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You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Housing, Husbandry, Care & Welfare of Selected Birds   / Behavior and Care  Printer Friendly Page
Housing, Husbandry, Care & Welfare of Selected Birds
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Behavior and Care

Barri, F.R., J.L. Navarro, N.O. Maceira, and M.B. Martella (2005). Rearing greater rhea (Rhea americana) chicks: is adoption more effective than the artificial intensive system? British Poultry Science 46(1): 22-5. ISSN: 0007-1668.
Abstract: (1) Survival and weight gain of farmed Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) chicks reared by the adult males that adopted them were compared with those of chicks reared under an artificial intensive system. (2) Both variables were periodically recorded up to the age of 3 months. Gompertz growth curves were fitted to individual growth data using the average adult weight of this population as asymptote. (3) No significant differences in survival rate were detected between systems (adoption=47%, intensive=43%). However, during the first half of the breeding season (mid-spring to mid-summer), the growth rate of adopted chicks (0.01481) was higher than that of intensively reared chicks (0.01296). (4) The adoption system may be more effective in terms of growth, and is probably more efficient in cost/effectiveness than the artificial intensive technique most frequently used. Adoption by males has additional advantages, such as a correct imprinting of the chicks and the selection of more capable individuals. Therefore, it should be used not only commercially but also in conservation projects where individuals are released to the wild.
Descriptors: animal husbandry methods, behavior, animal, Rheiformes physiology, aging, rhea, adoption, rearing chicks, artificial intensive.

Bassett, S.M. and C.E. Travers (2006). The role of captive rearing in kiwi conservation. Journal of Ornithology 147(5, Suppl. 1): 115-116. ISSN: 0021-8375.
Descriptors: kiwi conservation, captive rearing, role, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: 24th International Ornithological Congress, Hamburg, Germany; 2006.

Csermely, D., G. Gaibani, and E. Dardani (2007). Year-round behavioural sequences in captive ostrich (Struthio camelus domesticus) pairs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 103(1-2): 156-166. ISSN: 0168-1591.
Descriptors: ostriches, animal behavior, gender differences, seasonal variation, pair housing, farmed animal species, ostrich pairs, farmed ostriches, behavior transitions, behavior repertoire.

Fox, R.A. and J.R. Millam (2004). The effect of early environment on neophobia in orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 89(1-2): 117-129. ISSN: 0168-1591.
Descriptors: orange winged Amazon parrots, early environment, effect, neophobia, Amazona amazonica.

Gajdon, G.K., N. Fijn, and L. Huber (2004). Testing social learning in a wild mountain parrot, the kea (Nestor notabilis). Learning and Behavior a Psychonomic Society Publication 32(1): 62-71. ISSN: 1543-4494.
Abstract: Huber, Taborsky, and Rechberger (2001) reported an experiment in which the efficiency with which captive keas opened a complex food container was increased by observation of a skilled conspecific. However, only testing social learning in free-ranging animals can demonstrate social learning in natural conditions. For that purpose, a tube-lifting paradigm was developed and tested on keas both in captivity and in Mount Cook National Park, New Zealand. The task was to remove a tube from an upright pole in order to gain access to a reward inside the tube. The top of the pole was higher than a standing kea, so that, to remove the tube, an individual had to simultaneously climb onto the pole and manipulate the tube up the pole with its bill. Because only 1 naive bird managed to remove a tube twice in 25 half-hour sessions and disappeared after success, another bird was trained to solve the task and to provide demonstrations for others. Even under such conditions, only 2 of at least 15 birds learned to remove the tube in 28 sessions. There was no indication that observer birds' use of bill and feet when exploring the tube changed as the number of observations of tube removal increased in a way that would, in principle, increase the likelihood of tube removal. The results suggest a dissociation of social learning potential as assessed in laboratory animals, and social transmission of foraging techniques in natural populations.
Descriptors: parrot, social learning, testing, imitative behavior, problem solving, social environment, social facilitation, adaptation, behavior, feeding behavior, imprinting psychology, reinforcement psychology.

Galef, B.G.J., S.J. Watkins, and P. Salehi (2006). Effects of enclosure size on sexual behavior of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Journal of Comparative Psychology 120(4): 433-7. ISSN: 0735-7036.
Abstract: The authors determined whether results of experiments on copulatory and affiliative behavior of pairs of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) conducted in a closely confining apparatus would predict behavior in a large enclosure in which female quail could avoid contact with male quail. As found previously in studies of closely confined quail, in a large enclosure containing numerous barriers, both unmated female quail and mated female quail laying unfertilized eggs were more likely to remain near a confined male quail than were mated female quail laying fertilized eggs. Furthermore, the number of copulations that a pair engaged in when closely confined predicted the number of copulations that they engaged in when they were in the large enclosure. Patterns of affiliation and of mating in a confining laboratory apparatus thus predicted behavior in a larger enclosure that provided female quail with opportunity to avoid contact with male quail.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, copulation, sexual behavior, social behavior, Coturnix, habituation, enclosure size, effects.

