USDA.gov National Agricultural Library
Animal Welfare Information Center
HomeAbout AWICPublicationsWorkshopsServicesNews and EventsHelpContact Us
Search AWIC
Search all of the United States Department of Agriculture
Advanced search
Browse by Subject
Research Animals
Farm Animals
Zoo, Circus and Marine Animals
Companion Animals
Government and Professional Resources
Alternatives
Literature Searching and Databases
Pain and Distress
Humane Endpoints and Euthanasia
 
You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Housing, Husbandry, Care & Welfare of Selected Birds   / Enrichment  Printer Friendly Page
Publications
 
Housing, Husbandry, Care & Welfare of Selected Birds
<< Table of Contents << Previous |  Next >>

 

Feed and Nutrition

Ai GuoLiang and Tao Jun (2002). Feeding standard of pheasant. Journal of Economic Animal 6(1): 30-32. ISSN: 1007-7448.
Descriptors: pheasant, feed requirements, feeding standards, nutrition, body weight, growing.
Language of Text: Chinese, summary in English.

Asrani, R.K., R.C. Katoch, V.K. Gupta, S. Deshmukh, N. Jindal, D.R. Ledoux, G.E. Rottinghaus, and S.P. Singh (2006). Effects of feeding Fusarium verticillioides (formerly Fusarium moniliforme) culture material containing known levels of fumonisin B1 in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Poultry Science 85(7): 1129-1135.
Abstract: One hundred fifty 1-d-old quail chicks (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were divided into 2 groups. The 2 groups were designated as controls (CX) and fumonisin-fed birds (FX) with each containing 50 and 100 chicks, respectively. The birds in group CX were maintained on quail mash alone, whereas the birds in group FX were maintained on diets supplemented with 300 ppm of fumonisin B1 from Fusarium verticillioides (formerly Fusarium moniliforme) culture material from 1 d. Quail chicks in both groups were examined daily for clinical signs and mortality. Five randomly selected quail from each group were individually weighed on 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d postfeeding (DPF). After weighing, blood was collected from these birds at 7, 14, 21, and 28 DPF for hematological studies and at 14, 21, and 28 DPF for biochemical studies. Fumonisin B1-fed birds (FX) had ruffled feathers, reduced feed and water intake, poor body growth, and greenish mucus diarrhea with 59% mortality. Nearly 30% of the fumonisin B1-fed birds showed nervous signs during the 4-wk experimental period. From 7 DPF onward, BW in group FX were significantly lower than those in group CX. Fumonisin feeding significantly increased hemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count, and total leukocyte count. There was also a significant increase in aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase in the fumonisin-fed group. Fumonisins significantly increased concentrations of total serum protein and albumin on 14 and 21 DPF, serum calcium and cholesterol levels from 14 DPF onward, and creatinine from 21 DPF onward. This study revealed that the addition of F. verticillioides culture material supplying a level of 300 ppm of FB1/kg of diet is highly toxic to quail chicks, resulting in heavy mortality, decreased growth rate, and significant alterations in hemato-biochemical parameters.
Descriptors: Japanese quails, fumonisin B1, poisoning, animal growth, body weight, mortality, blood chemistry.

Aydin, C., I. Ak, N. Galip, and S.N. Zaugg (2004). Effect of dietary protein levels on some haematological and production parameters of breeding ostriches. Indian Veterinary Journal 81(3): 294-298. ISSN: 0019-6479.
Descriptors: ostriches, breeding, dietary protein levels, effect, hematological, production, parameters.

Bardai, G., G.I. Sunahara, P.A. Spear, M. Martel, P. Gong, and J. Hawari (2005). Effects of Dietary Administration of CL-20 on Japanese Quail Coturnix coturnix japonica. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 49(2): 215-222.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica., CL-20, dietary administration, effects.

Barreto, S.L.d.T., M.S.d. Araujo, R.T. Umigi, J.L. Donzele, T.C.d. Rocha, S.R.F. Pinheiro, R.B. Teixeira, F.V.d.S. Abreu, and R.F. Silva (2006). Exigencia nutricional de lisina para codornas europeias machos de 21 a 49 dias de idade. [Nutritional requirements of lysine for male European quails from 21 to 49 days old]. Revista Brasileira De Zootecnia 35(3): 750-753. ISSN: 1516-3598.
Descriptors: quail, nutritional rquirements, lysine, male 21 to 49 days old.
Language of Text: Portuguese, summary in English.

Bavelaar, F.J., J. van der Kuilen, R. Hovenier, A.G. Lemmens, and A.C. Beynen (2005). Plasma lipids and fatty acid composition in parrots in relation to the intake of alpha-linolenic acid from two feed mixtures. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 89(9-10): 359-66. ISSN: 0931-2439.
Abstract: The main objective of this study was to find out whether the content of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in plasma cholesteryl-esters (CE) or triglycerides (TG) in parrots might serve as an index of ALA intake. The intake of ALA might be a risk factor for atherosclerosis, but on the basis of the fatty acid composition of seed mixtures the intake is difficult to assess due to selective eating of seeds. Parrots were fed two seed mixtures that differed in ALA content according to a cross over design. The macronutrient composition of the diets supplied differed from that of the diets consumed. The diets consumed had higher levels of dry matter, crude protein, crude fat and energy, and lower levels of crude fibre and crude ash. The ALA content, expressed as g/kg diet, was similar for the diet supplied and that consumed, irrespective of the type of diet. The diets had no systematic effect on plasma lipid concentrations. There were marked differences in plasma cholesterol concentrations between parrot species. When the diet with the low ALA content was fed (0.8% ALA of total fatty acids consumed, 1.1 g ALA/kg of diet consumed), the plasma CE and TG did not contain detectable ALA amounts. When the diet with the high ALA content was fed (4.2% ALA of total fatty acids consumed, 6.1 g ALA/kg of diet consumed), the plasma CE and TG contained about 1% ALA of total fatty acids. It is suggested that the content of ALA in plasma CE and TG might be used as an indicator of ALA intake.
Descriptors: parrots, cholesterol esters chemistry, parrots metabolism, triglycerides chemistry, alpha linolenic acid administration, dosage, parrot feed, diet consumed, physiology, biological markers blood, cholesterol esters blood, parrots blood, species specificity, triglycerides blood, alpha linolenic acid metabolism, alpha linolenic acid pharmacology.

