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Housing, Husbandry, Care & Welfare of Selected Birds
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Abolnik, C., R.F. Horner, R. Maharaj, and G.J. Viljoen (2004). Characterization of a pigeon paramyxovirus (PPMV-1) isolated from chickens in South Africa. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 71(2): 157-160. ISSN: 0030-2465.
Descriptors: pigeon, paramyxovirus, characterization, isolated, chickens, south Africa.

Acerbo, M.J., P. Vyboh, L. Kostal, L. Kubikova, and J.D. Delius (2005). Repeated apomorphine administration alters dopamine D1 and D2 receptor densities in pigeon basal telencephalon. Experimental Brain Research; Experimentelle Hirnforschung; Experimentation Cerebrale 160(4): 533-7. ISSN: 0014-4819.
Abstract: When pigeons are repeatedly administered a dose of apomorphine they show an increasing behavioral response, much as rodents do. In birds this expresses itself in an augmented pecking response. This sensitization is assumed to be largely due to a conditioning process. Here we present evidence that sensitization is accompanied by an alteration of the D(1) to D(2) dopamine receptor densities. An experimental group of pigeons was repeatedly injected with apomorphine, and a control group with saline. The basal forebrain tissue, known to be rich in dopamine receptors, was subjected to binding assays using tritiated specific D(1) and D(2) dopamine receptor antagonists. There was a trend towards an increase in D(1) and a significant decrease in D(2) receptor densities in apomorphine-treated birds compared to the saline-treated controls. We conclude that extended apomorphine treatment modifies the D(1) dopamine receptor density in the opposite manner to the D(2) dopamine receptor density.
Descriptors: pigeon, basal telencephalon, repeated apomorphine administration, alters dopamine, D1, D2, receptor densities, behavioral response.

Adcock, G.J., R. Heinsohn, D. Ebert, N. Amini, and R. Peakall (2005). Microsatellite loci for behavioural studies of Eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus: Aves). Molecular Ecology Notes 5(3): 616-618. ISSN: 1471-8278.
Descriptors: parrot, Eclectus roratus, behavioral studies, microsatellite loci.

Ai, H.B., X.Y. Zhang, and J.P. Zhu (2004). Comparative studies on the wide frequency band electrocardiogram and vectorcardiogram in pigeon and mouse. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A Molecular and Integrative Physiology. 137((3)): 577-583. ISSN: 1095-6433.
Abstract: Wide frequency band ECG and vectorcardiogram in anesthetized pigeon and mouse were studied from the standpoint of comparison. The key results were as follows: in pigeon, the direction of the main QRS was inverted in leads II, III and aVF, and upright in lead aVR, which was contrary to that in mouse. The T wave was upright in leads II, III and aVF, but inverted in lead aVR in pigeon, which was the same as that in mouse. In pigeon, there was a large notch on the upstroke of the S wave in lead II without exception, but there was no such notch in the corresponding lead in mouse. The QRS vector loop in the frontal plane lay between and -90 and -180degrees in pigeon, while that of mouse lay between 0 and 90degrees . The relative power of high frequency range (80-1000 Hz) of the QRS in lead II was approximately 15% in pigeon, but 55% in mouse. The direction of the main QRS was contrary in pigeon and mouse because the subepicardial muscles were depolarized before the subendocardial muscles in pigeon, but the latter were depolarized before the former in mouse. The direction of the T waves was the same in both pigeon and mouse because subepicardial muscles were all repolarized before subendocardial muscles.
Descriptors: pigeons, mice, heart, electrocardiography, electrophysiology, vectorcardiography, comparative studies.

Alvarado Mallart, R.M. (2005). The chick/quail transplantation model: discovery of the isthmic organizer center. Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews 49(2): 109-13. ISSN: 0014-4819; 0165-0173.
Abstract: This paper summarizes chick/quail transplantation experiments performed in the INSERM U106 by Alvarado-Mallart's group from 1989 to 2002. First, it will present the various steps leading us to demonstrate that, at stage 10 of Hamburger and Hamilton, the avian neuroepithelium is still competent to change its fate influenced by environmental inductive factors and that these factors emanate from the cerebellar neuroepithelium; then, it will be briefly reported, experiments aimed to characterize the genetic cascade involved in the formation of the midbrain/hindbrain boundary and the specification of the meso-isthmic-cerebellar domain.
Descriptors: chick-quail transplantation, animal models, quail physiology, isthmic organizer center, body patterning, gene expression regulation, environmental inductive factors.

Ando, K., H. Kusaba, T. Soh, and H. Iwamoto (2007). Different patterns of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (vip)-immunoreactive and acetylcholinesterase (ache)-positive innervation in the internal carotid artery and cerebral arterial tree of the quail. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 69(2): 177-183. ISSN: 0916-7250.
Descriptors: quail, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, vip, immunoreactive and acetylcholinesterase, ache, different patterns, positive innervation, internal carotid artery, cerebral arterial tree.

Bandah, D., T. Swissa, G. Ben Shlomo, E. Banin, R. Ofri, and D. Sharon (2007). A complex expression pattern of Pax6 in the pigeon retina. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 48(6): 2503-9. ISSN: 0146-0404.
Abstract: PURPOSE: The retina of some avian species contains two macular regions, making it an excellent model for retinal, and especially macular, development. Previous studies have provided evidence of the involvement of Pax6 in macular development. The purpose was to perform a comprehensive expression analysis of Pax6 isoforms in different regions of the pigeon retina. METHODS: The different mRNA transcripts were amplified by RT-PCR and characterized by sequencing analysis. Semiquantitative PCR and quantitative real-time PCR analyses were used to study the level of expression of each transcript. Western blot analysis was performed on both the cytosolic and nuclear cell fractions. RESULTS: An evolutionary analysis of all human-chicken retinal homologues revealed that Pax6 is one of the most conserved retinal genes. By alternative splicing and alternative initiation of transcription, Pax6 produces 41 different mRNA transcripts, encoding 17 protein isoforms in the pigeon retina, five of which are paired-less cytosolic proteins. Semiquantitative expression analysis revealed that the short, paired-less, transcripts have a relatively high level of expression. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the central macula, red area, and peripheral retina revealed a spatial and temporal expression profile indicating that many Pax6 transcripts take a part in macular development. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that Pax6, a highly conserved gene, can maintain evolutionarily conserved variability at the protein level by alternative splicing and initiation mechanisms, allowing it to perform multiple functions. The variability in the length of the paired domain suggests that the different Pax6 isoforms activate different sets of genes.
Descriptors: pigeon, retina, pax6, complex expression pattern, model, retinal, macular development.

Barbezange, C. and V. Jestin (2005). Molecular study of the quasispecies evolution of a typical pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 after serial passages in pigeons by contact. Avian Pathology. 34(2): 111-122. ISSN: 0307-9457.
Descriptors: pigeons, Paramyxoviridae, evolution, microbial genetics, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, brain, kidneys, Newcastle disease, genetic variation, nucleotide sequences, in vivo studies, strains, pathogenicity, molecular-sequence-data.

Basha, S.H., M. Sivakumar, and G. Ramesh (2007). Histogenesis of the adrenal gland in japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 77(3): 222-224. ISSN: 0367-8318.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, adrenal gland, histogenesis, Coturnix coturnix japonica.

Bashir, M. and M.T. Javed (2005). Effects of ethanol on brain and pancreas weights, serum sodium and potassium, and haematological parameters in quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Avian Pathology 34(2): 96-100. ISSN: 0307-9457.
Descriptors: Japanese quails, ethanol, brain, pancreas, tissue weight, blood chemistry, sodium, potassium, hematology, dosage, animal behavior, locomotion, erythrocyte count, hematocrit, hemoglobin, leukocyte count, animal models, adverse effects, drug evaluation, broilers, drug toxicity, animal well being.

Berdeen, J.B. and D.L. Otis (2006). Effects of subcutaneous transmitter implants on mourning doves. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34(1): 93-103. ISSN: 0091-7648.
Descriptors: mourning doves, transmitter, implants, subcutaneous, effects.

Bertrand, S., C. Alonso Alvarez, G. Devevey, B. Faivre, J. Prost, and G. Sorci (2006). Carotenoids modulate the trade-off between egg production and resistance to oxidative stress in zebra finches. Oecologia 147(4): 576-584.
Abstract: The allocation of resources to reproduction and survival is a central question of studies of life history evolution. Usually, increased allocation to current reproduction is paid in terms of reduced future reproduction and/or decreased survival. However, the proximal mechanisms underlying the cost of reproduction are poorly understood. Recently, it has been shown that increased susceptibility to oxidative stress might be one of such proximate links between reproduction and self-maintenance. Organisms possess a range of antioxidant defenses, including endogenously produced molecules (e.g., enzymes) and compounds ingested with food (e.g., carotenoids). If reproductive effort increases the production of reactive oxygen species, the availability of antioxidant defenses may partly or fully counteract the free-radical damages. One could, therefore, expect that the trade-off between reproduction and oxidative stress is modulated by the availability of antioxidant defenses. We tested this hypothesis in zebra finches. We manipulated reproductive effort by either allowing or preventing pairs to breed. Within each breeding or non-breeding group, the availability of antioxidant compounds was manipulated by supplementing or not supplementing the drinking water with carotenoids. We found that although birds in the breeding and non-breeding groups did not differ in their resistance to oxidative stress (the breakdown of red blood cells submitted to a controlled free-radical attack), one aspect of breeding effort (i.e., the number of eggs laid by birds in both breeding and non-breeding groups) was negatively correlated with resistance to oxidative stress only in birds that did not benefit from a carotenoid-supplemented diet. This result therefore suggests that carotenoid availability can modulate the trade-off between reproduction and resistance to oxidative stress.
Descriptors: free radicals, carotenoids, oxidative stress, reproduction, Zebra finch, resistance, egg production.

Bertrand, S., F. Criscuolo, B. Faivre, and G. Sorci (2006). Immune activation increases susceptibility to oxidative tissue damage in zebra finches. Functional Ecology 20(6): 1022-1027. ISSN: 0269-8463.
Descriptors: zebra finches, immune activation, susceptibility, increases, oxidative tissue damage.

