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Housing, Husbandry, Care & Welfare of Selected Birds
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Aire, T.A. and J.T. Soley (2003). The morphological features of the rete testis of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Anatomy and Embryology 207(4/5): 355-361. ISSN: 0340-2061.
Descriptors: ostrich, rete testis, morphological features, anatomy, epithelium.

Ando, K., T. Hiruma, Y. Nakajima, T. Yamagishi, R. Kobayashi, and H. Nakamura (2004). Morphological and immunohistochemical studies of the aortic wall during coronary artery development in quail embryonic heart. Anatomical Science International 79(August): 370. ISSN: 1447-6959.
Descriptors: quail, aortic wall, coronary artery development, embryonic heart, studies, morphological, immunohistochemical, meeting.
Notes: 16th International Congress of the IFAA (International Federation of Associations of Anatomists) and the 109th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Association of Anatomists, Kyoto, Japan; August 22-27, 2004.

Burke, M.R., E. Adkins Regan, and J. Wade (2007). Laterality in syrinx muscle morphology of the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Physiology and Behavior 90(4): 682-686. ISSN: 0031-9384.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, syrinx muscle, morphology, laterality, Coturnix japonica.

Cevik Demirkan, A., R. Haziro lu, and Kcortcol (2007). Gross morphological and histological features of larynx, trachea and syrinx in Japanese quail. Anatomia Histologia, Embryologia 36(3): 215-219. ISSN: 0340-2096.
Abstract: This study aimed at observing gross morphological and histological characteristics of the larynx, trachea and syrinx in Coturnix coturnix japonicum (Japanese quail). Sixteen mature quails were divided into two groups. Eight animals were stained with 0.1% methylene blue for 15 min, followed by 50% and 70% ethyl alcohol solution for gross morphological examination. For the observation of histological characteristics the larynx, trachea and syrinx were fixed in 10% formaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. Six-micron sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin. There were three rows of papillae which were located oral (one row) and aboral (two rows) aspects of the mound. The cricoid cartilage was triangular in shape. Only the inlet of the larynx was covered by the olfactory mucosa whereas the rest was covered by the respiratory mucosa. There were 83-91 tracheal rings which were gradually narrowed from the cranial to the caudal direction. No overlapping occurred between the rings. The last few tracheal rings did not fuse dorsally and formed the tympanium. The pessulus possessed connection with the last tracheal ring and the first bronchial ring. Moreover, it was like a semiprism in shape at the region of bifurcation being vertical in direction. The syrinx was formed by the paired, C-shaped and incomplete bronchial syringeal cartilages. The mucosa of the syrinx was lined with a pseudo-stratified layer of prism-shaped epithelium. There were nine or 14 C-shaped cartilaginous primary bronchi.
Descriptors: Japaneses quail, larynx, trachea, syrnix, gross morphological, histological, features, anatomy.

Cevik Demirkan, A., I. Kurtul, and R.M. Haziroglu (2006). Gross morphological features of the lung and air sac in the Japanese quail. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science the Japanese Society of Veterinary Science 68(9): 909-13. ISSN: 0916-7250.
Abstract: This study was conducted to reveal the morphological characteristics of the lung and air sacs in Coturnix coturnix japonica (Japanese quails). Ten quails were allocated into two groups. Tracheas of 5 quails with neoprene latex and 5 quails with methylmetacrylate were injected to fill the trachea and air sacs. Latex embalmed animals were stored in 10% formaldehyde solution for two months. Animals given methylmetacrylate were maserated in 30% potassium hydroxide at 40 degrees C for two days. Lungs were located in the dorsal part of the thorax and very close to the thoracic vertebrae and ribs. Shorter than the dorsal border, the ventral border lied between the 3rd and 6th ribs. Cervical, clavicular, cranial thoracic, caudal thoracic and abdominal sacs were identified. These sacs had connection with the 3rd, 4th and 5th lateroventral and 4th mediolateral bronchi. Saccus cervicalis was located on the left and right portions of the vertebrae cervicales et thoraricae with a pronounced communication ventromedially. However, the cervical sac aeration of only all cervical vertebrae was present in this study. Humerus was a non-aerated bone. Pneumatic foramen was absent and did not aerate the sternum. Cranial thoracic sac connected to the 1st, 2nd and 4th medioventral bronchi and gave no diverticulum for aeration. Cranial thoracic sac received air through the 4th medioventral and the 1st and 2nd lateroventral bronchi. Left and right abdominal air sacs paramedially produced diverticulum femorale, but this diverticulum did not enter the femur.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, air sacs, anatomy, histology, coturnix, lung, histology, morphological characteristics, bronchi.