Biswas, A., J. Mohan, and K.V.H. Sastry (2006). Effect of higher levels of dietary selenium on production performance and immune responses in growing Japanese quail. British Poultry Science 47(4): 511-515. ISSN: 0007-1668.
Abstract: 1. The effect of increasing dietary selenium (Se) on production performance and immune responses in growing (0 to 6 weeks) Japanese quail was investigated. 2. One-day-old chicks (240) were randomly selected and divided into 12 groups with 20 chicks in each group (3 dietary treatments x 4 replicates). The basal diet contained 0.2 mg Se/kg and the two experimental diets were supplemented with 0.5 and 1.0 mg Se/kg. 3. Body weight gain, food intake and food conversion ratio and mortality were not affected by Se supplementation. 4. On d 28, antibody responses to inoculated sheep red blood cells were determined. Antibody titres were significantly higher after feeding the two Se-supplemented diets. 5. During week 4, the response to intradermally injected phytohaemagglutinin, an index of the in vivo cell-mediated immune response, was shown to be increased in the groups fed on the Se-supplemented diets. 6. After 6 weeks, the relative weights of the bursa of Fabricius and thymus were greater in the chicks given the Se-supplemented diets but there was no effect on the relative weight of spleen and liver. 7. It is concluded that supplementing the diet with Se has a beneficial effect on immune responses but does not affect production performance in growing Japanese quail.
Descriptors: Japanese quails, poultry feeding, selenium, dietary minerals, immune response, dietary mineral supplements, feed supplements, antibodies, liveweight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, body weight, tissue weight, bursa of Fabricius, thymus gland, spleen, liver.

Biswas, A., J. Mohan, K.V.H. Sastry, and J.S. Tyagi (2007). Effect of dietary Vitamin E on the cloacal gland, foam and semen characteristics of male Japanese quail. Theriogenology 67(2): 259-263. ISSN: 0093-691X.
Abstract: This experiment was to investigate the effects of increasing the level of dietary Vitamin E (Vit. E) on cloacal gland size, foam production and semen characteristics of male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica). One hundred and eighty male Japanese quail chicks (day old) were randomly distributed to three dietary treatments for a period of 25 weeks. Each treatment comprised of three replicates each containing 20 chicks. The basal diet contained 15 IU Vit. E/kg and the two experimental diets were supplemented with 150 and 300 IU Vit. E/kg (diets T2 and T3, respectively). DL (Sa(B-tocopherol acetate was used as the source of Vit. E. All chicks were provided feed and water ad libitum. Foam characteristics, in terms of frequency of foam discharge (24 h), cloacal gland index and foam weight were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in T2 group. Body weight, testes weight (left and right) and plasma testosterone concentrations did not differ significantly. Semen characteristics (semen volume, sperm motility, % live sperm, % hatchability and sperm concentrations) did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). Percentages of abnormal and dead spermatozoa were significantly (P < 0.05) lower and fertility was higher (P < 0.05) in the T2 group. From this study, it can be concluded that moderate supplementation of dietary Vit. E may be beneficial for foam production, cloacal gland and improve the semen characteristics in male Japanese quail.
Descriptors: male Japanese quails, cloaca, accessory sex glands, bodily secretions and exudates, secretion, semen, spermatozoa, sperm motility, vitamin supplements, vitamin E, male fertility, sperm concentration, sperm viability.

Bordoloi, J.P. and A. Haque (2005). Growth performance and feed consumption pattern of pigeon reared in different housing systems and feeding regimes. Indian Journal of Poultry Science 40(2): 199-201. ISSN: 0019-5529.
Descriptors: pigeon, growth performance, feed consumption, different rearing housing systems, different feeding regimes.

Bovera, F., G. Moniello, N. De Riu, C. Di Meo, W. Pinna, and A. Nizza (2007). Effect of diet on the metabolic profile of ostriches (Struthio camelus var. domesticus). Tropical Animal Health and Production 39(4): 265-70. ISSN: 0049-4747.
Abstract: In order to study the metabolic profile of ostriches in relation to diet, 40 animals of both sexes were divided equally into two groups and fed two diets ad libitum consisting, on a dry matter basis, of the same commercial concentrate (60%) for the two groups and of corn silage (group A) or alfalfa hay (group B). In the morning, after about 12 h of fasting, blood was collected from the wing vein. The following haematological parameters were determined with an automatic system (Ektachem 250 analyser, Kodak): glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, lactate (LAC), total protein (TP), uric acid, total bilirubin (Tbil), creatinine (CREA), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na), potassium (K), chloride (Cl-), iron (Fe), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), cholinesterase (ChE), alpha-amylase (Amyl), lipase (LIP) and gamma-glutamyltrasferase (GGT). Diet significantly affected some parameters of the metabolic profile. Indeed, owing to the presence of alfalfa hay in the diet, group B showed, in comparison to group A, significantly higher values of uric acid (222.5 vs 387.5 mmol/L, p < 0.01), GGT (8.50 vs 11.3 U/L, p < 0.05), Tbil (8.50 vs 10.7 mmol/L, p < 0.05), Ca (2.41 vs 2.83 micromol/L, p < 0.01), Mg (1.01 vs 1.18 micromol/L, p < 0.05) and K (2.71 vs 3.16 micromol/L, p < 0.01). The levels of creatinine (27.3 vs 32.6 mmol/L, p < 0.05) and AST (344.9 vs 461.4 U/l, p < 0.01) were also higher for group B.
Descriptors: ostich, diet, metabolic profile, effect, dry matter, corn silage, commercial concentrate, fasting blood profile.

Brand, T.S. and R.M. Gous (2006). Feeding ostriches. V. Bels Feeding in Domestic Vertebrates: From Structure to Behaviour, CABI: Wallingford, UK, p. 136-155. ISBN: 1845930630; 9781845930639.
Descriptors: ostriches, feeding, grazing, feed, protein, vitamins, book chapter.

Brand, Z., T.S. Brand, and C.R. Brown (2003). The effect of different combinations of dietary energy and protein on the composition of ostrich eggs. South African Journal of Animal Science 33(3): 193-200. ISSN: 0375-1589.
Descriptors: ostrich, eggs, dietary energy, protein, different combinations, effect on composition of eggs, nutrition, breeding females.

Butkeraitis, P., C.A.F. Oliveira, D.R. Ledoux, R. Ogido, R. Albuquerque, J.F. Rosmaninho, and G.E. Rottinghaus (2004). Effect of dietary fumonisin B1 on laying Japanese quail. British Poultry Science 45(6): 798-801. ISSN: 0007-1668.
Abstract: 1. A 28-d experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1) on egg production and egg quality of young laying Japanese quail fed on fumonisin-contaminated rations. 2. To this end, 128 7-week-old birds were randomly distributed into 4 experimental groups (32 birds per group) and given rations containing 0 (control), 10, 50 and 250 mg FB1/kg feed. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 8 quail. Egg production and egg weight were checked daily. Feed consumption and feed conversion were determined weekly. Eggs laid on the last day of each 7-d period were collected and subjected to individual analysis for specific gravity, Haugh units and percentage eggshell. 3. Compared with controls, quail given greater than or equal to 50 mg FB1/kg had reduced feed intake and lower body weight gain. Feed conversion was reduced only in birds given 250 mg FB1/kg. 4. Mean egg production and egg weight were lower in birds given 250 mg FB1/kg. Eggshell weight was reduced in birds given greater than or equal to 50 mg FB1/kg. However, mean specific gravity, Haugh units and percentage eggshell were not affected by FB1. 5. No histopathological changes were observed in liver, kidney or heart samples from any treatment group. 6. The results indicated that exposure to FB1 at concentrations greater than or equal to 50 mg/kg could adversely affect quail performance, emphasising the importance of controlling fumonisin contamination of quail rations.
Descriptors: Japanese quails, laying performance, egg production, poultry feeding, fumonisin B1, feed contamination, egg weight, young animals, feed intake, feed conversion, specific gravity, egg shell quality, liveweight gain, liver, kidneys, heart, histopathology, mycotoxicosis, toxicity testing.

