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You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Housing, Husbandry, Care & Welfare of Selected Birds   / Circulatory  Printer Friendly Page
Housing, Husbandry, Care & Welfare of Selected Birds
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Abbate, F., C. Pfarrer, C.J. Jones, E. Ciriaco, G. Germana, and R. Leiser (2007). Age-dependent changes in the pigeon bursa of Fabricius vasculature: a comparative study using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of vessel casts. Journal of Anatomy 211(3): 387-98. ISSN: 0021-8782.
Abstract: The present study was carried out to analyse the vascularization of the pigeon bursa cloacalis of Fabricius and to determine whether it undergoes age-dependent changes during its functionally most important growth period after hatching of the pigeon. Morphological assessment of vascular corrosion casts, studied qualitatively and quantitatively, was applied for the first time to investigate the vascularization of the pigeon pigeon bursa of Fabricius. This also allowed us to analyse the microvasculature and morphological aspects of the vessel interrelationships as occurring in the natural state. The casts were compared with histological sections stained by haematoxylin-eosin and by binding of the lectin e-PHA (Phaseolus vulgaris, erythroagglutinin) to blood vessels. The vascular architecture of the bursa of Fabricius of the pigeon revealed that the organ is irrigated via two pathways, first through the terminal capillary system of lymphoid follicles arising from the internal pudendal artery, and secondly through arteries originating from the cloacal vasculature of the collum of the organ supplying the periluminal capillary system of the pigeon bursa of Fabricius. Both systems are drained by a venous system which is collateral to the system of the internal pudendal artery and clearly functions as a direct link between the lumen and vasculature of the cloaca or gut, respectively, and the bursa fabricii. This could allow the lymphocytes to be confronted with antigens from the contents of the gut, and their subsequent transport into the secondary lymphoid organs of the organism. Our results demonstrate that the blood vessels, as major and supplying part of the lymphoid system of the bursa Fabricii, clearly reflect three different phases of development: the evolution phase from about day 20 until day 50 post-hatching, the mature phase from days 50 to 90, and the involution phase after day 90. During the evolution phase the density of the vessel system rapidly increases, while in the mature phase the vascular architecture is maintained. The involution phase is dominated by vascular degeneration combined with shrinkage of the whole organ. Therefore, the morphology of the vasculature distinctly reflects the functional status of this primary lymphoid organ during its lifespan.
Descriptors: pigeon, bursa of Fabricius, vasculature, changes, age dependent, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, blood vessel casts.

Ando, K., T. Hiruma, Y. Nakajima, T. Yamagishi, R. Kobayashi, and H. Nakamura (2004). Morphological and immunohistochemical studies of the aortic wall during coronary artery development in quail embryonic heart. Anatomical Science International 79(August): 370. ISSN: 1447-6959.
Descriptors: quail, aortic wall, coronary artery development, embryonic heart, studies, morphological, immunohistochemical, meeting.
Notes: 16th International Congress of the IFAA (International Federation of Associations of Anatomists) and the 109th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Association of Anatomists, Kyoto, Japan; August 22-27, 2004.