Bhosale, P., B. Serban, d.Y. Zhao, and P. Bernstein S (2007). Identification and metabolic transformations of carotenoids in ocular tissues of the Japanese quail Coturnix japonica. Biochemistry 46(31): 9050-7. ISSN: 0162-0134.
Abstract: As in humans and monkeys, lutein [(3R,3'R,6'R)-beta,epsilon-carotene-3,3'-diol] and zeaxanthin [a mixture of (3R,3'R)-beta,beta-carotene-3,3'diol and (3R,3'S-meso)-beta,beta-carotene-3,3'-diol] are found in substantial amounts in the retina of the Japanese quail Coturnix japonica. This makes the quail retina an excellent nonprimate small animal model for studying the metabolic transformations of these important macular carotenoids that are thought to play an integral role in protection against light-induced oxidative damage such as that found in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In this study, we first identified the array of carotenoids present in the quail retina using C30 HPLC coupled with in-line mass spectral and photodiode array detectors. In addition to dietary lutein (2.1%) and zeaxanthin (11.8%), we identified adonirubin (5.4%), 3'-oxolutein (3.8%), meso-zeaxanthin (3.0%), astaxanthin (28.2%), galloxanthin (12.2%), epsilon,epsilon-carotene (18.5%), and beta-apo-2'-carotenol (9.5%) as major ocular carotenoids. We next used deuterium-labeled lutein and zeaxanthin as dietary supplements to study the pharmacokinetics and metabolic transformations of these two ocular pigments in serum and ocular tissues. We then detected and quantitated labeled carotenoids in ocular tissue using both HPLC-coupled mass spectrometry and noninvasive resonance Raman spectroscopy. Results indicated that dietary zeaxanthin is the precursor of 3'-oxolutein, beta-apo-2'-carotenol, adonirubin, astaxanthin, galloxanthin, and epsilon,epsilon-carotene, whereas dietary lutein is the precursor for meso-zeaxanthin. Studies also revealed that the pharmacokinetic patterns of uptake, carotenoid absorption, and transport from serum into ocular tissues were similar to results observed in most human clinical studies.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, carotenoids, ocular tissue, metabolic transformation, retina, animal model.

Blaszczyk, B., Z. Tarasewicz, J. Udala, D. Gaczarzewicz, T. Stankiewicz, D. Szcerbinska, K. Romaniszyn, and J. Jasieniecka (2006). Changes in the blood plasma testosterone and cholesterol concentrations during sexual maturation of pharaoh quails. Animal Science Papers and Reports 24(3): 259-266. ISSN: 0860-4037.
Descriptors: pharaoh quails, changes, blood plasma testosterone, cholesterol concentrations, sexual maturation.

Bovera, F., S. D'Urso, S. Calabro, R. Tudisco, C. Di Meo, and A. Nizza (2007). Use of faeces as an alternative inoculum to caecal content to study in vitro feed digestibility in domesticated ostriches (Struthio camelus var. domesticus). British Poultry Science 48(3): 354-62. ISSN: 0007-1668.
Abstract: 1. In order to find an alternative source of inoculum to caecal content for studying the in vitro feed digestibility in domesticated ostriches (Struthio camelus var. domesticus), caecal content and faeces of 4 male birds were used as inocula for an in vitro gas production trial. 2. About 1 g of each of 5 substrates (maize silage, CS; alfalfa hay, AH; barley, BG; soybean meal, SM; beet pulp, BP) was weighed, in quadruplicate per inoculum, in 120 ml flasks; 75 ml of anaerobic medium and 4 ml of reducing solution were added and flasks were kept at 39 degrees C. Caecal content and faeces were diluted respectively 1 : 2 (CI) and 1 : 4 (FI) with an anaerobic medium and were injected into the respective flasks (10 ml). 3. Gas production was recorded 22 times up to 120 h of incubation and fermentation characteristics (for instance, degraded organic matter, OMd; potential gas production, A; maximum fermentation rate, Rmax; time at which it is reached, Tmax; pH; volatile fatty acid, VFA; ammonia) were studied for each inoculum and substrate. 4. CI and FI showed significant differences in Tmax (16.37 vs 18.47 h, respectively), propionic (16.47 vs 12.07 mmoles/l) and butyric acid (6.50 vs 7.98 mmoles/l) and ammonia concentration (17.18 vs 19.95 mmoles/l). The substrates, according to their chemical composition, showed different fermentation characteristics. However, the regression equations able to estimate some fermentation characteristics of the caecum from those of faeces were statistically significant and showed R2-values ranging from 0.87 to 0.99. 5. The differences in fermentation pathways of the two inocula did not appear to influence the rate and extent of OM digestion. Faecal fermentation predicted rates and extent of OM digestion by caecal fermentation in ostriches; consequently, the faeces could be considered as an alternative to caecal content to study feed digestibility in the species, although there is a need to undertake further research.
Descriptors: ostrich, in vitro feed digestibility, caecal content, inoculum, feces, study, fermentation, digestion.

Brand, Z., T.S. Brand, and C.R. Brown (2003). The effect of different combinations of dietary energy and protein on the composition of ostrich eggs. South African Journal of Animal Science 33(3): 193-200. ISSN: 0375-1589.
Descriptors: ostrich, eggs, dietary energy, protein, different combinations, effect on composition of eggs, nutrition, breeding females.

Bronneberg, R.G.G., M.A.M. Taverne, S.J. Dieleman, E. Decuypere, V. Bruggeman, J.C.M. Vernooij, and J.A. Stegeman (2007). The relation between ultrasonographic observations in the oviduct and plasma progesterone, luteinizing hormone and estradiol during the egg laying cycle in ostriches. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 32(1): 15-28.
Abstract: In this study we investigated the temporal relationship between ovulation, egg formation, oviposition and the changes in plasma concentrations of progesterone, luteinizing hormone and estradiol-17(Sb(B during the egg laying cycle in farmed ostriches. In 10 egg-producing birds, transcutaneous ultrasound scanning was performed at 3 h intervals and blood sampling at hourly intervals during a period of at least 48 h (one egg laying cycle). In hens (n = 8) that ovulated during the observational period, the ovulated egg was first detected 2 h after oviposition; thus, ovulation occurred shortly after oviposition in all birds. During the period between two consecutive ovipositions, the developing egg remained for 9 h in the proximal part (infundibulum, magnum or isthmus) and for 39 h in the distal part of the oviduct (uterus). In ovulating hens, plasma progesterone concentrations showed a characteristic and consistent profile: from basal levels of around 0.1 ng/ml concentrations started to increase 12 h before oviposition, reached an average maximum of 3.5 ng/ml at 3 h before oviposition and returned to basal levels 3 h and 30 min after oviposition. Changes in plasma luteinizing hormone and estradiol-17(Sb(B concentrations showed comparable patterns of elevation and decline relative to the timing of oviposition and ovulation. However, variation in their individual basal concentrations was generally larger and peak values were less conspicuous than those of progesterone. In non-ovulating hens (n = 2) neither progesterone, nor luteinizing hormone nor estradiol-17(Sb(B showed elevations to peak concentrations before oviposition. These data demonstrate that during the egg laying cycle of ostriches, events such as ovulation, egg development and oviposition evolve according to a rather strict time schedule, and that progesterone, luteinizing hormone and estradiol-17(Sb(B reach peak concentrations shortly before ovulation. Additionally, our findings also show that on-farm ultrasound scanning is a useful technique to discriminate between ovulating and non-ovulating hens.
Descriptors: ostriches, ovulation, oviposition, oviducts, ultrasonography, hormone secretion, progesterone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, temporal variation, ostrich hens, egg development.

Butkeraitis, P., C.A.F. Oliveira, D.R. Ledoux, R. Ogido, R. Albuquerque, J.F. Rosmaninho, and G.E. Rottinghaus (2004). Effect of dietary fumonisin B1 on laying Japanese quail. British Poultry Science 45(6): 798-801. ISSN: 0007-1668.
Abstract: 1. A 28-d experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1) on egg production and egg quality of young laying Japanese quail fed on fumonisin-contaminated rations. 2. To this end, 128 7-week-old birds were randomly distributed into 4 experimental groups (32 birds per group) and given rations containing 0 (control), 10, 50 and 250 mg FB1/kg feed. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 8 quail. Egg production and egg weight were checked daily. Feed consumption and feed conversion were determined weekly. Eggs laid on the last day of each 7-d period were collected and subjected to individual analysis for specific gravity, Haugh units and percentage eggshell. 3. Compared with controls, quail given greater than or equal to 50 mg FB1/kg had reduced feed intake and lower body weight gain. Feed conversion was reduced only in birds given 250 mg FB1/kg. 4. Mean egg production and egg weight were lower in birds given 250 mg FB1/kg. Eggshell weight was reduced in birds given greater than or equal to 50 mg FB1/kg. However, mean specific gravity, Haugh units and percentage eggshell were not affected by FB1. 5. No histopathological changes were observed in liver, kidney or heart samples from any treatment group. 6. The results indicated that exposure to FB1 at concentrations greater than or equal to 50 mg/kg could adversely affect quail performance, emphasising the importance of controlling fumonisin contamination of quail rations.
Descriptors: Japanese quails, laying performance, egg production, poultry feeding, fumonisin B1, feed contamination, egg weight, young animals, feed intake, feed conversion, specific gravity, egg shell quality, liveweight gain, liver, kidneys, heart, histopathology, mycotoxicosis, toxicity testing.

Chadman, K.K. and J.H. Woods (2004). Cardiovascular effects of nicotine, chlorisondamine, and mecamylamine in the pigeon. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 308(1): 73-78. ISSN: 0022-3565.
Descriptors: pigeon, cardiovascular effects, nicotine, chlorisondamine, mecamylamine.

Chan, C.h., K.N. Ballantyne, D.M. Lambert, and G.K. Chambers (2005). Characterization of variable microsatellite loci in Forbes' parakeet (Cyanoramphus forbesi) and their use in other parrots. Conservation Genetics 6(4): 651-654. ISSN: 1566-0621.
Descriptors: Forbes parakeet, parrots, variable mucrosatellite loci, characterization, use, Cyanoramphus forbesi.

Cornil, C.A., V. Seutin, P. Motte, and J. Balthazart (2004). Electrophysiological and neurochemical characterization of neurons of the medial preoptic area in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Brain Research 1029(2): 224-40. ISSN: 0014-4819.
Abstract: Intracellular recordings of medial preoptic neurons demonstrated that most neurons show a spontaneous firing, a linear I-V relationship and low-threshold-like events suppressed by the application of Ni2+. Some neurons had a depolarizing sag of the membrane potential in response to hyperpolarizing current pulses. The majority of the cells exhibited a robust spontaneous synaptic activity suppressed by SR95531 (100 microM), a GABAA receptor antagonist, and/or by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX, 10 microM), an (RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)/kainate (KA) glutamate receptor antagonist. Most neurons were affected by the application of AMPA (10 microM), kainate (30 microM), N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA, 10 microM), isoguvacine (a GABAA receptor agonist, 100 microM), dopamine (100 microM), and norepinephrine (100 microM). Biocytin injections coupled to aromatase immunocytochemistry identified 19 recorded neurons including 3 displaying a dense aromatase immunoreactivity. All of them responded to kainate, dopamine, and norepinephrine, while only one responded to isoguvacine and NMDA. Taken together, these results demonstrate a relative electrical and neurochemical homogeneity of the medial preoptic neurons, including a few aromatase-immunoreactive neurons that could be identified by immunocytochemistry after biocytin labeling of the recorded neurons.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, Coturnix physiology, characterization of neurons, electrophysiological, neurochemical, medial preoptic area, intracellular recordings.