Garner, J.P., C.L. Meehan, T.R. Famula, and J.A. Mench (2006). Genetic, environmental, and neighbor effects on the severity of stereotypies and feather picking in Orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica): an epidemiological study. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 96(1-2): 153-168. ISSN: 0168-1591.
Descriptors: Amazon parrots, abnormal behavior, stereotyped behavior, animal stress, genetic resistance, epidemiological studies, feather pecking, heritability , animal welfare.

Garner, J.P., C.L. Meehan, and J.A. Mench (2003). Stereotypies in caged parrots, schizophrenia and autism: evidence for a common mechanism. Behavioural Brain Research 145(1/2): 125-134. ISSN: 0166-4328.
Descriptors: parrots, behavior, abnormal, caged, autism, schizophrenia, stereotypies.

Harcourt Brown, N. (2004). Development of the skeleton and feathers of dusky parrots (Pionus fuscus) in relation to their behaviour. Veterinary Record 154(2): 42-8. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Abstract: A clutch of five dusky parrots (Pionus fuscus) was observed from hatching to fully grown. They were examined radiographically from 16 to 45 days of age, a few days before the cessation of bone growth, and the development of their feathers and their behaviour were also studied. It was observed that when growing birds were removed from the nest and placed singly on a flat surface they would stand up and walk about until restrained; normally these birds would move very little and lie in an intertwined huddle that supported their relatively weak growing skeletons. At 50 days old they would climb to the nest entrance, retreating if scared. From day 51 the parrots flapped their wings vigorously inside the nest box, and they emerged at 53 days old when nearly all their large feathers had finished growing. These findings may help to explain the high rate of juvenile osteodystrophy in hand-reared parrots; premature exercise could lead to pathological deformity of the long bones, especially the major weight-bearing bone, the tibiotarsus.
Descriptors: dusky parrots, Pionus fuscus, behavior, feathers growth, development, tarsus, tibia growth, development, husbandry, feathers anatomy, histology, feathers radiography, parrots anatomy, histology.

Kelly, D.J. and N.M. Marples (2004). The effects of novel odour and colour cues on food acceptance by the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata. Animal Behaviour 68(5): 1049-1054. ISSN: 0003-3472.
Descriptors: zebra finch, food acceptance, color cues, novel odor, effects, eating behavior.

Kingston, R. (2006). The painted firetail finch Emblema pictum. Australian Aviculture 60(6): 119-124. ISSN: 1030-5440.
Descriptors: painted firetail finch, Emblema pictum, captivity care, husbandry, reproductive techniques, Australia.

Kummerfeld, N. (2006). Verhalten, Verhaltensstoerungen und Verhaltenstheraple von Papageien und Sittichen. [Behavior, behavioral disturbances and behavioral therapy of parrots and parakeets.]. Tieraerztliche Praxis Ausgabe K Kleintiere Heimtiere 34(3): 211-219. ISSN: 1434-1239.
Descriptors: parrots, parakeets, behavior, behavioral disturbances, therapy.
Language of Text: German, summary in German.