Carciofi, A.C., C.S. Prada, C.S. Mori, and F. Prada (2003). Evaluation of fruit and seed-based diets for parrots (Amazona spp.): II-determination of digestibility, nitrogen balance, consumption and metabolizable energy. Ars Veterinaria 19(3): 288-293. ISSN: 0102-6380.
Descriptors: Amazon parrots, fruit diets, seed based diets, evaluation, papaw, banana, corn, sunflower, energy intake, protein.
Language of Text: Portuguese.

Clarke, E., J. Wilkinson, a. Stevenson, I. Kyriazakis, and L. Alexander (2007). Feeding behaviour and diet selection in budgerigars and zebra finches. British Poultry Abstracts 3(1): 18-20. ISSN: 1746-6202.
Descriptors: zebra finches, budgerigars, feeding behavior, diet selection, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: Spring Meeting of the Worlds Poultry Science Association UK Branch, Southport, UK; July 23 -25, 2007.

Cooper, R.G. (2004). Ostrich (Struthio camelus) chick and grower nutrition. Animal Science Journal 75(6): 487-490. ISSN: 1344-3941.
Descriptors: ostrich, chick, grower, nutrition, Struthio camelus.

Cooper, R.G., K. Erlwanger, and K.M. Mahroze (2005). Nutrition of ostrich (Struthio camelus var. domesticus) breeder birds. Animal Science Journal 76(1): 5-10. ISSN: 1344-3941.
Online: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/rd.asp?code=ASJ&goto=journal
Descriptors: ostrich, nutrition, feeding, reproduction, growing, breeder birds.

Cooper, R.G. and J.O. Horbanczuk (2004). Ostrich nutrition: a review from a Zimbabwean perspective. Revue Scientifique Et Technique International Office of Epizootics 23(3): 1033-42. ISSN: 1608-0637.
Abstract: The ostrich is an important animal in many livestock industries and, in the developing world, the export of meat and skins is a valuable source of foreign currency. As the successful growth and reproductive performance of ostriches depends on good nutrition it is extremely important to provide the correct diet. Some researchers have incorrectly assumed that poultry diets are useful for ostriches, but the vitamin and mineral requirements of these birds are unique and their diets should never be substituted with poultry or other livestock feeds. Producers should be knowledgeable about how different ingredients provide the essential nutrients for growth and development. Adequate nutrition is key to good flock performance and more research into ostrich nutrition is required. In Zimbabwe, one of the greatest costs involved in the keep of ostrich breeder birds is purchased feed, which can cost approximately US$ 4,555 for every 10 birds per annum. In order to cover these costs, the producer needs to ensure an adequate supply of birds for slaughter.
Descriptors: ostrich nutrition, animal feed analysis, animal nutrition physiology, reproduction physiology, struthioniformes physiology, nutritional requirements, struthioniformes embryology, Struthioniformes growth, development, weight gain, Zimbabwe.

Cooper, R.G., J.O. Horbanczuk, and N. Fujihara (2004). Nutrition and feed management of the ostrich (Struthio camelus var. domesticus). Animal Science Journal 75(3): 175-181. ISSN: 1344-3941.
Descriptors: ostrich, feed management, nutrition, growth, reproduction, energy.

Cooper, R.G., K.M. Mahrose, J.O. Horbanczuk, and K.H. Erlwanger (2004). Nutrition of ostrich (Struthio camelus var. domesticus) breeder birds. Egyptian Poultry Science Journal 24(3): 675-685. ISSN: 1110-5623.
Descriptors: ostriches, nutrition, breeder birds, growth, reproduction.
Language of Text: Arabic.

Cooper, R.G., K.M. Mahrose, and I.F.M. Marai (2004). Nutrition of the ostrich (Struthio camelus var. domesticus). Proceedings of the 11th Ostrich World Congress, Island Great Brijun, Croatia, 15 17 October 2004: 46-59.
Descriptors: ostrich, nutrition, feeding, farming, reproduction, conference prodeedings.
Notes: Meeting Information: Proceedings of the 11th Ostrich World Congress, Island Great Brijun, Croatia, 15-17 October 2004.

Cooper, R.G. (2004). Ostrich (Struthio camelus) chick and grower nutrition. Animal Science Journal 75(6): 487-490. ISSN: 1344-3941.
Descriptors: ostrich, chick, grower nutrition, breeding, hatching, diet, protein, energy.

Cooper, R.G., J.O. Horbanczuk, and N. Fujihara (2004). Nutrition and feed management in the ostrich (Struthio camelus var. Domesticus). Animal Science Journal 75(3): 175-181. ISSN: 1344-3941.
Descriptors: ostrich, nutrition, feed, management, growth, development.

Cornejo, J. and P. Wolf (2005). Triclaria malachitacea at Loro Parque Fundacion, Tenerife. [Quantitative review of the diet of the purple-bellied parrot]. International Zoo Yearbook 39: 99-108. ISSN: 0074-9664.
Descriptors: purple bellied parrot, diet, review, nutrition, feeding.
Language of Text: Unknown.

De Azevedo, C.S., H.P. Tinoco, J.B. Ferraz, and R.J. Young (2006). The fishing rhea: a new food item in the diet of wild greater rheas (Rhea americana, Rheidae, Aves). Revista Brasileira De Ornitologia 14(3): 285-287. ISSN: 0103-5657.
Descriptors: greater rheas, fishing, new food item, diet, wild, Rhea americana.