Derjusheva, S., A. Kurganova, F. Habermann, and E. Gaginskaya (2004). High chromosome conservation detected by comparative chromosome painting in chicken, pigeon and passerine birds. Chromosome Research. 12(7): 715-723. ISSN: 0967-3849.
Descriptors: chickens, pigeons, Fringillidae, Turdus, chromosomes, cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization, cytogenetic analysis, telomeres, Fringilla-coelebs, Turdus iliacus.

Dickman, J.D., D. Huss, and M. Lowe (2004). Morphometry of otoconia in the utricle and saccule of developing Japanese quail. Hearing Research 188(1-2): 89-103. ISSN: 0378-5955.
Abstract: The development of otoconia in the utricular and saccular maculae from initial embryonic formation to adult stages was examined in Japanese quails. Both the morphology and size of the otoconia were quantified at different developmental stages. It was observed that the otoconia were initially formed on embryologic stage E5 in the saccule and E6 in the utricle. Otolith mass areas increased in a sigmoidal growth pattern, with saccular otolith areas being smaller than the utricular mass areas. Saccular otolith masses reached adult values at embryonic stage E12 and utricular areas reached adult values at post-hatch day 7. Mature individual otoconia were characterized by a barrel shape with two trihedral faceted ends. However, initial formation of otoconia at E5 (saccular) and E6 (utricular) maculae was characterized by a double fluted morphology that consisted of an hourglass shape with extended fins forming trihedral angles of 120 degrees. Double fluted otoconia rapidly filled, so that by embryonic day 8 mature otoconia dominated the maculae for the remainder of development through adulthood. Thus, a progression from double fluted to mature forms was noted. Mature utricular otoconia in adult quails averaged 11 microm in length and 5 microm in width, with length/width ratios of approximately 2.5:1, for all size ranges. Saccular otoconia were smaller, having about 70% the size of utricular otoconia in both length and width. During development, the average size and range of individual otoconia increased nearly linearly for both otolith organs. In the utricular macula, large otoconia were concentrated in the lateral regions of the epithelium. In contrast, otoconia of various sizes were distributed uniformly across the surface of the saccular macula.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, Coturnix, otolithic membrane embryology, otolithic membrane ultrastructure, saccule and utricle embryology, acoustic maculae embryology, electron microscopy, scanning, animal models, saccule and utricle ultrastructure, morphometry.

Dooling, R.J. and B. Lohr (2006). Auditory temporal resolution in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata): a model of enhanced temporal acuity. Ornithological Science 5(1): 15-22. ISSN: 1347-0558.
Descriptors: zebra finch, auditory temporal resolution, model, enhanced temporal acuity, Taeniopygia guttata.

Dorey, C.K., L. Granata, C.R. Nichols, K.M. Cheng, and N.E. Craft (2005). Dietary modulation of lens zeaxanthin in quail. Experimental Eye Research 81(4): 464-77. ISSN: 0014-4835.
Abstract: Although higher dietary intake of lutein/zeaxanthin has been associated with reduced risk for cataracts, the impact of dietary supplements on lens lutein (L) or zeaxanthin (Z) has not been examined. If higher lens carotenoids do reduce risk for cataract, it would be essential to know whether dietary carotenoids can elevate carotenoids in the adult vertebrate lens. In this study, a covey of Japanese quail were hatched and raised 6 months on carotenoid-deficient diet, then switched to deficient diet supplemented with low or high 3R,3R'-zeaxanthin (5 or 35 mgkg(-1) food) or beta-carotene (50 mgkg(-1) food). Controls included a group of covey-mates that remained on the deficient diet and another raised from birth on the high Z (35 mg Zkg(-1)) diet. At 1 year of age, carotenoids and tocopherols in the lens and in the serum were analysed by HPLC, and compared by analysis of variance. Serum Z was significantly elevated in deficient birds fed the lower or higher Z supplement for 6 months (P<0.0001 for each). Serum Z in birds maintained on the higher Z supplement for 1 year was much higher than that in deficient birds (P<0.0001), but not different from deficient birds given the higher Z supplement. As in humans, the predominant lens carotenoids were lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z), and the total carotenoid concentration was of lower magnitude than the concentration of alpha-tocopherol. Responses to Z supplementation were sex-related. Female quail had 5-10 times higher serum concentrations of both Z and L than males (P<0.0001, <0.001), and they also had higher lens Z concentrations than males (P<0.0006); possible effects of estrogen on lens carotenoids are discussed. Lens Z concentration was strongly and positively correlated with serum Z in females (r=0.77; P<0.002). Deficient adult females supplemented with the 35 mgkg(-1) dose of Z for 6 months had a mean lens Z concentration (0.252+/-0.06 microgg(-1) protein) close to that in females fed with the supplement from birth (0.282+/-0.15 microgg(-1) protein). Birds fed with the higher dietary Z supplement for 6 or 12 months had significantly higher lens Z than birds fed lower or no dietary Z (P<0.0001). Lens L was not altered by dietary supplementation with either Z or beta-carotene. beta-Carotene supplements did not result in detectable lens beta-carotene, and had no effect on lens Z. Neither Z nor beta-carotene supplementation had a significant effect on serum or lens tocopherol concentrations. These studies in quail provide the first experimental evidence that lens carotenoids in adult vertebrates can be manipulated by dietary Z supplements.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, dietary supplements, lens, crystalline metabolism, beta carotene analogs, derivatives, carotenoids deficiency, chromatography, Coturnix, lutein blood, lutein pharmacokinetics, sex factors, tocopherols blood, tocopherols metabolism, xanthophylls, beta carotene administration and dosage, beta carotene blood, beta carotene deficiency, beta carotene pharmacokinetics.

Dzialowski, E.M., W.W. Burggren, T. Komoro, and H. Tazawa (2007). Development of endothermic metabolic response in embryos and hatchlings of the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology 155(3): 286-92. ISSN: 1569-9048.
Abstract: During hatching, there is a maturation of the mechanisms controlling the respiratory physiology involved in endotherm in precocial avian species. Here we examined the timing of the development of an endothermic response of oxygen uptake (MO2) to an alteration of ambient temperature (T(a)) in a model precocial species, the preterm and hatching emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Late stage pre-pipped and pipped embryos and hatchlings were measured for responses of MO2 and shell or skin temperature (T(s)) to altered T(a) (DeltaT(a)). MO2 remained unchanged in pre-pipped and internally pipped (IP) embryos at the end of 1.5h exposure to DeltaT(a) of +/-10 degrees C. Externally pipped (EP) embryos responded to a cooling and a warming exposure with marked increase and decrease in MO2, as hatchlings responded to DeltaT(a) with an endothermic change in MO2. The demonstration of the endothermic inverse metabolic response first appearing in EP embryos suggests that pre-EP embryos may also possess the ability to produce the endothermic inverse metabolic response, but they are restricted by the eggshell gas conductance. Late pre-pipped and IP embryos were measured again for responses of [Formula: see text] to DeltaT(a) in air and then in a 40% O(2) environment. The metabolic response of pre-pipped embryos at 90% of incubation was partially altered by switching from air to hyperoxia. IP embryos responded to DeltaT(a) in 40% O(2) with apparent inverse changes in MO2. The late stage emu embryo possesses the ability to produce an endothermic metabolic response at an earlier stage of development than in chickens, but this response is limited by the eggshell gas conductance.
Descriptors: emu, animals, newborn metabolism, newborn physiology, body temperature regulation physiology, dromaiidae embryology, embryo, nonmammalian metabolism, respiratory system, hyperoxia metabolism, oxygen consumption physiology.

Eklom, K. and A. Lill (2006). Development of parameters influencing blood oxygen-carrying capacity in nestling doves. Emu 106(4): 283-288. ISSN: 0158-4197.
Descriptors: nestling doves, blood oxygen carrying capacity, influencing parameters, development.

Fang, Y. and W.K. Reisen (2006). Previous infection with West Nile or St. Louis encephalitis viruses provides cross protection during reinfection in house finches. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 75(3): 480-5. ISSN: 0002-9637.
Abstract: House finches are competent hosts for both West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses and frequently become infected during outbreaks. In the current study, house finches were infected initially with either West Nile or St. Louis encephalitis viruses and then challenged 6 weeks post infection with either homologous or heterologous viruses. Although mortality rates were high during initial infection with West Nile virus, prior infection with either virus prevented mortality upon challenge with West Nile virus. Prior infection with West Nile virus provided sterilizing immunity against both viruses, whereas prior infection with St. Louis encephalitis virus prevented viremia from St. Louis encephalitis virus, but only reduced West Nile virus viremia titers. Immunologic responses were measured by enzyme immunoassay and plaque reduction neutralization tests. Heterologous challenge with West Nile virus in birds previously infected with St. Louis encephalitis virus produced the greatest immunologic response, markedly boosting antibody levels against St. Louis encephalitis virus. Our data have broad implications for free-ranging avian serological diagnostics and possibly for the recent disappearance of St. Louis encephalitis virus from California.
Descriptors: house finches, St. Louis encephalitis virus, physiology, finches virology, West Nile virus, physiology, immunology, recurrence, viremia.

Franciosini, M.P., E. Fringuelli, O. Tarhuni, G. Guelfi, D. Todd, P. Casagrande Proietti, N. Falocci, and G. Asdrubali (2005). Development of a polymerase chain reaction-based in vivo method in the diagnosis of subclinical pigeon circovirus infection. Avian Diseases. 49(3): 340-343. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: This paper describes a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method performed on blood samples and intestinal content to detect subclinical pigeon circovirus (PiCV) infection in live pigeons. In addition, two sets of primers (primer set 1 and 2), designed in two different regions of the viral genome, were used to provide evidence of possible differences in PCR responses. Blood and intestinal content samples were randomly collected from a total of 50 apparently healthy meat pigeons, aged 1 to 5 wk, which came from central Italy. Samples of primary lymphoid organs were also collected. Results showed a high level of PiCV infection, although clinical signs were not present. The results obtained with the two sets of primers showed that primer set 2 was able to detect a higher number of PCR-positive pigeons (45 of 50 pigeons) than primer set 1 (11 of 50 pigeons). In both cases an increase in positive results with pigeon age indicates that the major direction of transmission is likely horizontal. In these circumstances feces can play an important epidemiologic role, as supported by the consistent circovirus detection in intestinal content. The high sensitivity of this PCR test, which is able to detect very low amounts of viral DNA (5.5 X 10(-3) fg of plasmid containing the cloned PiCV genome), makes it suitable for possible application as an epidemiologic tool for identifying virus carriers for subsequent removal from lofts.
Descriptors: pigeons, pigeon circovirus, PiCV polymerase chain reaction, PCR early diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease detection, poultry diseases, viral diseases, blood sampling, tissue analysis, virus transmission, feces.
Language of Text: Summary in Spanish.