Luescher, A. (2006). Manual of Parrot Behavior. Iowa State University Press. Blackwell Publishing: ISBN: 9780813827490.
Descriptors: parrot behavior, manual, social behavior, reproductive behavior, captive behavior.
Notes: Includes bibliographical references and index.Contents: The classification and the status of wild populations of parrots / Dominique G. Homberger -- Behavior of wild Amazona and rhynchpsitta parrots, with comparative insight from other psittacids / Ernesto C. Enkerlin-Hoeflich, Noel F.R. Snyder, James W. Wiley -- Parrot conservation, trade, and reintroduction / Charles A. Munn -- Sensory capacities of parrots / Jennifer Graham .. [et al.] -- Social behavior of psittacine birds / Lynne M. Seibert -- Captive parrot nutrition : interactions with anatomy, physiology, and behavior / Kevin David Matson, Elizabeth A. Koutsos -- Comfort behavior and sleep / Laurie Bergman, Ulrike S. Reinisch -- Parrot reproductive behavior, or, who associates, who mates, and who cares / Tracey R. Spoon -- Nest box preferences / Scott George Martin, April Romagnano -- Hand-rearing : behavioral impacts and implications for captive parrot welfare / Rebecca Fox -- Behavioral development of psittacine companions : neonates, neophytes, and fledglings / Phoebe Greene Linden, with Andrew U. Luescher -- Handler attitude and chick development / Brenda Cramton -- Grey parrot cognition and communication / Irene M. Pepperberg -- How parrots learn / S.G. Friedman, Steve Martin, Bobbi Brinker -- Behavior classes in the veterinary hospital : preventing problems before they start / Kenneth R. Welle -- Diagnostic workup of suspected behavioral problems / Susan E. Orosz -- Aggressive behavior in pet birds / Kenneth R. Welle, Andrew U. Luescher -- Parrot vocalization / Laurie Bergman, Ulrike S. Reinisch -- Parrots and fear / Liz Wilson, Andrew U. Luescher -- Problem sexual behaviors of companion parrots / Fern Van Sant -- Mate trauma / April Romagnano -- Feather picking disorder in pet birds / Lynne M. Seibert -- Psittacine behavioral pharmacotherapy / Kenneth M. Martin -- Behavior of captive psittacids in the breeding aviary / G. Heather Wilson -- Housing and management considerations for problem prevention / Andrew U. Luescher, Liz Wilson -- Captive parrot welfare / Cheryl Meehan, Joy Mench.

Meade, J., D. Biro, and T. Guilford (2006). Route recognition in the homing pigeon, Columba livia. Animal Behaviour 72(Part 5): 975-980. ISSN: 0003-3472.
Descriptors: homing pigeon, route recognition, landmarks, homing behavior.

Meehan, C. and J. Mench (2006). Captive parrot welfare. Manual of Parrot Behavior. Blackwell Publishing: 9600 Garsington Rd, Oxford OX4 2DQ, Oxen, UK, p. 301-318. ISBN: 0813827493.
Descriptors: captive parrot, welfare, behavior, manual, care.

Miller, K.A., J.P. Garner, and J.A. Mench (2006). Is fearfulness a trait that can be measured with behavioural tests? A validation of four fear tests for Japanese quail. Animal Behaviour 71(6): 1323-1334. ISSN: 0003-3472.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, fear tests, validation, behavioral tests, fearfulness, measured.

Owen, D.J. and J.M. Lane (2006). High levels of corticosterone in feather-plucking parrots (Psittacus erithacus). Veterinary Record Journal of the British Veterinary Association 158(23): 804-805. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Descriptors: Psittacus, corticosterone levels, animal stress, parrots, feather plucking, high levels.

Pepperberg-I (2006). Behavioral differences in grey parrots: studies on cognition and communication. Journal of Ornithology 147(5, Suppl. 1): 6. ISSN: 0021-8375.
Descriptors: grey parrots, behavioral differences, cognition, communication, studies, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: 24th International Ornithological Congress, Hamburg, Germany; 2006.

Pepperberg, I.M. (2006). Cognitive and communicative abilities of Grey parrots. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 100(1-2): 77-86. ISSN: 0168-1591.
Descriptors: grey parrots, abilities, cognitive, communicative, behavior, intelligence.

Pepperberg, I.M. (2004). Cognitive and communicative capacities of Grey parrots--implications for the enrichment of many species. Animal Welfare 13s203-S208. ISSN: 0962-7286.
Descriptors: Psittacus, Grey parrots, environmental enrichment, human animal relations, animal communication, animal behavior, training, animal welfare.

Pepperberg, I.M. (2006). Grey parrot numerical competence: A review. Animal Cognition 9(4): 377-91. ISSN: 1435-9448.
Abstract: The extent to which humans and nonhumans share numerical competency is a matter of debate. Some researchers argue that nonhumans, lacking human language, possess only a simple understanding of small quantities, generally less than four. Animals that have, however, received some training in human communication systems might demonstrate abilities intermediate between those of untrained nonhumans and humans. Here I review data for a Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) that has been shown to quantify sets of up to and including six items (including heterogeneous subsets) using vocal English labels, to comprehend these labels fully, and to have a zero-like concept. Recent research demonstrates that he can also sum small quantities. His success shows that he understands number symbols as abstract representations of real-world collections, and that his sense of number compares favorably to that of chimpanzees and young human children.
Descriptors: grey parrot, behavior, cognition, comprehension, concept formation, mathematics, symbols, numbers, counting ability.

Rosenwax, A. (2007). Manual of parrot behaviour, 1st edn - Editor by Luescher AU. Australian Veterinary Journal 85(3): 97. ISSN: 0005-0423.
Descriptors: parrot behavior, manual.

