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Housing, Husbandry, Care & Welfare of Selected Birds
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Aarestrup, F.M., H. Hasman, and L.B. Jensen (2005). Resistant Salmonella virchow in quail products. Emerging Infectious Diseases 11(12): 1984-5. ISSN: 1080-6059.
Descriptors: quail, drug resistance, bacterial, food microbiology, quail microbiology, Salmonella virchow, drug effects, isolation, purification, quail products.

Abolnik, C., S. Bisschop, T. Gerdes, A. Olivier, and R. Horner (2007). Outbreaks of avian influenza H6N2 viruses in chickens arose by a reassortment of H6N8 and H9N2 ostrich viruses. Virus Genes 34(1): 37-45. ISSN: 0920-8569.
Abstract: The first recorded outbreak of avian influenza (AI) in South African chickens (low pathogenicity H6N2) occurred at Camperdown, KwaZulu/Natal Province (KZN) in June 2002. To determine the source of the outbreak, we defined the phylogenetic relationships between various H6N2 isolates, and the previously unpublished gene sequences of an H6N8 virus isolated in 1998 from ostriches in the Leeu Gamka region (A/Ostrich/South Africa/KK98/98). We demonstrated that two distinct genetic H6N2 lineages (sub-lineages I and II) circulated in the Camperdown area, which later spread to other regions. Sub-lineages I and II shared a recent common H6N2 ancestor, which arose from a reassortment event between two South African ostrich isolates A/Ostrich/South Africa/9508103/95 and (H9N2) A/Ostrich/South Africa/KK98/98 (H6N8). Furthermore, the H6N2 sub-lineage I viruses had several molecular genetic markers including a 22-amino acid stalk deletion in the neuraminidase (NA) protein gene, a predicted increased N-glycosylation, and a D144 mutation of the HA protein gene, all of which are associated with the adaptation of AI viruses to chickens. The H6N2 NS1 and PB1 genes shared recent common ancestors with those of contemporary Asian HPAI H5N1 viruses. Our results suggest that ostriches are potential mixing vessels for avian influenza viruses (AIV) outbreak strains and support other reports that H6 viruses are capable of forming stable lineages in chickens.
Descriptors: chickens virology, ostrich viruses, influenza a virus, H9N2 subtype genetics, influenza a virus genetics, isolation, purification, influenza in birds, epidemiology, virology, reassortant viruses genetics, Struthioniformes, virology, disease outbreaks, epidemiology.

Abolnik, C., S.P. Bisschop, G.H. Gerdes, A.J. Olivier, and R.F. Horner (2007). Phylogenetic analysis of low-pathogenicity avian influenza H6N2 viruses from chicken outbreaks (2001-2005) suggest that they are reassortants of historic ostrich low-pathogenicity avian influenza H9N2 and H6N8 viruses. Avian Diseases 51(1 Suppl): 279-84. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: Low-pathogenicity (LPAI) and high-pathogenicity (HPAI) avian influenza viruses are periodically isolated from South African ostriches, but during 2002 the first recorded outbreak of LPAI (H6N2) in South African chickens occurred on commercial farms in the Camperdown area of KwaZulu/Natal (KZN) Province. Sequence analysis of all eight genes were performed and phylogenetic analysis was done based on the hemagglutinin and neuraminidasc sequences. Results from phylogenetic analyses indicated that the H6N2 chicken viruses most likely arose from a reassortment between two South African LPAI ostrich isolates: an H9N2 virus isolated in 1995 and an H6N8 virus isolated in 1998. Two cocirculating sublineages of H6N2 viruses were detected, both sharing a recent common ancestor. One of these sublineages was restricted to the KZN province. The neuraminidase gene contained a 22-amino acid deletion in the NA-stalk region, which is associated with adaptation to growth in chickens, whereas the other group, although lacking the NA-stalk deletion, spread to commercial farms in other provinces. The persistence of particular H6N2 types in some regions for at least 2 yr supports reports from Asia and southern California suggesting that H6N2 viruses can form stable lineages in chickens. It is probable that the ostrich H6N8 and H9N2 progenitors of the chicken H6N2 viruses were introduced to ostriches by wild birds. Ostriches, in which AI infections are often subclinical, may serve as mixing vessels for LPAI strains that occasionally spill over into other poultry.
Descriptors: chickens virology, disease outbreaks veterinary, influenza a virus genetics, influenza a virus pathogenicity, influenza in birds virology, reassortant viruses genetics, base sequence, hemagglutinins genetics, influenza in birds epidemiology, phylogeny, south africa epidemiology, struthioniformes virology.

Al Mulhim, I.A., E.M.E. Abu Elzein, A.A. Gameel, A.I. Al Afaleq, R. Manvell, and D.J. Alexander (2006). Comparative study on the clinico-pathological response of the collared dove (Streptopelia roseogrisea arabica) and pigeons (Columba livia) to experimental infection with the pigeon paramyxovirus-1. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 5(5): 395-400. ISSN: 1680-5593.
Descriptors: collard dove, Streptopelia roseogrisea arabica, pigeons, Columba livia, viral diseases, pigeon paramyxovirus-1, clinico-pathological response, comparative study.

Albuquerque, G.R., A.D. Munhoz, F.C.R. Oliveira, A.R.S. Pinto, and C.W.G. Lopes (2002). Alteracoes patologicas na infeccao experimental de codornas (Coturnix japonica) com taquizoitas de Toxoplasma gondii (Apicomplexa: Toxoplasmatinae). [Pathological alterations in the Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) by experimental infection with Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites (Apicomplexa: Toxoplasmatinae)]. Revista Brasileira De Parasitologia Veterinaria 11(1): 43-46. ISSN: 0103-846X.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, Toxoplasma gondii, experimental infection, pathological alterations.
Language of Text: Portuguese, summary in English.

Aldous, E.W., R.J. Manvell, W.J. Cox, V. Ceeraz, D.G. Harwood, W. Shell, D.J. Alexander, and I.H. Brown (2007). Outbreak of Newcastle disease in pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) in south-east England in July 2005. Veterinary Record 160(14): 482-4. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Descriptors: bird diseases, epidemiology, newcastle disease, epidemiology, newcastle disease virus classification, base sequence, bird diseases pathology, birds, disease outbreaks veterinary, molecular sequence data, newcastle disease pathology, phylogeny, sequence homology.

Altizer, S., A.K. Davis, K.C. Cook, and J.J. Cherry (2004). Age, sex and season affect the risk of mycoplasmal conjunctivitis in a southeastern house finch population. Canadian Journal of Zoology 82(5): 755-763. ISSN: 0008-4301.
Descriptors: house finch, age, sex, season, affect, seasonal risk, mycoplasmal conjunctivitis, southeastern population.
Language of Text: English and French.

Altizer, S., W.M. Hochachka, and A.A. Dhondt (2004). Seasonal dynamics of mycoplasmal conjunctivitis in eastern North American house finches. Journal of Animal Ecology 73(2): 309-322. ISSN: 0021-8790.
Descriptors: house finches, North American, mycoplasmal conjunctivitis, seasonal dynamics.

Amann, O., M.J.L. Kik, M.H.A.C. Passon Vastenburg, I. Westerhof, J.T. Lumeij, and N.J. Schoemaker (2007). Chronic pulmonary interstitial fibrosis in a blue-fronted Amazon Parrot (Amazona aestiva aestiva). Avian Diseases 51(1): 150-153. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: A 30-yr-old blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazon aestiva aestiva) was presented to the clinic with a history of sneezing more often during the last 2 mo. Physical examination revealed only a mild nasal discharge. Complete hematologic and plasma biochemical examination showed no abnormalities. Computerized tomography (CT) of the complete bird showed generalized lung alterations consistent with lung fibrosis. Two lung biopsies were taken. The results of the histologic examination of the biopsies confirmed the tentative CT diagnosis of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of chronic pulmonary interstitial fibrosis diagnosed by means of a lung biopsy in an avian species. The histologic characteristics are discussed and compared with those of human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Descriptors: Amazon parrot, disease, chronic pulmonary interstitial fibrosis, first reported case, sneezing, biopsies, lung biopsy, case study, compared to human disease.
Language of Text: Summary in Spanish.

Antarasena, C., R. Sirimujalin, P. Prommuang, S.D. Blacksell, N. Promkuntod, and P. Prommuang (2006). Tissue tropism of a Thailand strain of high-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (H5N1) in tissues of naturally infected native chickens (Gallus gallus), Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and ducks (Anas spp.). Avian Pathology 35(3): 250-253. ISSN: 0307-9457.
Abstract: The tropism of a Thailand strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus was demonstrated on tissues (lung, trachea, heart, liver, spleen, pancreas, rectum, kidney, brain, skeletal muscle, duodenum, and oviduct) from naturally infected native chickens (Gallus gallus), Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and ducks (Anas spp.) by indirect immunofluorescence assay. In chickens and quail, the distribution and localization of nucleoprotein viral antigen was similar and detected at the highest level in cardiac myocytes, at 88% (chickens) and 89% (quail), and respiratory, digestive and urinary systems all showed high levels of antigen. Antigen in duck tissues were detected at significantly lower levels (P < 0.05) with the exception of brain and skeletal muscle samples. In most cases, antigen in duck tissue was absent in the digestive organs but present in respiratory organs, which supports the hypothesis that aerosol and oral-oral transmission are the main method of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus transmission from this species.
Descriptors: chickens, ducks, Japanese quails, Influenza A virus, avian influenza, strain H5N1, pathogenicity, tissue tropism, nucleoproteins, viral antigens, vertebrate viruses, disease transmission, epidemiology , disease carrier state, Thailand.

Antarasena, C., R. Sirimujalin, P. Prommuang, N. Promkuntod, P. Prommuang, and S. Blacksell (2007). The indirect immunofluorescence assay using cardiac tissue from chickens, quails and ducks for identification of influenza A virus during an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1): a rapid and simple screening tool for limited resource settings. Research in Veterinary Science 83(2): 279-81. ISSN: 0034-5288.
Abstract: Here we describe the diagnostic utility of the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) during a recent outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 virus in southern Thailand and demonstrate the usefulness of the cardiac tissue from infected chickens, quail, and ducks for diagnosis. The most reliable sample for IFA diagnosis of influenza A virus was cardiac tissue (83.0%; 44/53) which when divided by species (chicken, quail and duck cardiac tissues) gave respective positivity rates of 88% (22/25), 88.9% (16/18) and 60.0% (6/10). Cardiac tissue also gave the highest IFA intensity for the three species. We believe that the IFA method has wide applicability in developing countries or remote settings where clinically similar avian diseases with high morbidity and mortality such as Newcastle disease and fowl cholera are common and could be rapidly excluded thereby conserving valuable reference laboratory capacity for true HPAI outbreaks.
Descriptors: chickens, quail, ducks, influenza A virus H5N1, immunofluorescenc assay, cardiac tissue, avian flu virus, screening tool, outbreaks.

Barbosa, T., G. Zavala, S. Cheng, T. Lourenco, and P. Villegas (2006). Effects of reticuloendotheliosis virus on the viability and reproductive performance of Japanese quail. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 15(4): 558-563. ISSN: 1056-6171.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, reticuloendotheliosis virus, effects, viability, reproductive performance.

Bavelaar, F.J. and A.C. Beynen (2004). Atherosclerosis in parrots. A review. Veterinary Quarterly 26(2): 50-60. ISSN: 0165-2176.
Abstract: Atherosclerosis is a common disease in parrots. The disease is found in all common parrot species, but especially in African Grey parrots and Amazons. It is a disease of older birds that is seen in both males and females. The most common sign is sudden death, but clinical symptoms that can be found include dyspnea, lethargy and nervous signs, such as paresis and collapses. Because the clinical signs are seldomly seen, it is difficult to diagnose atherosclerosis and therefore it is mostly an unexpected finding at necropsy. Age and species are determinants of atherosclerosis in parrots. Suggested risk factors include an elevated plasma cholesterol level, diet composition, social stress and inactivity, but research is needed to confirm this.
Descriptors: parrots, arteriosclerosis, bird diseases physiopathology, animal feed, arteriosclerosis physiopathology, blood, bird diseases diagnosis, prevention, control, plasma cholesterol, diet composaition, social stress.

Bavelaar, F.J. and A.C. Beynen (2004). The relationship between diet, plasma cholesterol and atherosclerosis in pigeons, quails and chickens. International Journal of Poultry Science 3(11): 671-684. ISSN: 1682-8356.
Descriptors: quails, pigeons, chickens, diet effects, plasma, cholesterol, atherosclerosis.

Bavelaar, F.J., J. van der Kuilen, R. Hovenier, A.G. Lemmens, and A.C. Beynen (2005). Plasma lipids and fatty acid composition in parrots in relation to the intake of alpha-linolenic acid from two feed mixtures. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 89(9-10): 359-66. ISSN: 0931-2439.
Abstract: The main objective of this study was to find out whether the content of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in plasma cholesteryl-esters (CE) or triglycerides (TG) in parrots might serve as an index of ALA intake. The intake of ALA might be a risk factor for atherosclerosis, but on the basis of the fatty acid composition of seed mixtures the intake is difficult to assess due to selective eating of seeds. Parrots were fed two seed mixtures that differed in ALA content according to a cross over design. The macronutrient composition of the diets supplied differed from that of the diets consumed. The diets consumed had higher levels of dry matter, crude protein, crude fat and energy, and lower levels of crude fibre and crude ash. The ALA content, expressed as g/kg diet, was similar for the diet supplied and that consumed, irrespective of the type of diet. The diets had no systematic effect on plasma lipid concentrations. There were marked differences in plasma cholesterol concentrations between parrot species. When the diet with the low ALA content was fed (0.8% ALA of total fatty acids consumed, 1.1 g ALA/kg of diet consumed), the plasma CE and TG did not contain detectable ALA amounts. When the diet with the high ALA content was fed (4.2% ALA of total fatty acids consumed, 6.1 g ALA/kg of diet consumed), the plasma CE and TG contained about 1% ALA of total fatty acids. It is suggested that the content of ALA in plasma CE and TG might be used as an indicator of ALA intake.
Descriptors: parrots, cholesterol esters chemistry, parrots metabolism, triglycerides chemistry, alpha linolenic acid administration, dosage, parrot feed, diet consumed, physiology, biological markers blood, cholesterol esters blood, parrots blood, species specificity, triglycerides blood, alpha linolenic acid metabolism, alpha linolenic acid pharmacology.

Boris, M. and F. Huchzermeyer (2002). Megabacteriosis como causa de alta mortalidad en charabones de nandu (Rhea americana): primer diagnostico en Uruguay. [Megabacteriosis as cause of high mortality of chicks of nandu (Rhea americana): first diagnosis in Uruguay]. Veterinaria Montevideo 37(149): 9-12. ISSN: 0376-4362.
Descriptors: rhea, Rhea americana chicks, megabacteriosis, high mortality, bacteria, diagnosis, Uruguay .
Language of Text: Spanish, summary in English.

Boris, M., A. Sanmartin, G. Solari, and P. Zunino (2005). Diagnostico de aspergilosis en charabones de Rhea americana (nandu). [Diagnosis of aspergillosis in Rhea americana (nandu) chicks]. Veterinaria Montevideo 40(158): 13-17. ISSN: 0376-4362.
Descriptors: rhea, Rhea americana, aspergillosis, chicks, diagnosis, air sacs, infected.
Language of Text: Spanish, summary in English.

Botes, A., B.M. Peyrot, A.J. Olivier, W.P. Burger, and D.U. Bellstedt (2005). Identification of three novel mycoplasma species from ostriches in South Africa. Veterinary Microbiology 111(3-4): 159-69. ISSN: 0378-1135.
Abstract: Mycoplasmas have been implicated in certain clinical syndromes in ostriches and are associated with upper respiratory tract infections. As these infections result in production losses, they are of considerable economic importance to the South African ostrich industry. Although poultry mycoplasmas have been shown to infect ostriches, the existence of unique ostrich-specific mycoplasmas has been suggested. In this study, mycoplasmas were isolated from ostriches in the Klein Karoo, Central Karoo and Garden Route areas of the Western and Northern Cape Provinces of South Africa and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These sequences indicated that ostriches in these areas carry three unique mycoplasmas and were not infected with chicken mycoplasmas. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences of the three isolated ostrich mycoplasmas showed them to be quite divergent and to fall into two distinct phylogenetic groupings. Unique sequences within the 16S rRNA gene of the ostrich mycoplasmas were subsequently used for the development of specific primers for the detection and diagnosis of mycoplasma infections in ostriches. Chickens kept in close proximity to infected ostriches were not infected with these ostrich mycoplasmas.
Descriptors: ostriches, bird diseases, microbiology, mycoplasma classification, isolation, purification, infections, struthioniformes microbiology, bird diseases transmission, DNA, bacterial analysis, bacterial isolation, purification, mycoplasma infections, epidemiology, microbiology, transmission.

Bougiouklis, P.A. (2007). Avian circoviruses of the genus Circovirus: A potential trigger in Pigeon breeder's lung (PBL)/bird fancier's lung (BFL). Medical Hypotheses 68(2): 320-3. ISSN: 0306-9877.
Abstract: Pigeon breeder's lung (PBL) or bird fancier's lung (BFL) is one of the most common extrinsic allergic alveolitis or hypersensitivity pneumonitis. It is caused after prolonged inhalation of avian antigens and provokes a hypersensitivity reaction in the lungs of sensitised people. Although the pathogenic mechanism is unclear, the epidemiology of BFL shows that it occurs worldwide, and has been described in adults keeping birds and also in their children. Laboratory findings associated with the disease classified as a type III immunologic reaction that produces blood precipitin antibodies against birds' serum, feathers, intestinal mucin and/or faeces. In particular, the fine dust from pigeon feathers has strong antigenic properties. There is an interaction between host and antigen that seems to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Avian circoviruses (ACV) of the genus Circovirus, has been detected in free-ranging and captive birds worldwide, such as pigeons, canaries, psittacines, Senegal doves, finches, gulls, Australian ravens and geese. T lymphocytes are the main target cells of the ACV and in the above avian species circovirus-like particles were detected in blood, macrophages, feathers, crop secretions, intestinal contents and/or faeces. Most of the ACV was demonstrated that are pantropic and viral antigen in pigeon tissues was most commonly detected in respiratory organs, including the trachea, pharynx and lung. The transmission of the circovirus between the birds usually occurs through inhalation of feathers dust. There is evidence that animal circoviruses may originate when vertebrates become "infected" with DNA from a plant nanovirus. So, it seems that further investigation for the avian circoviruses is needed to determine if they are host specific or not. This study attempts to demonstrate ACV or ACV-like particles as potential triggers in the BFL aetiology, and the possible involvement in BFL's pathogenic mechanism.
Descriptors: pigeon diseases virology, Circoviridae infections diagnosis, human immunological disease allergies, agricultural workers' diseases virology, Circoviridae infections transmission, Circoviridae infections veterinary, Circovirus, Columbidae, allergic alveolitis.

Bunbury, N., D. Bell, C. Jones, A. Greenwood, and P. Hunter (2005). Comparison of the InPouch TF culture system and wet-mount microscopy for diagnosis of Trichomonas gallinae infections in the pink pigeon Columba mayeri. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 43(2): 1005-6. ISSN: 0095-1137.
Descriptors: pink pigeon, Columba mayeri, bird diseases, diagnosis, Columbidae microbiology, Trichomonas gallinae isolation, purification, Trichomonas infections, bird diseases microbiology, culture media, microscopy methods, sensitivity, specificity, Trichomonas growth, development.

