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Housing, Husbandry, Care & Welfare of Selected Birds
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Balakrishnan, C.N. and M.D. Sorenson (2007). Dispersal ecology versus host specialization as determinants of ectoparasite distribution in brood parasitic indigobirds and their estrildid finch hosts. Molecular Ecology 16(1): 217-229. ISSN: 0962-1083.
Abstract: Brood parasitic birds offer a unique opportunity to examine the ecological and evolutionary determinants of host associations in avian feather lice (Phthiraptera). Brood parasitic behaviour effectively eliminates vertical transfer of lice between parasitic parents and offspring at the nest, while at the same time providing an opportunity for lice associated with the hosts of brood parasites to colonize the brood parasites as well. Thus, the biology of brood parasitism allows a test of the relative roles of host specialization and dispersal ecology in determining the host-parasite associations of birds and lice. If the opportunity for dispersal is the primary determinant of louse distributions, then brood parasites and their hosts should have similar louse faunas. In contrast, if host-specific adaptations limit colonization ability, lice associated with the hosts of brood parasites may be unable to persist on the brood parasites despite having an opportunity for colonization. We surveyed lice on four brood parasitic finch species (genus Vidua), their estrildid finch host species, and a few ploceid finches. While Brueelia lice were found on both parasitic and estrildid finches, a molecular phylogeny showed that lice infesting the two avian groups belong to two distinct clades within Brueelia. Likewise, distinct louse lineages within the amblyceran genus Myrsidea were found on estrildid finches and the parasitic pin-tailed whydah (Vidua macroura), respectively. Although common on estrildid finches, Myrsidea lice were entirely absent from the brood parasitic indigobirds. The distribution and relationships of louse species on brood parasitic finches and their hosts suggest that host-specific adaptations constrain the ability of lice to colonize new hosts, at least those that are distantly related.
Descriptors: finch host, dispersal ecology, brood parasitic indigobirds, ectoparasite distribution, avian feather lice.

Bandyopadhyay, P.K., J.N. Bhakta, and R. Shukla (2006). A new Eimeria species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Sporozoea) from the Blue Rock Pigeon Columba livia (Aves: Columbidae). Zoos' Print Journal 21(9): 2386-2387. ISSN: 0971-6378.
Descriptors: Blue Rock Pigeon, new Eimeria species, protozoa, feces, oocysts, Columba livia.

Bastianello, S., P.B. McKenna, J. Hunter, and A. Julian (2005). Clinical and pathological aspects of Libyostrongylus infection in ostriches. Surveillance Wellington 32(3): 3-6. ISSN: 0112-4927.
Descriptors: ostriches, parasites, infection, clinical, pathological, aspects, Libyostrongylus.

Bean, D.L., E. Rojas Flores, G.W. Foster, J.M. Kinsella, and D.J. Forrester (2005). Parasitic helminths of Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) from Florida. Journal of Parasitology 91(1): 184-7. ISSN: 0022-3395.
Abstract: Sixty-three Eurasian collared-doves (ECDs) (Streptopelia decaocto) from Florida were examined for parasitic helminths from June to December 2001. Nine species of helminths were identified (5 nematodes, 2 cestodes, and 2 trematodes). The most prevalent helminths were Ascaridia columbae (73.0%), Fuhrmannetta crassula (28.6%), Ornithostrongylus quadriradiatus (12.7%), and Bruscapillaria obsignata (11.1%). The helminths with the greatest mean intensity were Tanaisia bragai (13.5), A. columbae (9.3), and O. quadriradiatus (7.1). In Florida, the mean intensity of A. columbae in ECDs (9.3) was similar to that found in white-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica) (9.1) (P = 0.461), and both the intensities were significantly higher than that in the native mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) (3.7) (P = 0.001 and 0.005, respectively). Fuhrmannetta crassula is reported for the first time in columbids from Florida.
Descriptors: bird diseases parasitology, columbidae parasitology, helminthiasis, animal parasitology, bird diseases, epidemiology, cestode infections, epidemiology, parasitology, epidemiology, helminthiasis, nematode infections, epidemiology, parasitology, trematode infections, epidemiology, parasitology, Florida.

Bonadiman, S.F., N.B. Ederli, A.K. Soares, A.H. de Moraes Neto, C.P. Santos, and R.A. DaMatta (2006). Occurrence of Libyostrongylus sp. (Nematoda) in ostriches (Struthio camelus Linnaeus, 1758) from the north region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Veterinary Parasitology 137(1-2): 175-9. ISSN: 0304-4017.
Abstract: Domestic production of ostrich in Brazil started in the beginning of the last decade, but its sanitary state has not been reported. Libyostrongylus sp. is an ostrich specific nematode whose parasitism can severely affect the birds. Thus, Libyostrongylus spp. larvae were identified in commercial ostriches in the north region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The EPG was determined and fecal cultivation was performed. The eggs presented typical characteristics of strongylid and were present in five out of six farms. The mean EPG varied from 22 to 2395 and Libyostrongylus spp. prevalence was from 0 to 100%, with adult birds more infected. Two types of infective larvae with tail finishing in a tipped spiny knob were distinguished. The first had a mean length of 848 microm (710-1010) with a long sheath tail of about 66 microm (52-112). The other had a mean length of 826 microm (620-940) with a short, more abruptly ending sheath tail of 32 microm (22-40) and a less rounded cephalic end. The differences between these larvae suggest two Libyostrongylus species.
Descriptors: bird diseases epidemiology, Struthioniformes parasitology, Trichostrongyloidea isolation, purification, trichostrongyloidiasis, veterinary, epidemiology, feces parasitology, parasite egg count, phylogeny, prevalence, species specificity, Trichostrongyloidea anatomy, histology, Trichostrongyloidea classification, trichostrongyloidiasis epidemiology, Brazil.

Bunbury, N., E. Barton, C.G. Jones, A.G. Greenwood, K.M. Tyler, and D.J. Bell (2007). Avian blood parasites in an endangered columbid: Leucocytozoon marchouxi in the Mauritian Pink Pigeon Columba mayeri. Parasitology 134(Pt 6): 797-804. ISSN: 0031-1820.
Abstract: There is increasing evidence that pathogens can play a significant role in species decline. This study of a complete free-living species reveals a cost of blood parasitism to an endangered host, the Pink Pigeon Columba mayeri, endemic to Mauritius. We investigated the prevalence and effect of infection of the blood parasite, Leucocytozoon marchouxi, in the free-living Pink Pigeon population. Overall, L. marchouxi infection prevalence detected was 18.3%. Juveniles were more likely to be infected than older birds and there was geographical variation in infection prevalence. Survival of birds infected with L. marchouxi was lower than that of uninfected birds to 90 days post-sampling. This study suggests that while common haematozoa are well tolerated in healthy adults, these parasites may have greater pathogenic potential in susceptible juveniles. The study is unusual given its completeness of species sampling (96%) within a short time-period, the accurate host age data, and its focus on blood parasites in a threatened bird species. Species for which long-term life-history data are available for every individual serve as valuable models for dissecting the contribution of particular pathogens to species decline.
Descriptors: Mauritian pink pigeon, free living, blood parasites, Leucocytozoon marchouxi, pathogens, species decline, endangered, hematozoa, epidemiology, age differences, Mauritius.

