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Housing, Husbandry, Care & Welfare of Selected Birds
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Bassett, S.M. and C.E. Travers (2006). The role of captive rearing in kiwi conservation. Journal of Ornithology 147(5, Suppl. 1): 115-116. ISSN: 0021-8375.
Descriptors: kiwi conservation, captive rearing, role, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: 24th International Ornithological Congress, Hamburg, Germany; 2006.

Bougiouklis, P.A. (2007). Avian circoviruses of the genus Circovirus: A potential trigger in Pigeon breeder's lung (PBL)/bird fancier's lung (BFL). Medical Hypotheses 68(2): 320-3. ISSN: 0306-9877.
Abstract: Pigeon breeder's lung (PBL) or bird fancier's lung (BFL) is one of the most common extrinsic allergic alveolitis or hypersensitivity pneumonitis. It is caused after prolonged inhalation of avian antigens and provokes a hypersensitivity reaction in the lungs of sensitised people. Although the pathogenic mechanism is unclear, the epidemiology of BFL shows that it occurs worldwide, and has been described in adults keeping birds and also in their children. Laboratory findings associated with the disease classified as a type III immunologic reaction that produces blood precipitin antibodies against birds' serum, feathers, intestinal mucin and/or faeces. In particular, the fine dust from pigeon feathers has strong antigenic properties. There is an interaction between host and antigen that seems to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Avian circoviruses (ACV) of the genus Circovirus, has been detected in free-ranging and captive birds worldwide, such as pigeons, canaries, psittacines, Senegal doves, finches, gulls, Australian ravens and geese. T lymphocytes are the main target cells of the ACV and in the above avian species circovirus-like particles were detected in blood, macrophages, feathers, crop secretions, intestinal contents and/or faeces. Most of the ACV was demonstrated that are pantropic and viral antigen in pigeon tissues was most commonly detected in respiratory organs, including the trachea, pharynx and lung. The transmission of the circovirus between the birds usually occurs through inhalation of feathers dust. There is evidence that animal circoviruses may originate when vertebrates become "infected" with DNA from a plant nanovirus. So, it seems that further investigation for the avian circoviruses is needed to determine if they are host specific or not. This study attempts to demonstrate ACV or ACV-like particles as potential triggers in the BFL aetiology, and the possible involvement in BFL's pathogenic mechanism.
Descriptors: pigeon diseases virology, Circoviridae infections diagnosis, human immunological disease allergies, agricultural workers' diseases virology, Circoviridae infections transmission, Circoviridae infections veterinary, Circovirus, Columbidae, allergic alveolitis.

Caruana, M., K.S. Cornish, S. Bajada, C.F. Jones, and J. Cacciottolo (2005). Rosella parrot exposure as a cause of bird fancier's lung. Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health 60(4): 187-92. ISSN: 0003-9896.
Abstract: A case of a 30-year-old man who presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening dyspnoea, cough, and reduced exercise tolerance is discussed. A chest x-ray and computerized tomography of the chest suggested interstitial lung disease, which was confirmed on histology of an open lung biopsy. Careful questioning revealed that the patient had sustained close exposure to a rosella parrot acquired as a pet 9 months prior to presentation, which led to the diagnosis of bird fancier's lung. The case, investigations, and outcome are presented. This is followed by a discussion on extrinsic allergic alveolitis with particular emphasis on the importance of a complete social and environmental history in patients presenting with similar respiratory symptoms.
Descriptors: bird fancier's lung diagnosis, inhalation exposure adverse effects, parrots, adult, bird fancier's lung drug therapy, pathology, prednisolone therapeutic use, respiratory function tests, risk assessment, risk factors, tomography, x ray computed, allergic alveolitis.

Cooper, R.G. (2005). Growth in the ostrich (Struthio camelus var. domesticus). Animal Science Journal 76(1): 1-4. ISSN: 1344-3941.
Descriptors: ostrich, growth, Struthio camelus.