Gomez Meda, B.C., A.L. Zamora Perez, J. Luna Aguirre, A. Gonzalez Rodriguez, M.L. Ramos Ibarra, O. Torres Bugarin, C.M. Batista Gonzalez, and G.M. Zuniga Gonzalez (2006). Nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes of parrots (Aratinga canicularis) related to genotoxic damage. Avian Pathology 35(3): 206-210. ISSN: 0307-9457.
Abstract: Nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes, as micronuclei and nuclear buds (BE), are considered potential biomarkers of genotoxic exposure. We described previously the frequency of spontaneous micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) in the species Aratinga canicularis. Here, we have used this species to evaluate the induction of MNE and BE by mitomycin-C. Animals were given a single intracoelomic injection of 0, 2, 3 or 4 mg/kg mitomycin-C on two consecutive days. A drop of blood was obtained after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, and stained smears were used to count micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) and polychromatic erythrocytes with buds (BPCE)/1000 polychromatic erythrocytes. The number of MNE and BE in 10 000 total erythrocytes was also counted. MNPCE and BPCE frequencies were elevated at 24, 48, and 72 h after the administration of the lower dose (P<0.03). At a 3 mg/kg dose, the frequency of MNPCE increased at 48 and 72 h (P<0.04) whereas the number of BPCE increased, but not significantly. Administration of 4 mg/kg mitomycin-C increased the number of MNE observed at 72 h (P<0.03), the number of MNPCE at 48 h (P<0.01) and 72 h (P<0.006), the BE frequency at 72 h (P<0.05), and the frequency of BPCE at 48 and 72 h (P<0.001). While mitomycin-C appears to produce a parallel increase in MNPCE and BPCE frequencies, the MNE seemed to be a more sensitive indicator of genotoxicity than the BE. This suggests that evaluating BE and MNE in routine haematological analysis should be considered to evaluate environmental genotoxic exposure.
Descriptors: parrots, Aratinga canicularis, erythrocytes, cell nucleus, genotoxicity, mitomycin, dosage, symptoms, biomarkers, diagnostic techniques, screening, hematologic tests, micronuclei, nuclear buds.

Grizzle, J.M., D.B. Kersten, M.D. McCracken, A.E. Houston, and A.M. Saxton (2004). Determination of the acute 50% lethal dose T-2 toxin in adult bobwhite quail: additional studies on the effect of T-2 mycotoxin on blood chemistry and the morphology of internal organs. Avian Diseases 48(2): 392-9. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: Three experiments were conducted to assess mortality rate, blood chemistry, and histologic changes associated with acute exposure to T-2 mycotoxin in adult bobwhite quail. In Experiment 1, adult quail were orally dosed with T-2 toxin to determine the lethal dose that resulted in 50% mortality of the affected population (LD50), and that dose was determined to be 14.7 mg of T-2 toxin per kilogram of body weight (BW). A second experiment was performed to study the effects of 12-18 mg/kg BW T-2 toxin on blood chemistry and liver enzyme profiles. Posttreatment uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase, lactic dehydrogenase, and gamma glutamyltransferase increased as compared with pretreatment values. In contrast, posttreatment plasma total protein, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels numerically decreased as compared with pretreatment values. Changes in blood chemistry values were consistent with liver and kidney damage after T-2 toxin exposure. In Experiment 3, histologic analyses of bone marrow, spleen, liver, small intestine, kidney, and heart were conducted on birds dosed in Experiment 2. Marked lymphocyte necrosis and depletion throughout the spleen, thymus, bursa, and gut-associated lymphoid tissue in the small intestine were observed in birds dosed with 15 and 18 mg/kg BW T-2 toxin. Necrosis of liver and lipid accumulation as a result of malfunctioning hepatocytes were also observed. Little or no morphologic change was observed in bone marrow and heart tissue. The LD50 for adult bobwhite quail as found in this study is two to three times higher than that reported for other species of commercial poultry. Results from these data confirm previous reports of immunosuppressive and/or cytotoxic effects of T-2 toxin in other mammalian and avian species. T-2 toxin may have a negative impact on the viability of wild quail populations.
Descriptors: bobwhite quail, Colinus, blood, T-2 toxin toxicity, blood chemical analysis, enzyme tests, heart drug effects, intestines drug effects, kidney drug effects, lethal dose 50, liver drug effects, lymphocytes pathology, mortality.

Guenther, G., L.M. Hylle, C.H. Stahl, E.A. Koutsos, and D.G. Peterson (2006). Development of methods for the production of transgenic quail expressing an E-coli phytase gene. Transgenic Research 15(1): 128. ISSN: 0962-8819.
Descriptors: quail, transgenic quail, production, methods, development, expressing E-coli phytase gene, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: Transgenic Animal Research Conference V, Tahoe City, CA, USA; 200508.

Honarmand, M. and M. Naguib (2006). Effects of stress on sexually selected traits in zebra finches at different stages of development. Journal of Ornithology 147(5, Suppl. 1): 182. ISSN: 0021-8375.
Descriptors: zebra finches, stress effects, sexually selected traits, different stages of development, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: 24th International Ornithological Congress, Hamburg, Germany; 2006.

Hou, J.M., J.Y. Liu, L. Yang, X. Zhao, L. Tian, Z.Y. Ding, Y.J. Wen, T. Niu, F. Xiao, Y.Y. Lou, G.H. Tan, H.X. Deng, J. Li, J.L. Yang, Y.Q. Mao, B. Kan, Y. Wu, Q. Li, and Y.Q. Wei (2005). Combination of low-dose gemcitabine and recombinant quail vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 as a vaccine induces synergistic antitumor activities. Oncology 69(1): 81-7. ISSN: 0923-7534.
Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) has been shown to play a major role in inducing the full spectrum of VEGF biological response which is essential for tumor angiogenesis. We have demonstrated that immunotherapy of tumors with a vaccine based on quail homologous VEGFR-2 (qVEGFR) was effective in providing both protective and therapeutic antitumor immunity in several tumor models in mice. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the combination therapy of low-dose gemcitabine with qVEGFR as a vaccine could inhibit tumor growth to a greater extent. To test this concept, H22 hepatoma and Lewis lung carcinoma models were established in BALB/c mice and C57BL/6 mice, respectively. Mice were treated with either qVEGFR as a protein vaccine, gemcitabine, or both agents together. qVEGFR or low-dose chemotherapy treatment individually resulted in tumor inhibition to a certain extent.Remarkably, the combination therapy resulted in synergistic antitumor activity. Histological examination revealed that there was endothelial deposition of immunoglobulins within tumor tissues from mice treated with vaccine or combination therapy, especially intratumor angiogenesis was suppressed more significantly for the combination group. Also, ELISPOT analysis showed that mice treated with either qVEGFR alone or in combination with low-dose chemotherapy produced similar amount of anti-VEGFR antibody-producing B cells, which suggested that low-dose gemcitabine did not suppress the host's immune response, but potentiated the antitumor activity of the qVEGFR vaccine. Furthermore, TUNEL staining demonstrated a significant increase in the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the combination group compared with those of other groups. The observations may provide a new bio-chemotherapeutic approach for cancer.
Descriptors: antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols, therapeutic use, cancer vaccines therapeutic use, carcinoma, lewis lung drug therapy, deoxycytidine analogs, derivatives, liver neoplasms, experimental drug therapy, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, therapeutic use, antimetabolites, antineoplastic administration, dosage, deoxycytidine administration, dosage, drug administration schedule, drug synergism, mice, inbred Balb c inbred C57BL, quail, vaccines, synthetic therapeutic use.

Ikebuchi, M., T. Hasegawa, and H.J. Bischof (2005). Neuroanatomical study of taenial amygdala (tna) in zebra finch. Zoological Science (Tokyo) 22(12): 1484. ISSN: 0289-0003.
Descriptors: zebra finch, taenial amygdala, neurological study, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: 76th Annual Meeting of the Zoological Society of Japan, Tsukuba, Japan; October 06 -08, 2005.

Inafuku, M., T. Toda, T. Okabe, A. Shinjo, H. Iwasaki, and H. Oku (2007). Expression of cell-cycle-regulating genes in the development of atherosclerosis in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Poultry Science 86(6): 1166-73. ISSN: 0032-5791.
Abstract: The levels of mRNA expression in regulatory genes that are involved in the pathological changes of aortic atherosclerotic and fibroblastic intimal thickening was investigated in Japanese quail. The quail were divided into a control diet group and an atherogenic diet group. The quail were euthanized at 2, 4, 8, and 12 wk after consuming either a control diet or an atherogenic diet. Thereafter, both histological and immunohistochemical studies and mRNA expression analysis of the cell-cycle-regulating genes in aortic atherosclerotic lesions were performed on selected ascending aortas and their large branches. In the atherogenic diet group, aortic lipid-containing intimal and atheromatous lesions were seen mainly at 8 and 12 wk, respectively. Semiquantitative reverse-transcription PCR was used to analyze the alterations of mRNA expression on the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Messenger RNA expression of the c-fos and c-src genes showed peak levels at 8 wk in the atherogenic diet group. However, no significant alteration of c-jun mRNA expression was noted during the entire experimental period. According to the progression of aortic atherosclerotic lesions, c-myc mRNA expression in the atherogenic diet group increased chronologically, and the highest level was observed at 12 wk. Alterations in mRNA expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the p27 gene were similar to that of c-myc. The levels of c-myc, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and p27 mRNA expression was significantly correlated with the degree of aortic atherosclerotic lesion development at 12 wk in our experiment.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, atherosclerosis, Coturnix genetics, cell cycle regulating genes, development, expression, pathologic changes, diet.

Inafuku, M., T. Toda, T. Okabe, K. Wada, K. Takara, H. Iwasaki, and H. Oku (2007). Effect of Kokuto, a non-centrifugal cane sugar, on the development of experimental atherosclerosis in Japanese quail and apolipoprotein E deficient mice. Food Science and Technology Research 13(1): 61-66. ISSN: 1344-6606.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, kokuto, cane sugar, effect, experimental atherosclerosis, apolipoprotein E deficient, mice.

Iwaniuk, A.N., K.M. Dean, and J.E. Nelson (2005). Interspecific allometry of the brain and brain regions in parrots (Psittaciformes): Comparisons with other birds and primates. Brain Behavior and Evolution 65(1): 40-59. ISSN: 0006-8977.
Descriptors: parrots, brain, allometry, brain regions, birds, primates, comparisons, avian, brain volume, size, telencephalic volumes.