Cooper, R.G. (2007). Thysanoptera infestation on skin and periorbital cellulitis in ostriches (Struthio camelus) aged 14 months. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 55(3): 130-3. ISSN: 0048-0169.
Abstract: AIM: To report the infestation of Thysanoptera (Limothrips denticornis) on ostriches (Struthio camelus) and to determine their relative density. METHODS: A farm in Poland was studied on which ostriches aged 14 months were severely infested with L. denticornis (thrips). Thrips were collected and their density on the neck, torso and legs (10 cm2) of 85 ostriches determined at 0600, 1200 and 1800 h, respectively, over 7 days. At the same times, apparent densities of thrips/m2 were determined in adjacent grassy areas (120 m2) on a muslin cloth impregnated with permethrin. Thrips were mounted onto slides in Hoyer's medium, for identification. RESULTS: The apparent density of thrips was greatest at 1200 h, and was greater on the neck than the torso and legs (p=0.03). In adjacent surroundings, densities were also highest at 1200 h (mean 199 (SE 9.3) thrips/m2) and were similar to the maximum densities recorded on the necks of ostriches at that time (mean 205 (SE 6.4) thrips/m2). Ostriches engaged in excessive preening and attempted to scratch their head/neck with their feet. Numerous small, pale red papules were observed on the skin. Observations of periorbital cellulitis, conjunctivitis, blepharitis, watery discharge, inflammation, and sclerotic discolouration were noted in 65 ostriches. CONCLUSION: Observations were commensurate with L. denticornis infestation. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Infestation may exacerbate stress levels and subsequently lead to a reduction in feed intake and performance. The infestation and subsequent irritation from thrips impacts negatively on the general health of ostriches by damaging skin and iritating eyes.
Descriptors: ostriches, cellulitis, thrips, host parasite relations, insects growth, development, struthioniformes, parasitology, extremities parasitology, neck parasitology, population density, time factors.

Cooper, R.G. and H.A. El Doumani (2006). The presence of quill mites (Gabucinia bicaudata) and lice (Struthiolipeurus struthionis) in ostrich wing feathers. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 77(1): 9-11. ISSN: 0038-2809.
Abstract: Quill mites (Gabucinia bicaudata) and lice (Struthiolipeurus struthionis) may infest ostrich feathers, resulting in skin damage, pruritis and excessive feather preening and loss. Four different feather types (prime white, femina extra wide, femina class 1, and femina short; n = 10) were collected. The quill mites and lice were removed with fine forceps, studied using a photographic optical microscope and counted microscopically at x 100 magnification following collection by sedimentation. They were placed in separate Petri dishes containing lactophenol solution and examined (x40 magnification). Anatomical features are described. The density of quill mites in all feather types of both wings was higher than that of the lice. There was no significant difference between the counts of both arthropods on the left wing and the right wing, respectively, except for the femina class 1 quill mites (P = 0.01). The femina extra wide feathers were a preferred habitat in both wings. Large standard deviations (quill mites left wing: 73 +/- 8; quill mites right wing: 69 +/- 7) suggested variations in the degree of migration between feather shafts or as a response to escape preening. It is recommended that ostriches be treated with an oral preparation of Ivermectin administered per os at a dosage rate of 0.2 mg/kg at 30-day intervals for quill mites, and with a 1-5 % Malathion dust at 14-day intervals for lice.
Descriptors: ostriches, antiparasitic agents, therapeutic use, bird parasites, parasitology, lice ultrastructure, mites ultrastructure, Struthioniformes parasitology, drug therapy, epidemiology, feathers parasitology, Ivermectin therapeutic use, lice anatomy, histology, lice infestations, drug therapy, epidemiology, Malathion therapeutic use, mite infestations drug therapy, epidemiology, mites anatomy, histology.

Cooper, R.G. (2005). Bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections in the ostrich (Struthio camelus var. domesticus). Animal Science Journal 76(2): 97-106. ISSN: 1344-3941.
Descriptors: ostrich, infections, bacterial, fungal, parasitic, Struthio camelus, anthrax, Salmonella, Pasteurella, tuberculosis, tick, mite, tapeworm, fluke.

Dabert, J., S.V. Mironov, and H. Proctor (2006). A new species of the feather mite genus Titanolichus Gaud & Atyeo, 1996 (Acari: Astigmata: Pterolichidae) from the endangered orange-bellied parrot Neophema chrysogaster (Aves: Psittaciformes) from Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology 45(3): 206-214. ISSN: 1326-6756.
Abstract: Titanolichus seemani sp. n., a new species of the genus Titanolichus Gaud & Atyeo, 1996, is described from a museum skin of the endangered orange-bellied parrot Neophema chrysogaster (Latham) (Aves: Psittaciformes) from Australia. We also redescribe the type species Titanolichus chiragricus (Maegnin & Trouessart) from the ground parrot Pezoporus wallicus (Kerr), provide a key for all known species of Titanolichus and point out some problems in the systematics of this genus.
Descriptors: Astigmata, feather mites, parrots, Aves, systematics, Titanolichus, Austalia.

Draycott, R.A.H., M.I.A. Woodburn, D.E. Ling, and R.B. Sage (2006). The effect of an indirect anthelmintic treatment on parasites and breeding success of free-living pheasants Phasianus colchicus. Journal of Helminthology 80(4): 409-415. ISSN: 0022-149X.
Descriptors: Phasianus colchicus, pheasants, game birds, helminths, helminthiasis, anthelmintics, drug evaluation, animal reproduction, population density, chemoprevention, worm burden, England .

Fessl, B., B.J. Sinclair, and S. Kleindorfer (2006). The life-cycle of Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae) parasitizing Darwin's finches and its impacts on nestling survival. Parasitology 133(6): 739-747. ISSN: 0031-1820.
Descriptors: Muscidae, myiasis, wild birds, Fringillidae, mortality, life cycle, larvae, instars, insect morphology, parasitism, host parasite relationships, nests, hematophagous insects, Galapagos Islands, Geospiza fortis.