Cevik Demirkan, A., I. Kurtul, and R.M. Hazroglu (2007). Gross morphological features of the nasal cavity in the Japanese quail. Ankara Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi 54(1): 1-5. ISSN: 1300-0861.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, nasal cavity, gross morphological features, Coturnix coturnix japonica.
Language of Text: Turkish.

Chen WenQin, Liu HuaZhen, Luo GuanZhong, and Peng KeMei (2005). Cytoarchitecture of 5 nerve nuclei in the medulla oblongata of ostrich. Journal of Huazhong Agricultural University 24(2): 185-188. ISSN: 1000-2421.
Descriptors: ostrich, nerve nuclei, medulla oblongata, cytoarchitecture, anatomy, brain, morphology.
Language of Text: Chinese, summary in English.

Dzemski, G. and A. Christian (2007). Flexibility along the neck of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) and consequences for the reconstruction of dinosaurs with extreme neck length. Journal of Morphology 268(8): 701-14. ISSN: 0362-2525.
Descriptors: ostrich, neck, flexibility, reconstruction, extreme neck length, giraffe, camel, relevance to dinosaurs.

Illanes, J., B. Fertilio, M. Chamblas, V. Leyton, and F. Verdugo (2006). Descripcion Histologia de los Diferentes Segmentos del Aparato Digestivo de Avestruz (Struthio camelus var. domesticus). [Histologic description of the different segments from the ostrich digestive system (Struthio camelus domesticus).]. International Journal of Morphology 24(2): 205-214. ISSN: 0717-9367.
Descriptors: ostrich, digestive system, histologic description, defferent segments, Struthio camelus domesticus, histology.
Language of Text: Spanish, summaries in English and Spanish.

Imam, H.M.E. and O.M. El Mahdy (2004). Some anatomical studies on the quadratomandibular articulation of ostrich (Struthio camelus) and flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber). Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal 50(102): 1-21. ISSN: 1012-5973.
Descriptors: ostrich, flamingo, quadratomandibular articulation, anatomical studies, joint, morphological features.
Language of Text: Arabic.

Kiama, S.G., J.N. Maina, J. Bhattacharjee, D.K. Mwangi, R.G. Macharia, and K.D. Weyrauch (2006). The morphology of the pecten oculi of the ostrich, Struthio camelus. Annals of Anatomy; Anatomischer Anzeiger Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft 188(6): 519-28. ISSN: 0940-9602.
Abstract: The pecten oculi is a structure peculiar to the avian eye. Three morphological types of pecten oculi are recognized: conical type, vaned type and pleated type. The pleated type has been well studied. However, there exists only scanty data on the morphology of the latter two types of pectens. The structure of the vaned type of pecten of the ostrich, Struthio camelus was investigated with light and electron microscope. The pecten of this species consists of a vertical primary lamella that arises from the optic disc and supports 16-19 laterally located secondary lamellae, which run from the base and confluence at the apex. Some of the secondary lamellae give rise to 2 or 3 tertiary lamellae. The lamellae provide a wide surface, which supports 2-3 Layers of blood capillaries. Pigmentation is highest at the distal ends of the secondary and tertiary Lamella where blood capillaries are concentrated and very scanty on the primary and the proximal ends of the secondary lamella where the presence of capillaries is much reduced. In contrast to the capillaries of the pleated pecten, the endothelium of the capillaries in the pecten of the ostrich exhibits very few microvilli. These observations suggest that the morphology of the pecten of the ostrich, a flightless ratite bird is unique to the pleated pecten and is designed to meet the balance between optimal vision and large surface area for blood supply and yet ensuring it is kept firmly erect within the vitreous.
Descriptors: ostrich, eye anatomy, histology, pecten oculi, morphology, struthioniformes anatomy, histology, eye cytology, ultrastructure, retinal vessels, ultrastructure.

Lee, Y.H. (2005). Morphological study on the mast cell of proventriculus in pheasant (Phasianus colchicus). Korean Journal of Poultry Science 32(2): 97-100. ISSN: 1225-6625.
Descriptors: pheasant, mast cell, proventriculus, morphological study.
Language of Text: Korean, summary in English.