Jakhar, K.K. and J.R. Sadana (2004). Sequential pathology of experimental aflatoxicosis in quail and the effect of selenium supplementation in modifying the disease process. Mycopathologia 157(1): 99-109. ISSN: 0301-486X.
Abstract: Feeding of aflatoxin B1 @ 1 ppm to 2-week old Japanese quail for a period of 8 weeks produced gross and microscopic changes in the liver, skeletal muscles, heart and bursa of Fabricius. These included fatty changes, bile duct hyperplasia and lymphoid aggregation in liver; haemorrhages in thigh, breast muscles and myocardium; mild depletion of lymphocytes, cystic degeneration and fibrous tissue proliferation in bursa of Fabricius. More or less similar lesions were seen in quail chicks fed on aflatoxin with sodium selenite @ 5 ppm but these were of lesser intensity and appeared at later stages of the experiment thereby indicating that supplementation of selenium had some protective action against the toxic effect of aflatoxin B1 in Japanese quail.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, coturnix, aflatoxin B1 metabolism, poultry diseases, drug therapy, diseases pathology, selenium pharmacology, aflatoxin B1 toxicity, bursa of Fabricius pathology, dietary supplements, liver pathology, lung pathology, lymphoid tissue pathology, skeletal muscle pathology, myocardium pathology.

Jiang, P.P., P. Ding, and S.G. Fang (2006). Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in Elliot's pheasant (Syrmaticus ellioti). Molecular Ecology Notes 6(4): 1160-1161. ISSN: 1471-8278.
Abstract: We isolated eight microsatellite loci from genomic DNA in Elliot's pheasant Syrmaticus ellioti using streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. In the analyses of 53 individuals sampled, these loci displayed polymorphism varying from six to nine alleles per locus and observed heterozygosities ranging from 0.174 to 0.430. The results suggested that these novel microsatellite markers could become useful molecular tools for genetic studies of S. ellioti.
Descriptors: Elliot's pheasant, microsatellite markers, isolation, characterization, genomic DNA, genetic studies.

Kawka, M., J.O. Horbanczuk, M. Sacharczuk, G. Zieba, M. Lukaszewicz, K. Jaszczak, and R. Parada (2007). Genetic characteristics of the ostrich population using molecular methods. Poultry Science 86(2): 277-281. ISSN: 0032-5791.
Descriptors: ostrich population, genetic characteristics, molecular methods.

Kayang, B.B., A. Vignal, M. Inoue Murayama, M. Miwa, J.L. Monvoisin, S. Ito, and F. Minvielle (2004). A first-generation microsatellite linkage map of the Japanese quail. Animal Genetics 35(3): 195-200. ISSN: 0268-9146.
Descriptors: Japanese quails, microsatellite repeats, genetic markers, loci, chromosome mapping, genetic variation, linkage groups, egg production, fearfulness, molecular sequence data.

Kimaro, W.H. and M.C. Madekurozwa (2005). An immunohistochemical study of the innervation of the ovary in the sexually immature ostrich. Microscopy Society of Southern Africa Proceedings 35: 73. ISSN: 1028-3455.
Descriptors: ostrich, sexually immature, ovary, innervation, immunohistochemical study, innervation, growth and development.

Kimaro, W.H. and M.C. Madekurozwa (2005). The ultrastructure of gland cells in the ovary of the sexually immature ostrich. Microscopy Society of Southern Africa Proceedings 35: 72. ISSN: 1028-3455.
Descriptors: ostrich, sexually immature, gland cells, ovary, ultrastructure.

Kimaro, W.H. and M.C. Madekurozwa (2005). Ultrastructural features of healthy and atretic ovarian follicles in the sexually immature ostrich. Microscopy Society of Southern Africa Proceedings 35: 61. ISSN: 1028-3455.
Descriptors: ostrich, sexually immature, ovarian follicles, healthy, atretic, ultrastructural features.

Kollias, G.V., K.V. Sydenstricker, H.W. Kollias, D.H. Ley, P.R. Hosseini, V. Connolly, and A.A. Dhondt (2004). Experimental infection of house finches with Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 40(1): 79-86. ISSN: 0090-3558.
Abstract: Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) has caused an endemic upper respiratory and ocular infection in the eastern house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) after the epidemic first described in 1994. The disease has been studied by a number of investigators at a population level and reports describe experimental infection in group-housed MG-free house finches. Because detailed observation and evaluation of individual birds in group-housed passerines is problematic, we studied individually housed house finches that were experimentally inoculated with the finch strain of MG in a controlled environment. To accomplish this, a study was conducted spanning the period of November 2001-April 2002 with 20 MG-free (confirmed by the rapid plate agglutination assay and polymerase chain reaction [PCR] assay) eastern house finches captured in the Cayuga Basin area of central New York (USA) in the summer of 2001. After a period of acclimatization and observation (12 wk), 20 finches were inoculated with a 0.05-ml aliquot of MG (3.24 x 10(5) colony-forming units/ml) via bilateral conjunctival sac instillations. Two additional finches acted as controls and were inoculated in the same manner with preservative-free sterile saline solution. After inoculation, all finches except the controls exhibited clinical signs of conjunctivitis within 2-6 days. The progression of the disease was evaluated by several methods, including PCR, behavioral observations, and physical examination including eye scoring, body weight, and body condition index. Over a period of 21 wk, MG-infected finches developed signs of disease and recovered (80%), developed signs of disease and progressed to become chronically infected (15%), or died (5%). We hypothesize that the high survival rate and recovery of these finches after infection was associated with the use of controlled environmental conditions, acclimatization, a high plane of nutrition, and low stocking (housing) density, all of which are factors documented to be important in the outcome of MG infections in domestic poultry and other species.
Descriptors: house finches, experimental infection, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, bird diseases, immunology, conjunctivitis, mycoplasma infections, pathogenicity, songbirds, epidemiology, pathology, disease susceptibility, population density, New York satate, USA.

Kondiah, K., J. Albertyn, and R.R. Bragg (2005). Beak and feather disease virus haemagglutinating activity using erythrocytes from African Grey parrots and Brown-headed parrots. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 72(3): 263-5. ISSN: 0030-2465.
Abstract: Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) is a common viral disease of wild and captive psittacine birds characterized by symmetric feather loss and beak deformities. The causative agent, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), is a small, circular single-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the genus Circovirus. BFDV can be detected by PCR or the use of haemagglutination (HA) and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays that detect antigen and antibodies respectively. Erythrocytes from a limited number of psittacine species of Australian origin can be used in these tests. In South Africa, the high cost of these birds makes them difficult to obtain for experimental purposes. Investigation into the use of erythrocytes from African Grey parrots and Brown-headed parrots yielded positive results showing the haemagglutinating activity of their erythrocytes with purified BFDV obtained from confirmed clinical cases of the disease. The HA activity was further confirmed by the demonstration of HI using BFDV antiserum from three different African Grey parrots previously exposed to the virus and not showing clinical signs of the disease.
Descriptors: grey parrots, brown-headed parrots, beak and feather diseases, diagnosis, Circoviridae infections, parrots virology, antibodies, viral blood, diagnosis, erythrocytes virology, hemagglutination inhibition tests methods, hemagglutination, sensitivity, specificity.

Labaque, M.C., J.L. Navarro, and M.B. Martella (2004). Effects of storage time on hatchability of artificially incubated Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) eggs. British Poultry Science 45(5): 638-42. ISSN: 0007-1668.
Abstract: (1) A study was conducted to determine the effects of the length of the storage period on the hatchability of artificially incubated Greater Rhea eggs. Hatchability was evaluated in eggs gathered daily from a captive population and in eggs collected less frequently from a semi-captive population. (2) Eggs form both sites were either immediately incubated after being collected or were stored for 1 to 9 d prior to incubation. (3) The maximum number of days for which an egg could be stored without depressing hatchability (with respect to non-stored eggs) was longer in the eggs collected daily. (4) Eggs collected daily and stored for 4d or more showed total hatchability (28%) and fertile hatchability (43%) which was approximately 30% lower than non-stored eggs or eggs stored for 3 d or less. In the semi-captive population, the total and fertile hatchability of non-stored eggs and of eggs stored for one day were 40% greater than of eggs stored for 2 to 9 d (20 and 34%, respectively). (5) The period for which Greater Rhea eggs could be stored without depressing hatchability varied depending on the frequency of egg collection: non-daily egg collection reduces the possible period of storage.
Descriptors: Greater Rhea, eggs, hatchability, storage time, artificially incubated, effects, frequency of collection.

Latshaw, J.D., T.Y. Morishita, C.F. Sarver, and J. Thilsted (2004). Selenium toxicity in breeding ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Avian Diseases 48(4): 935-939. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: A flock of breeding ring-necked pheasants received feed with a high selenium content. Within 4 days of eating the toxic feed, the rate of egg production began to decrease, and bird aggression increased. Approximately 12% of the hens died within a week. Necropsy of the hens revealed colorless fluid around the heart and a friable, but otherwise normal, liver. The rapid onset of the problem and signs noted at necropsy suggested toxicosis. Based on analysis, the feed contained 9.3 ppm of selenium. Selenium toxicity was consistent with the histologic diagnosis of degenerative cardiomyopathy, vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, and centrilobular hepatic necrosis. After 8 days, the toxic feed was removed and replaced with fresh feed. Egg production, which had dropped to 50%, returned to normal within 10 days of feed replacement. Hatchability of eggs laid from days 8 to 14 after delivery of the toxic feed was 35%. Approximately 10% of the chicks that hatched had deformed beaks and abnormal eyes. Many of the chicks that died in the shell had deformities, bringing the total to more than 50% of all embryos that developed. The selenium content of eggs that had no embryonic development was 2.05 ppm. Hatchability of eggs laid from days 21 to 28 after the toxic feed was delivered was almost 80%, which was slightly lower than normal. The selenium content of these eggs was 0.30 ppm. These results show the rapid onset and correction of selenium toxicity and suggest that specific embryologic defects are diagnostic for selenium toxicity.
Descriptors: Pheasants, Phasianus colchicus, ring-necked pheasants, game birds, breeding stock, selenium toxicity, selenosis, feeds, fecundity, animal fertility, animal behavior, aggression, liver, heart, symptoms, egg hatchability, embryogenesis, embryonic mortality, deformed embryos.
Language of Text: Summary in Spanish.

Lavoie, E.T., E.M. Sorrell, D.R. Perez, and M.A. Ottinger (2007). Immunosenescence and age-related susceptibility to influenza virus in Japanese quail. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 31(4): 407-14. ISSN: 0145-305X.
Abstract: We evaluated juvenile, pubescent, reproductive adult, and aged Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) to determine if there were age-related differences in immune function with the hypothesis that aged birds would have weaker immune responses. Immune responses were measured using phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin test, antibody response to foreign red blood cells and exposure to an H9N2 influenza virus. Adult birds consistently had stronger immune responses than young and aged birds. Aged quail had skin responses 38% lower than adults. Pubescent birds' mean anti-red blood cell response was four-fold lower than adult birds. Adults had greater increase in total anti-viral antibody between primary and secondary infections than all other groups. Our data demonstrate an age-related difference in immune function in Japanese quail that has similarities to age-related immunity in humans; younger and older animals had weaker immune responses compared to young adults.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, immunoscenescence, age related susceptibility, avian influenza, immune responses, young birds, aged birds.

