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You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Housing, Husbandry, Care & Welfare of Selected Birds   / Anesthesia and Analgesia  Printer Friendly Page
Housing, Husbandry, Care & Welfare of Selected Birds
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Anesthesia and Analgesia

Dehghani, S., M. Mohammadi, and H. Nadda (2005). Anaesthetic protocol for pigeon undergoing orthopaedic operation. Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery 26(1): 47. ISSN: 0254-4105.
Descriptors: pigeon, orthopedic operation, anaesthetic protocol.

DeLucas, J.J., C. Rodriguez, M. Marin, F. Gonzalez, C. Ballesteros, and M.I. SanAndres (2007). Pharmacokinetics of Intramuscular Ketamine in Young Ostriches Premedicated with Romifidine. Zentralblatt Fur Veterinarmedizin, Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A Physiology Pathology Clinical Medicine Reihe A 54(1): 48-50. ISSN: 0514-7158.
Abstract: Ketamine is a short-acting dissociative anaesthetic for chemical restraint and surgical anaesthesia in domestic and non-domestic animals. The present study was designed to determine the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of ketamine (10 mg/kg) after intramuscular (i.m.) administration to young ostriches premedicated with romifidine. Ketamine was rapidly absorbed after i.m. administration. Maximal ketamine concentration (Cmax) of 2.93 +/- 0.61 (So(Bg/ml was reached at 12.5 +/- 2.50 min and thereafter ketamine concentrations decreased rapidly. The elimination half-life (t subscript 1(B/ subscript 2(Bz) obtained was 62.37 +/- 17.37 min and mean residence time (MRT) was 77.33 +/- 19.12 min. The area under the curve (AUC) was 114.19 +/- 15.76 (So(Bg.min/ml.
Descriptors: ostriches, ketamine, intramuscular, pharmacokinetics, premedication, romifidine, chemical restraint, surgical anaesthesia.

Durrani, U.F., M. Ashraf, and A. Khalid (2005). Comparative efficacy of detomidine and detomidine - ketamine cocktail in quails. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 25(4): 197-199. ISSN: 0253-8318.
Abstract: Twenty adult healthy quails (Coturnix coturnix) were divided into two equal groups. One group was administered detomidine (2.4 mg/kg, 1/M) and other group was administered detomidine-ketamine cocktail (1.2 mg/kg + 30 mg/kg, 1/M). Detomidine slowly and smoothly induced a light sedation accompanied by superficial analgesia, hypoventilation, hypothermia and bradycardia in all birds. Detomidine-ketamine cocktail rapidly and smoothly induced a deep anaesthesia accompanied by deep analgesia, hypoventilation, hypothermia and bradycardia and complete loss of all reflexes in all birds. In both groups, recovery from sedation and anaesthesia was smooth and of short duration. From this study it was concluded that for minor and least painful procedures in quails detomidine can be used alone, while for major and painful surgical procedures detomidine- ketamine combination should be preferred.
Descriptors: Japanesemquails, anaesthetics, analgesics, anaesthesia, birds, domestic animals, drugs, Galliformes, livestock, neurotropic drugs, poultry.
Language of Text: Summary in English.

Jimenez Baigorria, M.V.L. (2004). Balanced anesthesia in rhea for abdominal surgery. Internet Journal of Veterinary Medicine 1(1): unpaginated. ISSN: d000-1004.
Descriptors: rhea, abdominal surgery, anesthesia balanced, veterinary.

Klaphake, E., J. Schumacher, C. Greenacre, M.P. Jones, and N. Zagaya (2006). Comparative anesthetic and cardiopulmonary effects of pre-versus postoperative butorphanol administration in Hispaniolan amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) anesthetized with sevoflurane. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 20(1): 2-7. ISSN: 1082-6742.
Descriptors: Amzon parrots, butorphanol, sevoflurane, anesthetic, postoperative, cardiopulmonary effects, comparative.

Lucas, J.J.d., C. Rodriguez, M. Marin, F. Gonzalez, C. Ballesteros, and M.I. San Andres (2007). Pharmacokinetics of intramuscular ketamine in young ostriches premedicated with romifidine. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 54(1): 48-50. ISSN: 0931-184X.
Descriptors: ostriches, ketamine, intramuscular, premedicated, romifidine, pharmacokinetics, young birds.