Dunn, M. (2006). The dove. Journal of Pain and Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy 20(4): 1. ISSN: 1536-0288.
Descriptors: birds, dove.

Engebretson, M. (2006). The welfare and suitability of parrots as companion animals: a review. Animal Welfare 15(3): 263-276. ISSN: 0962-7286.
Descriptors: parrots, pets, threatened species, animal welfare, animal stress, distress, stereotyped behavior, environmental enrichment, literature reviews, capture of animals, animal transport, rearing, wild birds.

Ferrell, S.T. (2004). Husbandry and clinical medicine of finches. Small Animal and Exotics Book Two: Pain Management-Zoonosis Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 18, Orlando, Florida, USA, 17 21 January 2004, Eastern States Veterinary Association: Gainesville, USA, p. 1443-1445.
Descriptors: finches, husbandry, clinical medicine, book chapter, conference.
Notes: Meeting Information: Small Animal and Exotics. Book two: Pain Management - Zoonosis. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 18, Orlando, Florida, USA, 17-21 January 2004.

Fraire, H.J.R. and M.B. Martella (2006). DNA test to sex the lesser rhea (Rhea pennata pennata). British Poultry Science 47(3): 375-377. ISSN: 0007-1668.
Descriptors: lesser rhea, DNA test, to sex, chain reaction, Rhea pennata pennata.

Gerhold, R.W., C.M. Tate, S.E. Gibbs, D.G. Mead, A.B. Allison, and J.R. Fischer (2007). Necropsy findings and arbovirus surveillance in mourning doves from the southeastern United States. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 43(1): 129-35. ISSN: 0090-3558.
Abstract: Mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) are the most abundant and widespread native member of the columbid family, as well as a major migratory game species, in the United States. However, there is little information on mortality factors in mourning doves. Records of necropsy accessions at the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (SCWDS) from 15 southeastern states, from 1971 through 2005, were reviewed. One hundred thirty-five mourning doves were submitted from nine states during the 35-yr period. Trichomonosis constituted 40% (n = 54) of all diagnoses and was the most frequent diagnosis. Toxicoses and avian pox constituted 18.5% (n = 25) and 14.8% (n = 20) of all diagnoses, respectively. Remaining diagnoses included trauma, suspected toxicosis, Ascaridia columbae infection, suspected tick paralysis, and undetermined. Adults were observed more frequently with trichomonosis (94.1%) and toxicoses (68%) as compared to juveniles, but a gender predisposition was not apparent for either disease. Age and gender predilections were not apparent for cases of avian pox. The majority of the trichomonosis and avian pox cases were observed in the spring-summer, whereas the majority of the toxicosis cases were observed in the winter-spring. Additionally, the Georgia Department of Human Resources-Division of Public Health and West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources submitted 809 mourning doves to SCWDS from 2001 through 2005 for West Nile virus surveillance efforts. West Nile virus was isolated from 2.1% (n = 17) and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) was isolated from 0.2% (n = 2) of the submitted birds.
Descriptors: mourning doves, arbovirus surveillance, necropsy findings, columbid family, diseases, parasites, viruses, southeastern USA.

Giunchi, D., N.E. Baldaccini, G. Sbragia, and C. Soldatini (2007). On the use of pharmacological sterilisation to control feral pigeon populations. Wildlife Research 34(4): 306-318. ISSN: 1035-3712.
Descriptors: feral pigeon populations, control, sterilization, pharmacological, adverse effects, breeding season, reproduction, sterilization, wildlife management.

