteometric, investigations, male, female, Coturnix coturnix.

Palmieri, G., A.A. Dessole, L.B. Minelli, M. Botti, F. Gazza, A. Corriero, S. Desantis, and F. Acone (2004). The sensitive innervation of the ostrich nasal mucosa. Archivio Italiano Di Anatomia Ed Embriologia. [Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology]. 109(4): 239-48. ISSN: 0004-0223.
Abstract: The sensitive innervation of the ostrich's nasal mucosa, through impregnative gold chloride methods, was investigated. The autonomy innervation, constituted by ganglion cells placed along the course of nerve trunks was particularly represented in the respiratory tract of the nasal cavity. The somatic nerve component, composed by free and capsulated endings, was especially distributed in the vestibular district. The nerve corpuscles were morphologically classified as Pacini, Pacini-like, Golgi-Mazzoni and Herbst. Further investigations must be expected to attribute an effective functional role particularly to this last nerve component.
Descriptors: ostrich, nasal mucosa, sensitive innervation, ganglion cells, nerve trunks, nasal cavity, respiratory tract, somatic nerve, nerve corpuscles.

Palmieri, G., L.B. Minelli, M. Botti, F. Gazza, S. Desantis, M. Deflorio, G. Costa, M.G. Cappai, and F. Acone (2005). Autonomic and sensitive somatic innervation of the ostrich elbow and knee joints articular capsule. Archivio Italiano Di Anatomia Ed Embriologia. [Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology]. 110(2): 111-23. ISSN: 0004-0223.
Abstract: The present research was carried out on the fibrous layer of the ostrich's elbow and knee joints articular capsule, employing opportunely modified gold chloride Ruffini's method, to study the autonomic and sensitive somatic nerve components. The distribution of both nerve components followed frequently the vascular networks. The autonomic innervation was represented by isolated or grouped ganglion cells, frequently placed along the course of nerve trunks, close to the epineurium or located within the perineural connective tissue. The sensitive somatic innervation was constituted by free and encapsulated corpuscles. The last one, morphologically classified as Pacini, Pacini-like and Golgi-Mazzoni's corpuscles, were found isolated or grouped to constitute simple and complex flower sprays, "opposito-polar corpuscles" and "poichilomorphous fibres". The very few Golgi-Mazzoni's corpuscles were found only in the knee joint articular capsule. The two nerve components, found in the considered districts, did not shown significant quanti-qualitative and topographic differences. This datum, at least in appearance, seems to conflict with the ostrich functional aptitudes. In fact, the ostrich is a bird unable to fly but very able to run.
Descriptors: ostrich, elbow, knee joint, forelimb anatomy, histology, hindlimb anatomy, histology, joint capsule innervation, joints anatomy, histology, joints innervation, struthioniformes anatomy, afferent pathways anatomy, autonomic pathways anatomy, connective tissue innervation.

Rubenson, J., D.G. Lloyd, T.F. Besier, D.B. Heliams, and P.A. Fournier (2007). Running in ostriches (Struthio camelus): three-dimensional joint axes alignment and joint kinematics. Journal of Experimental Biology 210(Pt 14): 2548-62. ISSN: 0022-0949.
Abstract: Although locomotor kinematics in walking and running birds have been examined in studies exploring many biological aspects of bipedalism, these studies have been largely limited to two-dimensional analyses. Incorporating a five-segment, 17 degree-of-freedom (d.f.) kinematic model of the ostrich hind limb developed from anatomical specimens, we quantified the three-dimensional (3-D) joint axis alignment and joint kinematics during running (at approximately 3.3 m s(-1)) in the largest avian biped, the ostrich. Our analysis revealed that the majority of the segment motion during running in the ostrich occurs in flexion/extension. Importantly, however, the alignment of the average flexion/extension helical axes of the knee and ankle are rotated externally to the direction of travel (37 degrees and 21 degrees, respectively) so that pure flexion and extension at the knee will act to adduct and adbuct the tibiotarsus relative to the plane of movement, and pure flexion and extension at the ankle will act to abduct and adduct the tarsometatarsus relative to the plane of movement. This feature of the limb anatomy appears to provide the major lateral (non-sagittal) displacement of the lower limb necessary for steering the swinging limb clear of the stance limb and replaces what would otherwise require greater adduction/abduction and/or internal/external rotation, allowing for less complex joints, musculoskeletal geometry and neuromuscular control. Significant rotation about the joints' non-flexion/extension axes nevertheless occurs over the running stride. In particular, hip abduction and knee internal/external and varus/valgus motion may further facilitate limb clearance during the swing phase, and substantial non-flexion/extension movement at the knee is also observed during stance. Measurement of 3-D segment and joint motion in birds will be aided by the use of functionally determined axes of rotation rather than assumed axes, proving important when interpreting the biomechanics and motor control of avian bipedalism.
Descriptors: ostrich, running, motion, joint axis, alignment, kinematics, locomotor, walking, joint motion, flexion, extension, limb anatomy.