Santilli, F., R.M. Stella della, P. Mani, B. Fronte, G. Paci, and M. Bagliacca (2004). Differenze comportamentali fra fagiani di ceppo selvatico e di allevamento. [Behavioural differences between pheasants artificially hatched from wild parents or from farm parents]. Annali Della Facolta Di Medicina Veterinaria Di Pisa 57: 317-326. ISSN: 0365-4729.
Descriptors: pheasants, wild parents, artificially hatched, behavioral differences, farm parents.
Language of Text: Italian, summary in English.

Sarasqueta, D.V. (2005). Aspects of rearing, reproduction and hybridization of Darwin's Rhea or Choique (Rhea pennata syn. Pterocnemia pennata, spp. pennata). E. Carbajo Proceedings of the 3rd International Ratite Science Symposium of the World' s Poultry Science Association WPSA and 12th World Ostrich Congress, Madrid, Spain, 14th 16th October, 2005, World Poultry Science Association (WPSA): Beekbergen, Netherlands, p. 35-44. ISBN: 8460963535.
Descriptors: Darwin's rhea, rearing, reproduction, hybridization, choique, aspects, conference proceedings, book chapter.
Notes: Meeting Information: Proceedings of the 3rd International Ratite Science Symposium of the World's Poultry Science Association (WPSA) and 12th World Ostrich Congress, Madrid, Spain, 14th-16th October, 2005.

Schmid, R., M.G. Doherr, and A. Steiger (2006). The influence of the breeding method on the behaviour of adult African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 98(3-4): 293-307. ISSN: 0168-1591.
Descriptors: Psittacus, African grey parrots, rearing, wild birds, aggression, parrot behavior, stereotyped behavior, pets, abnormal behavior, animal handling, young animals, imprinting behavior, human animal relations, hand rearing.

Smith, E.L., V.J. Greenwood, A.R. Goldsmith, and I.C. Cuthill (2005). Effect of supplementary ultraviolet lighting on the behaviour and corticosterone levels of Japanese quail chicks. Animal Welfare 14(2): 103-109. ISSN: 0962-7286.
Descriptors: Japanese quails, animal stress, animal behavior, animal welfare, ultraviolet lighting, effect, corticosterone levels.

Watanabe, S. and H.J. Bischof (2004). Effects of hippocampal lesions on acquisition and retention of spatial learning in zebra finches. Behavioural Brain Research 155(1): 147-52. ISSN: 0166-4328.
Abstract: We tested the role of the hippocampus in spatial memory of zebra finches. The birds were trained to find the location of a food site among four identical feeders arranged on the aviary floor. Extra-maze cues were present. The birds had to perform the task from four different starting points. Successful visits and the time to find the food were recorded. Hippocampal lesions made before acquisition led to a decrease in correct choices. Hippocampal lesions following training disrupted the retention of the spatial memory. Surprisingly, birds with hippocampal damage reached the food as quickly as intact birds, but they needed more visits to find the correct feeder. Therefore, the birds with hippocampal damage used an alternative, nonspatial memory-based strategy to find the food.
Descriptors: zebra finches, spatial learning, hippocamoal lesions, effects, acquisition, retention, spatial memory, nonspatial memory-based strategy, food finding.

Watanabe, S. and N.F. Troje (2006). Towards a "virtual pigeon": a new technique for investigating avian social perception. Animal Cognition 9(4): 271-9. ISSN: 1435-9448.
Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to examine the applicability of a computer-generated, virtual animal to study animal cognition. Pigeons were trained to discriminate between movies of a real pigeon and a rat. Then, they were tested with movies of the computer-generated (CG) pigeon. Subjects showed generalization to the CG pigeon, however, they also responded to modified versions in which the CG pigeon was showing impossible movement, namely hopping and walking without its head bobbing. Hence, the pigeons did not attend to these particular details of the display. When they were trained to discriminate between the normal and the modified version of the CG pigeon, they were able to learn the discrimination. The results of an additional partial occlusion test suggest that the subjects used head movement as a cue for the usual vs. unusual CG pigeon discrimination.
Descriptors: pigeon, cognition, avian social perception, investigating technique, computer generated virtual pigeon.

Wittig, W. (2004). Aufzuchtprobleme beim Mohrengimpel. [Rearing problems with the gold-headed finch.]. Gefiederte Welt 128(11): 332-335. ISSN: 0016-5816.
Descriptors: gold-headed finch, rearing problems.
Language of Text: German.



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