Madekurozwa, M.C. and W.H. Kimaro (2006). A morphological and immunohistochemical study of healthy and atretic follicles in the ovary of the sexually immature ostrich (Struthio camelus). Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia 35(4): 253-8. ISSN: 0340-2096.
Abstract: The morphology of healthy and atretic follicles in the ovary of the sexually immature ostrich was described in the present study. In addition, the distribution of the intermediate filaments desmin, vimentin and smooth muscle actin, in these ovarian follicles, was demonstrated. Healthy and atretic primordial, pre-vitellogenic and vitellogenic follicles were present in the ovaries of the sexually immature ostrich. Atresia occurred during all stages of follicular development. Atretic primordial and pre-vitellogenic follicles were characterized by the presence of a shrunken oocyte surrounded by a multilayered granulosa cell layer. Two forms of atresia (types 1 and 2) were identified in vitellogenic follicles. In the advanced stages of type 1 atresia the follicle was dominated by a hyalinized mass. In contrast, in type 2 atresia the granulosa and theca interna cells differentiated into interstitial gland cells. Positive immunostaining for desmin was observed in the granulosa cells of only healthy primordial and pre-vitellogenic follicles. Atretic primordial and pre-vitellogenic follicles were immunonegative for desmin. Vimentin immunoreactivity was demonstrated in the granulosa cells of all follicles except the vitellogenic atretic follicles. The results of the present study indicate that ovarian follicles in the sexually immature ostrich undergo a cycle of growth and regression, which is similar to that reported in other avian species. Furthermore, based on the results of the immunohistochemical study, it would appear that the distribution and immunostaining of intermediate filaments changes during follicular development and atresia.
Descriptors: ostrich, sexually immature, ovary, follicles, healthy, atretic, morphology, growth, regression, cycle.

Madekurozwa, M.C. and W.H. Kimaro (2005). A morphological and immunohistochemical study of developing and atretic follicles in the ovary of the sexually immature ostrich (Struthio camelus). E. Carbajo Proceedings of the 3rd International Ratite Science Symposium of the World' s Poultry Science Association WPSA and 12th World Ostrich Congress, Madrid, Spain, 14th 16th October, 2005, World Poultry Science Association (WPSA): Beekbergen, Netherlands, 97 p. ISBN: 8460963535.
Descriptors: ostrich, sexually immature, atretic follicles, developing, study, morphological, immunohistochemical, conference proceedings.
Notes: Meeting Information: Proceedings of the 3rd International Ratite Science Symposium of the World's Poultry Science Association (WPSA) and 12th World Ostrich Congress, Madrid, Spain, 14th-16th October, 2005.

Maxwell, E.E. and H.C. Larsson (2007). Osteology and myology of the wing of the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), and its bearing on the evolution of vestigial structures. Journal of Morphology 268(5): 423-41. ISSN: 0362-2525.
Descriptors: emu, wing, osteology, myology, bearing, evolution, vestigial structures.

Moraes, C., S.M. Baraldi Artoni, D. Oliveira, M.R. Pacheco, L. Amoroso, and V.S. Franzo (2007). Morfologia e morfometria do oviduto de codornas Nothura maculosa, [Morphology and morphometry of Nothura maculosa quail oviduct]. Ciencia Rural 37(1): 146-152. ISSN: 0103-8478.
Descriptors: quail, oviduct, morphology, morphometry, reproduction, development.
Language of Text: Portuguese, summary in English.

Ozegbe, P.C., T.A. Aire, and J.T. Soley (2006). The morphology of the efferent ducts of the testis of the ostrich, a primitive bird. Anatomy and Embryology 211(5): 559-65. ISSN: 0340-2061.
Abstract: The efferent duct of the ostrich consists of two segments, the proximal efferent duct (PED) and the distal efferent duct (DED) that are continuous, as in some other birds. Both segments of the duct possess an epithelium comprising non-ciliated and ciliated cells in varying proportions between the two segments. The non-ciliated cell (type I) of the PED contains a well-developed, subapical endocytic apparatus of apical tubules and endocytic vacuoles, a solitary, large, heterogeneous lipid droplet, and numerous, oval, dense bodies in the supranuclear region of the cell. Mitochondria tend to concentrate in the basal part of the cell. Intercellular spaces between the non-ciliated cells are enlarged, especially in the basal half of the epithelium. Together, these morphological features confer on the PED an efficient fluid absorption capability. The DED epithelium displays the type II non-ciliated cell whose poorly developed subapical endocytic apparatus as well as the absence of dilated basal intercellular spaces indicate its limited fluid absorptive capacity.
Descriptors: epididymis cytology, Struthioniformes, anatomy, histology, epithelial cells, ultrastructure, microscopy electron, microvilli ultrastructure, transport vesicles, vacuoles.