Ando, K., Y. Nakajima, T. Yamagishi, S. Yamamoto, and H. Nakamura (2004). Development of proximal coronary arteries in quail embryonic heart: multiple capillaries penetrating the aortic sinus fuse to form main coronary trunk. Circulation Research 94(3): 346-52. ISSN: 0009-7330.
Abstract: Studies have shown that the proximal coronary artery (PCA) develops via endothelial ingrowth from the peritruncal ring (PR) of the coronary vasculature. However, the details of PCA formation remain unclear. We examined the development of PCAs in quail embryonic hearts from 5 to 9 days of incubation (embryonic day [ED]) using double-immunostaining for QH1 (quail endothelial marker) and smooth muscle alpha-actin. At 6 to 7 ED, several QH1-positive endothelial strands from the PR penetrated the facing sinuses, and in some embryos, several endothelial strands penetrated the posterior (noncoronary) sinus. At 7 to 8 ED, the endothelial strands penetrating the facing sinuses seemed to fuse, forming a proximal coronary stem that was demarcated from the aortic wall by the nascent smooth muscle layer of the coronary artery. By 9 ED, two coronary stems were completely formed, and the endothelial strands previously penetrating the noncoronary sinus had disappeared. Confocal microscopy at 6 ED revealed discontinuous QH1-positive endothelial progenitors in the aortic wall at sites where the endothelial strands would later develop. Observations demonstrate that during the formation of the PCA, endothelial strands from the PR penetrate the facing sinuses and then fuse, whereas those strands penetrating the noncoronary sinus disappear. Thereafter, the coronary artery tunica media demarcates the definitive PCA from the aortic media.
Descriptors: quail, embryonic heart, coronary arteries, embryology, blood supply, heart embryology, capillaries embryology, embryonic development, capillaries, aortic sinus fuse, coronary trunk.

Ando, K., H. Kusaba, T. Soh, and H. Iwamoto (2007). Different patterns of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (vip)-immunoreactive and acetylcholinesterase (ache)-positive innervation in the internal carotid artery and cerebral arterial tree of the quail. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 69(2): 177-183. ISSN: 0916-7250.
Descriptors: quail, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, vip, immunoreactive and acetylcholinesterase, ache, different patterns, positive innervation, internal carotid artery, cerebral arterial tree.

Baszczyk, B., Z. Tarasewicz, J. Udaa, D. Gaczarzewicz, T. Stankiewicz, D. Szczerbinska, K. Romaniszyn, and J. Jasieniecka (2006). Changes in the blood plasma testosterone and cholesterol concentrations during sexual maturation of Pharaoh quails. Animal Science Papers and Reports 24(3): 259-266. ISSN: 0860-4037.
Descriptors: pharaoh quails, blood plasma testosterone, cholesterol concentrations, changes, during sexual maturation.
Language of Text: Polish.

Blaszczyk, B., Z. Tarasewicz, J. Udala, D. Gaczarzewicz, T. Stankiewicz, D. Szcerbinska, K. Romaniszyn, and J. Jasieniecka (2006). Changes in the blood plasma testosterone and cholesterol concentrations during sexual maturation of pharaoh quails. Animal Science Papers and Reports 24(3): 259-266. ISSN: 0860-4037.
Descriptors: pharaoh quails, changes, blood plasma testosterone, cholesterol concentrations, sexual maturation.

Bouda, J., G.F. Quiroz Rocha, E. Sanchez Ramirez, J. Esquivel Pena, and J.L. Davalos Flores (2004). Selected biochemical values in blood plasma of ostriches of different age and sex. Veterinaria Mexico 35(1): 45-54. ISSN: 0301-5092.
Descriptors: ostriches, different age and sex, selected biochemical values, blood plasma, reference data, disease diagnosis.
Language of Text: Spanish.

Bouda, J., G.F. Quiroz Rocha, E. Sanchez Ramirez, J. Esquivel Pena, and J.L. Davalos Flores (2004). Valores bioquimicos selectos en plasma sanguineo de avestruces de diferentes edades y sexo. [Selected biochemical values in blood plasma of ostriches of different age and sex]. Veterinaria Mexico 35(1): 45-54. ISSN: 0301-5092.
Descriptors: ostriches, Struthio camelus, selected blood plasma values, age, sex, venous blood plasma, reference data, disease diagnosis.
Language of Text: Spanish, summaries in English and Spanish.

Chadman, K.K. and J.H. Woods (2004). Cardiovascular effects of nicotine, chlorisondamine, and mecamylamine in the pigeon. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 308(1): 73-78. ISSN: 0022-3565.
Descriptors: pigeon, cardiovascular effects, nicotine, chlorisondamine, mecamylamine.