Cabassi, C.S., S. Taddei, G. Predari, G. Galvani, F. Ghidini, E. Schiano, and S. Cavirani (2004). Bacteriologic findings in ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggs from farms with reproductive failures. Avian Diseases 48(3): 716-722. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: From January 2001 to December 2002, 543 ostrich eggs were submitted for bacteriologic investigation. The eggs were laid by 387 domesticated ostriches that suffered fertility disorders and that came from 44 farms located in different areas of Northern and Central Italy. Microbiologic investigations showed bacterial isolation in 105 (19.3%) of 543 eggs examined, with a high prevalence of enterobacteria from albumen and yolk. In only a few cases did bacterial isolation result from yolk or albumen alone. An antibiotic sensitivity test was conducted on isolates by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. This is the first report regarding the microbiologic status of eggs from ostrich farms located in different Italian regions.
Descriptors: ostriches, food animals, reproductive efficiency, ova, microbial contamination, animal pathogenic bacteria, ovalbumin, egg yolk, geographical variation, disease diagnosis, animal performance, reproductive failure, Italy.

Cermeno, J.R., I. Hernandez, I. Cabello, Y. Orellan, J.J. Cermeno, R. Albornoz, E. Padron, and G. Godoy (2006). Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum in dove's (Columbia livia) excreta in Bolivar state, Venezuela. Revista Latinoamericana De Microbiologia 48(1): 6-9. ISSN: 0034-9771.
Abstract: Dove's excreta samples from state Bolivar several places in Venezuela, were evaluated to determine the presence of primary pathogen fungi in dove's excreta. Filamentous fungi such as: Aspergillus spp (31.1%), Mucor spp (20.2%), Penicillium spp (9.5%) and Fusarium spp (6.7%) were the most frequently isolated strains. Species such as Candida albicans (4.1%), Cryptococcus albidus and Rhodotorula spp (2.7%), C. neoformans var neoformans (1.4%), Trichosporum asahii (1.4%), Curvularia, Microsporum and Phoma as well as Histoplasma capsulatum (1.3%) were less frecuently isolated. This study shows the presence of C. neoformans and H. capsulatum in dove's excreta from Bolivar state, it remarks infection risk with these pathogens fungi and the necessity to avoid accumulation of dove's excreta.
Descriptors: bird diseases epidemiology, Columbidae microbiology, Cryptococcus neoformans, isolation, purification, feces microbiology, Histoplasma isolation, purification, Histoplasmosis, bird diseases, microbiology, cryptococcosis epidemiology, disease reservoirs, fungi isolation, purification, epidemiology, mycoses.

Circella, E., A. Camarda, V. Martella, G. Bruni, A. Lavazza, and C. Buonavoglia (2007). Coronavirus associated with an enteric syndrome on a quail farm. Avian Pathology 36(3): 251-8. ISSN: 0307-9457.
Abstract: An enteric syndrome was observed in quail (Coturnix coturnix) semi-intensively reared for restocking in Apulia (southern Italy). The birds showed depression, severe diarrhoea, dehydration and reduced growth. Mortality occurred particularly in young birds. At necropsy the prominent lesion was enteritis. A coronavirus was detected by electron microscopy and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in the faeces and in the intestinal content of the dead quails. The virus could not be cultivated in chicken embryos. By sequence analyses of a fragment (409 nucleotides) of region 1b of the polymerase gene, the quail coronavirus displayed <or=93% nucleotide identity to avian coronaviruses (group 3 coronaviruses)--whereas by analysis of the S1 portion of the spike protein-encoding gene, the quail coronavirus displayed 16% to 18% amino acid identity with infectious bronchitis virus, and 79% to 81% identity with turkey coronavirus. Altogether, the findings suggest the existence of a novel coronavirus genetically related to turkey coronavirus.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, quail farm, coronavirus, enteric syndrome, electron microscopy, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Italy.

Cooper, R.G. (2005). Bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections in the ostrich (Struthio camelus var. domesticus). Animal Science Journal 76(2): 97-106. ISSN: 1344-3941.
Descriptors: ostrich, Struthio camelus, infections, bacterial, fungal, parasitic, veterinary, diseases, parasites.

Cooper, R.G., J.O. Horbanczuk, and N. Fujihara (2004). Viral diseases of the ostrich (Struthio camelus var. domesticus). Animal Science Journal 75(2): 89-95. ISSN: 1344-3941.
Descriptors: ostrich, viral diseases, infection, avian influenza, Borna virus, ticks, health management.

Cooper, R.G. (2005). Bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections in the ostrich (Struthio camelus var. domesticus). Animal Science Journal 76(2): 97-106. ISSN: 1344-3941.
Descriptors: ostrich, infections, bacterial, fungal, parasitic, Struthio camelus, anthrax, Salmonella, Pasteurella, tuberculosis, tick, mite, tapeworm, fluke.

Cooper, R.G., J.O. Horbanczuk, and N. Fujihara (2004). Viral diseases of the ostrich (Struthio camelus var. domesticus). Animal Science Journal 75(2): 89-95. ISSN: 1344-3941.
Descriptors: ostrich, viral diseases, Struthio camelus var. domesticus, Newcastle, avian influenza, Borna, ticks, mosquitoes.

Copetti, M.V., S.D. Segabinazi, M.L. Flores, S.H. Alves, and J.M. Santurio (2004). Pulmonary aspergillosis outbreak in Rhea americana in southern Brazil. Mycopathologia 157(3): 269-71. ISSN: 0301-486X.
Abstract: Commercial raising of rheas is currently in expansion in the south of Brazil, and many diseases previously restricted to other avian species are currently emerging on rhea farms, especially as a result of careless management of these animals. The objective of the present article is to report a pulmonary aspergillosis outbreak that occurred in great rhea (Rhea americana) in the south of Brazil. About 50 birds aged 30 to 60 days died suddenly and one of them was submitted to autopsy which revealed the presence of white caseous nodules 0.5 mm in diameter occupying 95% of the lung area. One lung was sent to the Federal University of Santa Maria for histopathological and mycological analyses. Histopathological analysis revealed multifocal areas with necrosis and inflammatory infiltrates and the presence of fungal hyphae, giant cells and fibrous tissue proliferation at the periphery. Aspergillus fumigatus was recovered as pure culture from all culture media. This appears to be the first report of aspergillosis among great rhea in Brazil and the second in the world.
Descriptors: rhea, aspergillosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, growth, development, bird diseases microbiology, fungal lung diseases, Rheiformes, commercial farm, Brazil.

Cousquer, G. (2005). Ingluvitis and oesophagitis in wild finches. Veterinary Record 157(15): 455. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Descriptors: wild finches, ingluvitis, esophagitis, bird diseases, epidemiology, columbidae, crop, avian pathology, bird diseases pathology, sentinel surveillance.
Notes: Comment On: Vet Rec. 2005 Sep 17;157(12):360.

Cousquer, G.O., E.J. Dankoski, and J.C. Patterson Kane (2007). Metabolic bone disease in wild collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto). Veterinary Record 160(3): 78-84. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Abstract: The records of 666 casualty collared doves examined at a wildlife hospital in south-west England over a period of five years were reviewed. Signs of metabolic bone disease were recorded in 51.2 per cent of the juvenile birds but in only 9.6 per cent of the adults. The incidence of the condition was highest between December and February and decreased almost to zero between June and August. Histological lesions in 11 of the juvenile doves were consistent with vitamin D deficiency, possibly as a result of inadequate exposure to uvb light during the short winter days.
Descriptors: bird diseases epidemiology, bone diseases, metabolic, Columbidae, vitamin D deficiency, age factors, wild bird diseases, pathology, epidemiology, pathology, incidence, retrospective studies, seasons, sunlight, complications, England.

Dadras, H. and R. Jafari (2002). Pathogenicity of Salmonella pullorum in Japanese quail chicks. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research 3(1): 26-36. ISSN: 1728-1997.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, chicks, Salmonella pullorum, pathogenicity, disease.
Language of Text: Arabic, summary in English.

Darbro, J.M., A.A. Dhondt, F.M. Vermeylen, and L.C. Harrington (2007). Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) affects mosquito blood feeding patterns. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 77(3): 488-94. ISSN: 0002-9637.
Abstract: Disease-induced lethargy can diminish host capacity to repel or kill biting mosquitoes. We exposed house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) to mosquitoes (Culex pipiens pipiens), repeated the experiment after inoculating finches with Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and then repeated the experiment with the same birds after curing their infections. We videotaped avian behaviors before and during mosquito exposure, identifying hosts through blood meal DNA fingerprinting. Results revealed heterogeneity in mosquito preference regardless of infection. Mosquitoes choosing between two healthy finches were more likely to feed upon the same individual bird consistently. When one bird was sick, mosquitoes exhibited no preference. Sick birds made fewer total defensive behaviors than healthy birds, but only foot stomps were associated with reduced mosquito feeding success. Our results suggest that Mycoplasma and other avian infections that alter bird defensive behavior may influence mosquito feeding patterns and transmission of arthropod-borne pathogens such as West Nile virus.
Descriptors: house finches, mosquitoes, blood feeding patterns, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, diseases, lethargy, host capacity.

Das, S.K., S. Baksi, B.K. Biswas, and R. Das (2005). Epidemiological studies on pigeon pox. Indian Veterinary Journal 82(6): 689-690. ISSN: 0019-6479.
Descriptors: pigeon pox, disease prevalence, epidemiology, mortality, outbreaks, pigeons.

de Freitas Raso, T., G.H. Seixas, N.M. Guedes, and A.A. Pinto (2006). Chlamydophila psittaci in free-living Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) and Hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Veterinary Microbiology 117(2-4): 235-41. ISSN: 0378-1135.
Abstract: Chlamydophila psittaci (C. psittaci) infection was evaluated in 77 free-living nestlings of Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) and Hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Tracheal and cloacal swab samples from 32 wild parrot and 45 macaw nestlings were submitted to semi-nested PCR, while serum samples were submitted to complement fixation test (CFT). Although all 32 Amazon parrot serum samples were negative by CFT, cloacal swabs from two birds were positive for Chlamydophila DNA by semi-nested PCR (6.3%); these positive birds were 32 and 45 days old. In macaws, tracheal and cloacal swabs were positive in 8.9% and 26.7% of the samples, respectively. Complement-fixing antibodies were detected in 4.8% of the macaw nestlings; macaw nestlings with positive findings were between 33 and 88 days old. These results indicate widespread dissemination of this pathogen in the two evaluated psittacine populations. No birds had clinical signs suggestive of chlamydiosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on C. psittaci in free-living Blue-fronted Amazon parrots and Hyacinth macaws in Brazil.
Descriptors: Blue-fronted amazon parrots, Hyacinth macaws, Chlamydophila psittaci, first report, free living nestlings, cloacal swabs, complement fixation test, DNA, Brazil.

Deegan, C.S., J.E. Burns, M. Huguenin, E.Y. Steinhaus, N.A. Panella, S. Beckett, and N. Komar (2005). Sentinel pigeon surveillance for West Nile virus by using lard-can traps at differing elevations and canopy cover classes. Journal of Medical Entomology 42(6): 1039-44. ISSN: 0022-2585.
Abstract: Sentinel pigeons, Columba livia, were installed in lard-can traps at heights of 1.5 m and 7.6-9.1 m within differing canopy cover classes in New York City. Adult mosquitoes were collected weekly from July to October 2002, as were serum samples from each pigeon. Culex pipiens L. and Culex restuans Theobald comprised 97% of mosquitoes collected and were most numerous in canopy-level, forested traps. The West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) seroconversion rate was significantly greater for pigeons in canopy-level traps, although seroconversions occurred concurrently with human cases in the city and were of little prognostic value to public health agencies. Our results indicate that sentinel pigeons were most effective for monitoring enzootic transmission of WNV when placed in single-sentinel caging 7.6-9.1 m above ground level.
Descriptors: pigeon sentinel, West Nile virus, surveillance, lard can traps, differing levels in canopy, mosquitoes, seroconversion rate, monitoring enzootic transmission, New York, USA.

Deshmukh, S., R.K. Asrani, N. Jindal, D.R. Ledoux, G.E. Rottinghaus, M. Sharma, and S.P. Singh (2005). Effects of Fusarium moniliforme culture material containing known levels of fumonisin B1 on progress of Salmonella gallinarum infection in Japanese quail: clinical signs and hematologic studies. Avian Diseases 49(2): 274-280. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: To study the individual and combined effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1) toxicity and Salmonella serotype Gallinarum infection, Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were fed Fusarium moniliforme culture material (2.5%), 150 mg FB1/kg ration, and were subsequently challenged orally with Salmonella Gallinarum organisms (2 x 10(4) colony-forming units) at 21 days of age. The chicks were fed culture material containing FB1 from day 5 till the end of the experiment. After being infected with Salmonella Gallinarum, observations were made 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21 days postinfection. The clinical signs of diarrhea with bloody discharges were more pronounced in the Salmonella-infected birds on the FB1 diet. Mortality caused by Salmonella Gallinarum increased by 12% in the presence of FB1. Mean body weights in both the Salmonella-infected and FB1-fed groups were significantly lower than those of the controls at almost all intervals. Mean values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume, and total erythrocyte count were slightly higher in birds fed FB1 but were lower in the Salmonella Gallinarum groups fed FB1 and plain chick mash. Anemia was evident, between 5 and 10 days postinfection, in quail chicks infected with Salmonella Gallinarum alone. Total leukocyte counts were higher in Salmonella-infected and FB1-fed groups because of an increase in the number of heterophils and lymphocytes. However, the increase in lymphocyte response to infection was lower by 4.27%-30.09% between 3 and 21 days postinfection in the FB1-fed chicks compared with chicks infected with Salmonella Gallinarum. Alanine transaminase and total serum protein were slightly higher in both the infected and FB1-fed groups. This study revealed that the continuous presence of fumonisins in the diets of quail chicks might increase the susceptibility to or the severity of Salmonella Gallinarum infection.
Descriptors: Japanese quails, Salmonella enterica subsp. Enterica serovar Gallinarum, salmonellosis, animal pathogenic bacteria, fumonisin B1, Gibberella fujikuroi, disease course, symptoms, diarrhea, mortality, hematocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocyte count, leukocyte count, lymphocytes, heterophils, blood proteins, alanine transaminase.
Language of Text: Summary in Spanish.

Deshmukh, S., R.K. Asrani, D.R. Ledoux, N. Jindal, A.J. Bermudez, G.E. Rottinghaus, M. Sharma, and S.P. Singh (2005). Individual and combined effects of Fusarium moniliforme culture material, containing known levels of fumonisin B1, and Salmonella gallinarum infection on liver of Japanese quail. Avian Diseases 49(4): 592-600. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: Three hundred day-old Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were divided into two groups with 150 quail in each group. One group was maintained on quail mash alone, while Fusarium moniliforme culture material was added to quail mash in the second group from day 5 of age and was supplied at a rate of 150 ppm fumonisin B1 (FB1)/kg mash. At day 21, each group was further subdivided into two groups, yielding four groups with 75 birds apiece, which served as the control (group CX), the Salmonella Gallinarum alone group (group CS), the FB1 alone group (group FX), and the group fed FB1 and infected with Salmonella Gallinarum (group FS). An oral challenge with Salmonella Gallinarum organisms (2 x 10(4) colony-forming units/ml) was given to groups CS and FS at 21 days of age. Three quail each were necropsied on day 21 (0 day interval) from groups CX and FX only. At subsequent intervals (i.e., 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21 days postinfection [DPI]), three quail were euthanatized from all four groups (CX, CS, FX, and FS). The gross and microscopic lesions were recorded in both mortality and euthanatized birds at the above intervals. The ultrastructural studies were done at 5 DPI. Mild to moderate hepatomegaly and pale discoloration of liver were observed in group FX, while congestion, hemorrhages, necrosis, and mild to severe hepatomegaly were the predominant gross lesions in both infected groups (CS and FS). The gross lesions in quail inoculated with Salmonella Gallinarum alone (group CS) generally developed slowly, appeared more widely scattered, and involved comparatively less surface area in contrast to the rapidly progressive and frequently confluent lesions in the combination group (FS), especially in the first 5 days of infection. Mild to marked hepatocellular swelling, multifocal hepatic necrosis, and hepatocellular and bile duct hyperplasia were the characteristic microscopic changes in the FX group. Microscopic lesions in quail of group CS comprised congestion, vacuolar changes, and focal necrosis in early stages, followed by granulomatous lesions at later intervals. Similar but more severe lesions were observed in the combination group (FS). Based on transmission electron microscopy, the maximum effect of FB1 toxicity was observed on mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. In general, the mitochondriae showed diverse form and structure, some of which appeared to lose their intact outer membrane, and the mitochondrial cristae were disoriented. The deformity in the cisternae structure of rough endoplasmic reticulum, with their rearrangement into round or tubular forms either bearing granular surface or leading to accumulation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, was evident only in groups FX and FS. We conclude that the continuous presence of fumonisins in the diets of young quail might increase their susceptibility to or the severity of Salmonella Gallinarum infection.
Descriptors: Japanese quails, liver, Salmonella enterica subsp. Enterica serovar Gallinarum, salmonellosis , Gibberella fujikuroi, fumonisin B1, mycotoxicosis, feed contamination, poultry diseases, mortality, symptoms, histopathology, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, disease resistance, disease severity, experimental infections, cytopathology.
Language of Text: Summary in Spanish.

Deshmukh, S.K. (2004). Keratinophilic fungi on feathers of pigeon in Maharashtra, India. Mycoses 47(5-6): 213-5. ISSN: 0933-7407.
Abstract: Results of a preliminary survey of keratinophilic fungi associated with feathers of pigeon on high rise buildings in Thane district of Maharashtra (India) are reported. A total of 100 samples were examined, of which 67 samples were positive for keratinophilic fungi. Altogether 67 fungal strains belonging to 10 species of seven genera were isolated viz. Chrysosporium indicum (24%), Chrysosporium sp. (2%), Chr. tropicum (8%), Chrysosporium state of Arthroderma tuberculatum (3%), Chrysosporium state of Ctenomyces serratus (15%), Malbranchea pulchella (3%), Malbranchea sp. (1%), Microsporum gypseum (5%), Myriodontium keratinophilum (2%) and Trichophyton terrestre (4%).
Descriptors: columbidae microbiology, feathers microbiology, fungi isolation and purification, keratins metabolism, fungi metabolism, ten species, seven genera, India.

Dhondt, A.A., S. Altizer, E.G. Cooch, A.K. Davis, A. Dobson, M.J. Driscoll, B.K. Hartup, D.M. Hawley, W.M. Hochachka, P.R. Hosseini, C.S. Jennelle, G.V. Kollias, D.H. Ley, E.C. Swarthout, and K.V. Sydenstricker (2005). Dynamics of a novel pathogen in an avian host: Mycoplasmal conjunctivitis in house finches. Acta Tropica 94(1): 77-93. ISSN: 0001-706X.
Abstract: In early 1994, a novel strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG)--a poultry pathogen with a world-wide distribution--emerged in wild house finches and within 3 years had reached epidemic proportions across their eastern North American range. The ensuing epizootic resulted in a rapid decline of the host population coupled with considerable seasonal fluctuations in prevalence. To understand the dynamics of this disease system, a multi-disciplinary team composed of biologists, veterinarians, microbiologists and mathematical modelers set forth to determine factors driving and influenced by this host-pathogen system. On a broad geographic scale, volunteer observers ("citizen scientists") collected and reported data used for calculating both host abundance and disease prevalence. The scale at which this monitoring initiative was conducted is unprecedented and it has been an invaluable source of data for researchers at the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology to track the spread and magnitude of disease both spatially and temporally. At a finer scale, localized and intensive field studies provided data used to quantify the effects of disease on host demographic parameters via capture-mark-recapture modeling, effects of host behavior on disease and vice-versa, and the biological and genetic profiles of birds with known phenotypic characteristics. To balance the field-based component of the study, experiments were conducted with finches held in captivity to describe and quantify the effects of experimental infections on hosts in both individual and social settings. The confluence of these various elements of the investigation provided the foundation for construction of a general compartmentalized epidemiological model of the dynamics of the house finch-MG system. This paper serves several purposes including (i) a basic review of the pathogen, host, and epidemic cycle; (ii) an explanation of our research strategy; (iii) a basic review of results from the diverse multi-disciplinary approaches employed; and (iv) pertinent questions relevant to this and other wildlife disease studies that require further investigation.
Descriptors: bird diseases microbiology, conjunctivitis, bacterial, disease outbreaks, house finches, mycoplasma infections, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, growth, development, bird diseases epidemiology, bacterial epidemiology, microbiology, prevalence, seasons, United States.