Pourlis, A.F., J. Antonopoulos, and I.N. Magras (2006). A light and electron microscopic study of the limb long bones perichondral ossification in the quail embryo (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Archivio Italiano Di Anatomia Ed Embriologia. [Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology]. 111(3): 159-70. ISSN: 0004-0223.
Abstract: The perichondral ossification of the limb long bones in the quail embryo is investigated, in this study, by means of light and electron microscopy. Longitudinal sections of the humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia and fibula stained with haematoxylin-eosin were examined by the light microscope. Ultrathin cross sections were selected for the electron microscope as well. Light microscopic analysis showed that the ossification began at the same time in the long bones of the wing and leg. At the embryonic day 6, all the cartilaginous rudiments consisted of three zones. The central zone composed of hypertrophic chondrocytes, a second zone on either side of the central zone, which consisted of flattened cells and a third zone, which represented the epiphyseal region. A thin sheath of osteoid and a bi-layered perichondrium-periosteum surrounded the central zone of the cartilaginous rudiments of the long bones. The perichondrium consisted of a layer of osteoblasts, in contact with the cartilage, and a layer of fibroblasts. At the embryonic day 7, the thickness of the calcified osteoid ring increased and a vasculature appeared between the layer of osteoblasts and the layer of fibroblasts. At the embryonic day 8, a second sheath of periosteal bone began to be formed. Concurrently, vascular and perivascular elements began to invade the cartilage. The ossification spread towards the distal ends of both the diaphysis. At the electron microscopic level, the osteoblasts of the perichondium showed cytoplasmatic characteristics of cells involved in protein synthesis. The perichondral ossification is the first hallmark of the osteogenesis in the long bones. The observations reported above, are in accordance with previous studies in the chick embryo.
Descriptors: coturnix, quail, embryo, bones of lower extremity embryology, bones of upper extremity, osteogenesis physiology, blood vessels embryology, blood vessels ultrastructure, bones ultrastructure, cartilage embryology, ultrastructure, mammalian, femur embryology, femur ultrastructure, humerus embryology, humerus ultrastructure, osteoblasts physiology, osteoblasts ultrastructure, periosteum embryology, periosteum physiology, periosteum ultrastructure.

Rubenson, J., D.G. Lloyd, T.F. Besier, D.B. Heliams, and P.A. Fournier (2007). Running in ostriches (Struthio camelus): three-dimensional joint axes alignment and joint kinematics. Journal of Experimental Biology 210(Pt 14): 2548-62. ISSN: 0022-0949.
Abstract: Although locomotor kinematics in walking and running birds have been examined in studies exploring many biological aspects of bipedalism, these studies have been largely limited to two-dimensional analyses. Incorporating a five-segment, 17 degree-of-freedom (d.f.) kinematic model of the ostrich hind limb developed from anatomical specimens, we quantified the three-dimensional (3-D) joint axis alignment and joint kinematics during running (at approximately 3.3 m s(-1)) in the largest avian biped, the ostrich. Our analysis revealed that the majority of the segment motion during running in the ostrich occurs in flexion/extension. Importantly, however, the alignment of the average flexion/extension helical axes of the knee and ankle are rotated externally to the direction of travel (37 degrees and 21 degrees, respectively) so that pure flexion and extension at the knee will act to adduct and adbuct the tibiotarsus relative to the plane of movement, and pure flexion and extension at the ankle will act to abduct and adduct the tarsometatarsus relative to the plane of movement. This feature of the limb anatomy appears to provide the major lateral (non-sagittal) displacement of the lower limb necessary for steering the swinging limb clear of the stance limb and replaces what would otherwise require greater adduction/abduction and/or internal/external rotation, allowing for less complex joints, musculoskeletal geometry and neuromuscular control. Significant rotation about the joints' non-flexion/extension axes nevertheless occurs over the running stride. In particular, hip abduction and knee internal/external and varus/valgus motion may further facilitate limb clearance during the swing phase, and substantial non-flexion/extension movement at the knee is also observed during stance. Measurement of 3-D segment and joint motion in birds will be aided by the use of functionally determined axes of rotation rather than assumed axes, proving important when interpreting the biomechanics and motor control of avian bipedalism.
Descriptors: ostrich, running, motion, joint axis, alignment, kinematics, locomotor, walking, joint motion, flexion, extension, limb anatomy.