Chen YiengHow, Feng ChingWang, Kuo MingJung, Lin DerTyan, Shiau JongRong, and Tsang ChauLoong (2003). The changes in haematology of ostrich from 4 to 12 weeks of age. Taiwan Veterinary Journal 29(4): 347-352. ISSN: 1682-6485.
Descriptors: ostrich, age, 4 to 12 weeks, hematology changes, normal values, white blood cells, blood samples.
Language of Text: Chinese, summary in English.

Durgun, Z., E. Keskin, R. Col, and B. Atalay (2005). Selected haematological and biochemical values in ostrich chicks and growers. Archiv Fur Geflugelkunde 69(2): 62-66. ISSN: 0003-9098.
Descriptors: ostrich, chicks, growers, hematological values, biochemical values, selected.
Language of Text: German.

Eklom, K. and A. Lill (2006). Development of parameters influencing blood oxygen-carrying capacity in nestling doves. Emu 106(4): 283-288. ISSN: 0158-4197.
Descriptors: nestling doves, blood oxygen carrying capacity, influencing parameters, development.

Elias, M.Z., T.A. Aire, and J.T. Soley (2007). Macroscopic features of the arterial supply to the reproductive system of the male ostrich (Struthio camelus). Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia 36(4): 255-62. ISSN: 0340-2096.
Abstract: The macroscopic features of the arterial supply to the reproductive system of the male ostrich was studied in 16 pre-pubertal and eight sexually mature and active birds. The left and right cranial renal arteries arise from the aorta, between the cranial divisions of the kidneys. These vessels supply the cranial divisions of the kidneys, the testes, the epididymides and the cranial segments of the ducti deferentia. Accessory testicular arteries which arise directly from the aorta are present in 45.8% of the specimens. They supply the testes and cranial parts of the ducti deferentia. They are variable in number and origin, and four variants are identified. A cranial ureterodeferential branch originates from the cranial renal artery, supplies the cranial portion of the ductus deferens and ureter, and runs caudally to anastomose with the middle renal artery. The sciatic artery arises laterally from the aorta, just caudal to the acetabulum, and gives rise, ventrally, to a common trunk, the common renal artery, which divides into the middle and caudal renal arteries. The middle renal artery gives rise to the middle ureterodeferential branch which supplies the middle part of the ductus deferens and ureter. A few centimetres caudal to the kidney, the aorta terminates in three branches, namely, the left and right internal iliac arteries and the median caudal artery. The internal iliac artery divides into the lateral caudal artery and the pudendal artery; the latter gives off caudal ureterodeferential branches that supply the caudal segments of the ductus deferens and ureter. In addition, the pudendal artery gives off vessels that supply the cloaca, some of which continue to the base of the phallus, where they form an arterial network. In conclusion, the pattern of the blood supply to the reproductive organs of the male ostrich is, in general, similar to that of the domestic fowl and pigeon, although there are a few highlighted distinctive features.
Descriptors: ostrich, male, arteries, anatomy, histology, Struthioniformes, testis, blood supply, epididymis, epididymis, regional blood flow, sexual maturation, physiology, vas deferens, blood supply.

Elias, M.Z.J., J.T. Soley, and T.A. Aire (2005). The microvasculature of the testis, epididymis and proximal ductus deferens of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) as revealed by India ink injection. Microscopy Society of Southern Africa Proceedings 35: 75. ISSN: 1028-3455.
Descriptors: ostrich, microvasculature, testis, epididymis, proximal ductus deferens, India ink injection, Struthio camelus.

Kurtul, I. and R.M. Hazroglu (2004). Horoz, erkek ordek ve guvercinde aorta descendens'in seyri ve dallanmas uzerinde karslastrmal makroanatomik arastrmalar. [Comparative macroanatomical investigations on the pattern and branches of the descending aorta among the rooster, drake and pigeon]. Ankara Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi 51(1): 1-6. ISSN: 1300-0861.
Descriptors: pigeon, anatomy, aorta, blood circulation, species differences, rooster, drake.
Language of Text: Turkish, summary in English.