Nilson, P.C., I. Teramitsu, and S.A. White (2005). Caudal thoracic air sac cannulation in zebra finches for isoflurane anesthesia. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 143(2): 107-15. ISSN: 0165-0270.
Abstract: Small songbirds such as the zebra finch are commonly used for studies on the neural mechanisms that underlie vocal learning. For these studies, survival surgeries are often performed that involve animal anesthesia and stereotaxic stabilization for localization of specific brain regions. Here we describe air sac cannulation as a novel method for delivering isoflurane gas to zebra finches for anesthesia during neurosurgery. Advantages of this method include that it leaves the bird's head free for stereotaxic targeting and does not interfere with the beak clamps that are often used to position and stabilize the head. It additionally allows for the use of the inhalant anesthetic, isoflurane, which is an appealing alternative to injectable anesthetics because it provides fast, minimally stressful induction, and low subject and personnel toxicity. The use of isoflurane also prevents overdosing and lengthy postoperative recovery times.
Descriptors: zebra finches, isoflurane anesthesia, caudal thoracic air sac, canulation, neurosurgery, inhalant anesthesia, injectable, recovery.

Paul Murphy, J. and J.P. Fialkowski (2004). Pharmacokinetic properties of a single intramuscular dose of buprenorphine in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 18(4): 224-228. ISSN: 1082-6742.
Descriptors: African grey parrots, buprenorphine, single I.M dose, pharmacokinetic properties, analgesic, dose, plasma concentration.

Pettifer, G.R., J. Cornick Seahorn, J.A. Smith, G. Hosgood, and T.N.J. Tully (2002). The comparative cardiopulmonary effects of spontaneous and controlled ventilation by using the Hallowell EMC Anesthesia WorkStation in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 16(4): 268-276. ISSN: 1082-6742.
Descriptors: Amazon parrots, cardiopulmonary effects, ventilation, spontaneous, controlled, anesthesia, work station, anesthetic.

Sladky, K.K., L. Krugner Higby, E. Meek Walker, T.D. Heath, and J. Paul Murphy (2006). Serum concentrations and analgesic effects of liposome-encapsulated and standard butorphanol tartrate in parrots. American Journal of Veterinary Research 67(5): 775-81. ISSN: 0002-9645.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To compare serum concentrations of liposome-encapsulated butorphanol tartrate (LEBT) and standard butorphanol tartrate (STDBT) following SC and IM administration, respectively, and to evaluate analgesic effects of LEBT and STDBT after parenteral administration to Hispaniolan parrots. ANIMALS: 11 adult Hispaniolan parrots. PROCEDURE: The ability of LEBT to prolong the duration of analgesia in an avian species was tested. Blood samples were collected at serial time points after SC administration of LEBT (10 mg/kg or 15 mg/kg) or IM administration of STDBT (5 mg/kg). Serum concentrations of butorphanol tartrate were determined by use of a commercial immunoassay that measured parent drug and metabolites. Analgesic efficacy was evaluated in parrots exposed to electrical and thermal stimuli. Foot withdrawal thresholds were recorded at baseline and at serial time points after LEBT (15 mg/kg), liposome vehicle, STDBT (2 mg/kg), or physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution administration. RESULTS: LEBT had a prolonged in vivo release for up to 5 days. Negligible serum butorphanol and butorphanol metabolite concentrations were obtained at 24 hours after IM administration of STDBT. Analgesic efficacy of LEBT as measured by foot withdrawal threshold to noxious thermal and electrical stimuli persisted for 3 to 5 days following SC administration of LEBT. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: SC administration of LEBT provided analgesia and detectable serum butorphanol concentrations in Hispaniolan parrots for up to 5 days. The use of LEBT may allow for substantial improvement in long-term pain relief without subjecting birds to the stress of handling and multiple daily injections.
Descriptors: parrots, analgesia, butorphanol, therapeutic use, liposomes, administration, dosage, pain, drug therapy, analgesics, opioid, serum concentrations, analgesic effects, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic use, butorphanol administration, dosage, dose response relationship.

Stanford, M. (2002). Clinical assessment of sevoflurane use in African grey parrots. Exotic DVM 4(6): 9. ISSN: 1521-1363.
Descriptors: African grey parrots, anesthesia, anesthetics, dosage effects, sevoflurane, clinical assessment.



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