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Housing, Husbandry, Care & Welfare of Selected Birds
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Aire, T.A. and J.T. Soley (2003). The morphological features of the rete testis of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Anatomy and Embryology 207(4/5): 355-361. ISSN: 0340-2061.
Descriptors: ostrich, rete testis, morphological features, anatomy, epithelium.

Babic, K., T.T. Vukievic, D. Mihelic, and V.G. Kantura (2004). The anatomy of the female and male ostrich (Struthio camelus) genital system as a base of reproductive physiology. Proceedings of the 11th Ostrich World Congress, Island Great Brijun, Croatia, 15 17 October 2004: 70-73.
Descriptors: ostrich, male, female, genital system, anatomy, reproductive physiology, conference proceedings.
Notes: Meeting Information: Proceedings of the 11th Ostrich World Congress, Island Great Brijun, Croatia, 15-17 October 2004.

Barbosa, T., G. Zavala, S. Cheng, T. Lourenco, and P. Villegas (2006). Effects of reticuloendotheliosis virus on the viability and reproductive performance of Japanese quail. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 15(4): 558-563. ISSN: 1056-6171.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, reticuloendotheliosis virus, effects, viability, reproductive performance.

Brand, Z., T.S. Brand, and C.R. Brown (2003). The effect of different combinations of dietary energy and protein on the composition of ostrich eggs. South African Journal of Animal Science 33(3): 193-200. ISSN: 0375-1589.
Descriptors: ostrich, eggs, dietary energy, protein, different combinations, effect on composition of eggs, nutrition, breeding females.

Castillo, A., M. Marzoni, R. Chiarini, and I. Romboli (2003). Storage of pheasant semen: some aspects on quality and fertilising ability. Avian and Poultry Biology Reviews 14(4): 200. ISSN: 1470-2061.
Descriptors: pheasant, semen, storage, fertilising ability, quality, aspects, conference.
Notes: Meeting Information: Incubation and Fertility Research Group Meeting, WPSA Working Group 6 (Reproduction), University of Lincoln, UK, 4-5 September 2003.

Cooper, R.G. and J.O. Horbanczuk (2005). Egg and embryo abnormalities in the ostrich (Struthio camelus). West Indian Veterinary Journal 5(2): 21-23. ISSN: 1815-8986.
Descriptors: ostrich, egg, embryo, abnormalities, reproduction.

Hahn, T.P., M.E. Pereyra, S.M. Sharbaugh, and G.E. Bentley (2004). Physiological responses to photoperiod in three cardueline finch species. General and Comparative Endocrinology 137(1): 99-108. ISSN: 0016-6480.
Abstract: Cardueline finches (canaries, goldfinches, and rosefinches, etc.) vary widely in the degree to which their natural reproductive schedules track seasonal changes in photoperiod. In this study, we tested for photo-induction of reproductive development and photorefractoriness in males of three cardueline finch species: pine siskins (Carduelis pinus), common redpolls (Carduelis flammea), and white-winged crossbills (Loxia leucoptera). Exposure to long days (20L:4D) in winter induced gonadal growth and elevation of circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) in all three species. After 4.5 months on constant long days, gonadal regression was complete in redpolls and siskins, but only partial in crossbills. Feather molt was most advanced in redpolls, slightly less advanced in siskins, and least advanced in crossbills. These results indicate that the reproductive systems of all three species were stimulated by long days, but that the crossbills, which are temporal opportunists, either did not become absolutely photorefractory, or developed refractoriness more slowly than did the other two species. Reproductive development of controls held for 4.5 months on constant short days (5L:19D) was negligible in redpolls and crossbills, but substantial in siskins, suggesting that of the three species, pine siskins may be the least dependent on long days for reproductive development. Changes in fat deposition and body mass also differed among species. Short day redpolls tended to be fatter and heavier than long day redpolls, and long day crossbills tended to be fatter and heavier than short day crossbills. Body mass and fat depot of siskins remained high irrespective of photoperiod. These results illustrate substantial variation among these close relatives, and are consistent with the idea that differences in apparent reproductive flexibility among cardueline taxa relate to interspecific differences in responsiveness to environmental cues, not simply to differences in the environments experienced. This kind of information is critical to an understanding of the mechanistic bases of natural variation in reproductive schedules, and of how different species may be affected by modifications to the environment.
Descriptors: finches physiology, photoperiod, adipose tissue physiology, body weight physiology, gonads physiology, luteinizing hormone blood, sexual behavior, animal physiology, species specificity.