Dorey, C.K., L. Granata, C.R. Nichols, K.M. Cheng, and N.E. Craft (2005). Dietary modulation of lens zeaxanthin in quail. Experimental Eye Research 81(4): 464-77. ISSN: 0014-4835.
Abstract: Although higher dietary intake of lutein/zeaxanthin has been associated with reduced risk for cataracts, the impact of dietary supplements on lens lutein (L) or zeaxanthin (Z) has not been examined. If higher lens carotenoids do reduce risk for cataract, it would be essential to know whether dietary carotenoids can elevate carotenoids in the adult vertebrate lens. In this study, a covey of Japanese quail were hatched and raised 6 months on carotenoid-deficient diet, then switched to deficient diet supplemented with low or high 3R,3R'-zeaxanthin (5 or 35 mgkg(-1) food) or beta-carotene (50 mgkg(-1) food). Controls included a group of covey-mates that remained on the deficient diet and another raised from birth on the high Z (35 mg Zkg(-1)) diet. At 1 year of age, carotenoids and tocopherols in the lens and in the serum were analysed by HPLC, and compared by analysis of variance. Serum Z was significantly elevated in deficient birds fed the lower or higher Z supplement for 6 months (P<0.0001 for each). Serum Z in birds maintained on the higher Z supplement for 1 year was much higher than that in deficient birds (P<0.0001), but not different from deficient birds given the higher Z supplement. As in humans, the predominant lens carotenoids were lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z), and the total carotenoid concentration was of lower magnitude than the concentration of alpha-tocopherol. Responses to Z supplementation were sex-related. Female quail had 5-10 times higher serum concentrations of both Z and L than males (P<0.0001, <0.001), and they also had higher lens Z concentrations than males (P<0.0006); possible effects of estrogen on lens carotenoids are discussed. Lens Z concentration was strongly and positively correlated with serum Z in females (r=0.77; P<0.002). Deficient adult females supplemented with the 35 mgkg(-1) dose of Z for 6 months had a mean lens Z concentration (0.252+/-0.06 microgg(-1) protein) close to that in females fed with the supplement from birth (0.282+/-0.15 microgg(-1) protein). Birds fed with the higher dietary Z supplement for 6 or 12 months had significantly higher lens Z than birds fed lower or no dietary Z (P<0.0001). Lens L was not altered by dietary supplementation with either Z or beta-carotene. beta-Carotene supplements did not result in detectable lens beta-carotene, and had no effect on lens Z. Neither Z nor beta-carotene supplementation had a significant effect on serum or lens tocopherol concentrations. These studies in quail provide the first experimental evidence that lens carotenoids in adult vertebrates can be manipulated by dietary Z supplements.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, dietary supplements, lens, crystalline metabolism, beta carotene analogs, derivatives, carotenoids deficiency, chromatography, Coturnix, lutein blood, lutein pharmacokinetics, sex factors, tocopherols blood, tocopherols metabolism, xanthophylls, beta carotene administration and dosage, beta carotene blood, beta carotene deficiency, beta carotene pharmacokinetics.

Fridrich, A.B. (2005). Exigencia de proteina bruta para codornas europeias no periodo de crescimento. [Crude protein requirements for European quails during the growing period.]. Arquivo Brasileiro De Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia 57(2): 261-265. ISSN: 0102-0935.
Descriptors: quails, crude protein, nutritional requirements, animal performance, proximate composition, birds, domestic animals, galliformes, livestock, physiological requirements, poultry, proximate composition.
Language of Text: Portuguese, summaries in English and Portuguese.

Guclu, B.K., K.M. Iscan, F. Uyanik, M. Eren, and A.C. Agca (2004). Effect of alfalfa meal in diets of laying quails on performance, egg quality and some serum parameters. Archives of Animal Nutrition 58(3): 255-63. ISSN: 1745-039X.
Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of increasing levels of alfalfa meal in the diet of laying quails on egg production, feed consumption, feed efficiency, egg quality, egg yolk cholesterol and selected serum parameters. In this study, 192, 10-week old quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were evenly distributed to four groups with four replicates of 12 quails each. The control group was fed a basal diet containing 0% alfalfa meal and the remaining groups received 3, 6 or 9% alfalfa meal for 12 weeks. Live weight, feed consumption, and egg production were recorded and feed efficiency were calculated. Eggs were examined for interior and exterior quality and egg yolk cholesterol content. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected and sera were analysed for serum Ca, inorganic P (P(i)), Mg, triglycerides and total cholesterol. Any level of alfalfa meal had no effect on live weight, egg production, feed consumption, feed efficiency, egg weight, and egg yolk index. Six percent and 9% alfalfa meal increased specific gravity of whole egg and eggshell thickness as well as serum P(i) levels. Nine percent alfalfa meal reduced serum triglycerides, total cholesterol levels and egg yolk cholesterol content. The results of this experiment indicated that addition of 9% alfalfa meal into the laying quail diet may improve eggshell quality and reduced serum triglycerides and serum and egg yolk cholesterol without any adverse effect on performance.
Descriptors: quail, alfalfa meal diets, effect, laying performance, egg quality, serum parameters, coturnix, blood samples, triglycerides, cholesterol.

Guler, T., O.N. Ertas, M. Ciftci, and B. Dalkilic (2005). The effect of coriander seed (Coriandrum sativum L.) as diet ingredient on the performance of Japanese quail. South African Journal of Animal Science. 35(4): 261-267.
Descriptors: quails, diet, coriander, antibiotics, turkey, birds, flavorings, Galliformes, Europe.

Hooda, S., P.K. Tyagi, J. Mohan, A.B. Mandal, A.V. Elangovan, and K.T. Pramod (2007). Effects of supplemental vitamin E in diet of Japanese quail on male reproduction, fertility and hatchability. British Poultry Science 48(1): 104-110. ISSN: 0007-1668.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, supplemental vitamin E, effects, male reproduction, fertility, hatchability, diet.

Ipek, A., O. Canbolat, and A. Karabulut (2007). The effect of vitamin E and vitamin C on the performance of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) reared under heat stress during growth and egg production period. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 20(2): 252-256. ISSN: 1011-2367.
Descriptors: Japanese quails, ascorbic acid, vitamin E, poultry feeding, heat stress, effect, growth, egg production.

Kalmar, I.D., G. Werquin, and G.P.J. Janssens (2007). Apparent nutrient digestibility and excreta quality in African grey parrots fed two pelleted diets based on coarsely or finely ground ingredients. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 91(5-6): 210-216. ISSN: 0931-2439.
Abstract: A feeding trial was performed to study the influence of particle size in extruded parrot pellets on apparent digestibility and excreta consistency and pH. Two test diets were alternately provided to eight African grey parrots according to a 2 x 2 cross-over design. Both diets were similar in nutrient content and ingredient composition but differed in particle size of the composing particles of individual pellets. Apparent digestibility of macronutrients was studied using the total collection method. Next, the appearance of the excreta was studied by calculation of weight-surface ratio of individual excrements as an objective measurement of consistency. Last, excreta pH was measured directly on fresh excrements and on homogenized 10% excreta solutions. Neither apparent digestibility coefficients nor excreta pH values were significantly different in parrots fed the two diets. However, excreta consistency was significantly (p < 0.05) more solid when fed the coarse diet than when fed with the finely ground diet. The results of this study suggest that excreta consistency can be improved through larger particle size, without adverse effects on nutritive value of the diet.
Descriptors: nutrition, digestibility, particle size, pellets, psittacine, African grey parrot, excreta consistency, pelleted diets, nutrient digestibility.

Kangas, B.D. and M.N. Branch (2006). Stability of pigeon body weight under free-feeding conditions. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 86(3): 393-396. ISSN: 0022-5002.
Descriptors: pigeon, body weight, free feeding conditions, stability.