Gartrell, B.D., M.R. Alley, and A.H. Mitchell (2005). Fatal levamisole toxicosis of captive kiwi (Apteryx mantelli). New Zealand Veterinary Journal 53(1): 84-6. ISSN: 0048-0169.
Abstract: CASE HISTORY: Nine of 24 captive kiwi treated with oral levamisole at a dose between 25-43 mg/kg showed signs of respiratory distress. Six died within 4 h of treatment and the remaining three made a full recovery within 24 h. CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS: Within 3-4 h of treatment, the affected birds had an elevated respiratory rate, mucoid nasal discharge and rapidly became comatose. Post mortem examination revealed accumulation of thick mucus in the oral cavity and trachea. There was severe pulmonary congestion and oedema and early bronchopneumonia in the lungs of five of the birds. In two birds, there was acute hepatic degeneration and necrosis and one bird had acute pancreatic degeneration and necrosis. DIAGNOSIS: Acute levamisole toxicity. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Kiwi were acutely sensitive to levamisole toxicity at doses that are well within the safe range for domestic poultry. Levamisole should not be used as an anthelmintic in kiwi.
Descriptors: kiwi, antinematodal agents, adverse effects, bird diseases, diagnosis, orall levamisole, toxicosis, hepatitis, toxic etiology, fatalities.

Gelis, S. and S.R. Raidal (2006). Microsporidiosis in a flock of tricolor parrot finches (Erythrura tricolor). Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice 9(3): 481-6. ISSN: 1094-9194.
Abstract: The lesions caused by a microsporidian infection in a flock of tricolor parrot finches (Erythrura tricolor) are described. Affected birds had a widespread nodular to diffuse granulomatous inflammation of the serosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, perirenal airsacs and connective tissue, bone marrow, dura, and conjunctiva. This was composed predominantly of foamy macrophages containing numerous intracytoplasmic microsporidia measuring 1 to 2 microm. Ultrastructural features consistent with microsporidia were the presence of a coiled polar filament and an electrode-dense outer surface and thick electron-lucent capsule. Differential diagnoses included infection with intracellular organisms, including coccidian and other apicomplexan parasites, such as lsospora, Eimeria, and blood parasites; Chlamydophilosis; disseminated mycobacteriosis; and other bacterial and fungal species.
Descriptors: tricolor parrot finches, bird diseases, pathology, microbiology, microsporidia isolation, purification, microsporidiosis, diagnosis, infection.

Goldova, M., V. Palus, V. Letkova, A. Kocisova, J. Curlik, and J. Mojzisova (2006). Parasitoses in pheasants ( Phasianus colchicus) in confined systems. Veterinarski Arhiv 76(Suppl. S): S83-S89. ISSN: 0372-5480.
Descriptors: pheasants, confined systems, parasitosis, infection, Phasianus colchicus.

Gonzalez, D., G. Castillo, J. Lopez, L. Moreno, S. Donoso, O. Skewes, R. Martinez, and J. Cabello (2004). Parasitos gastrointestinales y externos de la paloma domestica (Columba livia) en la Ciudad de Chillan, Chile. [Gastrointestinal and external parasitism in domestic dove (Columba livia) in Chillan City, Chile]. Agro Ciencia 20(2): 107-112. ISSN: 0716-1689.
Descriptors: domestic dove, parasitism, external, gastrointestinal, Chile.
Language of Text: Spanish, summary in English.

Gonzalez, D., A. Daugschies, L. Rubilar, K. Pohlmeyer, O. Skewes, and E. Mey (2004). Fauna parasitaria de la tortola comun (Zenaida auriculata, de Murs 1847) (Columbiformes: Columbidae) en Nuble, Chile. [Parasite-fauna of the eared dove (Zenaida auriculata, de Murs 1847) (Columbiformes Columbidae) in Nuble, Chile.]. Parasitologia Latinoamericana 59(1-2): 37-41. ISSN: 0717-7704.
Descriptors: eared dove, parasites, ectoparasites, endoparasites, mites, Chile, Zenaida auriculata de Murs.
Language of Text: Spanish, summaries in English and Spanish.

Haag Wackernagel, D. and R. Spiewak (2004). Human infestation by pigeon fleas (Ceratophyllus columbae) from feral pigeons. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine AAEM 11(2): 343-6. ISSN: 1232-1966.
Abstract: The report concerns a married couple who were repeatedly invaded by pigeon fleas (Ceratophyllus columbae) over a period of 2 months. The source of the fleas was a pair of breeding feral pigeons (Columba livia). The birds' nest was located in the attic immediately above the couple's apartment, and the fleas found their way along an unsealed heating pipe. The people encountered up to 40 bites per night. With invasions repeated almost every night, the man gradually developed an allergic urticarial reaction. The most traumatic experience for the couple, however, was to learn that they were invaded by fleas (initially, they had presumed they were bothered by mosquitoes). This information resulted in severe psychological distress with phobic reactions and insomnia. Despite the successful removal of the fleas and the pigeons that were source of the pest, parasitophobia of the man persisted over the following 4 months. This case is discussed from the broader aspect of health risks related to feral pigeons and animal fleas. Also summarised are previous observations on people invaded by pigeon fleas.
Descriptors: feral pigeons, bird parasites, transmission, Columbidae parasitology, ectoparasitic, home infestations, transmission, fleas, ectoparasitic infestations, pathology, house invaded by fleas, stress, zoonoses, Switzerland.

Halliday, R.B. (2006). Struthiopterolichus bicaudatus (Gervais) (Acari: Pterolichidae): A feather mite pest of the ostrich in Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal 84(1-2): 68-69. ISSN: 0005-0423.
Descriptors: Acari, insect pests, feather mites, arthropod pests, animal parasites and pests, ostriches, new geographic records, pest identification, signs and symptoms, ivermectin, Struthiopterolichus bicaudatus, Pterolichidae, Australia.

Hove, T. and S. Mukaratirwa (2005). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in farm-reared ostriches and wild game species from Zimbabwe. Acta Tropica 94(1): 49-53. ISSN: 0001-706X.
Abstract: One hundred and seventy one serum samples from 10 game species from Zimbabwe were tested for IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii infection using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Significantly higher seroprevalences were found in the felidae (Panthera leo) (92% of 26), bovidae (Tragelaphus species) (55.9% of 34) and farm-reared struthionidae (Struthio camelus) (48% of 50) compared to the other groups tested. Among the bovidae, the nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) had the highest seroprevalence of 90% (9/10). Anti-Toxoplasma antibody prevalences in browsers [greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) (20% of 10), giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) (10% of 10) and elephant (Loxodonta africana) (10% of 20)] were generally in the lower range. No antibodies were detected in the wild African suidae [warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) and bushpig (Potamochoerus larvatus)]. Attempts to isolate T. gondii from the heart muscles of seropositve ostriches by subinoculation in BALB/c mice were unsuccessful.
Descriptors: ostriches, Toxoplasma gondii, seroprevalence, wild game species, Panthera, nyala, giraffe, elephant, warthog, bushpig, Zimbabwe.

Kumar, K.S., R. Thirumurugan, K. Devaki, and P.N. Khan (2005). Acariasis in an emu (Dromaius novaellandiae) - a case report. Zoos' Print Journal 20(5): 1876. ISSN: 0971-6378.
Descriptors: emu, parasites, Acariasis, female, ticks, case report.