Hassan, S.M., A.A. Siam, M.E. Mady, and A.L. Cartwright (2004). Incubation temperature for ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggs. Poultry Science 83(3): 495-499.
Abstract: The impact of incubation temperature on egg weight loss, embryonic mortality, incubation period, hatchability, and chick weight in 394 ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggs was studied. Eggs were obtained from 3 farms in Texas. Three incubation temperatures (36.5, 37.0, or 37.5degrees C) with relative humidity ranging from 20 to 30% were used. Results showed that incubation of fertile eggs at 36.5degrees C increased hatchability and incubation period in comparison with other treatments. The incidence of dead in shell and total dead embryos was increased at 37.5degrees C when compared with 36.5degrees C. No differences in hatchability, incubation period, dead-in-shell embryos, and total dead embryos were observed between eggs incubated at 37.0 or 37.5degrees C. Neither chick weight nor egg weight loss at 7, 14, 28, or 38 d of incubation was affected by incubation temperature, but egg weight loss at 21 d was lower for eggs incubated at 37.5degrees C than for the other treatments. Results show that the most effective incubation temperature for the ostrich is lower than the most effective incubation temperature for most bird species.
Descriptors: ostriches, ova, egg hatchability, embryonic mortality, incubation, duration, ambient temperature, relative humidity, egg weight, egg fertility, hatching, birth weight, egg weight loss.

Hoogesteijn, A.L., T.J. DeVoogd, F.W. Quimby, T. De Caprio, and G.V. Kollias (2005). Reproductive impairment in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 24(1): 219-23. ISSN: 0730-7268.
Abstract: The effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as compounds that may disrupt endocrine activity and, consequently, alter reproductive performance were investigated in altricial zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). The breeding performance and breeding cycle of zebra finches differed significantly between nonexposed birds and those experimentally pulse-exposed to Aroclor 1248, a PCB compound (40 microg/bird). Aroclor-exposed birds showed significantly increased numbers of clutches laid, nests constructed per pair, incubation time per pair, and percentage of hatchling mortality compared to controls. Not all reproductive parameters were affected. Those traditionally regarded as indicators of reproductive capacity (number of eggs laid per clutch, number of eggs laid per pair, hatchlings per clutch, and fledglings per clutch) did not differ statistically between exposed and control birds. Findings support the hypothesis that very low PCB doses may be associated with endocrine disruption. It is suggested that evaluation of reproductive parameters related to parental care is more adequate to assess endocrine disruption than is evaluation of reproductive success parameters. Given its short breeding cycle, altricial breeding behavior, and other advantages not possessed by precocial birds, we propose using the zebra finch for evaluations of chemicals with endocrine-disruptive activity.
Descriptors: zebra finches, reproductive impairment, PCBs, breeding performance, breeding cycle, Aroclor 1248, chemicals, behavior.

Immler, S., M. Saint Jalme, L. Lesobre, G. Sorci, Y. Roman, and T.R. Birkhead (2007). The evolution of sperm morphometry in pheasants. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 20(3): 1008-1014. ISSN: 1010-061X.
Abstract: Post-copulatory sexual selection is thought to be a potent evolutionary force driving the diversification of sperm shape and function across species. In birds, insemination and fertilization are separated in time and sperm storage increases the duration of sperm-female interaction and hence the opportunity for sperm competition and cryptic female choice. We performed a comparative study of 24 pheasant species (Phasianidae, Galliformes) to establish the relative importance of sperm competition and the duration of sperm storage for the evolution of sperm morphometry (i.e. size of different sperm traits). We found that sperm size traits were negatively associated with the duration of sperm storage but were independent of the risk of sperm competition estimated from relative testis mass. Our study emphasizes the importance of female reproductive biology for the evolution of sperm morphometry particularly in sperm-storing taxa.
Descriptors: pheasants, sperm competition, comparative study, female reproductive biology, sperm morphometry, sperm storage duration.

Jensen, T. and B. Durrant (2006). Assessment of reproductive status and ovulation in female brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) using fecal steroids and ovarian follicle size. Zoo Biology 25(1): 25-34. ISSN: 0733-3188.
Descriptors: wild birds, brown kiwi, ultrasonography, ovaries, ovarian follicles, follicular development, feces, estradiol, testosterone, progesterone, oviposition, egg yolk.

Kimaro, W.H. and M.C. Madekurozwa (2005). An immunohistochemical study of the innervation of the ovary in the sexually immature ostrich. Microscopy Society of Southern Africa Proceedings 35: 73. ISSN: 1028-3455.
Descriptors: ostrich, sexually immature, ovary, innervation, immunohistochemical study, innervation, growth and development.