Schaller, N.U., B. Herkner and R. Prinzinger (2005). Locomotor characteristics of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) I: Morphometric and morphological analyses. E. Carbajo Proceedings of the 3rd International Ratite Science Symposium of the World' s Poultry Science Association WPSA and 12th World Ostrich Congress, Madrid, Spain, 14th 16th October, 2005, World Poultry Science Association (WPSA): Beekbergen, Netherlands, p. 83-90. ISBN: 8460963535.
Descriptors: ostrich, locomotor characteristics, morphometric, morphological, analysis, conference proceedings, book chapter.
Notes: Meeting Information: Proceedings of the 3rd International Ratite Science Symposium of the World's Poultry Science Association (WPSA) and 12th World Ostrich Congress, Madrid, Spain, 14th-16th October, 2005.

Soley, J.T., E. van Wilpe, T.A. Aire, and P.C. Ozegbe (2005). The morphology of the seminiferous tubules in the three-day-old ostrich chicks. Microscopy Society of Southern Africa Proceedings 35: 60. ISSN: 1028-3455.
Descriptors: ostrich chicks, seminiferous tubles, 3 day old, morphology, Struthio camelus, testis.

Stornelli, M.R., M.P. Ricciardi, E. Giannessi, and A. Coli (2006). Morphological and histological study of the ostrich (Struthio Camelus L.) liver and biliary system. Archivio Italiano Di Anatomia Ed Embriologia. [Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology]. 111(1): 1-7. ISSN: 0004-0223.
Abstract: The peculiarity of the digestive system of the ostrich (Struthio Camelus L.), which is characterized by the continuous production of bile, led us to undertake macroscopical and histological studies of the liver and its biliary system, since very little bibliographic data exist on the subject. For this purpose we observed the organs of male and female ostriches 16-18 months of age, in situ, in order to describe their location, relationships and morphology. Samples of the liver were processed for observation by light microscopy; samples of the hepatoenteric duct were processed for observation by light and electron microscopy. Our findings regarding the liver revealed the presence of two lobes: a left lobe, subdivided into three lobes, and a right undivided lobe. There was no gall-bladder. The histological picture showed unlimited hepatic lobules, with hepatocytes arranged in cord-like fashion two cells thick. A large hepatoenteric duct arose from the porta hepatis, and opened into a papilla in the descending limb of the duodenum. The mucosa of the duct was lined by simple columnar epithelium consisting of cells having the same morphological cytoplasmatic features but distinguished by either a light or a dark nucleus.
Descriptors: ostrich, liver, biliary system, morphological, histological study, digestive system, gall bladder, liver.

Stornelli, M.R., M.P. Ricciardi, V. Miragliotta, A. Coli, and E. Giannessi (2006). Morpho-structural study of the pancreas and pancreatic duct in ostrich (Struthio camelus L.). Acta Veterinaria Brno 75(2): 157-160. ISSN: 0001-7213.
Descriptors: ostrich, pancreas, pancreatic duct, morpho-structural study, Struthio camelus.
Language of Text: Czech and English.

Tae, H.J., B.G. Jang, D. Ahn, E.Y. Choi, H.S. Kang, N.S. Kim, J.H. Lee, S.Y. Park, H.H. Yang, and I.S. Kim (2005). Morphometric studies on the testis of Korean ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus karpowi) during the breeding and non-breeding seasons. Veterinary Research Communications 29(7): 629-643. ISSN: 0165-7380.
Descriptors: Korean ring-necked pheasant, testis, morphometric studies, breeding season, non breeding season, Phasianus colchicus karpowi.

Tokita, M. (2004). Morphogenesis of parrot jaw muscles: understanding the development of an evolutionary novelty. Journal of Morphology 259(1): 69-81. ISSN: 0362-2525.
Descriptors: cockatiel, parrot, jaw muscles, developmenr, evolutionary novelty, morphogenesis, head structures, strong jaw adduction, muscle development.