Landgrebe, J.N., B. Vasquez, R.G. Bradley, A.M. Fedynich, S.P. Lerich, and J.M. Kinsella (2007). Helminth community of scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) from western Texas. Journal of Parasitology 93(1): 204-8. ISSN: 0022-3395.
Abstract: Forty-eight scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) were collected during August 2002 at Elephant Mountain Wildlife Management Area in Brewster County, Texas, and examined for helminths. Eight species of helminths were found (5 nematodes and 3 cestodes), representing 2,811 individuals. Of these species, Gongylonema sp., Procyrnea pileata, and Choanotaenia infundibulum are reported from scaled quail for the first time. Prevalence of Aulonocephalus pennula, Gongylonema sp., Oxyspirura petrowi, Physaloptera sp., P. pileata, C. infundibulum, Fuhrmannetta sp., and Rhabdometra odiosa was 98, 2, 56, 4, 60, 2, 25, and 35%, respectively. Aulonocephalus pennula numerically dominated, accounting for 88% of total worms. Statistical analyses were performed on the 5 species with > or = 25% prevalence using the after-hatch-year host sample (n = 38). Prevalence of P. pileata was higher (P = 0.049) in females than in males and higher (P = 0.037) in the sample collected from the site that had spreader dams (berms 1-2 m high and 4-55 m long constructed in varying sizes to catch and retain rainfall) than the control site (no spreader dams). Higher rank mean abundance of A. pennula and O. petrowi (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0052, respectively) was found in the host sample collected from the site that had spreader dams than the control site. A host gender-by-collection site interaction (P = 0.0215) was observed for P. pileata. Findings indicate that scaled quail are acquiring indirect life cycle helminths in arid western Texas habitats.
Descriptors: wils scaled quail, helminth community, nematodes, cestodes, Callipepla squamata, Texas, USA.

Lee, K.A., J.C. Franson, J.M. Kinsella, T. Hollmen, S.P. Hansen, and A. Hollmen (2004). Intestinal helminths in mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) from Arizona, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and Tennessee, U.S.A. Comparative Parasitology 71(1): 81-85.
Descriptors: mourning doves, intestinal helminths, parasitology, Arizona, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, USA.

Luo Feng, Wing YaBiao, Zhang JianFei, Zhu XingQuan, and Li GuoQing (2006). Efficacy of common antitrichomonal drugs against Trichomonas gallinae from pigeon in vitro. Veterinary Science in China 36(12): 980-982. ISSN: 1673-4696.
Descriptors: pigeon, Trichomonas gallinae, common antitrichomonal drugs, efficacy, against, antiprotozoal drugs, parasites.
Language of Text: Chinese, summary in English.

Macchioni, F., M. Magi, F. Mancianti, and S. Perrucci (2005). Phoretic association of mites and mallophaga with the pigeon fly Pseudolynchia canariensis. Parasite Paris, France 12(3): 277-9. ISSN: 1776-1042.
Abstract: Myialges anchora Trouessart, 1906 and M. lophortyx (Furman & Tarshis, 1953) gravid females, surrounded by clusters of eggs, were found strongly inserted into the cuticle of head, thorax, abdomen, femurs and wings of Pseudolynchia canariensis (Macquart, 1840), a hippoboscid fly parasite of the pigeon. This lousefly results obligatory host for ovigerous females of Myialges and for the development of their eggs, and phoretic host because the dispersal of hatching larvae to new hosts may then occur with dispersal of fly carriers. Together with the Myiolges species, not ovigerous females of Ornithocheyletia hallae Smiley, 1970 and Columbicola columbae (Linnaeus, 1758) were found on the pigeon fly.
Descriptors: pigeon fly, bird diseases, parasitology, Columbidae parasitology, diptera parasitology, mallophaga, mite infestations, mites, mallophaga.

Mackereth, G.F. (2004). Libyostrongylus douglassii in New Zealand ostriches. Surveillance Wellington 31(3): 14-16. ISSN: 0112-4927.
Descriptors: ostiches, Nw Zealand, Libyostrongylus douglassii, infection, worms, nematode, fecal.

Masello, J.F., R. Gustavo Choconi, R.N.M. Sehgal, L. Tell, and P. Quillfeldt (2006). Blood and intestinal parasites in wild Psittaciformes: a case study of burrowing parrots (Cyanoliseus patagonus). Ornitologia Neotropical 17(4): 515-529. ISSN: 1075-4377.
Descriptors: burrowing parrots, wild Psittaciformes, blood, intestinal, parasites, case study, Cyanoliseus patagonus.

McKenna, P.B. (2005). Libyostrongylus infections in ostriches--a brief review with particular reference to their detection in New Zealand. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 53(5): 267-70. ISSN: 0048-0169.
Abstract: Following the recent discovery of Libyostrongylus douglassii in ostriches in New Zealand, information relating to this nematode is reviewed. Amongst some of the topics considered are the parasite's distribution and prevalence, its life cycle and survival, and its diagnosis and control. Of particular interest from a New Zealand perspective is the potential for the parasite to infect other ratites, especially the kiwi. While the current evidence suggests that this may be unlikely to occur, the possibility that it might be able to do so cannot be ruled out entirely.
Descriptors: ostriches, kiwi, Libyostrongylus infections, detection, nematode, review, diagnosis, control, New Zealand.

Meireles, M.V., R.M. Soares, M.M. dos Santos, and S.M. Gennari (2006). Biological studies and molecular characterization of a Cryptosporidium isolate from ostriches (Struthio camelus). Journal of Parasitology 92(3): 623-6. ISSN: 0022-3395.
Abstract: There are many reports of cryptosporidial infection in ostriches, but none with molecular characterization of the isolates. A study was undertaken for the characterization of a Brazilian Cryptosporidium sp. ostrich isolate by using molecular phylogenetic analysis of fragments of the 18S ribosomal DNA, heat-shock protein (hsp) 70 coding gene, and actin coding gene. Biological studies were accomplished by the experimental inoculation of chickens via oral or intratracheal routes with fresh ostrich Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts. Molecular analysis of nucleotide sequences of the 3 genes by using neighbor-joining and parsimony methods grouped the ostrich isolate as a sister taxon of Cryptosporidium baileyi and showed that the ostrich isolate is genetically distinct from all other known Cryptosporidium species or genotypes. None of the inoculated chickens developed infection as determined by mucosal smears, histology, and fecal screening for oocysts. Although biological and molecular studies indicate that the ostrich Cryptosporidium is a new species, further studies regarding morphological, biological, and molecular characteristics of other ostrich isolates are required to confirm the species status of the ostrich Cryptosporidium.
Descriptors: ostriches, Cryptosporidium isolate, biological studies, molecular characterization, oocysts, phylogenetic analysis.

Mironov, S.V., J. Dabert, and R. Ehrnsberger (2003). A review of feather mites of the Psittophagus generic group (Astigmata, Pterolichidae) with descriptions of new taxa from parrots (Aves, Psittaciformes) of the Old World. Acta Parasitologica 48(4): 280-293. ISSN: 1230-2821.
Descriptors: parrots, feather mites, review, new taxa description, old world.