Ruffins, S.W., M. Martin, L. Keough, S. Truong, S.E. Fraser, R.E. Jacobs, and R. Lansford (2007). Digital three-dimensional atlas of quail development using high-resolution MRI. The Scientific World Journal 7: 592-604. ISSN: 1537-744X.
Abstract: We present an archetypal set of three-dimensional digital atlases of the quail embryo based on microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (microMRI). The atlases are composed of three modules: (1) images of fixed ex ovo quail, ranging in age from embryonic day 5 to 10 (e05 to e10); (2) a coarsely delineated anatomical atlas of the microMRI data; and (3) an organ system-based hierarchical graph linked to the anatomical delineations. The atlas is designed to be accessed using SHIVA, a free Java application. The atlas is extensible and can contain other types of information including anatomical, physiological, and functional descriptors. It can also be linked to online resources and references. This digital atlas provides a framework to place various data types, such as gene expression and cell migration data, within the normal three-dimensional anatomy of the developing quail embryo. This provides a method for the analysis and examination of the spatial relationships among the different types of information within the context of the entire embryo.
Descriptors: quail, development, three dimensional, high resolution MRI, embryo, anatomy, histology, embryology, magnetic resonance imaging.

Sathyamoorthy, O.R. and Geeta Ramesh (2006). Gross anatomical studies on the sternum of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Indian Journal of Animal Health 45(1): 83-86. ISSN: 0019-5057.
Descriptors: ostrich, sternum, gross anatomical studies, Struthio camelus.

Schaller, N., K. D'auot, P. Aerts, and B. Herkner (2007). Phalangeal load and pressure distribution in walking and running ostriches (Struthio camelus). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A Molecular and Integrative Physiology 146(4, Suppl. S): S122. ISSN: 1095-6433.
Descriptors: ostriches feet, walking, running, phalangeal load, pressure distribution, skeletal system, Struthio camelus, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: Annual Meeting of the Society for Experimental Biology, Glasgow, UK; March 31-April 04, 2007.

Schulte, M., B. Diekamp, M. Manns, A. Schwarz, C. Valencia Alfonso, J.A. Kirsch, O. Gunturkun, and K. Folta (2006). Visual responses and afferent connections of the n. ventrolateralis thalami (VLT) in the pigeon (Columba livia). Brain Research Bulletin 68(4): 285-292. ISSN: 0361-9230.
Descriptors: pigeon, visual responses, afferent connections, n. ventrolateralis thalami, VLT, retinal, forebrain.

Smith, N.C., R.C. Payne, K.J. Jespers, and A.M. Wilson (2007). Muscle moment arms of pelvic limb muscles of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Journal of Anatomy 211(3): 313-24. ISSN: 0021-8782.
Abstract: Muscle moment arms were measured for major muscles of the pelvic limb of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) in order to assess specific functional behaviour and to apply this to locomotor performance. Pelvic limbs of six juvenile ostriches were used for this study. The tendon travel technique was used to measure moment arms of 21 muscles at the hip, knee, ankle and metatarsophalangeal joints throughout the ranges of motion observed during level running. Six of the 21 muscles measured were found to have moment arms that did not change with joint angle, whilst the remainder all demonstrated angle-dependent changes for at least one of the joints crossed. Moment arm lengths tended to be longest for the large proximal muscles, whilst the largest relative changes were found for the moment arms of the distal muscles. For muscles where moment arm varied with joint angle: all hip muscles were found to have increasing moment arms with extension of the joint, knee flexors were found to have moment arms that increased with extension, knee extensor moment arms were found to increase with flexion and ankle extensor moment arms increased with extension. The greatest relative changes were observed in the flexors of the metatarsophalangeal joint, for which a three-fold increase in moment arm was observed from flexion to full extension. Changes in muscle moment arm through the range of motion studied appear to optimize muscle function during stance phase, increasing the effective mechanical advantage of these muscles.
Descriptors: ostrich, muscle moment arms, pelvic limb muscles, functional behavior, locomotor performance, hip, knee, ankle, flexion, extension.

Smith, N.C., A.M. Wilson, K.J. Jespers, and R.C. Payne (2006). Muscle architecture and functional anatomy of the pelvic limb of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Journal of Anatomy 209(6): 765-79. ISSN: 0021-8782.
Abstract: The functional anatomy of the pelvic limb of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) was investigated in order to assess musculoskeletal specialization related to locomotor performance. The pelvic limbs of ten ostriches were dissected and detailed measurements of all muscle tendon units of the pelvic limb were made, including muscle mass, muscle length, fascicle length, pennation angle, tendon mass and tendon length. From these measurements other muscle properties such as muscle volume, physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), tendon cross-sectional area, maximum isometric muscle force and tendon stress were derived, using standard relationships and published muscle data. Larger muscles tended to be located more proximally and had longer fascicle lengths and lower pennation angles. This led to an expected proximal to distal reduction in total muscle mass. An exception to this trend was the gastrocnemius muscle, which was found to have the largest volume and PCSA and also had the highest capacity for both force and power production. Generally high-power muscles were located more proximally in the limb, while some small distal muscles (tibialis cranialis and flexor perforatus digiti III), with short fibres, were found to have very high force generation capacities. The greatest proportion of pelvic muscle volume was for the hip extensors, while the highest capacity for force generation was observed in the extensors of the ankle, many of which were also in series with long tendons and thus were functionally suited to elastic energy storage.
Descriptors: ostrich, functional anatomy, pelvic limb, muscle architecture, locomotion physiology, muscle, skeletal anatomy, histology, biomechanics, hindlimb, muscle contraction, tendons anatomy, histology.