Harkinezhad, T., K. Verminnen, C. Van Droogenbroeck, and D. Vanrompay (2007). Chlamydophila psittaci genotype E/B transmission from African grey parrots to humans. Journal of Medical Microbiology 56(Pt 8): 1097-100. ISSN: 0022-2615.
Abstract: Thirty-six birds from a parrot relief and breeding centre, as well as the manager, were examined for the presence of Chlamydophila psittaci. In the relief unit, 5 of 20 African grey parrots showed depression, ruffled feathers, loss of weight and mild dyspnoea. The birds received no antibiotic treatment. Birds of the breeding unit, 14 blue and gold macaws and 2 green-winged macaws, were healthy. They received doxycycline at the start of each breeding season. The manager complained of shortness of breath but took no medication. Using a nested PCR enzyme immunoassay (EIA), Cp. psittaci was detected in the faeces of all five sick birds, as well as in a nasal and pharyngeal swab from the manager. The veterinarian and her assistant became infected while sampling the parrots, as pharyngeal and nasal swabs from both were positive by nested PCR/EIA after visiting the parrot relief and breeding centre, but they showed no clinical signs of infection. Bacteria could be isolated from three of five nested PCR/EIA-positive birds, the manager and the veterinarian, but not from the veterinary assistant. Using an ompA genotype-specific real-time PCR, Cp. psittaci genotype E/B was identified as the transmitted strain. All breeding birds tested negative for Cp. psittaci. This is believed to be the first report on Cp. psittaci genotype E/B transmission from parrots to humans. In contradiction to genotype A strains, which are thought to be highly virulent to both birds and men, the currently described genotype E/B strain apparently caused no severe clinical symptoms in either parrots or humans.
Descriptors: African grey parrots, Chlamydophila psittaci, genotype E, B, transmission, humans, diagnosis, strain, symptoms, treatment, doxycycline, zoonotic disease, case study.

Jepson, M.H. and B. Wilton (2004). Pigeon healthcare. S.B.J.M.H. Kayne Veterinary Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Press: London, UK, p. 475-498. ISBN: 0853695342.
Descriptors: pigeon, health care, parasites, drugs, vaccines, disease, nutrition, book chapter.

Malago Junior, W., A. Medaglia, E. Matheucci Junior, and F. Henrique Silva (2005). New PCR multiplexes for sex typing of ostriches. Revista Brasleira De Biologia. [Brazilian Journal of Biology] 65(4): 743-5. ISSN: 1519-6984.
Descriptors: ostriches, DNA analysis, polymerase chain reaction methods, sex determination analysis methods, Struthioniformes genetics, DNA isolation, purification, feathers chemistry, genetic markers, molecular sequence data, struthioniformes anatomy, histology.

Marshall, R. and I. Ward (2004). A Guide to Eclectus Parrots As Pet and Aviary Birds. Revised Edition., Revised edition. ABK Publications: South Tweed Heads, 156 p. ISBN: 0975081705.
Descriptors: guide, eclectus parrots, pet, aviary, birds, book.

Martin, S. (2007). The art of training parrots. Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine 16(1): 11-18. ISSN: 1557-5063.
Descriptors: parrots, behavior, training, methods.
Notes: Special Issue: Behavior.

Minvielle, F. (2004). The future of Japanese quail for research and production. World's Poultry Science Journal 60(4): 500-507. ISSN: 0043-9339.
Descriptors: Japanese quails, animal models, laboratory animals, information exchange, information dissemination, poultry production.

Moniello, G., F. Bovera, N.d. Riu, G. Piccolo, W. Pinna, and C.d. Meo (2006). Gender effect on the metabolic profile of ostriches (Struthio camelus domesticus). Italian Journal of Animal Science 5(3): 229-235. ISSN: 1594-4077.
Descriptors: ostriches, gender effect, metabolic profile, Struthio camelus.
Language of Text: Italian.

Morata, R.L., T.M.M. Machado, L.F.T. Albino, H.S. Rostagno, E. Detmann, L.T.d.O. Fernandes, H.N. Parente, K.V. Antunes, A.C. Almeida, and A.C. Csermak Junior (2006). Tecnicas de avaliacao dos valores energeticos e dos coeficientes de digestibilidade de alguns alimentos para emas (Rhea americana) em crescimento. [Techniques of evaluation of the energy values and the coefficients of digestibility of some feedstuffs for growing greater rhea (Rhea americana). Revista Brasileira De Zootecnia 35(4): 1381-1388. ISSN: 1516-3598.
Descriptors: rhea, energy values, digestibility, feedstuffs, growing, evaluation techniques, Rhea americana.
Language of Text: Portuguese, summary in English.