Mironov, S.V. and T.M. Perez (2003). Micropsittophagus n. gen., a new feather mite genus (Astigmata: Pterolichidae) from the green pygmy parrot, Micropsitta finschi (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae). International Journal of Acarology 29(4): 371-375. ISSN: 0164-7954.
Descriptors: green pigmy parrot, new feather mite genus, Mycropsittophagus atyeoi, new genus.

Morgan, K.J., M.R. Alley, and J. Potter (2005). Visceral larval migrans in New Zealand brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli). New Zealand Journal of Zoology 32(4): 277. ISSN: 0301-4223.
Descriptors: brown kiwi, New Zealand, visceral larval migrans, parasitology, parasitic disease, symptoms.
Notes: Meeting Information: 5th Oamaru Penguin Symposium, Oamaru, New Zealand; June 30 -July 01, 2005.

Mukaratirwa, S., Z.M. Cindzi, and D.B. Maononga (2004). Prevalence of Libyostrongylus douglassii in commercially reared ostriches in the highveld region of Zimbabwe. Journal of Helminthology 78(4): 333-6. ISSN: 0022-149X.
Abstract: A total of 435 freshly dropped faecal samples were collected from 11 randomly selected ostrich farms during September and November 2002 to determine the prevalence of Libyostrongylus douglassii (ostrich wireworm) in the highveld region of Zimbabwe. Samples, which consisted of 339 samples from breeder birds and 96 samples from pre-slaughter grower birds were screened for nematode eggs using the modified McMaster technique before being individually cultured in an incubator at 28 degrees C. Cultures were examined for the presence of L. douglassii third stage larvae (L3). Using faecal egg counts, eight of 11 farms (72.7%) were positive for L. douglassii in breeders but no eggs were detected in the growers. The faecal culture method detected wireworm larvae in the breeding stock of all farms that were surveyed (100%) and five of the eight farms (62.5%) which had grower birds. Libyostrongylus douglassii was detected in all farms (100%) based on the faecal culture method. Libyostrongylus douglassii was detected for the first time in 7 of 11 farms (64%) surveyed. Data from questionnaires designed to assess farm management practices showed that four out of seven (57.1%) of the ostrich producers were unaware of the importance of wireworms in ostriches. The farms did not have a regular deworming programme for their birds and no faecal samples were sent routinely to the veterinary laboratory for screening of wireworms. Wireworm infections were not taken into consideration by farmers during buying and selling of birds.
Descriptors: ostriches, commercially reared, bird diseases, parasitology, intestinal diseases, diagnosis, strongylida infections, Struthioniformes parasitology, Libyostrongylus douglassii, Zimbabwe.

Mukaratirwa, S., T. Hove, Z.M. Cindzi, D.B. Maononga, M. Taruvinga, and E. Matenga (2005). First report of a field outbreak of the oriental eye-fluke, Philophthalmus gralli (Mathis & Leger 1910), in commercially reared ostriches (Struthio camelus) in Zimbabwe. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 72(3): 203-6. ISSN: 0030-2465.
Abstract: A total of 17 commercially reared ostriches (Struthio camelus) from Msengi farm, Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe, observed with swollen eyes, severe conjunctivitis and constant lacrimation accompanied by a purulent exudate, were restrained for further clinical examination. Some of the birds were semi-blind with severe loss of body condition. When examined, tiny organisms were observed attached to the nictitating membranes and the conjuctival sacs of both eyes. The organisms were identified as Philophthalmus gralli, the "oriental eye-fluke" and Melanoides tuberculata, a prosobranch snail, was confirmed as the intermediate host through natural and experimental infection. To the best of our knowledge this is the first record of the oriental eye-fluke infection in birds in Zimbabwe and Africa and extends its known geographical range.
Descriptors: ostriches, bird diseases epidemiology, eye infections, parasitic, struthioniformes parasitology, trematoda, infections, parasitology, disease outbreaks, epidemiology, eye infections, snails parasitology, trematode infections, Zimbabwe.

Mullens, B.A., C.J. Cardona, L. McClellan, C.E. Szijj, and J.P. Owen (2006). Culicoides bottimeri as a vector of Haemoproteus lophortyx to quail in California, USA. Veterinary Parasitology 140(1-2): 35-43. ISSN: 0304-4017.
Abstract: Arthropod sampling via periodic direct bird examination and regular light trapping was conducted between June 2000 and October 2002 to survey for potential vectors of Haemoproteus lophortyx to nonnative, captive-raised bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) in northern California, USA. Examination of individual bobwhite quail (from 5 weeks of age through adult, total n=76) was conducted on several dates during the transmission period (June-October). No ectoparasites, including hippoboscid flies (reported as Haemoproteus vectors to wild quail in early literature), were collected from the birds. Trapping with ultraviolet light suction traps near the quail revealed nine species of biting midges (Culicoides spp.). Of these, 94% were C. bottimeri, which was abundant near the birds, and 65% of collected C. bottimeri were engorged with blood. C. bottimeri adult activity began in late-April, slightly before the onset of disease in the quail. Activity peaked between July and late-September, coincident with maximum reported transmission, and adult activity ceased by early-November. Nonengorged C. bottimeri had a parity rate of 43.6% overall, suggesting excellent survival for biological transmission of a pathogen like H. lophortyx. A controlled study was done injecting a macerated slurry of pooled, nonengorged, wild-caught C. bottimeri into the peritoneum of 1-day-old bobwhite quail hatchlings held in insect-proof containers. Blood smears 13-19 days later confirmed H. lophortyx infection in zero controls but all insect-injected quail. Biting midges, especially C. bottimeri, transmit H. lophortyx to captive quail and probably are the dominant vector to native California quail (Callipepla californica) as well.
Descriptors: Bobwhite quail, Haemoproteus lophortyx, Colinus virginianus, Callipepla californica, biting smidges, hippoboscid flies.

Munhoz, A.D., G.R. Albuquerque, F.C.R.d. Oliveira, and C.W.G. Lopes (2004). Studies of clinical signs and hematological alterations in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) due to Toxoplasma gondii Nicolle and Manceaux, 1909 (Apicomplexa: Toxoplasmatinae) experimental infection. Revista Brasileira De Parasitologia Veterinaria 13(1): 1-5. ISSN: 0103-846X.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, Toxoplasma gondii, clinical signs, hematological alterations, experimental infection.
Language of Text: Portuguese.

O'Callaghan, M.G., M. Davies, and R.H. Andrews (2006). The spatial distribution of five species of Raillietina infecting the emu, Dromaius novaehollandiae. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 130(1): 71-78. ISSN: 0372-1426.
Descriptors: emu, Raillietina species, spatial distribution, intensity, cestode, intestine, parasite.