Li, X. and K.A. Schat (2004). Quail cell lines supporting replication of Marek's disease virus serotype 1 and 2 and herpesvirus of turkeys. Avian Diseases 48(4): 803-812. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated alphaherpesvirus, can be isolated and propagated in chicken kidney cells (CKC) and chicken or duck embryo fibroblast cells (CEF or DEF, respectively). Two recently developed cell lines, CU447 and CU453, developed from methylcholanthrene-induced tumors in Japanese quail, were examined for their suitability to propagate the three serotypes of MDV. The MDV strain RB-1B (serotype 1) was passaged for more than 30 passages in CU447 without causing cytopathic effects (CPE). Polymerase chain reaction analysis of RB-1B-infected CU447 cells demonstrated the presence of MDV DNA using primers specific for ICP4, pp38, and gB. The 132-bp direct repeats within the BamH1-H and -D fragments were amplified to the same level as RB-1B that was passaged in CKC or CEF. Different passages of RB-1B in CU447 were examined for expression of gB and pp38 transcripts, and pp38, gB, gE, and VP22 protein expression. Irrespective of the passage level, these transcripts and proteins were detected in the RB-1B-infected CU447 cells. Infectious virus was rescued by cocultivation of RB-1B-infected CU447 with CKC. Herpes virus of turkeys was propagated in CU447 and CU453 causing CPE in both cell lines. SB-1 did not cause CPE in either cell line but a few SB-1-infected cells could be detected using a monoclonal antibody specific for serotype 2 MDV.
Descriptors: turkeys, Marek's disease, Gallid herpesvirus 2, Gallid herpesvirus 3, serotypes, virus replication, cell lines, quails, cultured cells, polymerase chain reaction, microbial genetics, DNA , messenger RNA, viral proteins.
Language of Text: Summary in Spanish.

Lima, F.S., E. Santin, A.C. Paulillo, L. Doretto Junior, V.M.B.d. Moraes, and N.M.Q. Gama (2004). Evaluation of different programmes of Newcastle disease vaccination in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). International Journal of Poultry Science 3(5): 354-356. ISSN: 1682-8356.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, Newcastle disease, vaccination, different programs, evaluation.

Lindstrom, K.M., D.M. Hawley, A.K. Davis, and M. Wikelski (2005). Stress responses and disease in three wintering house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) populations along a latitudinal gradient. General and Comparative Endocrinology 143(3): 231-9. ISSN: 0016-6480.
Abstract: In laboratory studies, stress hormones have been shown to impair immune functions, and increase susceptibility to diseases. However, the interactions between stress hormones and disease have rarely been studied in free-ranging populations. In this study, we measured concentrations of the avian stress hormone corticosterone across four winter months (December-March) over two years in three eastern North American house finch populations (Carpodacus mexicanus) along a latitudinal gradient. Because Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections appear in these populations in late winter, we hypothesized that the timing of the disease outbreaks could be mediated by changes in corticosterone concentrations. We found a significant increase in baseline and stress-induced plasma corticosterone concentrations in house finches without Mycoplasma symptoms in late winter; when the prevalence of Mycoplasma infection peaks. We also found that house finches with Mycoplasma symptoms had elevated stress-induced corticosterone concentrations. High baseline concentrations were associated with a low body condition and a high fat load. We found that the relationship between corticosterone concentrations and the latitude of the study population changed between years. The first year, corticosterone concentrations were lowest in the southern latitude, but became higher in the second year when average winter temperatures were low. A causal understanding of the implications for this variation in corticosterone concentrations for Mycoplasma disease dynamics awaits further studies.
Descriptors: house finch, stress response, diseases, winter, Mycoplasma, corticosterone, plasma, concentration, immune functions, impair, North America.

Liu, H.z., K.m. Peng, and W.q. Chen (2005). Study on the cytoarchitecture in the medullary reticular formation of African ostrich. Acta Veterinaria Et Zootechnica Sinica 36(8): 851-854. ISSN: 0366-6964.
Descriptors: African ostrich, medullary reticular formation, cytoarchitecture, study, Struthio camelus.
Language of Text: Chinese, summary in English.

MacLeod, K.M., D. Soares, and C.E. Carr (2006). Interaural timing difference circuits in the auditory brainstem of the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Journal of Comparative Neurology 495(2): 185-201. ISSN: 0021-9967.
Descriptors: emu, auditory brainstem, interaural timing difference, circuits, sound localization, birds, anatomy, physiology.

Madekurozwa, M.C. (2005). Morphological features of the luminal surface of the magnum in the sexually immature ostrich (Struthio camelus). Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia 34(6): 350-3. ISSN: 0340-2096.
Abstract: Observations were made, using scanning electron microscopy, of the surface features of the magnum in the immature ostrich during periods of ovarian inactivity, activity and regression. In birds with inactive ovaries the luminal surface of the magnum was lined with non-ciliated cells, which were densely covered by microvilli. In contrast, the magnum in birds with active ovaries was composed of ciliated and non-ciliated cells. The distribution of ciliated cells was not uniform, with clumps of cilia occurring next to non-ciliated areas. Samples collected from birds with regressing ovaries, during periods of decreasing daylength, revealed that the magnum was undergoing involution. The deciliation of ciliated cells and the presence of short microvilli on non-ciliated cells characterized magnal regression. These results suggest that ovarian activity and changes in daylength have a profound effect on the surface features of the magnum in the immature ostrich.
Descriptors: ostrich, sexually immature, magnum, morphological features, ovarian activity, daylength, ciliated cells, non ciliated cells.

Madekurozwa, M.C. (2004). Immunohistochemical localization of the progesterone and oestrogen receptors in the shell gland of sexually immature ostriches (Struthio camelus) with active or inactive ovaries. Research in Veterinary Science 76(1): 63-68. ISSN: 0034-5288.
Descriptors: ostriches, immature, ovaries, active, inactive, progesterone, estrogen, receptors, immunohistochemical localization, shell gland.

Maestro, M.M., J. Turnay, N. Olmo, P. Fernandez, D. Suarez, J.M. Garcia Paez, S. Urillo, M.A. Lizarbe, and E. Jorge Herrero (2006). Biochemical and mechanical behavior of ostrich pericardium as a new biomaterial. Acta Biomaterialia 2(2): 213-9. ISSN: 1742-7061.
Abstract: We have performed a comparative analysis of glutaraldehyde-preserved ostrich pericardium, as a novel biomaterial, with bovine pericardium. The biochemical characteristics (histology, water content, amino acid composition, and collagen and elastin contents), mechanical properties, and in vivo calcification in a subcutaneous rat model were examined. Ostrich pericardium is slightly thinner and shows a higher water content (70+/-2% vs. 62+/-2%) than bovine pericardium. Additionally, ostrich pericardium presents 1.6-fold lower elastin content and a lower percentage of collagen in reference to the total protein content (68+/-2% vs. 76+/-2%). However, ostrich pericardium shows better mechanical properties, with higher tensile stress at rupture (32.4+/-7.5 vs. 11.5+/-4.6) than calf pericardium. In vivo calcification studies in a rat subcutaneous model show that ostrich pericardium is significantly less calcified than bovine pericardium (23.95+/-13.30 vs. 100.10+/-37.36 mg/g tissue) after 60 days of implantation. In conclusion, glutaraldehyde-stabilized ostrich pericardium tissue shows better mechanical properties than calf tissue. However, calcium accumulation in implanted ostrich tissue is still too high to consider it a much better alternative to bovine pericardium, and anticalcification treatments should be considered.
Descriptors: ostrich, pericardium, biochemical, mechanical, behavior, biomaterial, comparative analysis, bovine, rat model.

Maguire, G.S., P.J. Guay, and R.A. Mulder (2006). Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in the southern emu-wren (Stipiturus malachurus: Aves). Molecular Ecology Notes 6(2): 422-424. ISSN: 1471-8278.
Abstract: We isolated and characterized eight novel microsatellite loci in the southern emu-wren (Stipiturus malachurus). We used nonradioactive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques to screen an enriched genomic DNA library. Based on genotypes from a single population, six loci showed no evidence of null alleles and were polymorphic (allele range = 2-9, mean heterozygosity = 0.57), and one locus was sex-linked (NA = 4). These loci were variable and had different allele size ranges in three other populations of southern emu-wrens, and are therefore useful for determining levels of genetic diversity within and between populations of the species.
Descriptors: southern emu wren, (Stipiturus malachurus), microsatellite markers, isolation, characterization, polymerase chain reaction, PCR.

Mahmood, F., R.E. Chiles, Y. Fang, C.M. Barker, and W.K. Reisen (2004). Role of nestling mourning doves and house finches as amplifying hosts of St. Louis encephalitis virus. Journal of Medical Entomology 41(5): 965-972. ISSN: 0022-2585.
Abstract: Nestling mourning doves and house finches produced elevated viremias after inoculation with 2-3 log10 plaque-forming units (PFU) of St Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus and infected 67 and 70% of Culex tarsalis Coquillett that engorged upon them, respectively. Mosquito infection rates as well as the quantity of virus produced after extrinsic incubation increased as a function of the quantity of virus ingested and peaked during days 3-5 postinoculation in mourning doves and days 2-4 in house finches. Only female Cx. tarsalis with body titers > or = 4.6 log10 PFU were capable of transmitting virus. Overall, 38% of females infected by feeding on mourning doves and 22% feeding on house finches were capable of transmission. The quantity of virus expectorated was variable, ranging from 0.8 to 3.4 log10 PFU and was greatest during periods when avian viremias were elevated. Our data indicated that nestling mourning doves and house finches were competent hosts for SLE virus and that the quantity of virus ingested from a viremic avian host varies during the course of the infection and determines transmission rates by the mosquito vector.
Descriptors: Columbidae, Fringillidae, doves, disease reservoirs, host pathogen relationships, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, viremia, Culex tarsalis, mosquitoes, infection, virus transmission, insect vectors, vector competence, Zenaida macroura, house finches, Carpodacus mexicanus, virus amplification.

Main, R.P. and A.A. Biewener (2007). Skeletal strain patterns and growth in the emu hindlimb during ontogeny. Journal of Experimental Biology 210(Pt 15): 2676-90. ISSN: 0022-0949.
Abstract: Most studies examining changes in mechanical performance in animals across size have typically focused on inter-specific comparisons across large size ranges. Scale effects, however, can also have important consequences in vertebrates as they increase in size and mass during ontogeny. The goal of this study was to examine how growth and development in the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) hindlimb skeleton reflects the demands placed upon it by ontogenetic changes in locomotor mechanics and body mass. Bone strain patterns in the femur and tibiotarsus (TBT) were related to ontogenetic changes in limb kinematics, ground reaction forces, and ontogenetic scaling patterns of the cross-sectional bone geometry, curvature and mineral ash content over a 4.4-fold increase in leg length and 65-fold increase in mass. Although the distribution of principal and axial strains remained similar in both bones over the ontogenetic size range examined, principal strains on the cranial femur and caudal femur and TBT increased significantly during growth. The ontogenetic increase in principal strains in these bones was likely caused by isometry or only slight positive allometry in bone cross-sectional geometry during growth, while relative limb loading remained similar. The growth-related increase in bone strain magnitude was likely mitigated by increased bone mineralization and decreased curvature. Throughout most of ontogeny, shear strains dominated loading in both bones. This was reflected in the nearly circular cross-sectional geometry of the femur and TBT, suggesting selection for resistance to high torsional loads, as opposed to the more eccentric cross-sectional geometries often associated with the bending common to tetrapods with parasagittal limb orientations, for which in vivo bone strains have typically been measured to date.
Descriptors: emu, hindlimb, ontogeny, growth, skeletal strain patterns, mechanical performance, size, mass, femur, bones.