Kimaro, W.H. and M.C. Madekurozwa (2005). The ultrastructure of gland cells in the ovary of the sexually immature ostrich. Microscopy Society of Southern Africa Proceedings 35: 72. ISSN: 1028-3455.
Descriptors: ostrich, sexually immature, gland cells, ovary, ultrastructure.

Kimaro, W.H. and M.C. Madekurozwa (2005). Ultrastructural features of healthy and atretic ovarian follicles in the sexually immature ostrich. Microscopy Society of Southern Africa Proceedings 35: 61. ISSN: 1028-3455.
Descriptors: ostrich, sexually immature, ovarian follicles, healthy, atretic, ultrastructural features.

Klimowicz, M., E. Lukaszewicz, and A. Dubiel (2005). Effect of collection frequency on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of pigeon (Columba livia) semen. British Poultry Science. 46((3)): 361-365. ISSN: 0007-1668.
Descriptors: Columba livia, pigeons, males, spermatozoa, semen, frequency, sampling, reproductive traits, viability, anatomy, morphology.

Klimowicz, M. and W. Nizanski (2006). Viability assessment of pigeon sperm using eosin-nigrosin staining and flow cytometry. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 41(4): 331. ISSN: 0936-6768.
Descriptors: pigeon, sperm, assessment, eosin-nigrosin staining, flow cytometry, viability, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: 10th Annual Conference of the European Society for Domestic Animal Reproduction, Portoroz, Slovenia; September 07 -09, 2006.

Klimowicz, M. and W. Nizanski (2006). Evaluation motility of pigeon semen after in vitro storage using casa system. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 41(4): 330. ISSN: 0936-6768.
Descriptors: pigeon, semen, motility, evaluation, after, invitro storage, casa system, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: 10th Annual Conference of the European Society for Domestic Animal Reproduction, Portoroz, Slovenia; September 07 -09, 2006.

Labaque, M.C., J.L. Navarro, and M.B. Martella (2004). Effects of storage time on hatchability of artificially incubated Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) eggs. British Poultry Science 45(5): 638-42. ISSN: 0007-1668.
Abstract: (1) A study was conducted to determine the effects of the length of the storage period on the hatchability of artificially incubated Greater Rhea eggs. Hatchability was evaluated in eggs gathered daily from a captive population and in eggs collected less frequently from a semi-captive population. (2) Eggs form both sites were either immediately incubated after being collected or were stored for 1 to 9 d prior to incubation. (3) The maximum number of days for which an egg could be stored without depressing hatchability (with respect to non-stored eggs) was longer in the eggs collected daily. (4) Eggs collected daily and stored for 4d or more showed total hatchability (28%) and fertile hatchability (43%) which was approximately 30% lower than non-stored eggs or eggs stored for 3 d or less. In the semi-captive population, the total and fertile hatchability of non-stored eggs and of eggs stored for one day were 40% greater than of eggs stored for 2 to 9 d (20 and 34%, respectively). (5) The period for which Greater Rhea eggs could be stored without depressing hatchability varied depending on the frequency of egg collection: non-daily egg collection reduces the possible period of storage.
Descriptors: Greater Rhea, eggs, hatchability, storage time, artificially incubated, effects, frequency of collection.

Madekurozwa, M.C. (2005). Morphological features of the luminal surface of the magnum in the sexually immature ostrich (Struthio camelus). Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia 34(6): 350-3. ISSN: 0340-2096.
Abstract: Observations were made, using scanning electron microscopy, of the surface features of the magnum in the immature ostrich during periods of ovarian inactivity, activity and regression. In birds with inactive ovaries the luminal surface of the magnum was lined with non-ciliated cells, which were densely covered by microvilli. In contrast, the magnum in birds with active ovaries was composed of ciliated and non-ciliated cells. The distribution of ciliated cells was not uniform, with clumps of cilia occurring next to non-ciliated areas. Samples collected from birds with regressing ovaries, during periods of decreasing daylength, revealed that the magnum was undergoing involution. The deciliation of ciliated cells and the presence of short microvilli on non-ciliated cells characterized magnal regression. These results suggest that ovarian activity and changes in daylength have a profound effect on the surface features of the magnum in the immature ostrich.
Descriptors: ostrich, sexually immature, magnum, morphological features, ovarian activity, daylength, ciliated cells, non ciliated cells.

Madekurozwa, M.C. (2004). Immunohistochemical localization of the progesterone and oestrogen receptors in the shell gland of sexually immature ostriches (Struthio camelus) with active or inactive ovaries. Research in Veterinary Science 76(1): 63-68. ISSN: 0034-5288.
Descriptors: ostriches, immature, ovaries, active, inactive, progesterone, estrogen, receptors, immunohistochemical localization, shell gland.