OConnor, B.M., J. Foufopoulos, D. Lipton, and K. Lindstrom (2005). Mites associated with the small ground finch, Geospiza fuliginosa (Passeriformes: Emberizidae), from the Galapagos Islands. Journal of Parasitology 91(6): 1304-13. ISSN: 0022-3395.
Abstract: In collections of ectoparasites from 368 small ground finches, Geospiza fuliginosa, in populations from the islands of Isabela, Santa Cruz, San Cristobal, and Santa Fe, in the Galapagos Archipelago, Ecuador, we found 8 species of mites. Four mite species were common on all islands sampled, i.e., Mesalgoides geospizae Mironov and Perez (Psoroptoididae), Xolalges palmai Mironov and Perez (Xolalgidae), and 2 new species, Trouessartia geospiza n. sp. (Trouessartiidae) and Proctophyllodes darwini n. sp. (Proctophyllodidae). Four other species were represented by single collections from G. fuliginosa, i.e., Pterodectes atyeoi n. sp. (Proctophyllodidae), Strelkoviacarus sp. (Analgidae), Dermoglyphus sp. (Dermoglyphidae), and Dermanyssus sp. (Dermanyssidae). Authorship of new species names is attributed to the 3 authors who prepared the descriptions (B.M.O.C., J.F., D.L.). Trouessartia geospiza and P. atyeoi were also found on previously collected specimens of other Geospiza species in museum collections. For the 4 common species, we found no differences in prevalence among the 4 island populations, but infection prevalence differed among the 4 species. The mean infection prevalence was high for T. geospizae (89%), moderate for M. geospizae (58%) and X. palmai (44%), and low for P. darwini (26%) in all populations. The feather mite fauna of G. fuliginosa was similar to that of other Geospiza species, and generally related to communities found on other emberizid finches.
Descriptors: ground finch, bird diseases, parasitology, mite infestations, mites classification, bird diseases epidemiology, mite infestations, epidemiology, parasitology, mite anatomy, histology, prevalence, Ecuador.

Palma, R.L. and R.D. Price (2004). Apterygon okarito, a new species of chewing louse (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) from the Okarito brown kiwi (Aves: Apterygidae). New Zealand Journal of Zoology 31(1): 67-73. ISSN: 0301-4223.
Descriptors: brown kiwi, chewing louse, new species, mophological relationships, New Zealand.

Pavlovic, I., B. Miljkovic, and L. Spalevic (2004). Parazitofauna nojeva. [Parasitoses in ostriches]. Zivinarstvo 39(10): 21-23. ISSN: 0354-4036.
Descriptors: ostriches, parasites, infection, protozoa, trematode, cestode, nematode, ectoparasites.
Language of Text: Serbian, summary in English.

Pennycott, T., B. Lawson, A. Cunningham, V. Simpson, and J. Chantrey (2005). Necrotic ingluvitis in wild finches. Veterinary Record 157(12): 360. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Descriptors: wild finches, necrotic ingluvitis, bird diseases, epidemiology, crop, pathology, esophagus pathology, parasitology, mastigophora infections, avian parasitology, esophagus, necrosis, Scotland, England.
Notes: Comment In: Vet Rec. 2005 Oct 8;157(15):455 Library: National-Library-of-Medicine.

Pereira Soares, M., S. Silva Da Silva, L. Quintana Nizoli, S. Rodrigues Felix, and A. Lucia Schild (2007). Chronic fascioliasis in farmed and wild greater rheas (Rhea americana). Veterinary Parasitology 145(1-2): 168-171. ISSN: 0304-4017.
Descriptors: greater rheas, farmed, wild, chronic fascioliasis, parasites.

Pinto, R.M., R. Tortelly, R.C. Menezes, and D.C. Gomes (2004). Trichurid nematodes in ring-necked pheasants from backyard flocks of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: frequency and pathology. Memorias Do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 99(7): 721-6. ISSN: 1678-8060.
Abstract: The present investigation is related to the frequency of infection and to the gross and microscopic lesions associated to the presence of trichurid worms in 50 ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) from backyard flocks in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In the investigated birds, the overall infection rate was of 74%, with the presence of Eucoleus perforans with 72% of prevalence and 21.2 of mean intensity, in the esophageal and crop mucosa and rarely in the junction of the proventriculus and esophagus, E. annulatus with 2% and 3 in the crop mucosa, Capillaria phasianina, with 12% and 4.3 in the cecum and small intestine and Baruscapillaria obsignata, for the first time referred in this host, with 2% and 1 in the small intestine. Clinical signs were absent. The gross lesions observed in the crop and esophagus of 14 (38.9%) pheasants parasitized with E. perforans were thickening, small nodules, congestion, and petechial haemorrhages in the mucosa. These birds presented a mean infection of 37.5 and a range of infection of 10-82. The microscopic lesions revealed chronic esophagitis with diffuse inflammatory process in the lamina propria characterized mostly by a mononuclear cell infiltrate and also with the presence of granulocytes. In the case of the parasitism of pheasants with C. phasianina, the gross lesions were absent; microscopic lesions were characterized by chronic typhlitis with mononuclear infiltrate. Gross and microscopic lesions were absent in the pheasants parasitized with E. annulatus and B. obsignata.
Descriptors: ring-necked pheasants, bird diseases, epidemiology, enoplida infections, galliformes parasitology, trichuroidea, epidemiology, prevalence, trichuroidea classification, Brazil.

Ponce Gordo, F., R.A. Martinez Diaz, and S. Herrera (2004). Entamoeba struthionis n.sp. (Sarcomastigophora: Endamoebidae) from ostriches (Struthio camelus). Veterinary Parasitology 119(4): 327-35. ISSN: 0304-4017.
Abstract: In the present work we identify the species of Entamoeba from ostriches (Struthio camelus). The complete sequence of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene from this organism has been compared with those published for other species of the genus and clear differences have been found. These results confirm previous data which showed differences on parasite morphology and class of host with the other Entamoeba species. Taking all these data together, it can be concluded that the organism from ostriches is a new species whose proposed name is Entamoeba struthionis n.sp. This species probably infects rheas (Rhea americana), but genetic analysis of isolates from this host should be performed to confirm morphological data. Also, comparison of gene sequences with data from other authors on cysts recovered from human stool samples showed the possibility that this amoeba may affect humans. Further studies are needed to determine the risk of transmission of this new species to humans.
Descriptors: ostriches, rhea, bird diseases, parasitology, entamoebiasis, struthioniformes parasitology, transmission, DNA, protozoan chemistry, parasitology, entamoebiasis transmission.

Robbins, R.G. and S.E. Bush (2006). First report of Amblyomma papuanum Hirst (Acari: Ixodida: Ixodidae) from the Dwarf Cassowary, Casuarius bennetti Gould (Aves: Struthioniformes: Casuariidae), with additional records of parasitism of Casuarius spp. by this tick. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 108(4): 1002-1004. ISSN: 0013-8797.
Descriptors: Amblyomma, ectoparasites, new host records, wild birds, Casuarius, parasitism, tick infestations, Papua New-Guinea.