Karadas, F., P. Surai, E. Grammenidis, N.H.C. Sparks, and T. Acamovic (2006). Supplementation of the maternal diet with tomato powder and marigold extract: effects on the antioxidant system of the developing quail. British Poultry Science 47(2): 200-208. ISSN: 0007-1668.
Abstract: 1. The effects of natural dietary carotenoid supplementation of the maternal diet (tomato powder and marigold extract) on transfer to the egg yolk and on the development of the antioxidant system of the young quail liver in early postnatal life were investigated. 2. Sixty Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were allocated to four treatment groups, each with three replicates consisting of four females and one male each. The quail were fed on one of four different diets for 23 d, each of them based on a low carotenoid, wheat/barley-based control diet. Tomato powder and marigold extract were added at rates of 20 and 2 g/kg to treatments 2 and 3, respectively. Marigold extract and tomato powder were also used in combination in treatment 4 at 2 g marigold + 20 g tomato powder/kg of diet. 3. At 20 weeks of age, 60 eggs from each treatment were collected and placed in an incubator. After hatching, d-old quail from each group were reared (under standard commercial conditions) up to 14 d of age. They were fed on a low-carotenoid commercial diet. After hatch, at 1, 7 and 14 d, the livers of five young quail from each treatment were assessed for total carotenoid concentration and carotenoid profile. 4. Results indicated that lycopene is transferred from the feed to the egg yolk and further to the liver of the developing embryo. Elevated carotenoid concentration in the egg yolk and correspondingly in the liver of newly hatched quail remains significant during first week posthatch. 5. Lutein and lycopene did not affect vitamin E concentration in the egg yolk or liver of the newly hatched quail. A combination of increased concentrations of lycopene and lutein in the egg yolk results in elevated concentrations of coenzyme Q in the liver of the newly hatched quail.
Descriptors: Japanese quails, poultry feeding, maternal nutrition, feed supplements, tomato products, powdered foods, plant extracts, Tagetes, antioxidants, chicks, lycopene, egg yolk composition, postnatal development, wheat , feed barley, liver, lutein, vitamin E, ubiquinones.

Kaur, S., A.B. Mandal, K.B. Singh, M.M. Kadam, and A.V. Elangovan (2007). Response of laying Japanese quails to graded levels of essential amino acids profile with reduced dietary protein. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 87(5): 751-759. ISSN: 0022-5142.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, dietary protein, essential amino acids, graded levels, response, laying quail.

Kaur, S., A.B. Mandal, K.B. Singh, and R. Narayan (2006). Responses of growing Japanese quails (heavy body weight line) to graded levels of essential amino acid concentrations in diets with or without fishmeal. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 86(2): 320-327. ISSN: 0022-5142.
Abstract: The influence of dietary amino acid profile on growth and immune response was investigated in growing quails (n = 928) divided into 24 subgroups. Eight dietary treatments with four levels of essential amino acids (EAA), viz. 90, 100, 110 and 120% of NRC, each with or without fishmeal (FM), were formulated following a four (EAA levels) times two (protein type) factorial design. Each treatment was allotted to three replicates up to 5weeks of age. After 5weeks of age 10 quails were randomly sacrificed from each treatment to study the relative weight of immune organs. Live weight gain was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in diets containing 120% EAA with or without FM and 110% EAA with FM during 0 to 21 days of age. However, live weight gain from 21 to 35 days of age was higher (P < 0.01) in quails received diets containing 90% EAA with or without FM and 100% EAA without FM than in other dietary treatments. Live weight gain increased linearly (P < 0.01) with the increase in EAA levels overall (0-35 days). Feed intake was higher (P < 0.01) in diets with higher EAA levels (110 and 120%) from 0 to 21 days. The interaction of EAA and protein type influenced (P < 0.05) feed intake from 21 to 35 days of age. There was linear decrease (P < 0.01) in feed intake with the lowering of EAA level up to 100% during 0 to 35 days. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was better (P < 0.01) up to day 21 at higher EAA levels (110 or 120%) while during days 21 to 35 better FCR was calculated (P < 0.01) in diet with low EAA levels (90 or 100%). FCR was improved in all vegetable protein diet in comparison with FM diet. Energy efficiency up to 21 days of age was better (P < 0.01) at high EAA levels (110 and 120%), while thereafter better at low (P < 0.01) EAA levels (90 and 100%). Protein efficiency improved linearly (P < 0.01) with decreasing EAA level. Humoral (SRBC) and cellular (PHA-P) immune response did not differ in response to EAA levels or protein type. Higher (P < 0.01) relative weight of spleen was recorded at 100% EAA level, while the relative weight of thymus was higher in diet containing 110% EAA level withhout fishmeal.
Descriptors: Japanese quails, growing, responses, essential amino acids, diet concentration, body weight, immune response.

Kelly, D.J. and N.M. Marples (2004). The effects of novel odour and colour cues on food acceptance by the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata. Animal Behaviour 68(5): 1049-1054. ISSN: 0003-3472.
Descriptors: zebra finch, food acceptance, color cues, novel odor, effects, eating behavior.

Mandal, A.B., A.V. Elangovan, P.K. Tyagi, P.K. Tyagi, A.K. Johri, and S. Kaur (2005). Effect of enzyme supplementation on the metabolisable energy content of solvent-extracted rapeseed and sunflower seed meals for chicken, guinea fowl and quail. British Poultry Science 46(1): 75-79. ISSN: 0007-1668.
Descriptors: cockerels, guineafowl, quails, poultry feeding, feed supplements, digestive enzymes, metabolizable energy, rapeseed meal, sunflower meal, feed intake, poultry manure, extraction, feed processing, animal models, model validation.

Mandal, A.B., S. Kaur, A.K. Johri, A.V. Elangovan, C. Deo, and H.P. Shrivastava (2006). Response of growing Japanese quails to dietary concentration of L-threonine. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 86(5): 793-798. ISSN: 0022-5142.
Abstract: The influence of dietary levels of L-threonine (Thr) on growth and immune response was investigated in growing (0-5 weeks of age) Japanese quails (n = 288). Three dietary treatments were formulated using three levels of Thr [9.6, 10.2 and 11.2 kg-1 diet dry matter (DM)] at a fixed protein level of 233 g kg-1 and an energy level of 12.15 MJ (2900 kcal) metabolizable energy (ME) kg-1 feed dry matter. A metabolism trial with a 3-day collection period was conducted at the third week of age employing all the birds. The cell-mediated (using PHA-P) and humoral (SRBC response) immune responses were measured at the fourth week of age. Carcass traits were assessed at the end of fifth week of age. Body weight gain was lower (P < 0.01) in birds received 9.6 g Thr kg-1 DM than in groups fed 10.2 g or 11.2 g kg-1 DM in the diet, but there was no significant difference in gain between the groups fed 10.2 or 11.2 g Thr kg-1 DM in the diet. Feed intake differed significantly owing to Thr levels being lowest (P < 0.05) at 9.6 g Thr kg-1 DM in the diet. Feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency and energy efficiency improved at the 11.2 g kg-1 level from 0 to 3 weeks of age; however, from 3 to 5 weeks of age, better FCR emanated from a diet with 9.6 g Thr kg-1 DM. The nitrogen balance did not differ (P > 0.05) with Thr level. Carcass traits, relative weight of immune organs and cell-mediated (PHA-P) and humoral (SRBC response) immune responses did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) as a result of the dietary treatments.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, growing response, L threonine, dietary concentration, immune response, dietary treatments.

Matson, K.D. and E.A. Koutsos (2006). Captive parrot nutrition: interactions with anatomy, physiology, and behavior. Manual of Parrot Behavior. Blackwell Publishing, 9600 Garsington Rd, Oxford OX4 2DQ, Oxen, UK, p. 49-58. ISBN: 0813827493.
Descriptors: captive parrot, nutrition, behavior, anatomy, physiology, interactions, book chapter.