Moustaki, N. (2005). Parrots for Dummies. John Wiley & Sons Inc.: ISBN: 0764583530.
Descriptors: parrots, book, dummies, nutrition, feeding, handling.

Moustaki, N. (2004). Quick & Easy Zebra Finch Care. TFH Publications: Neptune City, N.J., ISBN: 9780793810208.
Descriptors: zebra finch, care, book, housing, health care, breeding, nutrition.
Notes: Quick and easy zebra finch care. Includes index. Quick & easy (Neptune City, N.J.).Contents: You and your zebra finch -- Housing your zebra finch -- Zebra finch nutrition -- Zebra finch health care -- Breeding zebra finches.

Moustaki, N. (2004). A new owner's guide to African grey parrots. TFH Publications: Neptune City, N.J., ISBN: 0793828554
Descriptors: African grey parrots, guide, book, nutrition, grooming, health, behavior, housing, training.
Notes: Includes bibliographical references (p. 141).Contents: Introducing the African grey -- Is the African grey for you -- Choosing the perfect African grey -- Housing your African grey -- African grey nutrition -- Keeping your African grey healthy -- Grooming your African grey -- African grey behavior -- Training your African grey -- Entertaining and educating your African grey -- African grey frequently asked questions and answers.

Ottinger, M.A., M. Abdelnabi, Q. Li, K. Chen, N. Thompson, N. Harada, C. Viglietti Panzica, and G.C. Panzica (2004). The Japanese quail: a model for studying reproductive aging of hypothalamic systems. Experimental Gerontology 39(11-12): 1679-93. ISSN: 0531-5565.
Abstract: During aging, the decline of neuroendocrine, endocrine, and behavioral components of reproduction ultimately leads to reproductive failure. These studies considered both neuroendocrine and behavioral aspects of reproductive aging in Japanese quail, using chronological age and reproductive status to separate animals into experimental groups. In Study I, age-related changes in the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH-I) system were investigated and a sharp decrease was observed in GnRH-I concentration in the median eminence of aging animals of both sexes, whereas preoptic-lateral septal region GnRH-I concentrations declined only in aging males. Immunohistochemistry confirmed these findings since aging females retained, whereas males lost GnRH-I cells. Functional changes were assessed by in vitro incubation of parasaggittal hypothalamic slices collected from young and old inactive males and females. Results showed reduced baseline GnRH-I release and diminished response to norepinephrine (NE). Deteriorating fertility also correlated with decreased male sexual behavior and loss of aromatase immunoreactive (AROM-ir) neurons in the medial, but not lateral preoptic nucleus (POA). Sexual behavior and AROM-ir were restored with exogenous testosterone, which was associated with increased cell size in the medial POA. Comparison of cell size and number of AROM-ir cells showed that aged sexually active males had fewer, larger AROM-ir cells when compared to young males, suggesting neuroplasticity of specific neural systems and a critical role of estradiol in maintaining reproductive function.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, animal model, reproductive aging, coturnix, hypothalamic systems, reproduction physiology, aromatase metabolism, gonadotropin releasing hormone metabolism, neurotransmitter agents, sexual behavior, testosterone metabolism.

