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You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Housing, Husbandry, Care & Welfare of Selected Birds   / Enrichment  Printer Friendly Page
Housing, Husbandry, Care & Welfare of Selected Birds
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Christensen, J. and B.L. Nielsen (2004). Environmental enrichment for ostrich, Struthio camelus, chicks. Animal Welfare 13(2): 119-124. ISSN: 0962-7286.
Descriptors: ostriches, chicks, pecking, feed intake, animal behavior, animal welfare, enrichment.

Fox, R.A. and J.R. Millam (2007). Novelty and individual differences influence neophobia in orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 104(1-2): 107-115. ISSN: 0168-1591.
Descriptors: Amazon parrots, fearfulness, parrot behavior, environmental enrichment, temperament, novel objects, enrichment rotation, individual variation.

Garner, J.P., C.L. Meehan, T.R. Famula, and J.A. Mench (2006). Genetic, environmental, and neighbor effects on the severity of stereotypies and feather picking in Orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica): an epidemiological study. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 96(1-2): 153-168. ISSN: 0168-1591.
Descriptors: Amazon parrots, abnormal behavior, stereotyped behavior, animal stress, genetic resistance, epidemiological studies, feather pecking, heritability , animal welfare.

Meehan, C.L., J.P. Garner, and J.A. Mench (2004). Environmental enrichment and development of cage stereotypy in Orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). Developmental Psychobiology 44(4): 209-18. ISSN: 0012-1630.
Descriptors: Amazon parrots, cage stereotypy, environmental enrichment, captive birds, behavior.

Miller, K.A. and J.A. Mench (2005). The differential effects of four types of environmental enrichment on the activity budgets, fearfulness, and social proximity preference of Japanese quail. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 95(3-4): 169-187. ISSN: 0168-1591.
Descriptors: physical activity, foraging, dust bathing, stereotyped behavior, group housing, gender differences, social behavior, animal welfare, quail.

Miller, K.A. and J.A. Mench (2006). Differential effects of 4 types of environmental enrichment on aggressive pecking, feather pecking, feather loss, food wastage and productivity in Japanese quail. British Poultry Science 47(6): 646-58. ISSN: 0007-1668.
Abstract: 1. We examined the effects of 4 types of environmental enrichment (foraging opportunities, structural complexity, sensory stimulation/novelty, and social companionship) on aggressive and feather pecking, feather condition, food wastage, body weight, feed conversion, and egg production in adult Japanese quail. Sex differences were examined where possible. 2. GLM analysis was used to evaluate the effects of enrichment and housing, while test-retest reliability and the stability of measures over 18 d were assessed using partial correlation. 3. Foraging enrichment reduced food wastage. 4. Body weight, feed conversion, and egg production were not affected by enrichment. Rates of aggressive and feather pecking were also not significantly affected, but these behaviours were observed very infrequently in this study. 5. Socially-housed birds had poorer feather condition, lower body weight and less efficient feed conversion than singly-housed birds. Social housing did not affect food wastage. 6. There were not sex differences in feather pecking, feather condition, food wastage, or feed conversion. 7. All measures except feather pecking were reliable over 24 h, but only feather condition and body weight were stable over 18 d. The instability f the behavioural measures over time suggest that enrichment effects may vary with age.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, environmental enrichment, effects, feather picking, feather loss, food wastage, productivity, 4 types of environmental enrichment, behavior.

Pepperberg, I.M. (2004). Cognitive and communicative capacities of Grey parrots--implications for the enrichment of many species. Animal Welfare 13s203-S208. ISSN: 0962-7286.
Descriptors: Psittacus, Grey parrots, environmental enrichment, human animal relations, animal communication, animal behavior, training, animal welfare.



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