MalagoJunior, W., H.M. Franco, E. Matheucci Junior, A. Medaglia, and F. Henrique Silva (2002). Large scale sex typing of ostriches using DNA extracted from feathers. BMC Biotechnology 2(19): (1 October 2002). ISSN: 1472-6750.
Descriptors: ostriches, sex typing, large scale, DNA extraction from feathers.

Minivielle, F., R. Grossmann, and D. Gourichon (2007). Development and performances of a Japanese quail line Homozygous for the diabetes insipidus (di) mutation. Poultry Science 86(2): 249-254. ISSN: 0032-5791.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, development, homozygous, diabetes insipidis, mutation, performance, quail line.

Mitgutsch, C., K. Au, B. Wong, B.F. Eames, and R.a. Schneider (2007). Nervus trigeminus development in quail, duck, and quck chimeras. Developmental Biology 306(1): 377. ISSN: 0012-1606.
Descriptors: quail, duck, quck chimeras, nervus trigeminus, development, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: 66th SDB Annual Meeting/8th SMBD Annual Meeting/3rd LASDB International Meeting, Cancun, MEXICO; June 16 -20, 2007.

Mohan, J., K.V. Sastry, J.S. Tyagi, and D.K. Singh (2004). Isolation of E. coli from foam and effects of fluoroquinolones on E. coli and foam production in male Japanese quail. Theriogenology 62(8): 1383-90. ISSN: 0093-691X.
Abstract: Sexually active male Japanese quail (Coturnix coutrnix Japonica) produce a foamy substance from their cloacal gland. It was postulated that bacteria played an important role in production of foam. The primary objective of this study was to isolate and identify bacteria present in the cloacal foam. The secondary objective was to evaluate the effect of fluoroquinolone treatment on bacterial counts and foam production. Healthy adult Japanese quail were maintained in individual cages under uniform husbandry conditions and allocated arbitrarily into three groups (each group consisted of 12 male and 12 female birds). Foam was collected from the cloacal gland of male birds of each group separately into sterile petri dishes and was cultured to isolate and identify bacteria and to determine their sensitivity to various antibiotics. Escherichia coli bacteria, sensitive to various antibacterials (including the fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin and pefloxacin), were isolated. In the second part of the study, male quails of Group I (control) received I mL vehicle (normal saline 0.9% (w/v) NaCl) daily (via the intraperitoneal route) for 12 days. Male birds from groups II and III were treated intraperitoneally with ciprofloxacin or pefloxacin at the rate of 10 mg and 12 mg per/kg body weight respectively, for 12 days. In antibiotic-treated birds, there was a gradual reduction in foam production during treatment. At the end of treatment, the cloacal gland area was smaller (P < 0.05) in pefloxacin-treated birds compared to the other groups. Furthermore, a trend towards decreasing body weight and fertilizing ability was noted in the same group. A drastic reduction in bacterial counts of foam was recorded only in fluoroquinolone-treated groups during treatment period. After cessation of treatment, all end points were increasing back to pre-treatment levels. In conclusion, E. coli were present in the foam of the cloacal gland of Japanese quail and may have a role in foam production.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, male, cloacal foam production, E. coli, isolation, fluoroquinolones, effect, cloacal gland, bacteria from coacal gland.

Mohan, J., K.V.H. Sastry, J.S. Tyagi, G.S. Rao, and R.V. Singh (2006). Residues of fluoroquinolone drugs in the cloacal gland and other tissues of Japanese quail. British Poultry Science 47(1): 83-87. ISSN: 0007-1668.
Descriptors: Japanese quails, ciprofloxacin, cloaca, drug residues, breast muscle, testes, brain, kidneys, blood plasma, pharmacokinetics, males, intraperitoneal injection, dosage, pefloxacin.

Mossman, J., T.R. Birkhead, and J. Slate (2006). The whole mitochondrial genome sequence of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Molecular Ecology Notes 6(4): 1222-1227. ISSN: 1471-8278.
Abstract: Here we describe the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome (16 583/4 bp) of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Primers were designed based on highly conserved regions of an alignment of three passerine complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences. A combination of overlapping long polymerase chain reaction (PCR) purification, followed by fully nested PCR and sequencing was used to determine the complete mtDNA genome. Six birds, from distinct maternal lineages of a pedigreed population were sequenced. Five novel haplotypes were identified. These sequences provide the first data for sequence variation across the whole mitochondrial genome of a passerine bird species.
Descriptors: zebra finch, mitochondrial genome sequence, complete nucleotide sequence, DNA, passerine, birds.

Nacher, V., A. Carretero, M. Navarro, C. Armengol, C. Llombart, A. Rodriguez, I. Herrero Fresneda, E. Ayuso, and J. Ruberte (2006). The quail mesonephros: a new model for renal senescence? Journal of Vascular Research 43(6): 581-6. ISSN: 1018-1172.
Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIMS: Renal senescence during normal aging is associated with specific vascular alterations and tissue degeneration. Although the degenerative program executed during embryonic kidney development is known to include vascular alterations, studies yet have to examine whether it involves replicative senescence. In this study, we assessed the potential of the quail mesonephros, a transitory embryonic kidney, as a model of human renal senescence. METHODS: Quail embryos with developing or degenerating mesonephros were studied on day 6 or day 11 of incubation, respectively. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity, a marker of replicative senescence, was examined on whole mounts and sections. Senescent vascular characterization was performed by the scanning electron-microscopic analysis of vascular corrosion casts. RESULTS: Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity was found only in old mesonephros. Moreover, at 11 days of incubation glomerular capillaries showed discontinuities and were thinner and more tortuous than those observed at 6 days, characteristics also reported for the aging human kidney. CONCLUSION: The degenerating quail mesonephros is a potential model of renal senescence, showing biochemical and morphological characteristics of the aging human kidney.
Descriptors: quail, mesonephros, renal senescence, normal aging, vascular alterations, new model, human kidney.

Nielsen, K., A.L. De Obaldia, and J. Heitman (2007). Cryptococcus neoformans mates on pigeon guano: implications for the realized ecological niche and globalization. Eukaryotic Cell 6(6): 949-59. ISSN: 1535-9778.
Abstract: The ecological niche that a species can occupy is determined by its resource requirements and the physical conditions necessary for survival. The niche to which an organism is most highly adapted is the realized niche, whereas the complete range of habitats that an organism can occupy represents the fundamental niche. The growth and development of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii on pigeon guano were examined to determine whether these two species occupy the same or different ecological niches. C. neoformans is a cosmopolitan pathogenic yeast that infects predominantly immunocompromised individuals, exists in two varieties (grubii [serotype A] and neoformans [serotype D]), and is commonly isolated from pigeon guano worldwide. By contrast, C. gattii often infects immunocompetent individuals and is associated with geographically restricted environments, most notably, eucalyptus trees. Pigeon guano supported the growth of both species, and a brown pigment related to melanin, a key virulence factor, was produced. C. neoformans exhibited prolific mating on pigeon guano, whereas C. gattii did not. The observations that C. neoformans completes the life cycle on pigeon guano but that C. gattii does not indicates that pigeon guano could represent the realized ecological niche for C. neoformans. Because C. gattii grows on pigeon guano but cannot sexually reproduce, pigeon guano represents a fundamental but not a realized niche for C. gattii. Based on these studies, we hypothesize that an ancestral Cryptococcus strain gained the ability to sexually reproduce in pigeon guano and then swept the globe.
Descriptors: pigeon, guano, Cryptococcus, growth, reproduction, ecological niche, mating, life cycle, sexually reproduce.

Nowaczewski, S., H. Kontecka, and E. Pruszynska Oszmaek (2006). Effect of feed supplementation with vitamin C on haematological indices, corticosterone concentration in blood and duration of tonic immobility in pheasants. Annals of Animal Science 6(1): 117-128. ISSN: 1642-3402.
Descriptors: pheasants, feed supplementation, vitamin C, effect, hematological indices, corticosterone concentration, blood, tonic immobility.
Language of Text: Polish.

Osofsky, A., L.A. Tell, P.H. Kass, S.E. Wetzlich, J. Nugent Deal, and A.L. Craigmill (2005). Investigation of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) as a pharmacokinetic model for cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and Poicephalus parrots via comparison of the pharmacokinetics of a single intravenous injection of oxytetracycline hydrochloride. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 28(6): 505-13. ISSN: 0140-7783.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine whether Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) would serve as a pharmacokinetic animal model for two small companion parrots: cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and Poicephalus parrots. Oxytetracycline (OTC) was the pharmacologic agent chosen for this study as it is eliminated primarily by renal glomerular filtration and undergoes minimal metabolism. A single intravenous injection of 20 mg/kg oxytetracycline hydrochloride was administered to the three study groups and blood samples were obtained at 5, 10, 15, and 30 min post-OTC injection as well as 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h post-OTC injection. Quantification of plasma OTC was accomplished using a standardized microbial inhibition assay. Naive-pooled data (NPD) analysis of the plasma concentration-time profile of OTC best fit a two-compartment open model for all three avian species. Noncompartmental analysis of the mean data yielded the following parameters for quail, cockatiels and Poicephalus parrots respectively: lambda(z) = 3.14, 4.57, 3.71 h; AUC = 38.9, 42.7, 49.6 microg x h/mL; and Cl = 514, 468, 403 mL/h/kg. Based on the similarity of these pharmacokinetic parameters, it appears that quail could be used as a model species to predict the appropriate OTC dosing regimen for small psittacine birds. A bootstrap procedure was also applied to these sparse data sets for both compartmental and noncompartmental analysis. The bootstrap procedure allowed for the calculation of variability of parameters; however, the estimates of the parameters were very similar to those calculated using the NPD and the data mean values.
Descriptors: quail, anti bacterial agents pharmacokinetics, Coturnix metabolism, oxytetracycline pharmacokinetics, administration, dosage, anti bacterial agents blood, anti bacterial agents urine, cockatoos metabolism, glomerular filtration rate, intravenous injections, kidney metabolism, animal models, oxytetracycline administration, dosage.

Ozbey, O., N. Yildiz, and F. Esen (2006). The effects of high temperature on breeding characteristics and the living strength of the Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). International Journal of Poultry Science 5(1): 56-59. ISSN: 1682-8356.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, high temperature, effects, breeding characteristics, living strength.