Lloyd, S. and J.S. Gibson (2006). Haematology and biochemistry in healthy young pheasants and red-legged partridges and effects of spironucleosis on these parameters. Avian Pathology 35(4): 335-340. ISSN: 0307-9457.
Abstract: Plasma biochemical and haematological parameters were examined in 4-week-old to 12-week-old game birds. Healthy, uninfected pheasants and partridges had similar levels of total protein, albumin, osmolality, Na+, Cl-, K+, Mg2+ and glucose. Triglyceride, globulin and Ca2+ were significantly higher and PO43- was lower in the partridges. Pheasants carrying a light to moderate infection with Spironucleus had significantly lower total protein, albumin, osmolality, Na+, Cl-, Ca2+ and PO43-. In severely affected pheasants, the osmolality, Na+ and Cl- fell further. Triglyceride and glucose were significantly lower than in healthy birds, and Mg2+ was higher. Similar data were obtained from infected partridges. Red cell parameters rose significantly in pheasants severely affected by spironucleosis, and the percent of heterophils was significantly higher and lymphocytes and basophils lower in their blood smears. The breast and leg muscle wet weight from severely affected pheasants was 22.2 and 37.7% that of uninfected birds, although the water content of the breast muscle was significantly higher.
Descriptors: pheasants, Phasianus colchicus, Alectoris rufa, game birds, hematologic tests, blood chemistry, Spironucleus, bird diseases, blood glucose, blood lipids, disease severity, infection, blood proteins, albumins, osmolarity, sodium, chlorides, potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphates, heterophils, lymphocytes, basophils, protozoal infections.

Maestro, M.M., J. Turnay, N. Olmo, P. Fernandez, D. Suarez, J.M. Garcia Paez, S. Urillo, M.A. Lizarbe, and E. Jorge Herrero (2006). Biochemical and mechanical behavior of ostrich pericardium as a new biomaterial. Acta Biomaterialia 2(2): 213-9. ISSN: 1742-7061.
Abstract: We have performed a comparative analysis of glutaraldehyde-preserved ostrich pericardium, as a novel biomaterial, with bovine pericardium. The biochemical characteristics (histology, water content, amino acid composition, and collagen and elastin contents), mechanical properties, and in vivo calcification in a subcutaneous rat model were examined. Ostrich pericardium is slightly thinner and shows a higher water content (70+/-2% vs. 62+/-2%) than bovine pericardium. Additionally, ostrich pericardium presents 1.6-fold lower elastin content and a lower percentage of collagen in reference to the total protein content (68+/-2% vs. 76+/-2%). However, ostrich pericardium shows better mechanical properties, with higher tensile stress at rupture (32.4+/-7.5 vs. 11.5+/-4.6) than calf pericardium. In vivo calcification studies in a rat subcutaneous model show that ostrich pericardium is significantly less calcified than bovine pericardium (23.95+/-13.30 vs. 100.10+/-37.36 mg/g tissue) after 60 days of implantation. In conclusion, glutaraldehyde-stabilized ostrich pericardium tissue shows better mechanical properties than calf tissue. However, calcium accumulation in implanted ostrich tissue is still too high to consider it a much better alternative to bovine pericardium, and anticalcification treatments should be considered.
Descriptors: ostrich, pericardium, biochemical, mechanical, behavior, biomaterial, comparative analysis, bovine, rat model.

Morrisey, J.K., J. Paul Murphy, J.P. Fialkowski, A. Hart, and B.J. Darien (2003). Estimation of prothrombin times of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and umbrella cockatoos (Cacatua alba). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 17(2): 72-77. ISSN: 1082-6742.
Descriptors: Amazon parrot, unbrella cockatoos, prothombin times, estimation, plasma samples, non-domestic avian species.

Murakami, T., K. Uchida, H. Naito, and S. Shinohara (2000). Ventricular septal defects in an ostrich (Struthio camelus) and a Chinese goose (Cygnopsis cygnoid var. orientalis). Advances in Animal Cardiology 33(1): 33-37. ISSN: 0910-6537.
Descriptors: ostrich, Chinese goose, ventricular septal defects.
Language of Text: Japanese, summary in English.