Robel, R., T.L.J. Walker, R.K. Ridley, K.E. Kemp, and R.D. Applegate (2005). Helminthic parasites in ring-necked pheasant from southwestern kansas. Prairie Naturalist 37(3): 143-150. ISSN: 0091-0376.
Descriptors: ring necked pheasant, helminthic parasites, southwestern Kansas.

Saxena, A.K., S.K. Singh, S. Kumar, and N. Gupta (2004). The influence of two environmental factors on the development of the eggs of two pigeon lice (phthiraptera, insecta). Journal of Parasitology and Applied Animal Biology 13(1-2): 39-44. ISSN: 0971-2208.
Descriptors: pigeon lice, egg development, environmental factors, influence, temperature, relative humidity.

Schulze, C., E. Grossmann, and O. Krone (2006). Fallbericht: Libyostrongylus douglassii-assoziierte Magenentzundungen bei Straussen (Struthio camelus) in Deutschland. [Case report: Libyostrongylus douglassii-associated proventriculitis in ostriches in Germany]. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 113(6): 240-242. ISSN: 0341-6593.
Descriptors: ostriches, Libyostrongylus douglassii, proventriculitis, adult, female, wireworm, infection, case report, nematodes.
Language of Text: German, summary in English.

Skoracki, M. (2005). A review of the quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae) parasitizing parrots (Aves: Psittaciformes) with description of three new species. Acarina 13(2): 127-136. ISSN: 0132-8077.
Descriptors: parrots, quill mites parasitizing, new species, review.
Language of Text: English and Russian.

Soares, M.P., S.S. da Silva, L.Q. Nizoli, S.R. Felix, and A.L. Schild (2007). Chronic fascioliasis in farmed and wild greater rheas (Rhea americana). Veterinary Parasitology 145(1-2): 168-71. ISSN: 0304-4017.
Abstract: From 50 farmed Rhea americana slaughtered for human consumption, adult forms and eggs of Fasciola hepatica were found in 4. The other three livers were free of flukes but did show lesions caused by larval fluke migration. Histological lesions were similar to those caused by flukes in cattle and sheep. The rheas were from an endemic area of ruminant fascioliasis in Southern Brazil. F. hepatica eggs were also found in faecal samples of wild rheas from another endemic area in Southern Brazil. It is likely that the rheas play a role in the transmission of the disease to ruminants and could be jeopardizing the control of this parasitosis in endemic areas. From the best of our knowledge this is the first report of fascioliasis in R. americana.
Descriptors: Rhea, fascioliasis, slaughter, human consumption, liver fluke, larval migration, adult, eggs, liver, fecal samples, transmission, Brazil.

Stone, E.G., G. Montiel Parra, and T.M. Perez (2005). A survey of selected parasitic and viral pathogens in four species of Mexican parrots, Amazona autumnalis, Amazona oratrix, Amazona viridigenalis, and Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 36(2): 245-9. ISSN: 1042-7260.
Abstract: Isolated populations of four species of Mexican parrots were sampled for evidence of selected pathogens of concern in birds originating in Latin America. Data were collected between June and September 1997, and ectoparasite collection was repeated with Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha in September 2000. Serum samples from nine Amazona oratrix, 10 Amazona viridigenalis, 6 Amazona autumnalis, and 25 R. pachyrhyncha chicks were screened for neutralizing antibodies to psittacid herpesvirus and avian influenza and for antibodies to paramyxovirus serotypes 1 and 3. Chicks were also examined visually for fecal parasites and ectoparasites. All serologic and fecal parasite tests were negative. Ectoparasites included ticks, Ixodidae; mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum; fleas, Psyttopsylla mexicana; lice, Paragoniocotes mexicanus, Heteromenopon sp., and Psittacobrosus sp.; and bugs, Ornithocoris sp. This study provides baseline information to guide future health studies.
Descriptors: Mexican parrots, four species, parasitic pathogens, viral pathogens, survey, ticks, mites, fleas, lice, bugs, Latin America.

Tampieri, M.P., R. Galuppi, and G. Rugna (2005). Survey on helminthofauna in pheasants from Eastern Europe. Parassitologia 47(2): 241-5. ISSN: 0048-2851.
Abstract: In order to assess the parasitological status in imported pheasants, 51 birds (Phasianus colchicus) coming from Poland and Rumania and used in Italy in repopulation interventions for hunting purposes were examined. From each animal the trachea, oesophagus, crop and intestine were collected and examined for the presence of nematodes. The examination of the oesophagi and crops of 5 birds revealed the presence of parasites pertaining to the family Capillariidae: Eucoleus contortus was found in all of the 5 animals, E. annulatus was present along with the previous parasite in one animal coming from Poland. The examination of the tracheae revealed the presence of Syngamus trachea in 5 animals (9.80%). Adult or larval stages of Heterakis gallinarum (37.25% of birds) and Capillariidae (35.29%) were found in the intestinal tracts. Aonchotheca caudinflata was detected only in one bird coming from Poland; the capillarids found in all of the remaining pheasants exhibited morphological characteristics referable to Capillaria phasianina, a species never reported in Italy. The release of game from foreign countries, therefore, may always constitute a risk for the autochthonous one due to the spread of new parasitic infections.
Descriptors: pheasants, parasites, helminthofauna, Eastern Europe, Poland, Rumania, Italy, trachea, esophagus, crop, intestines, nematodes, infections.

Tanizaki, A., H. Yoshikawa, S. Iwatani, and I. Kimata (2005). Infectivity of Blastocystis isolates from chickens, quails and geese in chickens. Parasitology Research 96(1): 57-61. ISSN: 0932-0113.
Abstract: The infectivity of six Blastocystis isolates obtained from two domestic chickens, two Japanese quails and two domestic geese, were examined in 1-week-old male chicks. All six isolates were able to infect the chicks via the intracecal inoculation of 1x10(6) cells of cultured organisms. Since the infected chicks discharged many cysts in their feces, the infectivity of the concentrated cysts in chicks was compared among three isolates from different bird species. The CK86-1 and QQ93-3 isolates, which were obtained from a chicken and a quail, respectively, were successfully infected in chicks by orally inoculating with 1x10(2)-1x10(6) cysts. On the other hand, the AC03-1 isolate from a goose required more cysts to infect the chicks, from 1x10(3) cysts to 1x10(6) cysts. In addition, when an uninfected normal chick was housed with five experimentally inoculated chicks with cysts of the QQ93-3 isolate, the normal chick became infected, indicating the fecal-oral transmission of the cyst form among the birds. These results show that the transmission of Blastocystis infection occurs easily between the same or different bird species. Therefore, the proposal of new Blastocystis species on the basis of different avian host species is problematic.
Descriptors: quails, chickens, geese, Blastocystis isolates, infectivity, cysts, oral inoculation, transmission between species.