Dhondt, A.A., K.V. Dhondt, D.M. Hawley, and C.S. Jennelle (2007). Experimental evidence for transmission of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in house finches by fomites. Avian Pathology 36(3): 205-8. ISSN: 0307-9457.
Abstract: Ever since Mycoplasma gallisepticum emerged among house finches in North America, it has been suggested that bird aggregations at feeders are an important cause of the epidemic of mycoplasmal conjunctivitis because diseased birds could deposit droplets of pathogen onto the feeders and thereby promote indirect transmission by fomites. In this paper we bring the first experimental evidence that such transmission (bird-to-feeder-to-bird) does actually take place. House finches infected via this route, however, developed only mild disease and recovered much more rapidly than birds infected from the same source birds but directly into the conjunctiva. While it is certainly probable that house finch aggregations at artificial feeders enhance pathogen transmission, to some degree transmission of M. gallisepticum by fomites may serve to immunize birds against developing more severe infections. Some such birds develop M. gallisepticum antibodies, providing indication of an immune response, although no direct evidence of protection.
Descriptors: house finches bird diseases, transmission, finches microbiology, fomites, mycoplasma infections, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, isolation, purification, antibodies, bacterial blood, conjunctivitis, bacterial microbiology, bacterial transmission, epidemiology.

Diaz Figueroa, O., T.N.J. Tully, J. Williams, and D. Evans (2006). Squamous cell carcinoma of the infraorbital sinus with fungal tracheitis and ingluvitis in an adult solomon eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus solomonensis). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 20(2): 113-119. ISSN: 1082-6742.
Descriptors: eclectus parrot, squamous cell carcinoma, infraorbital sinus, fungal tracheitis, ingluvitis.

Doneley, B. (2002). Acute pancreatitis in parrots. Exotic DVM 4(3): 13-16. ISSN: 1521-1363.
Descriptors: parrots, acute pancreatitis, conference, symptoms, treatment.
Notes: Meeting Information: 4th Annual International Conference on Exotics (ICE2002), Key West, Florida, USA, 2002.

Doneley, R.J.T., R.I. Miller, and T.E. Fanning (2007). Proventricular dilatation disease: an emerging exotic disease of parrots in Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal 85(3): 119-123. ISSN: 0005-0423.
Descriptors: parrots, proventricular dilitation disease, emerging exotic disease, Australia.

Duchatel, J.P., D. Todd, A. Curry, J.A. Smyth, J.C. Bustin, and H. Vindevogel (2005). New data on the transmission of pigeon circovirus. Veterinary Record 157(14): 413-5. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Abstract: Nineteen racing pigeons aged from one to five years were examined postmortem. pcr tests showed that the spleens of 16 of them were positive for pigeon circovirus, the livers of six were positive, and blood from one of them was positive for the virus. Five of 44 embryos in embryonated eggs collected from three lofts were positive by pcr, but swabs taken from the crops of 64 adult birds which were feeding one- to 10-day-old squabs in these three lofts were negative for the viral dna.
Descriptors: pigeon circovirus, transmission, new data, PCV tests, spleens, livers, blood, viral DNA.

Duchatel, J.P., D. Todd, J.A. Smyth, J.C. Bustin, and H. Vindevogel (2006). Observations on detection, excretion and transmission of pigeon circovirus in adult, young and embryonic pigeons. Avian Pathology. 35(1): 30-34. ISSN: 0307-9457.
Abstract: Infections with pigeon circovirus (PiCV) occur in young racing pigeons and pigeons raised for meat production and have been reported worldwide, but relatively little is known about the disease induced by PiCV infection. The aim of this study was to investigate how PiCV is transmitted. Using a sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, the presence of PiCV was investigated in a wide range of samples from adult pigeons, embryos, breeders and young birds, which were derived from a racing loft that had a clinical history of "young pigeon sickness" and in which PiCV had been previously been diagnosed. Using PCR, PiCV DNA was detected in tissues of 13/20 apparently healthy older birds, aged from 1 to 9 years. Viral DNA was most commonly detected in the respiratory organs, including the trachea, pharynx and lung, followed by tissues such as the spleen, kidney and liver. It was also detected in the ovary and/or testes of some birds. This finding, and the detection of viral DNA in tissues from 8/22 embryos, suggested that PiCV may be vertically transmitted. Testing of pharyngeal and cloacal swabs, and blood samples, collected immediately before the death of the adult pigeons, failed to detect all birds found to be infected at necropsy, suggesting that testing of potential breeding birds would not enable exclusion of infected birds from breeding programmes. Additional PCR testing of cloacal swab samples obtained sequentially from 19 young pigeons showed that while four were excreting virus when 15 days old, only one bird was excreting at the time of weaning (28 days old). The detection of viral DNA in cloacal swab samples from 15.8% of the birds when 37 days old and 100% of birds when 51 days old suggested that most young pigeons probably became infected in the rearing loft.
Descriptors: pigeons, pigeon circovirus, PiCV viral diseases, animals, humans, poultry diseases, disease transmission, racing pigeons, polymerase chain reaction, PCR disease diagnosis, disease detection.

Ebrahimi, A., A. Halajian, and F. Nikookhah (2004). Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from pigeon droppings in Shahrekord, Iran. Indian Veterinary Journal 81(11): 1293-1294. ISSN: 0019-6479.
Descriptors: pigeons, cryptococcosis, droppings, isolation, Cryptococcus neoformans, Iran.

El Shabiny, L.M., M.M. Shaker, and S.E. Ouda (2005). The application of a recent technique for diagnosis of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection from migratory quail. Veterinary Medical Journal Giza 53(1): 143-152. ISSN: 1110-1423.
Descriptors: migratory quail, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, diagnosis, recent technique, application.

Fang, Y. and W.K. Reisen (2006). Previous infection with West Nile or St. Louis encephalitis viruses provides cross protection during reinfection in house finches. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 75(3): 480-5. ISSN: 0002-9637.
Abstract: House finches are competent hosts for both West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses and frequently become infected during outbreaks. In the current study, house finches were infected initially with either West Nile or St. Louis encephalitis viruses and then challenged 6 weeks post infection with either homologous or heterologous viruses. Although mortality rates were high during initial infection with West Nile virus, prior infection with either virus prevented mortality upon challenge with West Nile virus. Prior infection with West Nile virus provided sterilizing immunity against both viruses, whereas prior infection with St. Louis encephalitis virus prevented viremia from St. Louis encephalitis virus, but only reduced West Nile virus viremia titers. Immunologic responses were measured by enzyme immunoassay and plaque reduction neutralization tests. Heterologous challenge with West Nile virus in birds previously infected with St. Louis encephalitis virus produced the greatest immunologic response, markedly boosting antibody levels against St. Louis encephalitis virus. Our data have broad implications for free-ranging avian serological diagnostics and possibly for the recent disappearance of St. Louis encephalitis virus from California.
Descriptors: house finches, St. Louis encephalitis virus, physiology, finches virology, West Nile virus, physiology, immunology, recurrence, viremia.

Farmer, K.L., G.E. Hill, and S.R. Roberts (2005). Susceptibility of wild songbirds to the house finch strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 41(2): 317-25. ISSN: 0090-3558.
Abstract: Conjunctivitis in house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus), caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), was first reported in 1994 and, since this time, has become endemic in house finch populations throughout eastern North America. Although the house finch is most commonly associated with MG-related conjunctivitis, MG has been reported from other wild bird species, and conjunctivitis (not confirmed as MG related) has been reported in over 30 species. To help define the host range of the house finch strain of MG and to better understand the effect of MG on other host species, we monitored a community of wild birds for exposure to MG and conducted experimental infections on nine avian species. For the field portion of our study, we conducted a 9-mo survey (August 2001 to April 2002) of wild avian species in a peri-urban environment on the campus of Auburn University. During this time 358 birds, representing 13 different families, were sampled. No clinical signs of mycoplasmosis were observed in any bird. Thirteen species from nine families had positive agglutination reactions for antibodies to MG, but all birds tested negative by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Three mourning doves were PCR-positive for MG, but antibodies to MG were not detected. In the experimental infections, we exposed seven native avian species and two cage-bird species to MG (May 2000 to June 2002). After exposure, clinical disease was seen in all four species from the family Fringillidae and in eastern tufted titmice (Baeolophus bicolor). In addition, three other species were infected without clinical signs, suggesting that they may represent potential MG reservoirs.
Descriptors: house finch, wild song birds, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, susceptibility, bird diseases epidemiology, conjunctivitis, bacterial, immunology, antibodies, conjunctivitis, USA.

Faustino, C.R., C.S. Jennelle, V. Connolly, A.K. Davis, E.C. Swarthout, A.A. Dhondt, and E.G. Cooch (2004). Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection dynamics in a house finch population: seasonal variation in survival, encounter and transmission rate. Journal of Animal Ecology 73(4): 651-669. ISSN: 0021-8790.
Descriptors: house finch, population, Micoplasma gallisepticum, infection dynamics, seasonal variation, survival, transmission rate.

Ferrazzi, V., G. Grilli, A. Piccirillo, and D. Gallazzi (2004). La coccidiosi nel fagiano. [Coccidiosis in pheasants]. Praxis Veterinaria Milano 25(3): 2-6. ISSN: 0350-4441.
Descriptors: pheasants, disease, coccidiosis, transmission, treatment, anticoccidial drugs.
Language of Text: Italian, summary in English.

Ferrell, S.T. (2004). Mycoplasmosis of house finches. Small Animal and Exotics Book Two: Pain Management-Zoonosis Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 18, Orlando, Florida, USA, 17 21 January 2004, Eastern States Veterinary Association: Gainesville, USA, p. 1449-1450.
Descriptors: house finches, mysoplasmosis, book chapter, conference.
Notes: Meeting Information: Small Animal and Exotics. Book two: Pain Management - Zoonosis. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 18, Orlando, Florida, USA, 17-21 January 2004.

Franciosini, M.P., E. Fringuelli, O. Tarhuni, G. Guelfi, D. Todd, P. Casagrande Proietti, N. Falocci, and G. Asdrubali (2005). Development of a polymerase chain reaction-based in vivo method in the diagnosis of subclinical pigeon circovirus infection. Avian Diseases. 49(3): 340-343. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: This paper describes a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method performed on blood samples and intestinal content to detect subclinical pigeon circovirus (PiCV) infection in live pigeons. In addition, two sets of primers (primer set 1 and 2), designed in two different regions of the viral genome, were used to provide evidence of possible differences in PCR responses. Blood and intestinal content samples were randomly collected from a total of 50 apparently healthy meat pigeons, aged 1 to 5 wk, which came from central Italy. Samples of primary lymphoid organs were also collected. Results showed a high level of PiCV infection, although clinical signs were not present. The results obtained with the two sets of primers showed that primer set 2 was able to detect a higher number of PCR-positive pigeons (45 of 50 pigeons) than primer set 1 (11 of 50 pigeons). In both cases an increase in positive results with pigeon age indicates that the major direction of transmission is likely horizontal. In these circumstances feces can play an important epidemiologic role, as supported by the consistent circovirus detection in intestinal content. The high sensitivity of this PCR test, which is able to detect very low amounts of viral DNA (5.5 X 10(-3) fg of plasmid containing the cloned PiCV genome), makes it suitable for possible application as an epidemiologic tool for identifying virus carriers for subsequent removal from lofts.
Descriptors: pigeons, pigeon circovirus, PiCV polymerase chain reaction, PCR early diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease detection, poultry diseases, viral diseases, blood sampling, tissue analysis, virus transmission, feces.
Language of Text: Summary in Spanish.

Gancz, A.Y., L. Sandmeyer, M. Cannon, and D.A. Smith (2005). Horner's syndrome in a red-bellied parrot (Poicephalus rufiventris). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 19(1): 30-34. ISSN: 1082-6742.
Descriptors: red bellied parrot, Horner's syndrome, ptosis, feathers behavior, smooth muscles, clinical signs, diagnosis, trauma.

Gartrell, B.D., S.R. Raidal, and S.M. Jones (2003). Renal disease in captive swift parrots (Lathamus discolor): clinical findings and disease management. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 17(4): 213-223. ISSN: 1082-6742.
Descriptors: swift parrots, captive, renal disease, clinical findings, disease management, Lathamus discolor, neurologic signs, gout, nephropathy.

George, V.T., N. Pazhanivel, and B.M. Manohar (2005). Bacterial septicaemia in an African grey parrot. Indian Veterinary Journal 82(11): 1227. ISSN: 0019-6479.
Descriptors: African grey parrot, bacterial septicemia, disease, case study.

Gerhold, R.W., C.M. Tate, S.E. Gibbs, D.G. Mead, A.B. Allison, and J.R. Fischer (2007). Necropsy findings and arbovirus surveillance in mourning doves from the southeastern United States. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 43(1): 129-35. ISSN: 0090-3558.
Abstract: Mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) are the most abundant and widespread native member of the columbid family, as well as a major migratory game species, in the United States. However, there is little information on mortality factors in mourning doves. Records of necropsy accessions at the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (SCWDS) from 15 southeastern states, from 1971 through 2005, were reviewed. One hundred thirty-five mourning doves were submitted from nine states during the 35-yr period. Trichomonosis constituted 40% (n = 54) of all diagnoses and was the most frequent diagnosis. Toxicoses and avian pox constituted 18.5% (n = 25) and 14.8% (n = 20) of all diagnoses, respectively. Remaining diagnoses included trauma, suspected toxicosis, Ascaridia columbae infection, suspected tick paralysis, and undetermined. Adults were observed more frequently with trichomonosis (94.1%) and toxicoses (68%) as compared to juveniles, but a gender predisposition was not apparent for either disease. Age and gender predilections were not apparent for cases of avian pox. The majority of the trichomonosis and avian pox cases were observed in the spring-summer, whereas the majority of the toxicosis cases were observed in the winter-spring. Additionally, the Georgia Department of Human Resources-Division of Public Health and West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources submitted 809 mourning doves to SCWDS from 2001 through 2005 for West Nile virus surveillance efforts. West Nile virus was isolated from 2.1% (n = 17) and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) was isolated from 0.2% (n = 2) of the submitted birds.
Descriptors: mourning doves, arbovirus surveillance, necropsy findings, columbid family, diseases, parasites, viruses, southeastern USA.

Gough, R.E., S.E. Drury, F. Culver, P. Britton, and D. Cavanagh (2006). Isolation of a coronavirus from a green-cheeked Amazon parrot (Amazon viridigenalis Cassin). Avian Pathology 35(2): 122-126. ISSN: 0307-9457.
Abstract: A virus (AV71/99) was isolated from a green-cheeked Amazon parrot by propagation and passage in both primary embryo liver cells derived from blue and yellow macaw (Ara ararauna) embryos and chicken embryo liver cells. Electron microscopic examination of cytopathic agents derived from both types of cell cultures suggested that it was a coronavirus. This was confirmed using a pan-coronavirus reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction that amplified part of gene 1 that encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The deduced sequence of 66 amino acids had 66 to 74% amino acid identity with the corresponding sequence of coronaviruses in groups 1, 2 and 3. Several other oligonucleotide primer pairs that give PCR products corresponding to genes 3, 5, N and the 3'-untranslated region of infectious bronchitis virus, turkey coronavirus and pheasant coronavirus (all in group 3) failed to do so with RNA from the parrot coronavirus. This is the first demonstration of a coronavirus in a psittacine species.
Descriptors: Amazon, parrots, Amazona viridgenalis, Coronavirus, viral diseases of animals and humans, bird diseases, pathogen identification, embryo (animal), cultured cells, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, nucleotide sequences, microbial genetics, amino acid sequences, RNA directed RNA polymerase, new host records, in vitro virus passaging, molecular sequence data.

Grizzle, J.M., D.B. Kersten, M.D. McCracken, A.E. Houston, and A.M. Saxton (2004). Determination of the acute 50% lethal dose T-2 toxin in adult bobwhite quail: additional studies on the effect of T-2 mycotoxin on blood chemistry and the morphology of internal organs. Avian Diseases 48(2): 392-9. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: Three experiments were conducted to assess mortality rate, blood chemistry, and histologic changes associated with acute exposure to T-2 mycotoxin in adult bobwhite quail. In Experiment 1, adult quail were orally dosed with T-2 toxin to determine the lethal dose that resulted in 50% mortality of the affected population (LD50), and that dose was determined to be 14.7 mg of T-2 toxin per kilogram of body weight (BW). A second experiment was performed to study the effects of 12-18 mg/kg BW T-2 toxin on blood chemistry and liver enzyme profiles. Posttreatment uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase, lactic dehydrogenase, and gamma glutamyltransferase increased as compared with pretreatment values. In contrast, posttreatment plasma total protein, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels numerically decreased as compared with pretreatment values. Changes in blood chemistry values were consistent with liver and kidney damage after T-2 toxin exposure. In Experiment 3, histologic analyses of bone marrow, spleen, liver, small intestine, kidney, and heart were conducted on birds dosed in Experiment 2. Marked lymphocyte necrosis and depletion throughout the spleen, thymus, bursa, and gut-associated lymphoid tissue in the small intestine were observed in birds dosed with 15 and 18 mg/kg BW T-2 toxin. Necrosis of liver and lipid accumulation as a result of malfunctioning hepatocytes were also observed. Little or no morphologic change was observed in bone marrow and heart tissue. The LD50 for adult bobwhite quail as found in this study is two to three times higher than that reported for other species of commercial poultry. Results from these data confirm previous reports of immunosuppressive and/or cytotoxic effects of T-2 toxin in other mammalian and avian species. T-2 toxin may have a negative impact on the viability of wild quail populations.
Descriptors: bobwhite quail, Colinus, blood, T-2 toxin toxicity, blood chemical analysis, enzyme tests, heart drug effects, intestines drug effects, kidney drug effects, lethal dose 50, liver drug effects, lymphocytes pathology, mortality.

Gumussoy, K.S., F. Uyanik, A. Atasever, and Y. Cam (2004). Experimental Aspergillus fumigatus infection in quails and results of treatment with itraconazole. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. B, Infectious Diseases and Veterinary Public Health 51(1): 34-8. ISSN: 0931-1793.
Abstract: This study was performed to investigate (i). the clinical, histopathological and biochemical changes in quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with experimentally induced aspergillosis; and (ii). the efficiency of itraconazole treatment on these infected birds. A total of 18021-day-old male quails was randomly divided into three groups (control, infected untreated and infected treated), each containing 60. The experimental infection was set by intratracheal inoculation of 0.2 ml inoculum of Aspergillus fumigatus (CBS 113.26 strain) consisting of approximately 2.7 x 106 spores/ml. Two days after the inoculation, general clinical signs of aspergillosis in the respiratory tract were observed. In the histopathological examination, caseous foci were found in lungs, trachea and on airsacs. All quails died in the infected untreated group. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from the various organs of all dead quails. There was no significant change in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activities in infected untreated birds compared with controls. However, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, albumin and calcium levels, and albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio were lower while phosphorus and globulin levels were higher in the infected untreated group than in controls. Each quail in the infected treated group was given 10 mg/kg/day itraconazole via drinking water for 7 days immediately after the first clinical findings. Although all quails died in the infected untreated group, 41 quails survived in the itraconazole treatment group. Biochemical values also returned approximately to the control levels after the treatment. The conclusion was drawn that aspergillosis in the quails might cause economical losses because of high mortality. Oral itraconazole treatment of aspergillosis might lower the mortality rate in quails.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica, antifungal agents, therapeutic use, aspergillosis, bird diseases, Aspergillus fumigatus, drug therapy, coturnix, itraconazole therapeutic use, oral administration, administration and dosage, drug therapy, pathogenicity, treatment outcome.