Nasu, T. (2005). Scanning electron microscopic study on the microarchitecture of the vascular system in the pigeon lung. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science the Japanese Society of Veterinary Science 67(10): 1071-4. ISSN: 0916-7250.
Abstract: The resin casts of the respiratory and vascular systems in pigeon lung were examined using a scanning electron microscope. The primary bronchi branched to form many secondary bronchi that anastomosed with each other via the parabronchi. Numerous infundibula protruded from the parabronchi via the atria and ramified into the air capillaries. The pulmonary artery entered into the lung and branched into three vessels that coursed the interparabronchial parts. The intraparabronchial arterioles penetrated the gas-exchange tissue to form the anastomosing networks of blood capillaries. The observation of the double casts of the respiratory and vascular systems revealed three-dimensional complicated networks of air capillaries and blood capillaries.
Descriptors: pigeon lung, resin casts, vascular system, microarchitecture, capillaries ultrastructure, columbidae anatomy, histology, lung blood supply, lung ultrastructure, microscopy.

Papahn, A.A., H. Naddaf, A. Rezakhani, and M. Mayahi (2006). Electrocardiogram of homing pigeon. Journal of Applied Animal Research 30(2): 129-132. ISSN: 0971-2119.
Descriptors: homing pigeon, electrocardiogram, normal basline data, clinical use.

Pettifer, G.R., J. Cornick Seahorn, J.A. Smith, G. Hosgood, and T.N.J. Tully (2002). The comparative cardiopulmonary effects of spontaneous and controlled ventilation by using the Hallowell EMC Anesthesia WorkStation in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 16(4): 268-276. ISSN: 1082-6742.
Descriptors: Amazon parrots, cardiopulmonary effects, ventilation, spontaneous, controlled, anesthesia, work station, anesthetic.

Raukar, J. (2004). Hematoloski pokazatelji u nojeva (Struthio camelus). [Hematological parameters of the ostrich (Struthio camelus)]. Veterinarska Stanica 35(1): 33-41. ISSN: 0350-7149.
Descriptors: ostrich, hematological parameters, clinically healthy, blood counts, sex and age related.
Language of Text: Croatian, summary in English.

Raukar, J. (2003). Dijagnosticka vrijednost biokemijskih pokazatelja u krvi nojeva. [Diagnostic value of biochemical indices in the blood in ostriches]. Veterinarska Stanica 34(6): 333-339. ISSN: 0350-7149.
Descriptors: ostriches, blood, biochemical indices, diagnostic value.
Language of Text: Croatian, summary in English.

Raukar, J. and M. Simpraga (2005). Haematological parameters in the blood of one day old ostriches. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine 60(4): 112-116. ISSN: 0334-9152.
Descriptors: ostriches, one day old, blood, hematoligical parameters, hemoglobin, erythrocyte count, leukocyte count, hematocrit, newly hatched.

Reddy, Y.R., S.T.V. Rao, K. Veerabrahmaiah, K.S. Kumar, and S. Shakila (2003). Haematological parameters of emu. Indian Veterinary Journal 80(12): 1308-1309. ISSN: 0019-6479.
Descriptors: emu, hematological parameters, blood count, white cells, red cells, hemoglobin.