Morata, R.L., T.M.M. Machado, L.F.T. Albino, H.S. Rostagno, E. Detmann, L.T.d.O. Fernandes, H.N. Parente, K.V. Antunes, A.C. Almeida, and A.C. Csermak Junior (2006). Tecnicas de avaliacao dos valores energeticos e dos coeficientes de digestibilidade de alguns alimentos para emas (Rhea americana) em crescimento. [Techniques of evaluation of the energy values and the coefficients of digestibility of some feedstuffs for growing greater rhea (Rhea americana). Revista Brasileira De Zootecnia 35(4): 1381-1388. ISSN: 1516-3598.
Descriptors: rhea, energy values, digestibility, feedstuffs, growing, evaluation techniques, Rhea americana.
Language of Text: Portuguese, summary in English.

Munshi South, J. and G.S. Wilkinson (2006). Diet influences life span in parrots (psittaciformes). Auk 123(1): 108-118. ISSN: 0004-8038.
Descriptors: parrots, diet, influences, life span, nutrition, mortality.

Mushi, E.Z., M.G. Binta, and R.G. Chabo (2004). Yolk sac utilization in ostrich (Struthio camelus) chicks. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 71(3): 247-9. ISSN: 0030-2465.
Abstract: The mass of residual yolk sac expressed as a percentage of initial mass of the egg from which the chick hatched decreased sharply in the first 2 days post-hatching. A gradual reduction occurred between 3 and 10 days after which a sharp decline was noted between 11 and 13 days post-hatching. The highest number of chicks with unabsorbed yolk sac was noted on day 5 post-hatching followed by days 6 and 7. Chick mortality followed the same pattern. The dynamics, causes and clinical consequences of yolk sac utilization are discussed.
Descriptors: ostrich, chicks, yolk sac utilization, struthioniformes growth, development, yolk sac metabolism, age, struthioniformes embryology, days.

Nheta, C., J.H. Topps, K. Dzama, J. Kusina, and P.H. Mugabe (2005). In vitro digestibility using caecal liquor of diets containing poor quality roughages and green forages fed to domesticated ostriches (Struthio camelus var. domestricus). Animal Feed Science and Technology 119(3-4): 283-291. ISSN: 0377-8401.
Descriptors: in vitro digestibility, ostriches, forage composition, alternative livestock, livestock feeding, dietary fiber, forage, metabolizable energy, experimental diets, cecum, digestive juices, digestibility, forage quality, Tilly and Terry-method.

Nowaczewski, S., H. Kontecka, and E. Pruszynska Oszmaek (2006). Effect of feed supplementation with vitamin C on haematological indices, corticosterone concentration in blood and duration of tonic immobility in pheasants. Annals of Animal Science 6(1): 117-128. ISSN: 1642-3402.
Descriptors: pheasants, feed supplementation, vitamin C, effect, hematological indices, corticosterone concentration, blood, tonic immobility.
Language of Text: Polish.

Paoletti, G. and S. Puig (2007). Diet of the Lesser Rhea (Pterocnemia pennata) and availability of food in the Andean Precordillera (Mendoza, Argentina). Emu Austral Ornithology 107(1): 52-58. ISSN: 0158-4197.
Online: http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/96/paper/MU05042.htm
Descriptors: lesser rhea, diet, food availability, Pterocnemia pennata, Argentina.

Rutstein, A.N., P.J. Slater, and J.A. Graves (2004). Diet quality and resource allocation in the zebra finch. Proceedings. Biological Sciences The Royal Society 271(Suppl 5): S286-9. ISSN: 0080-4649.
Abstract: We investigated the effect of diet quality on resource allocation in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) by providing females with a high-quality (HQ) or low-quality (LQ) diet for six weeks prior to pairing, and continuing these diets during egg laying and chick rearing. Diet treatments were then reversed and the experiment repeated. When females laid on the HQ diet, egg mass increased with laying order, but the reverse was true on the LQ diet. Females laid significantly more male eggs on the LQ diet compared with on the HQ diet. In addition, female eggs were more frequent at the end of the clutch when on the HQ diet and at the beginning of the clutch when on the LQ diet. These differences in the primary sex ratio are in line with predictions from sex allocation theory, since in this species females are more vulnerable to nutritional stress than males.
Descriptors: zebra finch, animal nutrition physiology, finches physiology, ovum growth, development, sex ratio, body weight, diet quality, resource allocation, litter size.

Sahin, K., M. Onderci, N. Sahin, T.A. Balci, M.F. Gursu, V. Juturu, and O. Kucuk (2006). Dietary arginine silicate inositol complex improves bone mineralization in quail. Poultry Science 85(3): 486-92. ISSN: 0032-5791.
Abstract: Skeletal abnormalities, low bone mass, bone deformities, and bone fractures increase the risk of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, which are of concern from both a public standpoint and a cost-of-care burden standpoint. Arginine silicate inositol complex (ASI; Arg = 49.47%, silicone = 8.2%, inositol = 25%) is a novel, bioavailable source of Si and Arg and one that offers potential benefits for vascular and bone health. Skeletal abnormalities and architectural deterioration of bone tissue are common under hot climate conditions in the poultry industry. In this study, we evaluated the effects of ASI supplementation on performance and bone mineral density (BMD) in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) exposed to the high ambient temperature of 34 degrees C. The birds (n = 180; 10 d old) were randomly assigned to 6 treatment groups consisting of 10 replicates of 3 birds. Birds were kept in wire cages in a temperature-controlled room at either 22 degrees C (thermoneutral; TN) or 34 degrees C (heat stress; HS) for 8 h/d (0900 to 1700 h until the end of study) and were fed a basal (control) diet or the basal diet supplemented with either 500 or 1,000 mg of ASI/kg of diet. Heat exposure decreased performance and bone mineralization when the basal diet was fed (P = 0.001). The ASI supplement had no effect on feed intake, BW, feed efficiency, and carcass traits (P > 0.05) in quails reared under TN or HS conditions. The BMD was significantly improved by ASI supplementation in both TN and HS groups [0.72 (TN) vs. 0.60 (HS); P < or = 0.05]. Serum osteocalcin, dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase activity increased, whereas tumor necrosis factor-alpha and Creactive protein concentrations decreased, as dietary ASI supplementation increased in quail reared under HS. This improvement was linear with increased doses of supplement (P = 0.001). In the ASI group, the amount of Ca, P, Mg, and Mn in the excreta decreased (P < or = 0.05), and the concentrations of these minerals in tibia ash increased in quail reared under HS conditions (P < or = 0.05). In conclusion, ASI supplementation to the basal diet significantly improved bone mineralization in quail and did not impact feed consumption, BW gain, or feed efficiency.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, diet, bone mineralization, arginine silicate inositol, dietary, calcification, coturnix physiology, bone density, coturnix growth, development, metabolism, dietary supplements.