Partridge, S.J., J.C. Pepperell, C. Forrester Wood, N.B. Ibrahim, A. Raynal, and C.R. Swinburn (2004). Pheasant rearer's lung. Occupational Medicine 54(7): 500-3. ISSN: 0962-7480.
Abstract: A 47-year-old gamekeeper presented with an 8 month history of variable breathlessness, cough and clinical features of severe interstitial lung disease. Open lung biopsy showed an extrinsic allergic alveolitis, which we believe related to his work rearing pheasants. Initially he was resistant, despite advice, to changing his occupation but subsequently, although ceasing exposure to pheasants and beginning treatment with corticosteroids, his disease progressed to the point where he developed respiratory failure and was referred for lung transplantation. Sadly, he died of progressive respiratory failure and cor pulmonale complicated by bronchopneumonia before this could be achieved.
Descriptors: pheasants, animal husbandry, bird fancier's lung, etiology, occupational diseases, poultry, bird fancier's lung diagnosis, bird fancier's lung pathology, fatal outcome, occupational diseases, diagnosis, pathology, allergic alveolitis.

Rosenwax, A. (2007). Manual of parrot behaviour, 1st edn - Editor by Luescher AU. Australian Veterinary Journal 85(3): 97. ISSN: 0005-0423.
Descriptors: parrot behavior, manual.

Ruffins, S.W., R. Lansford, M. Martin, R. Jacobs, and S. Fraser (2007). A Mu Mri Atlas of quail development. FASEB Journal 21(5): A201. ISSN: 0892-6638.
Descriptors: quail, development, Mu Mri Atlas, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: Experimental Biology 2007 Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, USA; April 28 -May 02, 2007.

Sandmeier, P. and P. Coutteel (2006). Management of canaries, finches and mynahs. G.J. Harrison and T.L.E. Lightfoot Clinical Avian Medicine. Volume II. Spix Publishing, Inc.: Palm Beach., p. 451-1008. ISBN: 0975499408.
Descriptors: canaries, finches, mynahs, care, captive management, review, pathological, reproductive, techniques, parasites, diseases, disorders.

Shousha, S., K. Nakahara, T. Nasu, T. Sakamoto, and N. Murakami (2007). Effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 and-2 on regulation of food intake, body temperature and locomotor activity in the japanese quail. Neuroscience Letters 415(2): 102-107. ISSN: 0304-3940.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, glucagon like peptide 1 and 2, effect, regulation of food intake, body temperature, locomotor activity.

Soderstrom, K., W. Qin, and M.H. Leggett (2007). A minimally invasive procedure for sexing young zebra finches. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 164(1): 116-9. ISSN: 0165-0270.
Abstract: Zebra finches have been widely used to study neurobiology underlying vocal development. Because only male zebra finches learn song, efficient developmental use of these animals requires early determination of sex at ages that precede maturation of secondary sex characteristics. We have developed a sex determination method that combines a forensics method of genomic DNA isolation (from very small blood samples) with PCR amplification from Z and W sex chromosomes (males are ZZ, females ZW). This combination results in a minimally invasive yet highly reliable and convenient genotyping method.
Descriptors: zebra finches, sexing, minimally invasive, genomic DNA, blood samples, forensic method, PCR amplification, Z and W sex chromosomes.

Stanford, M. (2004). The effect of UV-B lighting supplementation in African grey parrots. Exotic DVM 6(3): 29-32. ISSN: 1521-1363.
Descriptors: African grey parrots, UV-B lighting supplementation, effect, deficiency diseases, prevention, vitamin deficiencies, conference.
Notes: Meeting Information: Sixth Annual International Conference on Exotics, Naples, Florida, USA, 6-8 May 2004.

Wittig, W. (2004). Aufzuchtprobleme beim Mohrengimpel. [Rearing problems with the gold-headed finch.]. Gefiederte Welt 128(11): 332-335. ISSN: 0016-5816.
Descriptors: gold-headed finch, rearing problems.
Language of Text: German.

Wohr, A.C., A. Schulz, and M.H. Erhard (2005). Tierschutzaspekte bei der Haltung von Zuchtstraussen in Deutschland. [Housing of breeding ostriches in Germany and animal welfare aspects]. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 112(3): 87-91. ISSN: 0341-6593.
Descriptors: ostriches, housing, animal welfare, breeding, meat production, behavior, Germany.
Language of Text: German, summary in English.
Notes: Special issue: Animal welfare.



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