Gurel, A., A. Gulcubuk, and N. Turan (2004). A granulomatous conjunctivitis associated with Morexella phenylpyruvica in an ostrich (Struthio camelus). Avian Pathology 33(2): 196-199. ISSN: 0307-9457.
Abstract: The aim of study was to evaluate a case of granulomatous conjunctivitis, clinically and pathologically, in the right eye of a 2-year-old, female ostrich. A mass measuring 5 cm x 3 cm x 4 cm was removed surgically from the eye of the ostrich. Morexella phenylpyruvica was recovered from the mass. On histopathological examination, hyperplasia or squamous metaplasia in some area of conjunctival palpebra, and a granulomatous inflammation in the submucosa were observed. The lesion was described as a granulomatous conjunctivitis caused by M. phenylpyruvica. The lesion was located in the lower eyelid conjunctiva and was not only restricted to the gl. lacrimalis, but also present in the connective tissue. After excision of the mass, the ostrich was treated with topical and systemic antibiotics and corticosteroid. The ostrich recovered fully and the function of the eye appeared to be normal.
Descriptors: ostriches, conjunctivitis, bacterial infections, Morexella phenylpyruvica, granulomatous conjunctivitis, lower eyelid, case study.

Hanley, C.S., G.H. Wilson, K.S. Latimer, P. Frank, Hernandez Divers, and Stephen J (2005). Interclavicular hemangiosarcoma in a double yellow-headed Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala oratrix). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 19(2): 130-137. ISSN: 1082-6742.
Descriptors: yellow headed Amazon parrot, hemangiosarcoma, interclavicular, anorexia, respiratory distress, right carotid artery, diagnostic samples.

Harkinezhad, T., K. Verminnen, C. Van Droogenbroeck, and D. Vanrompay (2007). Chlamydophila psittaci genotype E/B transmission from African grey parrots to humans. Journal of Medical Microbiology 56(Pt 8): 1097-100. ISSN: 0022-2615.
Abstract: Thirty-six birds from a parrot relief and breeding centre, as well as the manager, were examined for the presence of Chlamydophila psittaci. In the relief unit, 5 of 20 African grey parrots showed depression, ruffled feathers, loss of weight and mild dyspnoea. The birds received no antibiotic treatment. Birds of the breeding unit, 14 blue and gold macaws and 2 green-winged macaws, were healthy. They received doxycycline at the start of each breeding season. The manager complained of shortness of breath but took no medication. Using a nested PCR enzyme immunoassay (EIA), Cp. psittaci was detected in the faeces of all five sick birds, as well as in a nasal and pharyngeal swab from the manager. The veterinarian and her assistant became infected while sampling the parrots, as pharyngeal and nasal swabs from both were positive by nested PCR/EIA after visiting the parrot relief and breeding centre, but they showed no clinical signs of infection. Bacteria could be isolated from three of five nested PCR/EIA-positive birds, the manager and the veterinarian, but not from the veterinary assistant. Using an ompA genotype-specific real-time PCR, Cp. psittaci genotype E/B was identified as the transmitted strain. All breeding birds tested negative for Cp. psittaci. This is believed to be the first report on Cp. psittaci genotype E/B transmission from parrots to humans. In contradiction to genotype A strains, which are thought to be highly virulent to both birds and men, the currently described genotype E/B strain apparently caused no severe clinical symptoms in either parrots or humans.
Descriptors: African grey parrots, Chlamydophila psittaci, genotype E, B, transmission, humans, diagnosis, strain, symptoms, treatment, doxycycline, zoonotic disease, case study.

Haruna, E.S., M. Usman, S. Ahmed, J.S. Shaibu, A.A. Makinde, L.H. Lombin, and M.M. Henton (2004). Isolation of Citrobacter murliniae from clinically ill and dead quail, ducks and chickens. Veterinary Record Journal of the British Veterinary Association 154(4): 119-120. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Descriptors: quail, ducks, chickens, dead birds, Citrobacter murliniae, isolation, post mortum sampling.

Hawkins, M.G., B.M. Crossley, A. Osofsky, R.J. Webby, C.W. Lee, D.L. Suarez, and S.K. Hietala (2006). Avian influenza A virus subtype H5N2 in a red-lored Amazon parrot. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 228(2): 236-41. ISSN: 0003-1488.
Abstract: CASE DESCRIPTION: A 3-month-old red-lored Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis autumnalis) was evaluated for severe lethargy. CLINICAL FINDINGS: Avian influenza virus hemagglutinin subtype H5N2 with low pathogenicity was characterized by virus isolation, real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay, chicken intravenous pathogenicity index, and reference sera. The virus was also determined to be closely related to a virus lineage that had been reported only in Mexico and Central America. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: The chick was admitted to the hospital and placed in quarantine. Supportive care treatment was administered. Although detection of H5 avian influenza virus in birds in the United States typically results in euthanasia of infected birds, an alternative strategy with strict quarantine measures and repeated diagnostic testing was used. The chick recovered from the initial clinical signs after 4 days and was released from quarantine 9 weeks after initial evaluation after 2 consecutive negative virus isolation and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay results. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of H5N2 avian influenza A virus isolated from a psittacine bird and represents the first introduction of this virus into the United States, most likely by illegal importation of psittacine birds. Avian influenza A virus should be considered as a differential diagnosis for clinical signs of gastrointestinal tract disease in psittacine birds, especially in birds with an unknown history of origin. Although infection with avian influenza virus subtype H5 is reportable, destruction of birds is not always required.
Descriptors: Amazon parrot, Avian influenza type A, H5N2, virus isolation, pathogenicity, differential diagnosis, introduction, United States Department of Agriculture.

Headley, S.A. (2005). Intrathoracic haemangiosarcoma in an ostrich (Struthio camelus). Veterinary Record Journal of the British Veterinary Association 156(11): 353-354.
Descriptors: ostriches, Struthio camelus, hemangiosarcoma, intrathoracic.

Hemalatha, S., R. Govindarajan, B.M. Manohar, N. Vengadabady, and Purushothaman (2006). Omphalitis in ostrich chicks. Indian Veterinary Journal 83(4): 452-453. ISSN: 0019-6479.
Descriptors: ostrich chicks, omphalitis, infection, disease.

Herraez, P., F. Rodriguez, A. Espinosa de los Monteros, B. Acosta, J.R. Jaber, J. Castellano, and A. Castro (2005). Fibrino-necrotic typhlitis caused by Escherichia fergusonii in ostriches (Struthio camelus). Avian Diseases 49(1): 167-169. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: Two adult ostriches developed anorexia, prostration, and severe hemorrhagic diarrhea, dying 24 hr after the onset of clinical signs. On postmortem examination, the cecal mucosa showed locally extensive areas of hemorrhages and fibrino-necrotic typhlitis with a white-yellowish material covering the mucosal surface. Multiple serosal petequial hemorrhages and fibrinous peritonitis were present. Histologic examination revealed an intense mononuclear infiltration in the lamina propria and submucosa of the cecum and extensive superficial necrosis associated with fibrin and serocellular deposits. Several gram-negative bacterial colonies were observed within the necrotic areas. Samples from intestinal lesions were collected, and pure growth of Escherichia fergusonii was obtained. Escherichia fergusonii is a member of Enterobacteriaceae, closely related to Escherichia coli and Shigella sp., established as a new species of the genus Escherichia in 1985. In veterinary medicine, E. fergusonii has been reported in calves and sheep from clinical cases suggestive of salmonellosis. To our knowledge, this report represents the first description of E. fergusonii associated with enteritis in ostrich.
Descriptors: ostriches, alternative livestock, Escherichia fergusonii, animal pathogenic bacteria, bird diseases, symptoms, cecum, case studies, Escherichia infections, intestinal mucosa, histopathology, necrosis, new host records, enteritis, case study.
Language of Text: Summary in Spanish.

Heryford, A.G. and S.A. Seys (2004). Outbreak of occupational campylobacteriosis associated with a pheasant farm. Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health 10(2): 127-32. ISSN: 1074-7583.
Abstract: A cluster of campylobacteriosis cases occurred at a pheasant farm in rural Wyoming during the summer of 2000. This study examined the potential causes of the outbreak. A cohort study of all farm workers was conducted to assess foodborne and occupational exposures at the facility. Eight of fifteen workers (53%) became ill, and four were stool-culture positive for Campylobacter jejuni. High attack rates were noted among workers who had direct contact with pheasant feces and first-time workers at the farm. This investigation suggests an association between campylobacteriosis and occupational animal exposure to pheasants. Enhanced educational efforts targeting occupations with direct animal contact are critical, particularly in rural communities.
Descriptors: pheasant, campylobacteriosis, agricultural workers' diseases, epidemiology, bird diseases, epidemiology, campylobacter infections, disease outbreaks, transmission, feces microbiology, occupational exposure, zoonoses.

Hill, G.E., K.L. Farmer, and M.L. Beck (2004). The effect of mycoplasmosis on carotenoid plumage coloration in male house finches. Journal of Experimental Biology 207(Pt 12): 2095-9. ISSN: 0022-0949.
Abstract: Parasites are widely assumed to cause reduced expression of ornamental plumage coloration, but few experimental studies have tested this hypothesis. We captured young male house finches Carpodacus mexicanus in Alabama before fall molt and randomly divided them into two groups. One group was infected with the bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma gallicepticum (MG) and the other group was maintained free of MG infection. All birds were maintained through molt on a diet of seeds with tangerine juice added to their water as a source of beta-cryptoxanthin, the natural precursor to the primary red carotenoid pigment in house finch plumage. All males grew drab plumage, but males with MG infection grew feathers that were significantly less red (more yellow), less saturated, and less bright than males that were not infected. MG targets upper respiratory and ocular tissue. Our observations show that a pathogen that does not directly disrupt carotenoid absorption or transportation can still have a significant effect on carotenoid utilization.
Descriptors: house finches, bird diseases microbiology, physiopathology, mycoplasma infections, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, pigmentation physiology, beta carotene analogs and derivatives, Alabama, carotenoids metabolism, songbirds, xanthophylls.

Holmes, P. and P. Duff (2005). Ingluvitis and oesophagitis in wild finches. Veterinary Record 157(15): 455.
Descriptors: bird diseases etiology, wild finches, trichomonas infections, epidemiology, pathology, transmission, crop, avian pathology, esophagitis etiology, pathology, trichomonas infections epidemiology, pathology, transmission.
Notes: Comment On: Vet Rec. 2005 Sep 17;157(12):360 Library: National-Library-of-Medicine.

Hosseini, P.R., A.A. Dhondt, and A. Dobson (2004). Seasonality and wildlife disease: how seasonal birth, aggregation and variation in immunity affect the dynamics of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in house finches. Proceedings. Biological Sciences The Royal Society 271(1557): 2569-77. ISSN: 0080-4649.
Abstract: We examine the role of host seasonal breeding, host seasonal social aggregation and partial immunity in affecting wildlife disease dynamics, focusing on the dynamics of house finch conjunctivitis (Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) in Carpodacus mexicanus). This case study of an unmanaged emerging infectious disease provides useful insight into the important role of seasonal factors in driving ongoing disease dynamics. Seasonal breeding can force recurrent epidemics through the input of fresh susceptibles, which will clearly affect a wide variety of wildlife disease dynamics. Seasonal patterns of social aggregation and foraging behaviour could change transmission dynamics. We use latitudinal variation in the timing of breeding, and social systems to model seasonal dynamics of house finch conjunctivitis across eastern North America. We quantify the patterns of seasonal breeding, and social aggregation across a latitudinal gradient in the eastern range of the house finch, supplemented with known field and laboratory information on immunity to MG in finches. We then examine the interactions of these factors in a theoretical model of disease dynamics. We find that both forms of seasonality could explain the dynamics of the house finch-MG system, and that these factors could have important effects on the dynamics of wildlife diseases generally. In particular, while either alone is sufficient to create recurrent cycles of prevalence in a population with an endemic disease, both are required to produce the specific semi-annual pattern of disease prevalence seen in the house finch conjunctivitis system.
Descriptors: house finches, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, wildlife disease, seasonality, immunity variation, dynamics, seasonal birth, aggregation, conjunctivitis.

Hosseini, P.R., A.A. Dhondt, and A.P. Dobson (2006). Spatial spread of an emerging infectious disease: conjunctivitis in house finches. Ecology 87(12): 3037-46. ISSN: 0012-9658.
Abstract: In this paper we quantify the rate of spread of the newly emerged pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum of the House Finch, Carpodacus mexicanus, in its introduced range. We compare and contrast the rapid, yet decelerating, rate of spread of the pathogen with the slower, yet accelerating rate of spread of the introduced host. Comparing the rate of spread of this pathogen to pathogens in terrestrial mammalian hosts, we see that elevation and factors relating to host abundance restrict disease spread, rather than finding any major effects of discrete barriers or anthropogenic movement. We examine the role of seasonality in the rate of spread, finding that the rate and direction of disease spread relates more to seasonality in host movement than to seasonality in disease prevalence. We conclude that asymptomatic carriers are major transmitters of Mycoplasma gallisepticum into novel locations, a finding which may also be true for many other diseases, such as West Nile Virus and avian influenza.
Descriptors: house finches, conjunctivitis, emerging infectious disease, spatial spread, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, asymptomatic carriers.

Humberd, J., K. Boyd, and R.G. Webster (2007). Emergence of influenza A virus variants after prolonged shedding from pheasants. Journal of Virology 81(8): 4044-51. ISSN: 0022-538X.
Abstract: We previously demonstrated the susceptibility of pheasants to infection with influenza A viruses of 15 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes: 13/23 viruses tested were isolated for >or=14 days, all in the presence of serum-neutralizing antibodies; one virus (H10) was shed for 45 days postinfection. Here we confirmed that 20% of pheasants shed low-pathogenic influenza viruses for prolonged periods. We aimed to determine why the antibody response did not clear the virus in the usual 3 to 10 days, because pheasants serve as a long-term source of influenza viruses in poultry markets. We found evidence of virus replication and histological changes in the large intestine, bursa of Fabricius, and cecal tonsil. The virus isolated 41 days postinfection was antigenically distinct from the parental H10 virus, with corresponding changes in the HA and neuraminidase. Ten amino acid differences were found between the parental H10 and the pheasant H10 virus; four were in potential antigenic sites of the HA molecule. Prolonged shedding of virus by pheasants results from a complex interplay between the diversity of virus variants and the host response. It is often argued that vaccination pressure is a mechanism that contributes to the generation of antigenic-drift variants in poultry. This study provided evidence that drift variants can occur naturally in pheasants after prolonged shedding of virus, thus strengthening our argument for the removal of pheasants from live-bird retail markets.
Descriptors: pheasants, influenza A, emergence, shedding, variants, antibody response, virus replication, vaccination, live bird retail markets.

Ibrahim, R.S., R. Hassanein, and F.A. Moustafa (2005). Campylobacter jejuni infection in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) "isolation, pathogenicity and public health implications". Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal 51(104): 212-226. ISSN: 1012-5973.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, infection, Campylobacter jejunui, gastrointestinal tract, pathogenicity, public health, implications.
Language of Text: Arabic.

Inafuku, M., T. Toda, T. Okabe, A. Shinjo, H. Iwasaki, and H. Oku (2007). Expression of cell-cycle-regulating genes in the development of atherosclerosis in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Poultry Science 86(6): 1166-73. ISSN: 0032-5791.
Abstract: The levels of mRNA expression in regulatory genes that are involved in the pathological changes of aortic atherosclerotic and fibroblastic intimal thickening was investigated in Japanese quail. The quail were divided into a control diet group and an atherogenic diet group. The quail were euthanized at 2, 4, 8, and 12 wk after consuming either a control diet or an atherogenic diet. Thereafter, both histological and immunohistochemical studies and mRNA expression analysis of the cell-cycle-regulating genes in aortic atherosclerotic lesions were performed on selected ascending aortas and their large branches. In the atherogenic diet group, aortic lipid-containing intimal and atheromatous lesions were seen mainly at 8 and 12 wk, respectively. Semiquantitative reverse-transcription PCR was used to analyze the alterations of mRNA expression on the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Messenger RNA expression of the c-fos and c-src genes showed peak levels at 8 wk in the atherogenic diet group. However, no significant alteration of c-jun mRNA expression was noted during the entire experimental period. According to the progression of aortic atherosclerotic lesions, c-myc mRNA expression in the atherogenic diet group increased chronologically, and the highest level was observed at 12 wk. Alterations in mRNA expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the p27 gene were similar to that of c-myc. The levels of c-myc, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and p27 mRNA expression was significantly correlated with the degree of aortic atherosclerotic lesion development at 12 wk in our experiment.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, atherosclerosis, Coturnix genetics, cell cycle regulating genes, development, expression, pathologic changes, diet.

Irizarry Rovira, A.R., A.M. Lennox, and J.A. Ramos Vara (2007). Malignant melanoma in a zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata): cytologic, histologic, and ultrastructural characteristics. Veterinary Clinical Pathology American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology 36(3): 297-302. ISSN: 0275-6382.
Abstract: An approximately 3-year-old adult male zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) was diagnosed with malignant melanoma. The large darkly pigmented tumor was located in the coelom, extended from the apex of the heart to the cloaca, and was adherent to the intestines and the ventriculus. Dark small masses (likely metastases) were observed in the lungs. Cytologically, the neoplasm consisted mainly of round to oval cells with brown or pale blue to blue-brown pigment. Lesser numbers of cells were stellate to dendritic with abundant amounts of brown pigment granules or were markedly pleomorphic with variable amounts of pigment. Histologically, the tumor consisted of dense sheets and aggregates of infiltrative melanocytes that were negative for S-100 and Melan A. A few cells were consistent with "signet-ring" melanocytes. Melanocytes examined by electron microscopy contained typical structures, mainly premelanosomes and melanosomes, of this cell type. However, melanocytes with marked pleomorphism also contained intracytoplasmic aggregates of filaments, consistent with previously reported ultrastructural findings in signet-ring or rhabdoid melanoma of nonavian species.
Descriptors: zebra finch, malignant melanoma, cytologic, histologic, ultrastructural characteristics, coelom, lungs, metastases.

Johnston, M.S., T.T. Son, and K.L. Rosenthal (2007). Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in an eclectus parrot. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 230(7): 1028-31. ISSN: 0003-1488.
Abstract: CASE DESCRIPTION: A 2-year-old female Solomon Island eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus) was evaluated by a veterinarian because of a 4-day history of progressive lethargy, weakness, poor appetite, and inactivity. The bird was referred to a veterinary teaching hospital for further examination. CLINICAL FINDINGS: Clinicopathologic analyses revealed that the parrot had marked regenerative anemia, autoagglutination, and biliverdinuria. Small, rounded RBCs (thought to be spherocytes) were detected in blood smears. The abnormal findings met the diagnostic criteria for dogs with primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. However, analyses of blood samples for lead and zinc concentrations and plasma bile acids concentrations; the use of PCR assays for Chlamydophila psittaci, psittacine circovirus 1 (causative agent of beak and feather disease), and polyomavirus; and microbial culture and Gram staining of feces did not reveal a cause for the hemolytic anemia. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: Although administration of immunosuppressive doses of cyclosporine was initiated, there was a rapid progression of disease, which lead to death of the parrot before this treatment could be continued long-term. Lack of an identifiable underlying disease (confirmed by complete histologic examinations at necropsy) supported the diagnosis of primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia has not been widely reported in psittacine birds. A comprehensive evaluation and complete histologic examination of tissues to rule out underlying disease processes are required to definitively establish a diagnosis of primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in parrots. Primary immune-me-diated hemolytic anemia should be considered as a differential diagnosis for regenerative anemia in a parrot.
Descriptors: eclectus parrot, immune mediated hemolitic anemia, symptoms, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, regenerative anemia., case study.