Sahin, K., M. Onderci, N. Sahin, F. Gulcu, N. Yildiz, M. Avci, and O. Kucuk (2006). Responses of quail to dietary Vitamin E and zinc picolinate at different environmental temperatures. Animal Feed Science and Technology 129(1-2): 39-48. ISSN: 0377-8401.
Descriptors: quails, food animals, feed supplements, nutrient intake, vitamin E, zinc, chelates, ambient temperature, carcass quality, liveweight gain, lipid peroxidation, ascorbic acid, cholesterol, heat stress, feed intake, feed conversion, body weight, poultry feeding, nutritional status.

Sahin, K., R. Ozercan, M. Onderci, N. Sahin, M.F. Gursu, F. Khachik, F.H. Sarkar, A. Munkarah, R. Ali Fehmi, D. Kmak, and O. Kucuk (2004). Lycopene supplementation prevents the development of spontaneous smooth muscle tumors of the oviduct in Japanese quail. Nutrition and Cancer 50(2): 181-9. ISSN: 0163-5581.
Abstract: Leiomyomas (fibroids) are benign tumors of the uterus affecting millions of women. Spontaneous leiomyomas of the oviduct are common tumors of the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), which makes it a good animal model for screening potential agents for testing in the prevention and treatment of human myoma uteri. Because dietary intake of lycopene has been associated with a reduced risk of a variety of human cancers, we investigated the effects of lycopene supplementation on the development of leiomyomas in the oviduct of Japanese quail. We also measured serum levels of oxidative stress markers [malondialdehyde (MDA) and homocysteine], lycopene, vitamins C, E, and A, and tissue biomarkers Bcl-2 and Bax expression. One hundred twenty quails (6 mo old) were assigned to 3 treatment groups consisting of 4 replicates of 10 birds in each group. Birds were fed either a basal diet (group C) or the basal diet supplemented with 100 mg (group L1) or 200 mg (group L2) of lycopene per kilogram of diet. The animals were sacrificed after 285 days and the tumors were identified. Lycopene supplementation decreased the number of leiomyomas compared with control subjects (P=0.056). The tumors in lycopene-fed birds were smaller than those found in control birds (P=0.01). There were no significant differences in the expression of tissue Bcl-2 and Bax among the study groups. Serum vitamins C, E, and A increased (P=0.01), whereas MDA and homocysteine concentrations decreased (P=0.01) with lycopene supplementation. No measurable lycopene could be detected in the serum of control birds, whereas a dose-dependent increase was observed in the serum of lycopene-supplemented birds. The results indicate that dietary supplementation with lycopene reduces the incidence and size of spontaneously occurring leiomyoma of the oviduct in the Japanese quail. Clinical trials should be conducted to investigate the efficacy of lycopene supplementation in the prevention and treatment of uterine leiomyoma in humans.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, smooth muscle tumors, oviduct, lycopene supplementation, prevents decelopment, fibroids, leiomyomas, animal model.

Sahin, N., M. Onderci, K. Sahin, G. Cikim, and O. Kucuk (2005). Magnesium proteinate is more protective than magnesium oxide in heat-stressed-quail. Journal of Nutrition 135(7): 1732-1737.
Abstract: We evaluated the effects of dietary supplementation with Mg-oxide and Mg-proteinate on performance; nutrient digestibilities; malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in serum, liver, and thigh meat; and serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) exposed to high ambient temperature. The birds (n = 360; 10 d old) were randomly assigned to 12 treatment groups consisting of 6 replicates of 5 birds each in a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial arrangement (temperature, Mg source, Mg level). Birds were maintained in temperature-controlled rooms at 22degrees C for 24 h/d or 34degrees C for 8 h/d (0900-1700 h) and fed a basal diet or that diet supplemented with 1 or 2 g Mg-oxide or Mg-proteinate/kg of diet. Heat exposure decreased (P = 0.0001) live weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, and carcass weight in quail fed the basal diet. A linear increase in feed intake (P = 0.008) and body weight (P = 0.001), and improvements in feed efficiency (P = 0.001), carcass weight (P < 0.0001), digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and ether extract were found in Mg-supplemented, heat-stressed quail. The effects of Mg-proteinate were greater than those of Mg-oxide (P </= 0.0001). Serum Mg (P = 0.001) concentration increased, whereas the concentration of MDA in serum (P = 0.0001), liver (P = 0.04), and thigh meat (P = 0.0001) and serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations decreased linearly (P = 0.001) with the level of Mg in the diet. Interactions between dietary Mg source, temperature, and level of supplementation (P </= 0.05) were found for several variables. Results of the present study suggest that supplementation with Mg-proteinate is more protective than Mg-oxide in reducing the negative effects of heat stress in quail.
Descriptors: Japanese quails, magnesium oxide, magnesium, heat stress, animal growth, digestibility, liver, lipid peroxidation, poultry meat, dietary mineral supplements, malondialdehyde, blood chemistry, thighs, cholesterol, triacylglycerols, feed intake, liveweight gain, feed conversion, carcass weight, protective effect, magnesium proteinate.

Sahin, N., K. Sahin, M. Onderci, M.F. Gursu, G. Cikim, J. Vijaya, and O. Kucuk (2005). Chromium picolinate, rather than biotin, alleviates performance and metabolic parameters in heat-stressed quail. British Poultry Science 46(4): 457-463. ISSN: 0007-1668.
Abstract: 1. The effects of chromium picolinate and biotin supplementation alone and in combination on performance, carcase characteristics, malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamin C, vitamin E, glucose and cholesterol levels were evaluated in Japanese quail exposed to high ambient temperature. 2. Two hundred and forty quails (10 d old) were assigned randomly to 4 dietary treatments at room temperature (22 degrees C; thermoneutral, TN) or ambient (34 degrees C for 8 h/d; heat stress, HS). Both TN and HS were fed either on a basal (control) diet or the basal diet supplemented with 400 microgram of Cr/kg (Cr group), 0.5 mg of biotin/kg of diet (biotin group) or both (Cr + Biotin group). 3. Supplementing the diet of heat-stressed quails with chromium picolinate improved live weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency and carcase traits. Biotin supplementation during TN and HS conditions did not have any beneficial effects on body weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency or carcase traits. 4. Either in combination or alone, chromium picolinate increased serum concentrations of vitamins C and E, but decreased MDA, glucose and cholesterol concentrations in birds kept at high ambient temperature. There was no difference in vitamins C and E and MDA concentrations between birds given chromium picolinate and birds receiving chromium picolinate plus biotin, while glucose and cholesterol levels were significantly lower in all groups. The lowest concentrations of cholesterol and glucose were found in the combination group under both TN and HS conditions. An interaction between diet and temperature was detected for glucose and cholesterol concentrations. 5. Excretion rates for zinc, iron and chromium were lower in TN groups than in the corresponding HS groups. Supplementing diet with chromium picolinate and chromium picolinate plus biotin decreased excretion of minerals while biotin alone did not effect excretion of minerals. 6. Chromium supplementation, but not biotin supplementation, attenuated the decline in performance and antioxidant status resulting from heat stress.
Descriptors: Japanese quails, food animals, feed supplements, poultry feeding, heat stress, ambient temperature, picolinic acid, biotin, carcass characteristics, animal performance, malondialdehyde, ascorbic acid, vitamin E, glucose, cholesterol , liveweight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, carcass quality, blood chemistry, zinc, iron, chromium, excretion, chromium picolinate.