Malecki, I.A., S.W.P. Cloete, W.D. Gertenbach, and G.B. Martins (2004). Sperm storage and duration of fertility in female ostriches (Struthio camelus). South African Journal of Animal Science 34(3): 158-165. ISSN: 0375-1589.
Descriptors: ostriches, reproduction, sperm storage, duration of fertility in female.

Malecki, I.A., J.O. Horbanczuk, C.E. Reed, and G.B. Martin (2005). The ostrich (Struthio camelus) blastoderm and embryo development following storage of eggs at various temperatures. British Poultry Science 46(6): 652-660. ISSN: 0007-1668.
Descriptors: ostrich, blastoderm, embryo, development, egg storage, various temperatures.

Malecki, I.A. and G.B. Martin (2003). Sperm supply and egg fertilization in the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Reproduction in Domestic Animals 38(6): 429-435. ISSN: 0936-6768.
Descriptors: ostrich, sperm supply, egg fertilization, mating.

Malecki, I.A. and G.B. Martin (2004). Artificial insemination in the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae): effects of numbers of spermatozoa and time of insemination on the duration of the fertile period. Animal Science Papers and Reports 22(3): 315-323. ISSN: 0860-4037.
Descriptors: emu, artificial insemination, spermatazoa numbers, time of insemination, duration of fertile period, effects.

Mohan, J., K.V. Sastry, J.S. Tyagi, and D.K. Singh (2004). Isolation of E. coli from foam and effects of fluoroquinolones on E. coli and foam production in male Japanese quail. Theriogenology 62(8): 1383-90. ISSN: 0093-691X.
Abstract: Sexually active male Japanese quail (Coturnix coutrnix Japonica) produce a foamy substance from their cloacal gland. It was postulated that bacteria played an important role in production of foam. The primary objective of this study was to isolate and identify bacteria present in the cloacal foam. The secondary objective was to evaluate the effect of fluoroquinolone treatment on bacterial counts and foam production. Healthy adult Japanese quail were maintained in individual cages under uniform husbandry conditions and allocated arbitrarily into three groups (each group consisted of 12 male and 12 female birds). Foam was collected from the cloacal gland of male birds of each group separately into sterile petri dishes and was cultured to isolate and identify bacteria and to determine their sensitivity to various antibiotics. Escherichia coli bacteria, sensitive to various antibacterials (including the fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin and pefloxacin), were isolated. In the second part of the study, male quails of Group I (control) received I mL vehicle (normal saline 0.9% (w/v) NaCl) daily (via the intraperitoneal route) for 12 days. Male birds from groups II and III were treated intraperitoneally with ciprofloxacin or pefloxacin at the rate of 10 mg and 12 mg per/kg body weight respectively, for 12 days. In antibiotic-treated birds, there was a gradual reduction in foam production during treatment. At the end of treatment, the cloacal gland area was smaller (P < 0.05) in pefloxacin-treated birds compared to the other groups. Furthermore, a trend towards decreasing body weight and fertilizing ability was noted in the same group. A drastic reduction in bacterial counts of foam was recorded only in fluoroquinolone-treated groups during treatment period. After cessation of treatment, all end points were increasing back to pre-treatment levels. In conclusion, E. coli were present in the foam of the cloacal gland of Japanese quail and may have a role in foam production.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, male, cloacal foam production, E. coli, isolation, fluoroquinolones, effect, cloacal gland, bacteria from coacal gland.

Mohan, L. and S.P. Dhiman (2005). Stress management - an important factor in the effective breeding of the cheer pheasant Catreus wallichii. Avicultural Magazine 111(2): 83-90. ISSN: 0005-2256.
Descriptors: cheer pheasant, Catreus wallichii, effective breeding, stress management, important factor.

Ozbey, O., N. Yildiz, and F. Esen (2006). The effects of high temperature on breeding characteristics and the living strength of the Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). International Journal of Poultry Science 5(1): 56-59. ISSN: 1682-8356.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, high temperature, effects, breeding characteristics, living strength.

Ozegbe, P.C., T.A. Aire, and J.T. Soley (2005). The efferent ductules of the testis of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Microscopy Society of Southern Africa Proceedings 35: 74. ISSN: 1028-3455.
Descriptors: ostrich, Struthio camelus, testis, efferent ductules.

Pike, T.W. and M. Petrie (2006). Experimental evidence that corticosterone affects offspring sex ratios in quail. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences Series B 273(1590): 1093-1098. ISSN: 0962-8452.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica, corticosterone, affects, offspring sex ratio, studies, sex biasing process, birds.