Klaphake, E., S.L. Beazley Keane, M. Jones, and A. Shoieb (2006). Multisite integumentary squamous cell carcinoma in an African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). Veterinary Record 158(17): 593-6. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Abstract: A 22-year-old male African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus) had had episodes of chronic feather picking and self-mutilation for 10 years; it had a 5 cm diameter right axillary wound and a 2 cm left dorsal patagial wound. Initial treatment with azithromycin and wound management was unsuccessful. Biopsies of both masses indicated squamous cell carcinoma. The left patagial tumour was removed completely by electrocautery. Cisplatin was administered weekly into multiple sites on the right axillary tumour and it initially appeared to regress; however, the bird's condition deteriorated after a month of treatment, and it was euthanased. The tumour was confirmed postmortem to be squamous cell carcinoma, which had invaded local tissues. The aetiology of the carcinoma may have been secondary to chronic focal trauma.
Descriptors: African grey parrot, integumentary squamous cell carcinoma, multisite, self-mutilization, biopsies, postmortem., chronic focal trauma.

Kollias, G.V., K.V. Sydenstricker, H.W. Kollias, D.H. Ley, P.R. Hosseini, V. Connolly, and A.A. Dhondt (2004). Experimental infection of house finches with Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 40(1): 79-86. ISSN: 0090-3558.
Abstract: Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) has caused an endemic upper respiratory and ocular infection in the eastern house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) after the epidemic first described in 1994. The disease has been studied by a number of investigators at a population level and reports describe experimental infection in group-housed MG-free house finches. Because detailed observation and evaluation of individual birds in group-housed passerines is problematic, we studied individually housed house finches that were experimentally inoculated with the finch strain of MG in a controlled environment. To accomplish this, a study was conducted spanning the period of November 2001-April 2002 with 20 MG-free (confirmed by the rapid plate agglutination assay and polymerase chain reaction [PCR] assay) eastern house finches captured in the Cayuga Basin area of central New York (USA) in the summer of 2001. After a period of acclimatization and observation (12 wk), 20 finches were inoculated with a 0.05-ml aliquot of MG (3.24 x 10(5) colony-forming units/ml) via bilateral conjunctival sac instillations. Two additional finches acted as controls and were inoculated in the same manner with preservative-free sterile saline solution. After inoculation, all finches except the controls exhibited clinical signs of conjunctivitis within 2-6 days. The progression of the disease was evaluated by several methods, including PCR, behavioral observations, and physical examination including eye scoring, body weight, and body condition index. Over a period of 21 wk, MG-infected finches developed signs of disease and recovered (80%), developed signs of disease and progressed to become chronically infected (15%), or died (5%). We hypothesize that the high survival rate and recovery of these finches after infection was associated with the use of controlled environmental conditions, acclimatization, a high plane of nutrition, and low stocking (housing) density, all of which are factors documented to be important in the outcome of MG infections in domestic poultry and other species.
Descriptors: house finches, experimental infection, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, bird diseases, immunology, conjunctivitis, mycoplasma infections, pathogenicity, songbirds, epidemiology, pathology, disease susceptibility, population density, New York satate, USA.

Kondiah, K., J. Albertyn, and R.R. Bragg (2005). Beak and feather disease virus haemagglutinating activity using erythrocytes from African Grey parrots and Brown-headed parrots. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 72(3): 263-5. ISSN: 0030-2465.
Abstract: Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) is a common viral disease of wild and captive psittacine birds characterized by symmetric feather loss and beak deformities. The causative agent, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), is a small, circular single-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the genus Circovirus. BFDV can be detected by PCR or the use of haemagglutination (HA) and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays that detect antigen and antibodies respectively. Erythrocytes from a limited number of psittacine species of Australian origin can be used in these tests. In South Africa, the high cost of these birds makes them difficult to obtain for experimental purposes. Investigation into the use of erythrocytes from African Grey parrots and Brown-headed parrots yielded positive results showing the haemagglutinating activity of their erythrocytes with purified BFDV obtained from confirmed clinical cases of the disease. The HA activity was further confirmed by the demonstration of HI using BFDV antiserum from three different African Grey parrots previously exposed to the virus and not showing clinical signs of the disease.
Descriptors: grey parrots, brown-headed parrots, beak and feather diseases, diagnosis, Circoviridae infections, parrots virology, antibodies, viral blood, diagnosis, erythrocytes virology, hemagglutination inhibition tests methods, hemagglutination, sensitivity, specificity.

Kwon, Y.K., Y.J. Lee, and I.P. Mo (2004). An outbreak of necrotic enteritis in the ostrich farm in Korea. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science the Japanese Society of Veterinary Science 66(12): 1613-5. ISSN: 0916-7250.
Abstract: An acute disease with high mortality occurred in the ostrich farm and characterized by depression, severe diarrhea and sternal recumbency. Four dead ostriches of the farm were submitted to the National Veterinary Research & Quarantine Service, and diagnosed as necrotic enteritis. In the gross and histopathological examination, extensive diffuse fibrinonecrotic enteritis was found in the small intestine, especially jejunum. Clostridium perfringens was isolated from a pure culture from the duodenum and jejunum of these birds. Based on our current knowledge, this is the first report of an outbreak of necrotic enteritis in the ostrich in Korea.
Descriptors: ostriches, farm, necrotic enteritis, outbreak, depression, diarrhea, sternal recombency, Clostridium perfringens, duodenum, jejunum, Korea.

Latshaw, J.D., T.Y. Morishita, C.F. Sarver, and J. Thilsted (2004). Selenium toxicity in breeding ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Avian Diseases 48(4): 935-939. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: A flock of breeding ring-necked pheasants received feed with a high selenium content. Within 4 days of eating the toxic feed, the rate of egg production began to decrease, and bird aggression increased. Approximately 12% of the hens died within a week. Necropsy of the hens revealed colorless fluid around the heart and a friable, but otherwise normal, liver. The rapid onset of the problem and signs noted at necropsy suggested toxicosis. Based on analysis, the feed contained 9.3 ppm of selenium. Selenium toxicity was consistent with the histologic diagnosis of degenerative cardiomyopathy, vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, and centrilobular hepatic necrosis. After 8 days, the toxic feed was removed and replaced with fresh feed. Egg production, which had dropped to 50%, returned to normal within 10 days of feed replacement. Hatchability of eggs laid from days 8 to 14 after delivery of the toxic feed was 35%. Approximately 10% of the chicks that hatched had deformed beaks and abnormal eyes. Many of the chicks that died in the shell had deformities, bringing the total to more than 50% of all embryos that developed. The selenium content of eggs that had no embryonic development was 2.05 ppm. Hatchability of eggs laid from days 21 to 28 after the toxic feed was delivered was almost 80%, which was slightly lower than normal. The selenium content of these eggs was 0.30 ppm. These results show the rapid onset and correction of selenium toxicity and suggest that specific embryologic defects are diagnostic for selenium toxicity.
Descriptors: Pheasants, Phasianus colchicus, ring-necked pheasants, game birds, breeding stock, selenium toxicity, selenosis, feeds, fecundity, animal fertility, animal behavior, aggression, liver, heart, symptoms, egg hatchability, embryogenesis, embryonic mortality, deformed embryos.
Language of Text: Summary in Spanish.

Lavoie, E.T., E.M. Sorrell, D.R. Perez, and M.A. Ottinger (2007). Immunosenescence and age-related susceptibility to influenza virus in Japanese quail. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 31(4): 407-14. ISSN: 0145-305X.
Abstract: We evaluated juvenile, pubescent, reproductive adult, and aged Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) to determine if there were age-related differences in immune function with the hypothesis that aged birds would have weaker immune responses. Immune responses were measured using phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin test, antibody response to foreign red blood cells and exposure to an H9N2 influenza virus. Adult birds consistently had stronger immune responses than young and aged birds. Aged quail had skin responses 38% lower than adults. Pubescent birds' mean anti-red blood cell response was four-fold lower than adult birds. Adults had greater increase in total anti-viral antibody between primary and secondary infections than all other groups. Our data demonstrate an age-related difference in immune function in Japanese quail that has similarities to age-related immunity in humans; younger and older animals had weaker immune responses compared to young adults.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, immunoscenescence, age related susceptibility, avian influenza, immune responses, young birds, aged birds.

Ley, D.H., D.S. Sheaffer, and A.A. Dhondt (2006). Further western spread of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection of house finches. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 42(2): 429-31. ISSN: 0090-3558.
Abstract: Mycoplasma gallisepticum, an important pathogen of poultry, especially chickens and turkeys, emerged in 1994 as the cause of conjunctivitis in house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) in their eastern range of North America. The resulting epidemic of M. gallisepticum conjunctivitis severely decreased house finch abundance and the continuing endemic disease in the eastern range has been associated with repeating seasonal peaks of conjunctivitis and limitation of host populations. Mycoplasma gallisepticum conjunctivitis was first confirmed in the western native range of house finches in 2002 in a Missoula, Montana, population. Herein, we report further western expansion of M. gallisepticum conjunctivitis in the native range of house finches based on positive polymerase chain reaction results with samples from birds captured in 2004 and 2005 near Portland, Oregon.
Descriptors: house finches, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, infection, disease spread, endemic disease, conjunctivitis, seasonal peaks, host populations, Oregon, USA.

Li, X. and K.A. Schat (2004). Quail cell lines supporting replication of Marek's disease virus serotype 1 and 2 and herpesvirus of turkeys. Avian Diseases 48(4): 803-812. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated alphaherpesvirus, can be isolated and propagated in chicken kidney cells (CKC) and chicken or duck embryo fibroblast cells (CEF or DEF, respectively). Two recently developed cell lines, CU447 and CU453, developed from methylcholanthrene-induced tumors in Japanese quail, were examined for their suitability to propagate the three serotypes of MDV. The MDV strain RB-1B (serotype 1) was passaged for more than 30 passages in CU447 without causing cytopathic effects (CPE). Polymerase chain reaction analysis of RB-1B-infected CU447 cells demonstrated the presence of MDV DNA using primers specific for ICP4, pp38, and gB. The 132-bp direct repeats within the BamH1-H and -D fragments were amplified to the same level as RB-1B that was passaged in CKC or CEF. Different passages of RB-1B in CU447 were examined for expression of gB and pp38 transcripts, and pp38, gB, gE, and VP22 protein expression. Irrespective of the passage level, these transcripts and proteins were detected in the RB-1B-infected CU447 cells. Infectious virus was rescued by cocultivation of RB-1B-infected CU447 with CKC. Herpes virus of turkeys was propagated in CU447 and CU453 causing CPE in both cell lines. SB-1 did not cause CPE in either cell line but a few SB-1-infected cells could be detected using a monoclonal antibody specific for serotype 2 MDV.
Descriptors: turkeys, Marek's disease, Gallid herpesvirus 2, Gallid herpesvirus 3, serotypes, virus replication, cell lines, quails, cultured cells, polymerase chain reaction, microbial genetics, DNA , messenger RNA, viral proteins.
Language of Text: Summary in Spanish.

Lima, F.S., E. Santin, A.C. Paulillo, L. Doretto Junior, V.M.B.d. Moraes, and N.M.Q. Gama (2004). Evaluation of different programmes of Newcastle disease vaccination in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). International Journal of Poultry Science 3(5): 354-356. ISSN: 1682-8356.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, Newcastle disease, vaccination, different programs, evaluation.

Lima, F.S., E. Santin, A.C. Paulillo, L. Doretto Junior, V.M.B.d. Moraes, and R.P. Schocken Iturrino (2004). Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) as a Newcastle disease virus carrier. International Journal of Poultry Science 3(7): 483-484. ISSN: 1682-8356.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, Newcastle disease virus, carrier.

Lindstrom, K.M., D.M. Hawley, A.K. Davis, and M. Wikelski (2005). Stress responses and disease in three wintering house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) populations along a latitudinal gradient. General and Comparative Endocrinology 143(3): 231-9. ISSN: 0016-6480.
Abstract: In laboratory studies, stress hormones have been shown to impair immune functions, and increase susceptibility to diseases. However, the interactions between stress hormones and disease have rarely been studied in free-ranging populations. In this study, we measured concentrations of the avian stress hormone corticosterone across four winter months (December-March) over two years in three eastern North American house finch populations (Carpodacus mexicanus) along a latitudinal gradient. Because Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections appear in these populations in late winter, we hypothesized that the timing of the disease outbreaks could be mediated by changes in corticosterone concentrations. We found a significant increase in baseline and stress-induced plasma corticosterone concentrations in house finches without Mycoplasma symptoms in late winter; when the prevalence of Mycoplasma infection peaks. We also found that house finches with Mycoplasma symptoms had elevated stress-induced corticosterone concentrations. High baseline concentrations were associated with a low body condition and a high fat load. We found that the relationship between corticosterone concentrations and the latitude of the study population changed between years. The first year, corticosterone concentrations were lowest in the southern latitude, but became higher in the second year when average winter temperatures were low. A causal understanding of the implications for this variation in corticosterone concentrations for Mycoplasma disease dynamics awaits further studies.
Descriptors: house finch, stress response, diseases, winter, Mycoplasma, corticosterone, plasma, concentration, immune functions, impair, North America.

Madeiros, C.A. (2004). Borna virus infection in ostriches. Proceedings of the 11th Ostrich World Congress, Island Great Brijun, Croatia, 15 17 October 2004: 60-62. ISSN: 1520-8052 (Online).
Descriptors: ostriches, Borna virus, infection, clinical signs, pathology, tramsmission, diagnosis, conference proceedings.
Notes: Meeting Information: Proceedings of the 11th Ostrich World Congress, Island Great Brijun, Croatia, 15-17 October 2004.

Mahmood, F., R.E. Chiles, Y. Fang, C.M. Barker, and W.K. Reisen (2004). Role of nestling mourning doves and house finches as amplifying hosts of St. Louis encephalitis virus. Journal of Medical Entomology 41(5): 965-972. ISSN: 0022-2585.
Abstract: Nestling mourning doves and house finches produced elevated viremias after inoculation with 2-3 log10 plaque-forming units (PFU) of St Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus and infected 67 and 70% of Culex tarsalis Coquillett that engorged upon them, respectively. Mosquito infection rates as well as the quantity of virus produced after extrinsic incubation increased as a function of the quantity of virus ingested and peaked during days 3-5 postinoculation in mourning doves and days 2-4 in house finches. Only female Cx. tarsalis with body titers > or = 4.6 log10 PFU were capable of transmitting virus. Overall, 38% of females infected by feeding on mourning doves and 22% feeding on house finches were capable of transmission. The quantity of virus expectorated was variable, ranging from 0.8 to 3.4 log10 PFU and was greatest during periods when avian viremias were elevated. Our data indicated that nestling mourning doves and house finches were competent hosts for SLE virus and that the quantity of virus ingested from a viremic avian host varies during the course of the infection and determines transmission rates by the mosquito vector.
Descriptors: Columbidae, Fringillidae, doves, disease reservoirs, host pathogen relationships, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, viremia, Culex tarsalis, mosquitoes, infection, virus transmission, insect vectors, vector competence, Zenaida macroura, house finches, Carpodacus mexicanus, virus amplification.

Marco, M.A.D., L. Campitelli, M. Delogu, E. Raffini, E. Foni, L. Di Trani, M. Scaffidi, and I. Donatelli (2005). Dimostrazione su base sierologica del coinvolgimento di fagiani a vita libera nell'ecologia dell'influenza [Emilia-Romagna]. [Serological evidences showing the involvement of free-living pheasants in the influenza ecology [Emilia-Romagna].]. Italian Journal of Animal Science. 4(3): 287-291. ISSN: 1594-4077.
Descriptors: pheasants, game birds, protected areas, capture of animals, avian influenzavirus, epidemiology, elisa, antibodies, haemagglutination tests, agglutination tests, birds, Europe, galliformes, game, immunoenzyme techniques, immunological factors, immunological techniques, influenzavirus, Italy, orthomyxoviridae.
Language of Text: Summaries in English and Italian.

Martins, N.R.S., A.C. Horta, A.M. Siqueira, S.Q. Lopes, J.S. Resende, M.A. Jorge, R.A. Assis, N.E. Martins, A.A. Fernandes, P.R. Barrios, T.J.R. Costa, and L.M.C. Guimaraes (2006). Macrorhabdus ornithogaster in ostrich, rhea, canary, zebra finch, free range chicken, turkey, guinea-fowl, columbina pigeon, toucan, chuckar partridge and experimental infection in chicken, Japanese quail and mice. Arquivo Brasileiro De Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia 58(3): 291-298. ISSN: 0102-0935.
Descriptors: ostrich, rhea, canary, finch, chicken, turkey, guinea fowl, pigeon, toucan, partridge, infection, Macrorhabdus ornithogaster, fungal disease, experimental infection, megabacteriosis.

Nardi, A.R.M., M.R. Salvadori, L.T. Coswig, M.S.V. Gatti, D.S. Leite, G.F. Valadares, M.G. Neto, R.P. Shocken Iturrino, J.E. Blanco, and T. Yano (2005). Type 2 heat-labile enterotoxin (LT-II)-producing Escherichia coli isolated from ostriches with diarrhea. Veterinary Microbiology 105(3-4): 245-249. ISSN: 0378-1135.
Descriptors: bird diseases, ostriches, Struthio, digestive system diseases, Escherichia infections, feces, diarrhea, enterotoxins, isolation, heat stability, cytoplasm, vacuoles, cytotoxicity, cytotoxins, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, pathogenicity, Type 2 heat labile enterotoxin.

Nielsen, K., A.L. De Obaldia, and J. Heitman (2007). Cryptococcus neoformans mates on pigeon guano: implications for the realized ecological niche and globalization. Eukaryotic Cell 6(6): 949-59. ISSN: 1535-9778.
Abstract: The ecological niche that a species can occupy is determined by its resource requirements and the physical conditions necessary for survival. The niche to which an organism is most highly adapted is the realized niche, whereas the complete range of habitats that an organism can occupy represents the fundamental niche. The growth and development of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii on pigeon guano were examined to determine whether these two species occupy the same or different ecological niches. C. neoformans is a cosmopolitan pathogenic yeast that infects predominantly immunocompromised individuals, exists in two varieties (grubii [serotype A] and neoformans [serotype D]), and is commonly isolated from pigeon guano worldwide. By contrast, C. gattii often infects immunocompetent individuals and is associated with geographically restricted environments, most notably, eucalyptus trees. Pigeon guano supported the growth of both species, and a brown pigment related to melanin, a key virulence factor, was produced. C. neoformans exhibited prolific mating on pigeon guano, whereas C. gattii did not. The observations that C. neoformans completes the life cycle on pigeon guano but that C. gattii does not indicates that pigeon guano could represent the realized ecological niche for C. neoformans. Because C. gattii grows on pigeon guano but cannot sexually reproduce, pigeon guano represents a fundamental but not a realized niche for C. gattii. Based on these studies, we hypothesize that an ancestral Cryptococcus strain gained the ability to sexually reproduce in pigeon guano and then swept the globe.
Descriptors: pigeon, guano, Cryptococcus, growth, reproduction, ecological niche, mating, life cycle, sexually reproduce.