Tomiosso, T.C., L. Gomes, B. de Campos Vidal, and E.R. Pimentel (2005). Extracellular matrix of ostrich articular cartilage. Biocell 29(1): 47-54. ISSN: 0327-9545.
Abstract: The composition and organization of the extracellular matrix of ostrich articular cartilage was investigated, using samples from the proximal and distal surfaces of the tarsometatarsus. For morphological analysis, sections were stained with toluidine blue and analyzed by polarized light microscopy. For biochemical analysis, extracellular matrix components were extracted with 4 M guanidinium chloride, fractionated on DEAE-Sephacel and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Glycosaminoglycans were analyzed by electrophoresis in agarose gels. Structural analysis showed that the fibrils were arranged in different directions, especially on the distal surface. The protein and glycosaminoglycan contents of this region were higher than in the other regions. SDS-PAGE showed the presence of proteins with molecular masses ranging from 17 to 121 kDa and polydisperse components of 67, 80-100, and 250-300 kDa in all regions. The analysis of glycosaminoglycans in agarose-propylene diamine gels revealed the presence of only chondroitin-sulfate. The electrophoretic band corresponding to putative decorin was a small proteoglycan containing chondroitin-sufate and not dermatan-sulfate, unlike other cartilages. The higher amounts of proteins and glycosaminoglycans and the multidirectional arrangement of fibrils seen in the distal region may be correlated with the higher compression normally exerted on this region.
Descriptors: ostrich, articular cartilage, extracellular matrix, composition, organization, tarsometatarsus, biochemical analysis, protein, glycosaminoglycans.

Velotto, S. and A. Crasto (2004). Histochemical and morphometrical characterization and distribution of fibre types in four muscles of ostrich (Struthio camelus). Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia 33(5): 251-6. ISSN: 0340-2096.
Abstract: A staining procedure used for simultaneously determining three different fibre types in single sections bovine, porcine or ovine skeletal muscle was modified for use with ostrich skeletal muscle. The muscle fibres of gastrocnemius pars externa, tibialis cranialis caput tibiale, tibialis cranialis caput femorale and fibularis longus tendo caudalis were studied. The histochemical results revealed the presence of three types of fibre only in the gastrocnemius pars externa muscle: fast-twitch glycolytic fibres (FG), fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic fibres (FOG) and slow-twitch oxidative fibres (SO), while in the other muscles the FG fibres were absent. The percentage distribution of fibres types showed a higher incidence of SO fibres compared to FOG fibres in tibialis cranialis caput femorale and tibialis cranialis caput tibiale muscles, while it was opposite in the case of the fibularis longus tendo caudalis muscle. In the gastrocnemius pars externa muscle the FG fibres outnumber the other fibres, followed by the SO and FOG fibres. The results of the analysis of variance show significant interaction between muscle x fibre type for every morphometric parameter evaluated. Differences about value of fibres area exists between tibialis cranialis caput femorale and fibularis longus tendo caudalis muscles. Both fibre types in tibialis cranialis caput tibiale muscle have mean values of transversal section area smaller than tibialis cranialis caput femorale. The other morphometric parameters show a similar trend. The gastrocnemius pars externa muscle presents similar dimensions of muscle fibres for the FG and FOG types, and significantly smaller for the SO type.
Descriptors: ostrich, four muscles, fibre types, histochemical, morphometrical, characterization, skeletal muscle, gastrocnemius, tibialis, fibularis, staining procedures.

Warui, C.N., R.G. Macharia, D.K. Mwangi, P.W. Macheru, and J. Moilo (1998). Observations on the morphology of the cloacal region of the African ostrich (Struthio camelus massaicus). The Kenya Veterinarian 23(Special Issue): 53-55. ISSN: 0256-5161.
Descriptors: ostriches, cloacal region, morphology, observations, Struthio camelus, conference proceedings.
Notes: Meeting Information: Proceedings of the Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya, 5th-7th August 1998.

Yildiz, H., B. Yilmaz, I. Arican, M. Petekl, and A. Bahadir (2006). Effects of cage systems and feeding time on the morphological structure of female genital organs in pharaoh quails (Coturnix coturnix pharaoh). Veterinarski Arhiv 76(5): 383-391. ISSN: 0372-5480.
Descriptors: pharaoh quail, female genital organs, morphological structure, cage systems, feeding time, effects.

Yin YanBo, Li FangZheng, Tan JinShan, Song XueXiong, Dong WuZi, and Ji YaJie (2006). Ultrastructure of the ostrich spermatozoa. Journal of Economic Animal 10(4): 198-202. ISSN: 1007-7448.
Descriptors: ostrich, spermatozoa, ultrastructure, anatomy, reproduction.
Language of Text: Chinese, summary in English.

Yldz, H., B. Ylmaz, and I. Arcan (2005). Morphological structure of the syrinx in the Bursa Roller Pigeon (Columba livia). Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Puawy 49(3): 323-327. ISSN: 0042-4870.
Descriptors: Bursa Roller Pigeon, syrinx, morphological structure, anatomy, histological.



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