Robertson, H.A., R.M. Colbourne, A. Nelson, and I.M. Westbrooke (2006). At what age should brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) eggs be collected for artificial incubation? Notornis 53(Part 2): 231-234. ISSN: 0029-4470.
Descriptors: brown kiwi, eggs, artificial incubation, collection age, Apteryx mantelli.

Sarasqueta, D.V. (2005). Aspects of rearing, reproduction and hybridization of Darwin's Rhea or Choique (Rhea pennata syn. Pterocnemia pennata, spp. pennata). E. Carbajo Proceedings of the 3rd International Ratite Science Symposium of the World' s Poultry Science Association WPSA and 12th World Ostrich Congress, Madrid, Spain, 14th 16th October, 2005, World Poultry Science Association (WPSA): Beekbergen, Netherlands, p. 35-44. ISBN: 8460963535.
Descriptors: Darwin's rhea, rearing, reproduction, hybridization, choique, aspects, conference proceedings, book chapter.
Notes: Meeting Information: Proceedings of the 3rd International Ratite Science Symposium of the World's Poultry Science Association (WPSA) and 12th World Ostrich Congress, Madrid, Spain, 14th-16th October, 2005.

Sontakke, S.D., G. Umapathy, V. Sivaram, S.D. Kholkute, and S. Shivaji (2004). Semen characteristics, cryopreservation, and successful artificial insemination in the Blue rock pigeon (Columba livia). Theriogenology. 62((1-2)): 139-153. ISSN: 0093-691X.
Abstract: The present study was undertaken in the Blue rock pigeon (Columba livia) to evaluate the annual semen characteristics, to identify a suitable extender for semen short-term storage, to determine a protocol for cryopreservation of semen and finally to check whether intracloacal insemination would lead to the birth of a chick. Semen characteristics such as semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, and percentage of normal spermatozoa were maximum during the monsoon season. TALP was observed to be the most suitable semen extender and the sperm survived best at 37 degrees C at a dilution of 1:100 in TALP. Further, cryopreservation studies on pigeon semen indicated that 8% DMSO with or without egg yolk (20%) proved to be a better cryoprotectant compared to glycerol and polyethylene glycol. In addition, the slow freezing protocol was better than the fast-freezing protocol and about 40% of the cryopreserved spermatozoa were motile following thawing. Computer-aided semen analysis indicated that pigeon spermatozoa were extremely active immediately after dilution in TALP and exhibited linear trajectories persisting up to 9 h. But, with time there was a time-dependent decrease in the velocity parameters (VAP, VSL, and VCL). Cryopreserved spermatozoa following thawing also exhibited linear trajectories but had reduced velocity as evident from the significant decrease in VAP, VSL, and VCL. Further, artificial inseminations using fresh semen resulted in 45% fertilization and birth of a live chick.
Descriptors: Blue rock pigeon, reproduction, semen, volume, spermatozoa, sperm motility, seasonal variation, semen extenders, cryoprotectants, dimethyl sulfoxide, egg yolk, cryopreservation, artificial insemination, cloaca, freezing, thawing, India.

Symes, C.T. and M.R. Perrin (2004). Breeding biology of the greyheaded parrot (Poicephalus fuscicollis suahelicus) in the wild. Emu 104(1): 45-57. ISSN: 0158-4197.
Descriptors: greyheaded parrot, wild, breeding biology, Poicephalus fuscicollis suahelicus, reproduction.

Taylor, S. and M.R. Perrin (2006). Aspects of the breeding biology of the brown-headed parrot Picephalus cryptoxanthus in South Africa. Ostrich 77(3-4): 225-228. ISSN: 0030-6525.
Descriptors: brown-headed parrot, Picephalus cryptoxanthus, breeding biology, aspects, South Africa.

Yildiz, H., B. Yilmaz, I. Arican, M. Petekl, and A. Bahadir (2006). Effects of cage systems and feeding time on the morphological structure of female genital organs in pharaoh quails (Coturnix coturnix pharaoh). Veterinarski Arhiv 76(5): 383-391. ISSN: 0372-5480.
Descriptors: pharaoh quail, female genital organs, morphological structure, cage systems, feeding time, effects.

Yin YanBo, Li FangZheng, Tan JinShan, Song XueXiong, Dong WuZi, and Ji YaJie (2006). Ultrastructure of the ostrich spermatozoa. Journal of Economic Animal 10(4): 198-202. ISSN: 1007-7448.
Descriptors: ostrich, spermatozoa, ultrastructure, anatomy, reproduction.
Language of Text: Chinese, summary in English.



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