Song Hui, Peng KeMei, Tang WenHua, Liu HuaZhen, Wang Yan, Wei Lan, Du AnNa, and Tang Li (2007). Relation between structure and function of oropharyngeal cavity in ostriches. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science 27(1): 77-80. ISSN: 1005-4545.
Descriptors: ostriches, oropharyngeal cavity, structure, function, relation, anatomy.
Language of Text: Chinese, summary in English.

Tomanek, R.J., H.K. Hansen, and E.I. Dedkov (2006). Vascular patterning of the quail coronary system during development. Anatomical Record 288A(9): 989-999. ISSN: 1552-4884.
Descriptors: quail, coronary system, development, vascular patterning.

Ushakumary, S. and Geetha Ramesh (2003). Gross anatomy of pectoral girdle of ostrich (Sturthio camelus). Cheiron 32(3/4): 71-72. ISSN: 0379-543X.
Descriptors: ostrich, Struthio camelus, pectoral girdle, gross anatomy.

Venkatesan, S., S. Paramasivan, T.A. Kannan, S.H. Bashai, and G. Ramesh (2006). A comparative anatomical study of the femur of domestic fowl, guinea fowl, turkey and ostrich. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 76(11): 925-926. ISSN: 0367-8318.
Descriptors: ostrich, turkey, guinea fowl, domestic fowl, femur, comparative anatomical study.

Vukievic, T.T., K. Babic, D. Mihelic, and V.G. Kantura (2004). The anatomy of the digestive system of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Proceedings of the 11th Ostrich World Congress, Island Great Brijun, Croatia, 15 17 October 2004 66-69 ISSN: 1520-8052 (online).
Descriptors: ostrich, digestive system, anatomy, tongue, esophagus, proventriculus, jejunum, colon, duodenum, conference proceedings.
Notes: Meeting Information: Proceedings of the 11th Ostrich World Congress, Island Great Brijun, Croatia, 15-17 October 2004.

Weir, K.A. and C.A. Lunam (2006). Immunohistochemical study of cutaneous nerves in the emu. Cell and Tissue Research 326(3): 697-705. ISSN: 0302-766X.
Abstract: The distribution and chemical content of cutaneous nerves in 3- to 13-day-old emu chicks (Dromaius novaehollandiae) were examined by using double-labelling immunohistochemistry. Seven different subpopulations of cutaneous nerves were identified based on their neurochemistry. No intraepidermal nerve fibres were found. However, axons were located within the dermis and were often associated with blood vessels, pennamotor muscles and feather follicles or innervated Herbst corpuscles. Both similarities and differences exist between subpopulations of cutaneous nerves in the emu and volant birds. As in volant birds, a subpopulation of cutaneous axons innervates the superficial skin layers and contains immunoreactivity to both substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). This suggests that the neuropeptide content of these presumptive free nerve endings is conserved throughout the evolution of birds. In contrast, Herbst corpuscles in the emu are innervated by axons that contain immunoreactivity for CGRP or neuropeptide Y (NPY) but that lack the calbindin D-28k immunoreactivity found in fibres innervating Herbst corpuscles of volant birds. Herbst corpuscles therefore may have a different chemical content in a flightless species from that in volant birds.
Descriptors: emu, anatomy, histology, cutaneous nerves, immunohistochemistry study, nerve tissue metabolism, skin innervation, axons metabolism, blood vessels innervation, nerve fibers metabolism, skin blood supply.

Wustinger, J., D. Jasko, D. Drozdz, M. Basinska, and N. Pospieszny (2006). Muscles of thoracic limb of African ostrich (Struthio camelus L.). Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities 9(2): 6pp. ISSN: 1505-0297.
Descriptors: African ostrich, muscles, thoracis limb, Struthio camelus, anatomy.

Yin YanBo, Li FangZheng, Tan JinShan, Song XueXiong, Dong WuZi, and Ji YaJie (2006). Ultrastructure of the ostrich spermatozoa. Journal of Economic Animal 10(4): 198-202. ISSN: 1007-7448.
Descriptors: ostrich, spermatozoa, ultrastructure, anatomy, reproduction.
Language of Text: Chinese, summary in English.



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