Nili, H., K. Asasi, H. Dadras, and M. Ebrahimi (2007). Pathobiology of H9N2 avian influenza virus in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Avian Diseases 51(1 Suppl): 390-2. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: Clinical signs, serologic response, viral contents of the trachea and intestine, and histopathological and ultrastructural changes of the tracheal epithelium of Japanese quail experimentally infected with field isolate of H9N2 avian influenza were studied. Vaccinated and unvaccinated quail were inoculated with 10(6.3) 50% embryo infectious dose/bird of A/ chicken/Iran/SH-110/99 (H9N2) virus via nasal inoculation. Clinical signs such as depression, ruffled feathers, diarrhea, and nasal and eye discharges were observed 6 days postinfection (PI). No mortality was observed; however, there was reduction in feed and water consumption and egg production. However, the serologic response of vaccinated challenged and unvaccinated challenged birds was not significantly different. Unvaccinated challenged quail showed more severe histopathologic reaction in their lungs and trachea. Hyperemia, edema, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and deciliation and sloughing of the tracheal epithelium were observed. Ultrastructural study showed dilatation of endoplasmic reticulum and degeneration of Golgi apparatus and cilia of the tracheal lining cells of respiratory epithelium.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, avian influenza, H9N2 strain, pathobiology, clinical signs, ultrastructural changes, serologic response.

Nolan, P.M., S.R. Roberts, and G.E. Hill (2004). Effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum on reproductive success in house finches. Avian Diseases 48(4): 879-885. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: Long known as a pathogen of poultry, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) was first detected in house finches in 1994. The disease rapidly spread throughout the eastern United States and Canada and was associated with debilitating disease and high mortality in house finches. However, in the late 1990s, the proportion of infected finches dying as a result of infection with MG decreased, and asymptomatic infection was more common among wild birds than in the past. We documented MG infections in breeding house finches and concluded that adults of both sexes transmit the infection to dependent young, probably after hatch. MG infections of breeding adults occurred late in the breeding season and were found in birds completing significantly more nests than birds that never tested positive for MG, implying that higher rates of reproduction carry a cost in the form of increased risk of infection. We found evidence of an MG-induced delay in dispersal of nestlings from their natal area and demonstrated a significant impact of infection on nestling growth.
Descriptors: Fringillidae, house finches, wild birds, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, bird diseases, mycoplasmosis, animal reproduction, fecundity, mortality, disease outbreaks, disease incidence, risk factors, nests, disease transmission, animal growth, Carpodacus mexicanus.
Language of Text: Summary in Spanish.

Odugbo, M.O., M. Muhammad, U. Musa, A.B. Suleiman, S.O. Ekundayo, and S.O. Ogunjumo (2004). Pasteurellosis in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) caused by Pasteurella multocida multocida A:4. Veterinary Record Journal of the British Veterinary Association 155(3): 90-91. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Descriptors: Japaneses quail, pasteurellosis, disease, Pasteurella multocida.

Odugbo, M.O., U. Musa, S.O. Ekundayo, P.A. Okewole, and J. Esilonu (2006). Bordetella avium Infection in Chickens and Quail in Nigeria: Preliminary Investigations. Veterinary Research Communications 30(1): 1-5. ISSN: 0165-7380.
Descriptors: chickens, quails, poultry diseases, bacterial infections, Bordetella avium, disease outbreaks, flocks, morbidity, mortality, disease incidence, commercial farms, research facilities, Nigeria, avian bordetellosis.
Language of Text: Spanish.

Olivier, A.J. (2006). Ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza in ostriches. Developments in Biologicals 124: 51-7. ISSN: 1424-6074.
Abstract: Avian influenza is important because of its potential devastating effect on poultry health and trade. The ostrich industry of South Africa has not escaped the consequences of control and export restrictions resulting from notifiable virus infections. Ostrich farmers first observed a syndrome of green urine in the early and mid 1980s. An H7N1 subtype, causing high mortality in young ostriches but with a low pathogenicity index for chickens, was first isolated in 1991. The first highly pathogenic subtype affecting ratites was reported during the 2000 epidemic of H7N1 in Italy. Low pathogenic subtypes were isolated in South Africa from 1991 to 2004, with one HPAI isolated in 2004. International research work on ostriches with both H5 and H7 subtypes, in both low and high pathogenic pathotypes, found the severity of clinical disease was not directly correlated to the pathotype. The ecology and epidemiology of infections in ostriches is not well understood. Surveys suggest local migratory water birds may play an important role. They have direct contact with ostrich flocks through the free-range production systems. Seasonal occurrence is seen, with the wet colder months more favourable for virus survival and detection. Management, population density, immune status and age are other important determinants of the severity of disease. Surveillance and monitoring must be implemented to understand the ecology and epidemiology, which extends to the validation and standardisation of diagnostic and serological methods for ostriches. Serious consideration should be given to vaccination, education and the use of separate production zones as part of a control programme.
Descriptors: ostriches, disease outbreaks, influenza a virus, pathogenicity, epidemiology, Struthioniformes, prevention, control, influenza in birds, diagnosis, transmission, South America.

Olivier, A.J. and B.W. Ganzevoort (2005). Avian influenza in ostriches - sustainable management and control measures. E. Carbajo Proceedings of the 3rd International Ratite Science Symposium of the World' s Poultry Science Association WPSA and 12th World Ostrich Congress, Madrid, Spain, 14th 16th October, 2005, World Poultry Science Association (WPSA): Beekbergen, Netherlands, p. 217-221. ISBN: 8460963535.
Descriptors: ostriches, avian influenza, sustainable management, control measures, conference proceedings.
Notes: Meeting Information: Proceedings of the 3rd International Ratite Science Symposium of the World's Poultry Science Association (WPSA) and 12th World Ostrich Congress, Madrid, Spain, 14th-16th October, 2005.

Padilla, L.R., K. Flammer, and R.E. Miller (2005). Doxycycline-medicated drinking water for treatment of Chlamydophila psittaci in exotic doves. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 19(2): 88-91. ISSN: 1082-6742.
Descriptors: exotic doves, Chlamydophila psittaci, treatment, drinking water, antibiotic treatment, Doxycycline medicated.

Pasmans, F., F. Van Immerseel, K. Hermans, M. Heyndrickx, J.M. Collard, R. Ducatelle, and F. Haesebrouck (2004). Assessment of virulence of pigeon isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium variant copenhagen for humans. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 42(5): 2000-2. ISSN: 0095-1137.
Abstract: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium variant Copenhagen was isolated from 5 of 152 (3.3%) feral pigeons from the city of Ghent (Belgium) and from 26 pooled fecal samples from 114 pigeon lofts (22.8%). These isolates belonged to phage type (PT) 99. Seven of the pigeon isolates were further compared in vitro to five human variant Copenhagen isolates, 2 isolates of PT 208, 1 isolate each of PT 120 and U302, and a nontypeable isolate. No differences in invasiveness in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were found. The human strains, however, were able to multiply significantly more inside human THP-1 macrophages than the pigeon strains. After inoculation of mice with a pigeon PT 99 strain, high numbers of Salmonella bacteria were shed with the feces, the internal organs were heavily colonized, and the animals showed severe clinical symptoms resulting in death. In conclusion, the less-pronounced ability of the pigeon variant Copenhagen strains to multiply inside human macrophages than human strains as well as the lack of human PT 99 isolates during 2002, despite the relatively high frequency of this PT in the pigeon population, suggest these strains to be of low virulence to humans. However, the high virulence for mice of the tested strain implies that rodents may act as reservoirs.
Descriptors: pigeon isolates, Salmonella typhimurium isolation, purification, pathogenicity, virulence, assessment, disease reservoirs, feces microbiology, mice, salmonella infections, transmission, species specificity, urban health, virulence, Belgium.

Paulman, A., C.A. Lichtensteiger, and L.J. Kohrt (2006). Outbreak of herpesviral conjunctivitis and respiratory disease in Gouldian finches. Veterinary Pathology 43(6): 963-970. ISSN: 0300-9858.
Abstract: An outbreak of tracheitis, sinusitis, and conjunctivitis, originating in recently imported birds, caused high morbidity and mortality in a flock of finches in Central Illinois. Although several species were present, Gouldian finches (Erythrura [Chloebia] gouldiae) were most commonly and severely affected. Birds submitted for necropsy displayed microscopic lesions characteristic of herpesviral infection, including epithelial cytomegaly and karyomegaly with basophilic, intranuclear inclusion bodies in the nasopharynx, sinuses, trachea, parabronchi, conjunctiva, and occasionally the lacrimal gland or proximal proventricular glands. Viral particles consistent with herpesvirus were visualized within affected epithelial cells with electron microscopy. Based on a partial sequence of the viral DNA polymerase gene, this virus was found to be identical to a herpesvirus previously implicated in a similar outbreak in Canada and is most likely an alphaherpesvirus.
Descriptors: Fringillidae, birds, disease outbreaks, Herpesviridae, viral diseases of animals and humans, conjunctivitis, respiratory tract diseases, tracheitis, sinusitis, histopathology, epithelial cells, pathogen identification, DNA directed DNA polymerase, nucleotide sequences, Erythrura (Chloebia) gouldiae, Alphaherpesvirus, Illinois.

Pereira, R.A., J.L. Maria, L.B. Moraes, L.C.B. Fallanena, N.C. Rodrigues, M.d.C. Allgayer, A.T. Esmeraldino, V.M. Pinto, and L.C.B. Fallavena (2003). Carcinoma espinocelular em papagaio verdadeiro (Amazona aestiva): relato de caso. [Spindle cell carcinoma in a parrot (Amazona aestiva): case report]. Veterinaria Em Foco 1(1): 29-33. ISSN: 1679-5237.
Descriptors: Amazon parrot, spindel cell carinoma, case report.
Language of Text: Portuguese, summary in English.

Perelman, B. (2004). Control and prevention of hatchery related infectious diseases in ostriches. Proceedings of the 11th Ostrich World Congress, Island Great Brijun, Croatia, 15 17 October 2004 63-65 ISSN: 1520-8052 (online).
Descriptors: ostriches, infectious diseases, hatchery related, control, prevention, incubator, bacteria, fungus, conference proceedings.
Notes: Meeting Information: Proceedings of the 11th Ostrich World Congress, Island Great Brijun, Croatia, 15-17 October 2004.

Peters, M., W.M. Prodinger, H. Gummer, H. Hotzel, P. Mobius, and I. Moser (2007). Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a blue-fronted amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva aestiva). Veterinary Microbiology 122(3-4): 381-383. ISSN: 0378-1135.
Descriptors: amazon parrot, infection, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, disease.

Phalen, D. (2004). Steps to preventing avian polyomavirus in aviaries breeding non-budgerigar parrots. Exotic DVM 5(6): 21-22. ISSN: 1521-1363.
Descriptors: non-budgerigar parrots, breeding, avian polyomavirus, preventing, steps, aviaries.

Pizarro, M., U. Hofle, A. Rodriguez Bertos, M. Gonzalez Huecas, and M. Castano (2005). Ulcerative enteritis (quail disease) in lories. Avian Diseases 49(4): 606-608. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: Ulcerative enteritis is found in a wide range of avian hosts but has not been described in psittacine birds. This case report describes ulcerative enteritis in four lories (two Trichoglossus sp. and two Eos sp.) that were found dead without any previous sign of disease. Macroscopically, all four birds showed good body condition. The only remarkable finding was a moderate dilatation of the small intestine with the presence of multiple yellow foci. Histologically, multiple ulcers extended into the submucosa and were filled with necrotic debris; bacteria and fibrin were observed in the intestinal mucosa. The liver and spleen exhibited a multifocal fibrinoid necrosis associated with a very moderate inflammatory reaction. Microbiological isolation revealed colonies of Clostridium colinum and Clostridium perfringens in the intestinal tract of the investigated birds.
Descriptors: Psittacidae, ornamental birds, enteritis, bird diseases, mortality, case studies, symptoms, body condition, small intestine, lesions, Clostridium colinum, Clostridium perfringens, animal pathogenic bacteria, bacterial infections, hosts, new host records, liver, spleen, intestinal mucosa, ulcerative enteritis.
Language of Text: Summary in Spanish.

Pledger, A. (2005). Avian pox virus infection in a mourning dove. La Revue Veterinaire Canadienne [Canadian Veterinary Journal]. 46(12): 1143-1145. ISSN: 0008-5286.
Abstract: An adult mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) was presented with dyspnea, poor body condition, and poor flight endurance. Nodular lesions were visible on the cere, both feet, and skin covering the pectoral region. Histopathological examination revealed epithelial hyperplasia with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies consistent with Avipoxvirus infection.
Descriptors: wild birds, doves, bird diseases, symptoms, histopathology, Avipoxvirus, case studies, viral diseases of animals and humans, mourning doves, Zenaidura macroura.
Language of Text: Summary in French.

Promkuntod, N., C. Antarasena, P. Prommuang, and P. Prommuang (2006). Isolation of avian influenza virus A subtype H5N1 from internal contents (albumen and allantoic fluid) of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) eggs and oviduct during a natural outbreak. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1081: 171-3. ISSN: 0077-8923.
Abstract: Avian influenza virus (AIV) was recovered from the internal contents of eggs, including mixture of albumen and allantoic fluid, and from the oviduct of naturally infected Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) flocks in the southern part of Thailand. The virus titers of 10(4.6)-10(6.2) ELD(50)/mL were directly measured from the internal content of infected eggs. The virus was isolated by chorioallantoic sac inoculation of embryonating chicken eggs. Infected allantoic fluid was identified as hemagglutinating virus and then was indicated the presence of H5 hemagglutinin. The virus was confirmed to be H5N1 subtype influenza A virus by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay could specifically detect influenza virus subtype H5. Furthermore, indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test by using specific anti-influenza A monoclonal antibody indicated that virus antigens were detected in the parenchyma of multiple tissues. Systemic localization of viral antigen detected was certainly considered to be viremic stage. In addition, influenza virus antigen was also detected by IFA in allantoic fluid sediments isolated from internal content of egg or oviduct. The conclusion of isolated AIV type A subtype H5N1 from these two infected materials was correlated to the viremic stage of infection because the virus antigens could be observed in almost all tissues. Conclusively, the need for adequate safeguards to prevent contamination and spread of the virus to the environment during movement of eggs--including hatching eggs, cracked eggs, and other relevant infected materials-- or egg consumption from area of outbreak is emphasized and must not be ignored for the reasons of animal, public, and environmental health.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, coturnix, eggs virology, influenza a virus, H5N1 subtype, isolation, purification, influenza in birds, epidemiology, disease outbreaks, egg proteins, fluorescent antibody technique, influenza transmission, oviducts virology, public health, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.

Radi, Z.A. (2004). An epizootic of combined Clostridium perfringens, Eimeria sp. and Capillaria sp. enteritis and Histomonas sp. hepatitis with Escherichia coli septicaemia in Bobwhite quails (Colinus virginianus). International Journal of Poultry Science 3(7): 438-441. ISSN: 1682-8356.
Descriptors: bobwhite quail, epizootic, Clostridium perfringes, Eimeria sp, Capillaria sp., Histomonsa sp., E. coli, enteritis, septicemia.

Rao, V.D.P. and Rajesh Chandra (2001). Borna disease in ostriches. Intas Polivet 2(2): 274-275. ISSN: 0972-1738.
Descriptors: ostriches, Borna disease, clinical aspects, diagnosis, control, prevalence, prevention.

Raso, T.d.F., G.H.F. Seixas, N.M.R. Guedes, and A.A. Pinto (2006). Chlamydophila psittaci in free-living Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) and Hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Veterinary Microbiology 117(2-4): 235-241. ISSN: 0378-1135.
Abstract: Chlamydophila psittaci (C. psittaci) infection was evaluated in 77 free-living nestlings of Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) and Hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Tracheal and cloacal swab samples from 32 wild parrot and 45 macaw nestlings were submitted to semi-nested PCR, while serum samples were submitted to complement fixation test (CFT). Although all 32 Amazon parrot serum samples were negative by CFT, cloacal swabs from two birds were positive for Chlamydophila DNA by semi-nested PCR (6.3%); these positive birds were 32 and 45 days old. In macaws, tracheal and cloacal swabs were positive in 8.9% and 26.7% of the samples, respectively. Complement-fixing antibodies were detected in 4.8% of the macaw nestlings; macaw nestlings with positive findings were between 33 and 88 days old. These results indicate widespread dissemination of this pathogen in the two evaluated psittacine populations. No birds had clinical signs suggestive of chlamydiosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on C. psittaci in free-living Blue-fronted Amazon parrots and Hyacinth macaws in Brazil.
Descriptors: Amazona, Psittacidae, parrots, wild birds, Chlamydophila psittaci, bird diseases, bacterial infections, chicks, diagnostic techniques, disease diagnosis, polymerase chain reaction, complement fixation tests, disease prevalence, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, macaws, asymptomatic infections, Amazona aestiva, Brazil.

Raso, T.F., S.N. Godoy, L. Milanelo, C.A. de Souza, E.R. Matuschima, J.P. Araujo Junior, and A.A. Pinto (2004). An outbreak of chlamydiosis in captive blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) in Brazil. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 35(1): 94-6. ISSN: 1042-7260.
Abstract: Fifty-eight blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) nestlings, recovered from the illegal trade, became ill at a wildlife rehabilitation center in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Clinical signs observed were nonspecific, and the mortality rate was 96.5% despite initial treatment with norfloxacin. Postmortem examinations were performed on 10 birds. Liver and spleen smears showed structures suggestive of Chlamydophila psittaci in four cases. Diagnosis was confirmed by seminested polymerase chain reaction on tissue samples. Other birds from the same location showed no clinical signs of the disease, although high complement fixation titers to C. psittaci were found in 10 adult psittacines. All birds in the facility were treated with doxycycline. The two surviving nestlings did not recover after two doxycycline treatments and were euthanatized. The high mortality rate observed in this outbreak was attributed to poor conditions of husbandry and delays in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. After diagnosis, improved control measures for chlamydiosis were instituted.
Descriptors: Amazon parrots, disease, chlamydophila psittaci, pathogenicity, disease outbreaks, psittacosis, animal husbandry methods, anti bacterial agents, therapeutic use, microbiology, mortality, epidemiology, doxycycline therapeutic use, chlamydiosis, control measures, Brazil.

Raue, R., V. Schmidt, M. Freick, B. Reinhardt, R. Johne, L. Kamphausen, E.F. Kaleta, H. Muller, and M.E. Krautwald Junghanns (2005). A disease complex associated with pigeon circovirus infection, young pigeon disease syndrome. Avian Pathology. 34(5): 418-425. ISSN: 0307-9457.
Descriptors: pigeons, Pigeon circovirus, poultry diseases, etiology, clinical examination, pathology, age, disease severity, disease incidence, crop, proventriculus, small intestine, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, spleen, lymphocytes, bursa of Fabricius, mixed infection, young-pigeon-disease-syndrome.