Sahin, N., K. Sahin, M. Onderci, M. Karatepe, M.O. Smith, and O. Kucuk (2006). Effects of dietary lycopene and vitamin E on egg prodcution, antioxidant status and cholesterol levels in Japanese quail. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 19(2): 224-230. ISSN: 1011-2367.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, feed additives, laying performance, egg yolk composition, malondialdehyde, egg quality.

Sakamoto, M.I., A.E. Murakami, L.M.G.d. Souza, J.R.G. Franco, L.D.G. Bruno, and A.C. Furlan (2006). Valor energetico de alguns alimentos alternativos para codornas japonesas. [Energy value of some alternative feedstuffs for Japanese quails]. Revista Brasileira De Zootecnia 35(3): 818-821. ISSN: 1516-3598.
Descriptors: japanese quail, alternative feedstuffs, energy value, oats, barley, feeding, Nutrition.
Language of Text: Portuguese, summary in English.

Sales, J. (2006). Feeding of the captive kiwi. Zoos Print Journal 21(11): 2454-2458. ISSN: 0973-2535.
Descriptors: captive kiwi, feeding, rearing, nutrition, diet, conservation, New Zealand.

Sehu, A., S. Cakir, O. Cengiz, and D. Essiz (2005). MYCOTOX and aflatoxicosis in quails. [Erratum: 2006 Apr., v. 47, no. 2, p. 247.]. British Poultry Science 46(4): 520-524. ISSN: 0007-1668.
Abstract: 1. This study was to evaluate the toxic effects of aflatoxin (AF) on growth performance of quail, and to determine the preventive efficacy of MYCOTOX (oxicinol, tymol, micronised yeast). 2. One hundred and eighty 1-d-old quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) of both sexes were weighed and randomly divided into 4 experimental groups each with 5 replicates of 9 birds. 3. There were 4 dietary treatments: (1) control with 0 mg AF/kg diet and 0% MYCOTOX; (2) 0 mg AF/kg diet and 0.5% MYCOTOX; (3) 2.5 mg AF/kg diet and 0% MYCOTOX; (4) 2.5 mg AF/kg diet plus 0.5% MYCOTOX. The chicks were maintained on these treatments to 3 weeks of age. Quail consumed the diets and water ad libitum. 4. Body weight (BW) gains in groups receiving AF alone were the lowest at all periods. Feed intake was lowest in the group consuming the AF diet. The addition of MYCOTOX to the AF diet did not prevent or reduce the toxic effects of AF on feed intake at any time period. Feeding diets containing MYCOTOX alone did not change feed intake significantly. With the exception of the 1 to 7 d period, feed conversion of chicks fed the AF diet was similar to those of the other experimental groups. 5. Bursa of Fabricius weight decreased, whereas the relative weights of liver, kidney and spleen increased in quail consuming diets containing AF and AF plus MYCOTOX. Liver colour was normal in the control and MYCOTOX alone group, but was lighter in groups fed AF. 6. The results indicated that MYCOTOX was not effective in preventing the deleterious effects of AF.
Descriptors: Japanese quails, food animals, aflatoxicosis, aflatoxins, feed supplements, body weight, feed intake, feed conversion, bursa of Fabricius, tissue weight, liver, kidneys, spleen, color, oxicinol, tymol, micronized yeast, toxicosis prevention.

Sehu, A., O. Cengiz, and S. Cakir (2005). The effects of diets including different energy and protein levels on egg production and quality in quails. Indian Veterinary Journal 82(12): 1291-1294. ISSN: 0019-6479.
Descriptors: quail, diets, different energy levels, protein levels, effects, egg production.

Surai, P.F., F. Karadas, A.C. Pappas, and N.H.C. Sparks (2006). Effect of organic selenium in quail diet on its accumulation in tissues and transfer to the progeny. British Poultry Science 47(1): 65-72. ISSN: 0007-1668.
Descriptors: quails, selenium, dietary minerals, egg products, chicks, maternal nutrition, dietary mineral supplements, poultry feeding, selenites , corn, egg albumen, egg yolk, egg yolk composition, egg shell, quail eggs.

Tarhan, S. and M. Sezer (2004). A mathematical model for the feed utilization of japanese quail. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences 13(3): 509-518. ISSN: 1230-1388.
Descriptors: quail, feed utilization, mathematical model, study.

Taylor, S. and M.R. Perrin (2006). The diet of the brown-headed parrot (Poicephalus cryptoxanthus) in the wild in southern Africa. Ostrich 77(3-4): 179-185. ISSN: 0030-6525.
Descriptors: brown-headed parrot, diet, wild, southern Africa, Poicephalus cryptoxanthus.

Tyufekciev, K., P. Marinova, M. Ignatova, and I. Kitanov (2005). Influence of the nutritional additive OVOCAP in pheasants II. Physicochemical composition of m. pectoralis and m. biceps femoris. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science. 11(5): 595-601. ISSN: 1310-0351.
Descriptors: pheasants, feed additives, muscles, chemicophysical properties, additives, birds, galliformes, musculoskeletal system.
Language of Text: Summary in English.

Werquin, G.J., K.J. De Cock, and P.G. Ghysels (2005). Comparison of the nutrient analysis and caloric density of 30 commercial seed mixtures (in toto and dehulled) with 27 commercial diets for parrots. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 89(3-6): 215-21. ISSN: 0931-2439.
Abstract: In this paper, an overview is given of the composition of 30 commercially available parrot seed mixtures. As parrots dehull the seeds, the analysis of the total seed mixture tends to differ from that of the ingested feed. Statistical evaluation and comparison of the dehulled seeds vs. the whole seeds indicates that most parrot species are fed a diet rich in fat (31.7 +/- 13.1% crude fat) and energy (22.4 +/- 2.9 MJ ME/kg). As the analysis of the total seed mixtures underestimates fat and energy content of the ingested feed, it is suggested that researchers, bird nutritionists and bird food producers should calculate diets based on the analysis of the dehulled seeds. Finally, the calculated data were compared with the composition of formulated pelleted/extruded diets on the market. These data indicate that the energy density of most diets (15.6 +/- 1.4 MJ ME/kg) is far below the energy density of common seed mixtures.
Descriptors: parrots, nutrient analysis, caloric density, comparison study, commercial feed mixtures, commercial diets, fat, energy.

Wolf, P. and J. Kamphues (2005). Fuetterung von Papageien unter praxisueblichen Bedingungen. [The feeding of parrots, with practical considerations.]. Gefiederte Welt 129(8): 240-244. ISSN: 0016-5816.
Descriptors: parrots, feeding, practical considerations, nutrition.
Language of Text: German, summary in German.

 

 

Back to Top  
<< Table of Contents << Previous |  Next >>
Last Modified: Jan 23, 2014  
 
AWIC Home | NAL Home | USDA | AgNIC | ARS | Web Policies and Important Links | RSS Feeds | Site Map
FOIA | Accessibility Statement | Privacy Policy | Non-Discrimination Statement | Information Quality | USA.gov | White House