Rezakhani, A., H. Komali, M.R. Mokhber Dezfoul, M. Zarifi, M. Ghabi, N. Alidadi, and M.G. Nadalian (2007). A preliminary study on normal electrocardiographic parameters of ostriches (Struthio camelus). Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 78(1): 46-8. ISSN: 0038-2809.
Abstract: Electrocardiograms were taken from 100 normal healthy male and female ostriches which were 1 to 15 months old using a base apex lead. The heart rate of those less than 3 months old ranged from 107 to 250 beats per minute with a mean of 171.47 +/- 9.03 and that of ostriches of more than 3 months old ranged from 43 to 167 with a mean of 90.52 +/- 2.64 beats/minute. The P-waves were positive in all cases except in 1 ostrich which it was isoelectric. The ORS complexes were mainly negative and either monophasic (QS) or biphasic (rS or RS). The T-wave showed more variation than other waves. The durations of P P-R, QRS, Q-T and T-waves of chicks and of those more than 3 months of age (4-15-month-old) were 0.04 +/- 0.00, 0.06 +/- 0.00; 0.14 +/- 0.04, 0.16 +/- 0.00; 0.04 +/- 0.00, 0.06 +/- 0.00; 0.18 +/- 0.00, 0.27 +/- 0.00 and 0.06 +/- 0.00, 0.09 +/- 0.01 s, respectively, and amplitudes of the main direction of P-, QRS and T- waves of 2 groups were 0.29 +/- 0.02, 0.26 +/- 0.01; 1.87 +/- 0.17, 2.21 +/- 0.08; and 0.34 +/- 0.06, 0.37 +/- 0.02 mV, respectively. Ten cases showed cardiac dysrhythmias of which 9 showed sinus arrhythmia and 1 showed premature atrial contractions (PAC). This study showed that the base apex lead can be a suitable monitoring lead for electrocardiographic examination of ostriches.
Descriptors: ostriches, electrocardiography, heart physiology, Struthioniformes, age factors, heart rate, reference values, sex factors.

Roy, P., S. Vairamuthu, S.M. Sakthivelan, and V. Purushothaman (2004). Hydropericardium syndrome in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Veterinary Record Journal of the British Veterinary Association 155(9): 273-274. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, hydropericardium syndrome, Coturnix coturnix japonica.

Small, M.F., J.T. Baccus, J.N. Mink, and J.A. Roberson (2005). Hematologic responses in captive white-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica), induced by various radiotransmitter attachments. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 41(2): 387-94. ISSN: 0090-3558.
Abstract: White blood cell counts, heterophil-lymphocyte ratios, and leukocyte differentials of captive white-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica) from Texas equipped with different radiotransmitter attachment packages were monitored. Doves were segregated by gender and age by males, females, and hatching year; individuals housed in 30 large outdoor pens in groups of seven. Treatments consisted of controls, glue-on transmitters, body loop harnesses, surgically implanted intracoelomic transmitters, surgically implanted subcutaneous transmitters, intracoelomic surgery without implants, and subcutaneous surgery without implants. We used multivariate analysis of variance with pen as a blocking variable and gender nested and repeated measures analysis of variance to identify differences among any of the transmitter attachment techniques and the control for dependent variables. We found no difference in blood parameters between transmitter attachment technique versus a control.
Descriptors: white-winged doves, Zenaida asiatica, Columbidae blood, leukocyte count, prostheses, telemetry, multivariate analysis, sentinel surveillance, telemetry methods, radiotransmitter, blood cell counts.

Tomanek, R.J., H.K. Hansen, and E.I. Dedkov (2006). Vascular patterning of the quail coronary system during development. Anatomical Record 288A(9): 989-999. ISSN: 1552-4884.
Descriptors: quail, coronary system, development, vascular patterning.

Tully, T.N.J., A. Osofsky, P.L.H. Jowett, and G. Hosgood (2003). Acetylcholinesterase concentrations in heparinized blood of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 34(4): 411-413. ISSN: 1042-7260.
Descriptors: Amazon parrots, heparinized blood, acetylcholinesterase concentrations, levels, reference range, pesticides.

Voslarova, E., Bedanova I, V. Vecerek, Pistekova V, P. Chloupek, and P. Suchy (2006). Changes in haematological profile of common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) induced by transit to pheasantry. DTW (Deutsche Tieraerztliche Wochenschrift) 113(10): 375-378. ISSN: 0341-6593.
Descriptors: common pheasant, hematological profile, changes, transit to pheasantry, induced.



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