Teixeira, M., W.L. Teixeira Filho, and C.W.G. Lopes (2004). Coccidiosis in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica): characterization of a naturally occurring infection in a commercial rearing farm. Revista Brasileira De Ciencia Avicola 6(2): 129-134. ISSN: 1516-635X.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, coccidiosis, infection, naturally occuring, farm, Eimeria, characteristics, fecal exams, oocysts, diagnosis.

Tisljar, M., R. Beck, R.G. Cooper, A. Marinculic, M. Tudja, I. Lukac Novak, Z. Grabarevic, V. Herak Perkovic, and B. Simpraga (2007). First finding of libyostrongylosis in farm-reared ostriches (Struthio camelus) in Croatia: unusual histopathological finding in the brain of two ostriches, naturally infected with Libyostrongylus douglasi. Veterinary Parasitology 147(1-2): 118-24. ISSN: 0304-4017.
Abstract: In the present work, the very first finding of Libyostrongylus douglasi in farm-reared ostriches in Croatia, was described, not only as the main cause of the death, but also as the cause of persistent infection. The results of histopathological examination of almost all parenchymatous organs in two routinely necropsied ostriches were presented, including atypical histopathological finding in the brain and the result of the L. douglasi scanning electron microscopical (SEM) examination. In order to determine the parasite species to which the larval form found in the brain belonged, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed. Total DNA was isolated from fresh L. douglasi, and from archival formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain section. Additionally, the smears of the proventricular mucosal lining were cytologically examined. Virological examination for newcastle disease virus (NDV) was also performed. As there was very limited information concerned ostrich's health status in Croatian farms, a preliminary evaluation of the parasite infestation level in the Croatian ostrich population over the period 2001-2002 was also done, and an attempt at characterising individual parasite species, was made.
Descriptors: ostriches, infected, Libyostrongylus douglasi, brain, histopathological examination, necropsy, scanning electron microscopical examination, Croatia.

Vasconcelos Meireles, M., R. Martins Soares, M.M.A. Bianchi dos Santos, and S.M. Gennari (2006). Biological studies and molecular characterization of a Cryptosporidium isolate from ostriches (Struthio camelus). Journal of Parasitology 92(3): 623-626. ISSN: 0022-3395.
Descriptors: ostriches, cryptosporidium isolate, biological studies, molecular characterization, Struthio camelus, parasites.

Villanua, D., P. Acevedo, U. Hofle, O. Rodriguez, and C. Gortazar (2006). Changes in parasite transmission stage excretion after pheasant release. Journal of Helminthology 80(3): 313-318. ISSN: 0022-149X.
Descriptors: pheasants, Phasianus colchicus, Eimeria, Heterakis, Capillaria, oocysts, ova, excretion, fecal egg count, disease transmission, disease prevalence, fenbendazole, drug therapy, farmed pheasants, parasite excretion.

Waliullah, M.I.S. (2005). Nematodes associated with kiwi (Actinidia deliceous Chev.) in Kashmir Valley, India. Indian Journal of Nematology 35(2): 227. ISSN: 0303-6960.
Descriptors: kiwi, nematodes, Actinidia deliceous, India.

Whiteman, N.K., D. Santiago Alarcon, K.P. Johnson, and P.G. Parker (2004). Differences in straggling rates between two genera of dove lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) reinforce population genetic and cophylogenetic patterns. International Journal for Parasitology 34(10): 1113-1119. ISSN: 0020-7519.
Abstract: Differences in dispersal abilities have been implicated for causing disparate evolutionary patterns between Columbicola and Physconelloides lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera). However, no study has documented straggling (when lice are found on atypical hosts) rates within these lineages. We used the fact that the Galapagos Hawk, Buteo galapagoensis (Gould) (Falconiformes) feeds on the Galapagos Dove Zenaida galapagoensis Gould (Columbiformes) within an ecologically simplified setting. The Galapagos Dove is the only typical host of Columbicola macrourae (Wilson) and Physconelloides galapagensis (Kellogg and Huwana) in Galapagos. We quantitatively sampled and found these lice on both bird species. A DNA barcoding approach confirmed that stragglers were derived from Galapagos doves. We also collected a Bovicola sp. louse, likely originating from a goat (Capra hircus). On hawks, C. macrourae was significantly more prevalent than P. galapagensis. On doves, the two lice were equally prevalent and abundant. Differences in prevalence on hawks was a function of differences in straggling rate between lice, and not a reflection of their relative representation within the dove population. This provides further evidence that differences in dispersal abilities may drive differences in the degree of cospeciation in Columbicola and Phyconelloides lice, which have become model systems in evolutionary biology.
Descriptors: Philopteridae, Columbicola, lice, dispersal behavior, insect behavior, doves, Columbiformes, hawks, host-parasite relationships, population genetics, nucleotide sequences, phylogeny, coevolution, Galapagos Islands, Physconelloides galapagensis, Columbicola macrourae, Zenaida galapagoensis, Buteo galapagoensis, straggling behavior, molecular sequence data.

Yaman, M. and R. Durgut (2005). Devekuslarinin paraziter hastaliklari ve tedavileri. [Parasitic infestations in ostriches and therapy]. Turkiye Parazitoloji Dergisi 29(2): 103-109. ISSN: 1300-6320.
Descriptors: ostriches, parasitic infections, therapy, Struthio camelus, treatment for parasites.
Language of Text: Turkish, summaries in English andTurkish.

Zettermann, C.D., A.A. Nascimento, J.A. Tebaldi, and M.J. Szabo (2005). Observations on helminth infections of free-living and captive rheas (Rhea americana) in Brazil. Veterinary Parasitology 129(1-2): 169-72. ISSN: 0304-4017.
Abstract: The present work describes helminth infection of eight free-living and 12 captive rheas (Rhea americana) from, respectively, Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul State, and Jaboticabal, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Captive birds were young and had a high mortality rate, while free-living birds were adult and apparently healthy. Infections were evaluated by post-mortem examination of internal organs and recovery of helminths using standard parasitological procedures. Seven species of nematodes (Sicarius uncinipenis, Torquatoides crotophaga, Deletrocephalus dimidiatus, D. cesarpintoi, Paradeletrocephalus minor, Capillaria venteli and Dicheilonema rheae) and two species of cestodes (Houttuynia struthionis and Chapmania tauricolis) were identified. P. minor, which inhabits the large intestine, was the most common helminth in free-living birds (63.9%). In captive rheas, a mean parasitic load of 173 helminths per host was found. The gizzard of these birds was the most parasitized organ and S. uncinipenis was most common (92.5%). Parasitism of free-living and captive birds and associated pathology are discussed.
Descriptors: bird diseases, epidemiology, helminthiasis, rheiformes parasitology, wild parasitology, Brazil epidemiology, gizzard parasitology, prevalence.

Ziomko, I., J. Karamon, and T. Cencek (2006). Parasites in ostriches. Medycyna Weterynaryjna 62(6): 628-631. ISSN: 0025-8628.
Descriptors: ostriches, parasites, disease, infection, review, Struthio camelus.
Language of Text: Polish.



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