Reed, K.L., M.G. Conzemius, R.A. Robinson, and T.D. Brown (2004). Osteocyte-based image analysis for quantitation of histologically apparent femoral head osteonecrosis: application to an emu model. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering 7(1): 25-32. ISSN: 1025-5842.
Abstract: Femoral head osteonecrosis is often characterized histologically by the presence of empty lacunae in the affected bony regions. The shape, size and location of a necrotic lesion influences prognosis, and can, in principle, be quantified by mapping the distribution of empty lacunae within a femoral head. An algorithm is here described that automatically identifies the locations of osteocyte-filled vs. empty lacunae. The algorithm is applied to necrotic lesions surgically induced in the emu, a large bipedal animal model in which osteonecrosis progresses to collapse, as occurs in humans. The animals' femoral heads were harvested at sacrifice, and hematoxylin and eosin-stained histological preparations of the coronal midsections were digitized and image-analyzed. The algorithm's performance in detecting empty lacunae was validated by comparing its results to corresponding assessments by six trained histologists. The percentage of osteocyte-filled lacunae identified by the algorithm vs. by the human readers was statistically indistinguishable.
Descriptors: emu, hip joint pathology, animal models, osteocytes pathology, osteonecrosis pathology, algorithms, Dromaiidae, femoral head, alogorithm.

Reisen, W.K., R. Chiles, V. Martinez, Y. Fang, E. Green, and S. Clark (2004). Effect of dose on house finch infection with western equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses. Journal of Medical Entomology 41(5): 978-981. ISSN: 0022-2585.
Abstract: house finches, Carpodacus mexicanus, were experimentally infected with high and standard doses of western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV) or St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) to determine whether high doses would produce an elevated viremia response and a high frequency of chronic infections. Finches inoculated with approximately equal to 100,000 plaque forming units (PFU) of WEEV or SLEV produced viremia and antibody responses similar to those in finches inoculated with approximately equal to 100 PFU of WEEV or 1000 PFU of SLEV, the approximate quantities of virus expectorated by blood-feeding Culex tarsalis Coquillett. Infected finches were held through winter and then necropsied. Only one finch inoculated with the high dose of SLEV developed a chronic infection. Our data indicated that elevated infectious doses of virus may not increase the viremia level or the frequency of chronic infection in house finches.
Descriptors: Fringillidae, house finches, Western equine encephalitis virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, infection, virus transmission, dose response, viremia, antibody formation, overwintering, host pathogen relationships, Carpodacus mexicanus, avian hosts, chronic infections.

Reisen, W.K., R.E. Chiles, V.M. Martinez, Y. Fang, and E.N. Green (2004). Encephalitis virus persistence in California birds: experimental infections in mourning doves (Zenaidura macroura). Journal of Medical Entomology 41(3): 462-466. ISSN: 0022-2585.
Abstract: After-hatching and hatching year, mourning doves were infected by inoculation with either western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) or St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses; some birds in each group also were treated with the immunosuppressant cyclophosphamide before and during infection. Cyclophosphamide treatment significantly increased the WEE viremia but did not alter the antibody response. In contrast, cyclophosphamide-treated and -untreated doves did not develop a detectable SLE viremia but became antibody positive. Antibody peaked at 10 wk after inoculation for both viruses and remained detectable in most birds throughout the 26-wk study. When treated with cyclophosphamide the following spring, birds did not relapse and develop a detectable viremia. Previously infected birds were protected when challenged with conspecific virus (i.e., none produced a detectable viremia), but there was no anamnestic antibody response to reinfection. In agreement with our failure to detect relapses, all birds were negative for viral RNA when sera, spleen, lung, and kidney tissues were tested by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction after necropsy. Our results indicated that adult mourning doves were an incompetent host for SLE virus and probably do not serve as a suitable overwintering or dispersal host for either WEE and SLE viruses.
Descriptors: Columbidae, doves, infection, Western equine encephalitis virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, viral encephalitis, viremia, antibody formation, immunosuppressive agents, cyclophosphamide, host pathogen relationships, immunity, disease reservoirs, reinfection, host competence, California, USA.

Reisen, W.K., V.M. Martinez, Y. Fang, S. Garcia, S. Ashtari, S.S. Wheeler, and B.D. Carroll (2006). Role of California (Callipepla californica) and Gambel's (Callipepla gambelii) quail in the ecology of mosquito-borne encephalitis viruses in California, USA. Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 6(3): 248-260. ISSN: 1530-3667.
Descriptors: Callipepla californica, quails, disease reservoirs, Western equine encephalitis virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, animal age, seroprevalence, viremia, virus transmission, insect vectors, Culex tarsalis, viral encephalitis, reservoir competence, experimental infection, California.

Roy, P., P.G. Edwin, S.M. Sakthivelan, and V. Purushothaman (2004). An outbreak of pasteurellosis among Japanese quails. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 74(7): 728-729. ISSN: 0367-8318.
Descriptors: pasteurellosis, pathogenicity, histopathology, quails, Japan, Asia, bacterioses, biological properties, birds, domestic animals, galliformes, infectious diseases.
Language of Text: Summary in English.

Roy, P., V. Purushothaman, A. Koteeswaran, and A.S. Dhillon (2006). Isolation, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Drug Resistance Pattern of Escherichia coli Isolated from Japanese Quail and their Environment. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 15(3): 442-446.
Descriptors: Japanese quails, food animals, Escherichia coli, animal pathogenic bacteria, antibiotic resistance, multiple drug resistance, strains, strain differences, embryonic mortality, embryo, feathers, drinking water, serotypes , Escherichia infections, antibiotics, hygiene.

Roy, P., S. Vairamuthu, S.M. Sakthivelan, and V. Purushothaman (2004). Hydropericardium syndrome in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Veterinary Record Journal of the British Veterinary Association 155(9): 273-274. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, hydropericardium syndrome,Coturnix coturnix japonica.

Sahnduran, S. (2004). Isolation of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus from ostriches with conjunctivitis and respiratory disease. Revue De Medecine Veterinaire 155(3): 167-169. ISSN: 0035-1555.
Descriptors: ostriches, conjunctivitis, respiratory disease, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, isolation, clincal signs, treatment.
Language of Text: French.

Sakai, K., G. Sakabe, O. Tani, M. Nakamura, and K. Takehara (2006). Antibody responses in ostriches (Struthio camelus) vaccinated with commercial live and killed Newcastle disease vaccines. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science the Japanese Society of Veterinary Science 68(6): 627-9. ISSN: 0916-7250.
Abstract: Three ostriches (Struthio camelus) were immunized with commercially available live and killed Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines for chickens and the antibody responses to the ND vaccines were evaluated by a virus-neutralization (VN) test. Primary vaccination with the live vaccine, B1, by eye drop was followed with two shots of alum-precipitated killed vaccine via subcutaneous injection in the neck. As a final booster, another live vaccine, Clone 30, was used by eye drop. A VN antibody titer, more than 1:10 was observed for 6 months. This is the first report on the use of a live vaccine by eye drop as a booster in ostriches as well as evaluating responses to ND vaccines using the VN test in this avian species.
Descriptors: ostriches, antibody responses, Newcastle disease vaccines, live, killed, immunology, viral vaccines immunology, newcastle disease prevention, control, ophthalmic solutions, viral vaccines, administration, dosage.

Santos, M.M.A.B., J.R. Peiro, and M.V. Meireles (2005). Cryptosporidium infection in ostriches (Struthio camelus) in Brazil: clinical, morphological and molecular studies. Revista Brasileira De Ciencia Avicola 7(2): 113-117. ISSN: 1516-635X.
Descriptors: ostriches, cryptosporidium, infection, clinical, morphological, molecular, studies, Brazil.

Saroglu, M., R. Yucel, and M. Aktas (2003). Granulomatous conjunctivitis in an ostrich. Veterinary Ophthalmology 6(4): 337-339. ISSN: 1463-5216.
Descriptors: ostrich, granulomatous conjunctivitis, chronic, lacrimal glands, granulomatous dacryoadentic mass, excised.

Schulz, J.H., A.J. Bermudez, and J.J. Millspaugh (2005). Monitoring presence and annual variation of Trichomoniasis in mourning doves. [Erratum: 2005 Dec., v. 49, no. 4, p. 619.]. Avian Diseases 49(3): 387-389. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: Information about the annual variation of trichomoniasis in mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) may be important in understanding mechanisms affecting mourning dove populations. The objectives of this study were to monitor the presence and annual variation of Trichomonas gallinae for 6 yr in a local mourning dove population using hunter-killed doves. During 1998-2003, 4052 hunter-killed doves were sampled for the presence of T. gallinae; 226 (5.6%) tested positive (4.4%-10.6% range). Results of the monitoring effort were relatively consistent during the 6-yr period, with the presence of T. gallinae being within the range of previously reported estimates for mourning doves. Asymptomatic carriers in one segment of the dove population may provide a mechanism for spreading the disease to other segments of the mourning dove population.
Descriptors: doves, Trichomonas gallinae, trichomoniasis, disease surveillance, temporal variation, disease detection, carrier state, wildlife management, sport hunting, Missouri, Zenaida macroura.
Language of Text: Summary in Spanish.

Shao ChaoGang, Shan SongHua, and Chen JiaYi (2006). Isolation and identification of a new pigeon genotype VI strain of Newcastle disease virus. Veterinary Science in China 36(7): 543-546. ISSN: 1673-4696.
Descriptors: pigeon, Newcastle disease virus, new genotype VI strain, isolation, paramyxovirus.
Language of Text: Chinese, summary in English.

Shivaprasad, H.L., D. Hill, D. Todd, and J.A. Smyth (2004). Circovirus infection in a Gouldian finch (Chloebia gouldiae). Avian Pathology 33(5): 525-9. ISSN: 0307-9457.
Abstract: The bird examined was a 10-week-old female Gouldian finch (Chloebia gouldiae) from an aviary that had housed about 100 Gouldian finches, which had nasal discharge, dyspnoea, anorexia, depression and a very high mortality (50%) in both adult and young birds. Gross and histopathology revealed moderate to severe lymphoid depletion in the bursa of Fabricius and thymus, and sinusitis/rhinitis, tracheitis, bronchopneumonia, myocarditis, nephritis and splenitis. Circovirus infection was diagnosed in the Gouldian finch based on finding characteristic globular intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies containing 15 to 18 nm virus particles in the mononuclear cells of the bursa of Fabricius by transmission electron microscopy and by demonstrating circovirus DNA in the cytoplasm of mononuclear cells of the bursa of Fabricius by in situ hybridization using a circovirus-specific DNA probe. The Gouldian finch was also affected by concurrent bacterial and adenovirus infections. This is the first report of circovirus infection in a Gouldian finch.
Descriptors: young Gouldian finch, circovirus infection, bird diseases, pathology, bursa of Fabricius ultrastructure, fatal outcome, inclusion bodies, viral pathology, kidney ultrastructure, thymus gland pathology, case study, new host record.

Simpson, V. and F. Molenaar (2006). Increase in trichomonosis in finches. Veterinary Record 159(18): 606. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Descriptors: finches, Trichomonosis, increase, bird diseases, epidemiology, epidemiology, trichomonas infections, etiology, England.

Sinclair, M., G.K. Bruckner, and J.J. Kotze (2006). Avian influenza in ostriches: epidemiological investigation in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Veterinaria Italiana 42(2): 69-76. ISSN: 0505-401X.
Descriptors: ostriches, avian influenza, epidemiological investigation, South Africa.
Language of Text: Italian.

Sorrell, E.M. and D.R. Perez (2007). Adaptation of influenza A/Mallard/Potsdam/178-4/83 H2N2 virus in Japanese quail leads to infection and transmission in chickens. Avian Diseases 51(1 Suppl): 264-8. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: To assess the potential of quail as an intermediate host of avian influenza, we tested the influenza A/Mallard/ Potsdam/178-4/83 (H2N2) virus to determine whether through adaptation a mallard strain can replicate and transmit in quail, as well as other terrestrial birds. After five serial passages of lung homogenate a virus arose that replicated and transmitted directly to contact cage mates. To test whether adaptation in quail led to interspecies transmission, white leghorn chickens were infected with the wild-type (mall/178) and quail-adapted (qa-mall/178) viruses. The results show that mall/178 H2N2 does not establish an infection in chickens nor does it transmit, while qa-mall/178 H2N2 infects and transmits to contact chickens causing clinical signs like depression and diarrhea. Completed sequences indicate six amino acid changes spanning four genes, PB2, PB1, HA, and NP, suggesting that the internal genes play a role in host adaptation. Further adaptation of qa-mall/178 in white leghorn chickens created a virus that replicated more efficiently in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Sequence analysis of the chicken-adapted virus points to a deletion in the neuraminidase stalk region.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, infection, transmission, influenza A, Mallard, Potsdam, 178-4, 83 H2N2, intermediate host, avian influenza, chickens.

Styles, D.K., E.K. Tomaszewski, L.A. Jaeger, and D.N. Phalen (2004). Psittacid herpesviruses associated with mucosal papillomas in neotropical parrots. Virology 325(1): 24-35. ISSN: 0042-6822.
Abstract: Mucosal papillomas are relatively common lesions in several species of captive neotropical parrots. They cause considerable morbidity and in some cases, result in mortality. Previous efforts to identify papillomavirus DNA and proteins in these lesions have been largely unsuccessful. In contrast, increasing evidence suggests that mucosal papillomas may contain psittacid herpesviruses (PsHVs). In this study, 41 papillomas from 30 neotropical parrots were examined by PCR with PsHV-specific primers. All 41 papillomas were found to contain PsHV DNA. This 100% prevalence of PsHV infection in the papilloma population was found to be significantly higher than PsHV infection prevalence observed in other surveys of captive parrots. PsHV genotypes 1, 2, and 3, but not 4 were found in these lesions. Psittacus erithacus papillomavirus DNA and finch papillomavirus DNA were not found in the papillomas. A papilloma from a hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) was found to contain cells that had immunoreactivity to antiserum made to the common antigenic region of human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 major capsid protein. However, four other mucosal papillomas were negative for this immunoreactivity, and negative control tissues from a parrot embryo showed a similar staining pattern to that seen in the cloaca papilloma of the hyacinth macaw, strongly suggesting that the staining seen in hyacinth macaw papilloma was nonspecific. Based on these findings, it was concluded that specific genotypes of PsHV play a direct role in the development of mucosal papillomas of neotropical parrots and there is no evidence to suggest the concurrent presence of a papillomavirus in these lesions.
Descriptors: parrots, psittacid herpesvirus, bird diseases, virology, mucosal papillomas, papilloma virology, DNA primers, genotype, herpesviridae classification, immunohistochemistry, phylogeny, polymerase chain reaction.

Styles, D.K., E.K. Tomaszewski, and D.N. Phalen (2005). A novel psittacid herpesvirus found in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). Avian Pathology 34(2): 150-4. ISSN: 0307-9457.
Abstract: DNA from a novel alphaherpesvirus was amplified from a cloacal papilloma, a cutaneous papilloma, and the normal cloacal mucosa of African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). Phylogenetically, the virus was most closely related to the psittacid herpesvirus, but demonstrated sufficient nucleotide and amino acid diversity to be considered a new alphaherpesvirus. It is proposed that the previously described psittacid herpesvirus be designated as psittacid herpesvirus 1 (PsHV-1), and this new species be classified as psittacid herpesvirus 2 (PsHV-2). It is speculated that PsHV-2 co-evolved with the African grey parrot and should therefore be present in these birds in the wild.
Descriptors: bird diseases virology, herpesvirius, isolation, purification, parrots, cloacal papilloma, DNA, alphaherpesvirus, herpesviridae genetics.

Sydenstricker, K.V., A.A. Dhondt, D.M. Hawley, C.S. Jennelle, H.W. Kollias, and G.V. Kollias (2006). Characterization of Experimental Mycoplasma gallisepticum Infection in Captive House Finch Flocks. Avian Diseases 50(1): 39-44. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: The use of controlled, horizontal-transmission experiments provides detailed information on the spread of disease within fixed social groups, which informs our understanding of disease dynamics both in an empirical and theoretical context. For that reason, we characterized in 2002, horizontal transmission of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) in two flocks of 11 wild-caught house finches housed in outdoor aviaries over a 6-mo period. All birds were initially free of MG by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based test, rapid plate agglutination (RPA), and the scoring of physical signs. We inoculated one flock member bilaterally in the palpebral conjunctiva and reintroduced it into its cage. Index birds developed conjunctivitis within 3 to 5 days but died 13 and 20 days postinfection (PI) possibly because of very severe weather. The proportion of birds with physical signs increased gradually, reached 40% at 6 wk PI, and fluctuated around 40% until 21 wk PI. By the time our experiment ended at 24.5 wk PI, 28% of the birds still exhibited physical signs. Across both flocks, 80% of the birds developed unilateral or bilateral conjunctivitis, and several birds relapsed. The appearance of physical signs in new individuals occurred between 10 and 144 days PI (median 41 days PI). Physical signs lasted 1-172 days (median 42 days). Birds that became infected earlier during the experiment developed more severe conjunctivitis, and there was a tendency for birds that developed bilateral conjunctivitis to develop physical signs earlier. Most birds that developed physical signs of MG were also PCR- and RPA-positive, although we detected a single asymptomatic carrier and a single symptomatic false negative. No birds died as a result of secondary MG infection.
Descriptors: house finch, captive flocks, infection, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, experimental, horizontal transmission, disease spread.
Language of Text: Summary in Spanish.

Sydenstricker, K.V., A.A. Dhondt, D.H. Ley, and G.V. Kollias (2005). Re-exposure of captive house finches that recovered from Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 41(2): 326-33. ISSN: 0090-3558.
Abstract: Fourteen house finches were reinoculated (re-exposed) with 0.05 ml (3.24x10(5) colony forming units/ml) of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) in the conjunctival sac of each eye. All birds used in this reinoculation study had recovered from previous infection between 27 and 83 days after inoculation. Recovery was based on the absence of clinical signs of conjunctivitis and/ or the inability to detect MG in conjunctival or choanal samples. Birds were maintained in individual cages under controlled environmental conditions at temperature 21-24 C, relative humidity 70%, and a light cycle adjusted to ambient values. They were divided into three groups, (A, B, and C). Five birds each were reinoculated 219 days (7.3 mo, group A) and 314 days (10.47 mo, group B) after the original infection. The final group of four birds was reinoculated at 425 days after experimental infection (14.17 mo, group C). Although the birds were randomly assigned to the three groups, the duration of the disease state (number of days until clinical signs last observed) during initial infection differed: group A mean=37.0+/-SE 4.549, group B mean=63.6+/-SE 6.306, group C mean=42.75+/-SE 2.750; analysis of variance F2,11=8.17, P=0.007. Within 24 hr after reinoculation six of the 14 experimental birds had developed some clinical signs of MG-induced conjunctivitis. At 3 days after reinoculation, 12 of the 14 birds had unilateral or bilateral conjunctivitis. The duration of clinical signs in the reinoculated individuals was significantly shorter than with their previous infection. These results suggest that the birds were able to mount a rapid and strong immune response following re-exposure. However, they were susceptible to reinfection and developed disease, suggesting that reinfection or perhaps even recurrence of infection and disease could occur in the free-ranging population. This may represent an important component in the epidemiology of this disease in house finches.
Descriptors: captive house finches, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, re-exposure, recovered, immune response, clinical signs, previous infection, reinfection, disease epidemiology in free living finches.

Szeleszczuk, P. and A. Ledwon (2005). Zakazenia paramyksowirusowe u papug. [Paramyxovirus infections in parrots]. Zycie Weterynaryjne 80(2): 86-89. ISSN: 0137-6810.
Descriptors: parrots, infections, paramyxovirus, avian pathogen, viral disease, symptoms.
Language of Text: Polish, summary in English.

Szymborski, J. and M. Szymborski (2004). Zespo sabego strusiecia w Australii. [Ostrich fading syndrome in Australia]. Zycie Weterynaryjne 79(6): 321-322. ISSN: 0137-6810.
Descriptors: ostrich, fading syndrome, wasting, young, death, undetermined cause, stress, transport, weather conditions, hygiene, Australia.
Language of Text: Polish, summary in English.

Tarello, W. (2005). Fatal Haemoproteus psittaci infection in an African grey parrot. Veterinary Record 157(1): 32. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Descriptors: African grey parrot, bird diseases, physiopathology, haemosporida, pathogenicity, parasitology, fatal infection.

Teixeira, M., W.L. Teixeira Filho, and C.W.G. Lopes (2004). Coccidiosis in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica): characterization of a naturally occurring infection in a commercial rearing farm. Revista Brasileira De Ciencia Avicola 6(2): 129-134. ISSN: 1516-635X.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, coccidiosis, infection, naturally occuring, farm, Eimeria, characteristics, fecal exams, oocysts, diagnosis.

Timurkaan, N., O. Keskin, F. Yilmaz, and I. Cimtay (2005). Aspergillosis outbreak in an ostrich flock. Medycyna Weterynaryjna 61(7): 765-766. ISSN: 0025-8628.
Descriptors: oatrich flock, aspergillosis outbreak, air sacs, clinical symptoms, necropsy.

Todd, D., J.P. Duchatel, J.C. Bustin, F.T. Scullion, M.G. Scullion, A.N.J. Scott, A. Curry, N.W. Ball, and J.A. Smyth (2006). Detection of pigeon circovirus in cloacal swabs: implications for diagnosis, epidemiology and control. Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association. 159((10)): 314-317. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Descriptors: pigeon circovirus, disease detection, polymerase chain reaction, diagnosis, epidemiology, control.

Todd, D., A.N. Scott, E. Fringuelli, H.L. Shivraprasad, D. Gavier Widen, and J.A. Smyth (2007). Molecular characterization of novel circoviruses from finch and gull. Avian Pathology 36(1): 75-81. ISSN: 0307-9457.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to molecularly characterize circoviruses that infect finches and gulls. Circovirus-specific DNAs were isolated using polymerase chain reaction methods from bursa of Fabricius tissues from a Gouldian finch (Chloebia gouldiae) and a herring gull (Larus argentatus) that were known to be circovirus-infected. Nucleotide sequence determination and analysis of cloned genomic DNAs showed that these circoviruses represented novel members of the genus Circovirus of the family Circoviridae, and have been tentatively named Finch circovirus (FiCV) and Gull Circovirus (GuCV). Both new circoviruses shared genome organizational features with previously characterized circoviruses, such that both contained two major, inversely-arranged open reading frames encoding the putative replication-associated and capsid proteins, and both contained a potential stem-loop and nonanucleotide motif. Phylogenetic analyses based on genome nucleotide sequences and involving the seven additional genus members indicated that FiCV and GuCV were more closely related to canary circovirus, beak and feather disease virus and pigeon circovirus, and that FiCV and canary circovirus were the most closely related avian circoviruses. Pairwise comparisons showed that the capsid proteins of FiCV and GuCV shared highest amino acid identity values with those of canary circovirus (62.0%) and pigeon circovirus (40.6%), respectively. The 5' intergenic region of GuCV was longer (207 nucleotides) and contained more direct and inverse repeated sequences than those of other circoviruses, while the 3' intergenic region of FiCV was notable in being longer (307 nucleotides) than its counterparts in other circoviruses and in containing two long repeats of 77 nucleotides.
Descriptors: finches, gulls, circoviruses, molecular characterization, specific DNA's, bursa of Fabricus tissues, polymerase chain reaction.

Toffan, A., L. Bano, F. Montesi, M.S. Beato, R.D. Nardi, C. Terregino, and I. Capua (2005). Infezione da Calicivirus associata ad una sindrome enterica in giovani fagiani (Phasianus colchicus). [Detection of Caliciviruses in young pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) with enteritis in Italy]. Italian Journal of Animal Science 4(3): 300-302. ISSN: 1594-4077.
Descriptors: pheasants, animal husbandry, infection, reoviridae, caliciviridae, isolation, intestines, microscopy, enteritis, Italy, birds, digestive system, digestive system diseases, disease transmission, Europe, galliformes, intestinal diseases.
Language of Text: Italian, summaries in English and Italian.

Tomaszewski, E.K., W. Wigle, and D.N. Phalen (2006). Tissue distribution of psittacid herpesviruses in latently infected parrots, repeated sampling of latently infected parrots and prevalence of latency in parrots submitted for necropsy. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 18(6): 536-544. ISSN: 1040-6387.
Descriptors: parrots, pets, Herpesviridae, bird diseases, latent period, disease prevalence, viral diseases, digestive system diseases, disease transmission, disease reservoirs, digestive tract mucosa, mouth, cloaca, genotype, serotypes, new host records, psittacid herpesviruses.

Toro, H., F.J. Hoerr, K. Farmer, C.C. Dykstra, S.R. Roberts, and M. Perdue (2005). Pigeon paramyxovirus: association with common avian pathogens in chickens and serologic survey in wild birds. Avian Diseases. 49(1): 92-98. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: Pigeon paramyxovirus-1 (PPMV-1) was isolated from pigeons from east-central Alabama and used in association with chicken anemia virus (CAV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), or finch Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) in specific-pathogen-free chickens to assess clinical disease and pathology. PPMV-1 infection in all groups was conducted at day 10 of age via the ocular route. The low passage PPMV-1 isolate was inoculated into chickens in different groups at 10 days post-CAV infection, 6 days post-IBDV infection, and 6 days post-finch MG infection, respectively. Additionally, to obtain information on the status of paramyxovirus infection in the wild bird population of the region, we used a multispecies competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit to assess serum samples from 180 wild birds representing 24 species obtained throughout 2001. Mild respiratory signs characterized by sneezing were observed in PPMV-1-infected chicks. In the brain, PPMV-1 caused disseminated vasculitis in the neuropile and meninges, sometimes with small foci of gliosis. Most brains had only mild lesions. In the upper respiratory tract, lesions were confined to the larynx and proximal trachea as hyperplasia of laryngeal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. In the lung, PPMV-1 caused minimal to moderate multifocal interstitial pneumonia. Lymphocytic expansion occurred in the interstitium of the Harderian gland. PPMV-1 in the spleen caused expansion of the white pulp as a result of hypertrophy of the macrophages in the periarteriolar sheaths accompanied by lymphocytic hyperplasia at the periphery. No severe aggravation of either signs or lesions could be attributed to any of the avian pathogens used in association with PPMV-1. The serologic survey in wild birds showed antibody levels that were considered negative or doubtful. Interestingly, significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean titers were observed during the months of October and November 2001, following closely multiple PPMV-1 episodes of mortality in wild collard doves in northwestern Florida.
Descriptors: wild birds, chickens, viral diseases, mycoplasmosis, Paramyxoviridae, bird diseases, seroprevalence, disease surveillance, disease incidence, chicken anemia virus, infectious bursal disease virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, pathology, symptoms.
Language of Text: Summary in Spanish.

Tully, T.N.J. (2005). Aspergillus and African grey parrots. Small Animal and Exotics Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 19, Orlando, Florida, USA, 8 12 January, 2005, Vol. 19, Eastern States Veterinary Association: Gainesville, USA, p. 1245-1246.
Descriptors: African grey parrots, Aspergillus, diagnostic techniques, respiratory tract, infections, conference proceedings, book chapter.
Notes: Meeting Information: Small Animal and Exotics. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 19, Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005.

Ujvari, D., E. Wehmann, J. Herczeg, and B. Lomniczi (2006). Identification and subgrouping of pigeon type Newcastle disease virus strains by restriction enzyme cleavage site analysis. Journal of Virological Methods 131(2): 115-121. ISSN: 0166-0934.
Descriptors: pigeon, Newcastle disease, virus strains, identification, subgrouping, restriction enzyme cleavage site analysis.

Verstappen, F.A.L.M. and G.M. Dorrestein (2005). Aspergillosis in Amazon parrots after corticosteroid therapy for smoke-inhalation injury. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 19(2): 138-141. ISSN: 1082-6742.
Descriptors: Amazon parrots, aspergillosis, post corticosteroid therapy, smoke inhalation injury, Amazona aestiva aestiva.

Vitali, S.D., P.A. Eden, K.L. Payne, and R.J. Vaughan (2006). An outbreak of mycobacteriosis in Gouldian finches caused by Mycobacterium peregrinum. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice 9(3): 519-22. ISSN: 1094-9194.
Abstract: An outbreak of mycobacteriosis was detected in an aviary containing Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) and golden shouldered parrots (Psephotus chrysopterygius). Affected birds developed granulomatous lesions, usually of the liver and intestine. Mycobacterium peregrinum, a species of the Mycobacterium fortuitum group, was cultured on pooled samples of intestinal tract from 31 euthanized finches. These rapid-growing mycobacteria are saprophytic organisms that are generally not associated with clinical disease in immunocompetent hosts. This is the first report of mycobacteriosis in finches implicating M peregrinum as a causative agent.
Descriptors: Gouldian finches, Mycobacterium, outbreak, golden shouldered parrots, granulomatous lesions, liver, intestine.

Wan, H. and D.R. Perez (2006). Quail carry sialic acid receptors compatible with binding of avian and human influenza viruses. Virology 346(2): 278-86. ISSN: 0042-6822.
Abstract: There is growing evidence that some terrestrial avian species may play a role in the genesis of influenza viruses with pandemic potential. In the present investigation, we examined whether quail, a widespread-farmed poultry, possess the proper characteristics for serving as an intermediate host for the zoonotic transmission of influenza viruses. Using a lectin-based staining based on specific agglutinins, we found that, in addition to the presence of sialic acid alpha2,3-galactose (SAalpha2,3-gal) linked receptors, there are abundant sialic acid alpha2,6-galactose (SAalpha2,6-gal) linked receptors in quail trachea and intestine. The presence of abundant SAalpha2,6-gal-linked receptors explains, at least in part, the circulation of avian influenza viruses with human-like receptor specificity in quail. In quail trachea, SAalpha2,3-gal linked receptors are present primarily in non-ciliated cells, while SAalpha2,6-gal linked receptors are localized predominantly on the surface of ciliated cells. In quail intestine, both types of receptors were found on epithelial cells as well as in crypts. In a solid-phase overlay binding assay, both avian and human influenza viruses bind to plasma membranes prepared from epithelial cells of quail trachea and intestine, strongly suggesting that these receptors are functional for binding of influenza viruses from different species. Together with previous observations, these results are consistent with the notion that quail could provide an environment for the spread of reassortants between avian and human influenza viruses, thus acting as a potential intermediate host.
Descriptors: quail, avian influenza virus, human influenza virus, sialic acid receptors, binding, plasms membranes, quail as an intermediate host.

Wang, Z., K. Farmer, G.E. Hill, and S.V. Edwards (2006). A cDNA macroarray approach to parasite-induced gene expression changes in a songbird host: genetic response of house finches to experimental infection by Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Molecular Ecology 15(5): 1263-1273. ISSN: 0962-1083.
Abstract: In 1994, the bacterial parasite Mycoplasma gallisepticum expanded its host range and swept through populations of a novel host -- eastern US populations of the house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus). This epizootic caused a dramatic decline in finch population numbers, has been shown to have caused strong selection on house finch morphology, and presumably caused evolutionary change at the molecular level as finches evolved enhanced resistance. As a first step toward identifying finch genes that respond to infection by Mycoplasma and which may have experienced natural selection by this parasite, we used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and cDNA macroarray approaches to identify differentially expressed genes regulated by the Mycoplasma parasite. Two subtractive cDNA libraries consisting of 16 512 clones were developed from spleen using an experimentally uninfected bird as the 'tester' and an infected bird as 'driver', and vice versa. Two hundred and twenty cDNA clones corresponding 34 genes with known vertebrate homologues and a large number of novel transcripts were found to be qualitatively up- or down-regulated genes by high-density filter hybridization. These gene expression changes were further confirmed by a high throughout reverse Northern blot approach and in specific cases by targeted Northern analysis. blast searches show that heat shock protein (HSP) 90, MHC II-associated invariant chain (CD74), T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 1 (TIM1), as well as numerous novel expressed genes not found in the databases were up- or down-regulated by the host in response to this parasite. Our results and macroarray resources provide a foundation for molecular co-evolutionary studies of the Mycoplasma parasite and its recently colonized avian host.
Descriptors: house finches, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, bacterial parasite, cDNA, experimental infection, induced gene expression, host range, eastern USA.

Wellehan, J.F.X., A.J. Johnson, K.S. Latimer, K. Bischoff, M. Lafortune, and E.R. Jacobson (2005). Identification and initial characterization of an adenovirus associated with fatal hepatic and lymphoid necrosis in a Meyer's parrot (Poicephalus meyeri). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 19(3): 191-197. ISSN: 1082-6742.
Descriptors: Meyer's parrot, adenovirus, identification, characterization, fatal hepatic necrosis, fatal lymphoid necrosis, Poicephalus meyeri, viral diseases.

Wittig, W., K. Hoffmann, H. Muller, and R. Johne (2007). Nachweis von DNA des Finken-polyomavirus bei Erkrankungen verschiedener Vogelarten der Ordnung Passeriformes. [Detection of DNA of the finch polyomavirus in diseases of various types of birds in the order Passeriformes]. Berliner Und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 120(3-4): 113-9. ISSN: 0005-9366.
Abstract: Between 2000 and 2004 a disease occurred in an aviary in Germany affecting various bird species belonging to the order Passeriformes including Collared Grosbeaks (Mycerobas affinis), Eurasian Bullfinches (Pyrrhula pyrrhula griseiventris), Brown Bullfinches (Pyrrhula nipalensis), Grey-headed bullfinches (Pyrrhula erythaca) and Yellow-bellied Tits (Periparus venustulus).The major clinical signs included increased mortality of fledglings and young birds, as well as feather disorders and feather loss in adult birds. In addition, adult Eurasian Bullfinches showed in one year a disease course, in which the major symptom was inflammation of the skin beginning on the basis of the beak and spreading over the head occurring a few days before death. Bacteriological and parasitological investigations did not reveal any consistent findings. Using a newly developed polymerase chain reaction protocol, DNA of the recently discovered finch polyomavirus (FPyV) was demonstrated in several affected birds. Because of the consistent detection of FPyV-DNA and the similarity of the symptoms with those observed during infection with the closely related avian polyomavirus in other bird species, an etiological role of FPyV in the observed disease is assumed.
Descriptors: bird diseases diagnosis, DNA, viral analysis, Passeriformes virology, polyomavirus isolation, purification, polyomavirus infections, tumor virus infections, bird diseases, mortality, virology, disease outbreaks, polymerase chain reaction, polyomavirus genetics, polyomavirus infections, diagnosis, mortality, virology, tumor virus infections, diagnosis, mortality, virology, Germany.
Language of Text: German.

Wnukiewicz, A., W. Dobrowolski, and A. Danczak (2005). Limb diseases in emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) and ostrich (Struthio camelus) - prevention and treatment. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Zootechnika 4(1): 153-162. ISSN: 1644-0714.
Descriptors: emu, ostrich, limb diseases, prevention, treatment, lameness.
Language of Text: Polish.

Wood, A.M. and H.V. Smith (2005). Spironucleosis (Hexamitiasis, Hexamitosis) in the ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus): detection of cysts and description of Spironucleus meleagridis in stained smears. Avian Diseases 49(1): 138-143. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: Trophozoites and cysts of Spironucleus (Hexamita) meleagridis were detected in the intestinal fluid and mucus of pheasant poults with spironucleosis (hexamitiasis, hexamitosis) following staining with Heidenhain iron hematoxylin (HIH) and the Romanowsky-type stain Hemacolor. Their morphology was consistent with that of flagellates of the genus Spironucleus, and bright-field morphologic observations were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Cysts occurred mostly within intestinal mucus, which was firmly compressed between microscope slides prior to staining. The internal structures of cysts were similar to those of trophozoites, allowing them to be confidently recognized. Hemacolor provided differential color staining of trophozoites and cysts, allowing accurate identification of S. meleagridis life cycle stages, even in smears in which there was heavy background staining. While HIH often produced clearer and more detailed staining of protozoan structures, in the context of a diagnostic laboratory its use was outweighed by the ease of use, rapidity of results, and differential color staining provided by Hemacolor. The possible significance of a resistant cystic stage in the life cycle of S. meleagridis is discussed.
Descriptors: Phasianus colchicus, game birds, bird diseases, Hexamita, protozoal infections, cysts (developmental-stages), trophozoites, pathogen identification, life cycle, intestinal mucosa, histopathology, differential staining, Hexamita meleagridis, Sprionucleus meleagridis.
Language of Text: Summary in Spanish.

Wunschmann, A. and A. Ziegler (2006). West Nile Virus-Associated Mortality Events in Domestic Chukar Partridges (Alectoris chukar) and Domestic Impeyan Pheasants (Lophophorus impeyanus). Avian Diseases 50(3): 456-459. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: West Nile virus (WNV) infection was diagnosed in captive juvenile chukars (Alectoris chukar), and captive juvenile Impeyan pheasants (Lophophorus impeyanus) on the basis of necropsy, histopathology, polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. The chukars were kept in a game bird farm that experienced two outbreaks with approximately 25% mortality in hundreds of chukars between September and October 2002 and during the same months in 2003. The submitted pheasants were part of a group of 15 juvenile Impeyan pheasants that all died within approximately 2 wk at the end of August 2002. The macroscopic lesions in the pheasants were dominated by mucosal hemorrhage at the proventricular to ventricular junction and cecal ulcers, whereas the gross lesions in the chukar partridges were nonspecific. The predominant microscopic lesion in the chukar partridges was myocardial necrosis, whereas fibrinous and necrotizing splenitis was prominent in the pheasants. Viral antigen was usually widespread in animals of both species. Spontaneously occurring WNV infection should be considered a differential diagnosis in cases of mortality among select species of galliform birds.
Descriptors: chukar partridges, pheasants, West Nile virus, mortality, necropsy, histopathology, lesions, mucosal hemorrhage, diagnosis.
Language of Text: Summary in Spanish.

Yilmaz, F., N. Timurkaan, and F. Coven (2004). Pathological findings in quails infected with Avian Influenza A virus H7 N1 subtype. International Journal of Poultry Science 3(12): 764-767. ISSN: 1682-8356.
Descriptors: Japanese quails, avian influenza virus, infected, H7N1, pathological findings, clinical signs, symptoms.

Yokota, T., T. Shibahara, Y. Wada, R. Hiraki, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Kadota (2004). Aspergillus fumigatus infection in an ostrich (Struthio camelus). Journal of Veterinary Medical Science the Japanese Society of Veterinary Science 66(2): 201-4. ISSN: 0916-7250.
Abstract: An 11-month-old female ostrich (Struthio camelus) had become gradually emaciated over a 2-week period and subsequently died. Necropsy revealed white to green mold growth on the walls of caseous thickened air sac membranes and multiple white necrotic foci in the lungs and liver. Histologically, the multiple exudative, necrotic and granulomatous lesions were compatible with mycotic infection in the air sacs and lungs, and hyphae positively reacted with a monoclonal antibody (Mab-WF-AF-1) to Aspergillus fumigatus wall fractions. Multifocal hepatic necrosis was also found, and several spores were observed in the blood vessels. Fungal culture of these lesions yielded pure growth of A. fumigatus. This is an established case of fatal A. fumigatus infection in an ostrich reared in Japan.
Descriptors: ostrich, aspergillosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, bird diseases, microbiology, pathology, infection, air sacs, lungs, histological techniques, pathology, Japan.

Zead, A.A.A., S.H. Geith, and A.A. Ali (2005). Some investigations on Newcastle disease in Egyptian ostriches (Struthio camelus). Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal 51(107): 270-282. ISSN: 1012-5973.
Descriptors: Egyptian ostriches, Newcastle disease, investigations, Struthio camelus.
Language of Text: Arabic.



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