Ozegbe, P.C., T.A. Aire, and J.T. Soley (2005). The efferent ductules of the testis of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Microscopy Society of Southern Africa Proceedings 35: 74. ISSN: 1028-3455.
Descriptors: ostrich, Struthio camelus, testis, efferent ductules.

Palmieri, G., A.A. Dessole, L.B. Minelli, M. Botti, F. Gazza, A. Corriero, S. Desantis, and F. Acone (2004). The sensitive innervation of the ostrich nasal mucosa. Archivio Italiano Di Anatomia Ed Embriologia. [Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology]. 109(4): 239-48. ISSN: 0004-0223.
Abstract: The sensitive innervation of the ostrich's nasal mucosa, through impregnative gold chloride methods, was investigated. The autonomy innervation, constituted by ganglion cells placed along the course of nerve trunks was particularly represented in the respiratory tract of the nasal cavity. The somatic nerve component, composed by free and capsulated endings, was especially distributed in the vestibular district. The nerve corpuscles were morphologically classified as Pacini, Pacini-like, Golgi-Mazzoni and Herbst. Further investigations must be expected to attribute an effective functional role particularly to this last nerve component.
Descriptors: ostrich, nasal mucosa, sensitive innervation, ganglion cells, nerve trunks, nasal cavity, respiratory tract, somatic nerve, nerve corpuscles.

Palmieri, G., L.B. Minelli, M. Botti, F. Gazza, S. Desantis, M. Deflorio, G. Costa, M.G. Cappai, and F. Acone (2005). Autonomic and sensitive somatic innervation of the ostrich elbow and knee joints articular capsule. Archivio Italiano Di Anatomia Ed Embriologia. [Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology]. 110(2): 111-23. ISSN: 0004-0223.
Abstract: The present research was carried out on the fibrous layer of the ostrich's elbow and knee joints articular capsule, employing opportunely modified gold chloride Ruffini's method, to study the autonomic and sensitive somatic nerve components. The distribution of both nerve components followed frequently the vascular networks. The autonomic innervation was represented by isolated or grouped ganglion cells, frequently placed along the course of nerve trunks, close to the epineurium or located within the perineural connective tissue. The sensitive somatic innervation was constituted by free and encapsulated corpuscles. The last one, morphologically classified as Pacini, Pacini-like and Golgi-Mazzoni's corpuscles, were found isolated or grouped to constitute simple and complex flower sprays, "opposito-polar corpuscles" and "poichilomorphous fibres". The very few Golgi-Mazzoni's corpuscles were found only in the knee joint articular capsule. The two nerve components, found in the considered districts, did not shown significant quanti-qualitative and topographic differences. This datum, at least in appearance, seems to conflict with the ostrich functional aptitudes. In fact, the ostrich is a bird unable to fly but very able to run.
Descriptors: ostrich, elbow, knee joint, forelimb anatomy, histology, hindlimb anatomy, histology, joint capsule innervation, joints anatomy, histology, joints innervation, struthioniformes anatomy, afferent pathways anatomy, autonomic pathways anatomy, connective tissue innervation.

Pasmans, F., F. Van Immerseel, K. Hermans, M. Heyndrickx, J.M. Collard, R. Ducatelle, and F. Haesebrouck (2004). Assessment of virulence of pigeon isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium variant copenhagen for humans. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 42(5): 2000-2. ISSN: 0095-1137.
Abstract: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium variant Copenhagen was isolated from 5 of 152 (3.3%) feral pigeons from the city of Ghent (Belgium) and from 26 pooled fecal samples from 114 pigeon lofts (22.8%). These isolates belonged to phage type (PT) 99. Seven of the pigeon isolates were further compared in vitro to five human variant Copenhagen isolates, 2 isolates of PT 208, 1 isolate each of PT 120 and U302, and a nontypeable isolate. No differences in invasiveness in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were found. The human strains, however, were able to multiply significantly more inside human THP-1 macrophages than the pigeon strains. After inoculation of mice with a pigeon PT 99 strain, high numbers of Salmonella bacteria were shed with the feces, the internal organs were heavily colonized, and the animals showed severe clinical symptoms resulting in death. In conclusion, the less-pronounced ability of the pigeon variant Copenhagen strains to multiply inside human macrophages than human strains as well as the lack of human PT 99 isolates during 2002, despite the relatively high frequency of this PT in the pigeon population, suggest these strains to be of low virulence to humans. However, the high virulence for mice of the tested strain implies that rodents may act as reservoirs.
Descriptors: pigeon isolates, Salmonella typhimurium isolation, purification, pathogenicity, virulence, assessment, disease reservoirs, feces microbiology, mice, salmonella infections, transmission, species specificity, urban health, virulence, Belgium.

Pettifer, G.R., J. Cornick Seahorn, J.A. Smith, G. Hosgood, and T.N.J. Tully (2002). The comparative cardiopulmonary effects of spontaneous and controlled ventilation by using the Hallowell EMC Anesthesia WorkStation in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 16(4): 268-276. ISSN: 1082-6742.
Descriptors: Amazon parrots, cardiopulmonary effects, ventilation, spontaneous, controlled, anesthesia, work station, anesthetic.

Pike, T.W. and M. Petrie (2006). Experimental evidence that corticosterone affects offspring sex ratios in quail. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences Series B 273(1590): 1093-1098. ISSN: 0962-8452.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica, corticosterone, affects, offspring sex ratio, studies, sex biasing process, birds.

Polat, U., M. Cetin, O. Turkyilmaz, and A. Yalcin (2004). Reference serum protein and lipoprotein fractions of ostriches (Struthio camelus) in Turkey. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 71(1): 77-9. ISSN: 0030-2465.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine for reference purposes the values of serum albumin, alpha 1-globulin, alpha 2-globulin, beta-globulin, gamma-globulin, and alpha-lipoprotein (high density lipoprotein), pre-beta-lipoprotein (very low density lipoprotein) and beta-lipoprotein (low density lipoprotein) fractions of normal ostriches (Struthio camelus) in Turkey. Five male and five female ostriches, 18 months old, were used. All the ostriches were fed on a diet that contained 15.14% crude protein and 2,950 Kcal/kg of metabolizable energy. The serum protein and lipoprotein fractions were measured using agarose gel electrophoresis. The fractions were found to be 60.96% albumin, 0.24% alpha 1-globulin, 15.91% alpha 2-globulin, 13.34% beta-globulin, 9.55% gamma-globulin, 53.77% HDL, 0.60% VLDL and 48.09% LDL.
Descriptors: ostriches, serum protein, lipoprotein, fractions, reference, values, globulin, diet, argarose gel electrophoresis, Turkey.

Pourlis, A.F., J. Antonopoulos, and I.N. Magras (2006). A light and electron microscopic study of the limb long bones perichondral ossification in the quail embryo (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Archivio Italiano Di Anatomia Ed Embriologia. [Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology]. 111(3): 159-70. ISSN: 0004-0223.
Abstract: The perichondral ossification of the limb long bones in the quail embryo is investigated, in this study, by means of light and electron microscopy. Longitudinal sections of the humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia and fibula stained with haematoxylin-eosin were examined by the light microscope. Ultrathin cross sections were selected for the electron microscope as well. Light microscopic analysis showed that the ossification began at the same time in the long bones of the wing and leg. At the embryonic day 6, all the cartilaginous rudiments consisted of three zones. The central zone composed of hypertrophic chondrocytes, a second zone on either side of the central zone, which consisted of flattened cells and a third zone, which represented the epiphyseal region. A thin sheath of osteoid and a bi-layered perichondrium-periosteum surrounded the central zone of the cartilaginous rudiments of the long bones. The perichondrium consisted of a layer of osteoblasts, in contact with the cartilage, and a layer of fibroblasts. At the embryonic day 7, the thickness of the calcified osteoid ring increased and a vasculature appeared between the layer of osteoblasts and the layer of fibroblasts. At the embryonic day 8, a second sheath of periosteal bone began to be formed. Concurrently, vascular and perivascular elements began to invade the cartilage. The ossification spread towards the distal ends of both the diaphysis. At the electron microscopic level, the osteoblasts of the perichondium showed cytoplasmatic characteristics of cells involved in protein synthesis. The perichondral ossification is the first hallmark of the osteogenesis in the long bones. The observations reported above, are in accordance with previous studies in the chick embryo.
Descriptors: coturnix, quail, embryo, bones of lower extremity embryology, bones of upper extremity, osteogenesis physiology, blood vessels embryology, blood vessels ultrastructure, bones ultrastructure, cartilage embryology, ultrastructure, mammalian, femur embryology, femur ultrastructure, humerus embryology, humerus ultrastructure, osteoblasts physiology, osteoblasts ultrastructure, periosteum embryology, periosteum physiology, periosteum ultrastructure.

Rama, C., K. Revathi, R. Kungumapriya, S. Gulati, M. Yogananda, and R. Prabhakaran (2006). Histopathological changes due to aflatoxins in japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica. Journal of Experimental Zoology India 9(2): 421-424. ISSN: 0972-0030.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, corturnix, aflotoxins, histopathological changes, peanut meal, livestock feed, Coturnix corturnix japonica, toxins.

Rama, C., K. Revathy, S. Gulati, R. Kungumapriya, and M. Yogananda (2006). Haematological and biochemical changes due to aflatoxins in japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica. Journal of Experimental Zoology India 9(2): 389-395. ISSN: 0972-0030.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, corturnix, aflotoxins, changes, haematological, biochemical.

Rasmussen, U.F., S.E. Vielwerth, and H.N. Rasmussen (2004). Skeletal muscle bioenergetics: a comparative study of mitochondria isolated from pigeon pectoralis, rat soleus, rat biceps brachii, pig biceps femoris and human quadriceps. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A Molecular and Integrative Physiology. 137((2)): 435-446. ISSN: 1095-6433.
Abstract: The metabolism of mitochondria isolated from five functionally different skeletal muscles is compared. Data for a single ectothermic preparation are also reported. The mitochondria were prepared in yields of 44 +/- 7% from 50 to 100 mg muscle. The muscle content of mitochondrial protein ranged between 2 and 40 g kg-1. Twelve specific activities of key enzymes and metabolic systems were determined, 10 of these in functional assays with respiratory measurements. The specific activities of glutamate dehydrogenase, a-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, and exo-NADH oxidase differed considerably among muscle sources. Seven specific activities, including very central reactions, showed low among-muscle variation. The activity of ATP synthesis, for instance, was 1.0-1.3 mmol min-1 g-1 mitochondrial protein, 25degrees C. In vitro data were extrapolated to in vivo conditions of the muscles. The calculated rates of respiration and ATP synthesis were in accordance with reported tissue activities. Pigeon pectoralis mitochondria showed a unique cytochrome spectrum and a respiratory chain activity that might effect simultaneous carbohydrate and fatty acid respiration. In mitochondria from the other muscles, the respiratory chain activity balanced the carbohydrate oxidation capacity. In all muscles, the respiratory capacity exceeds that needed for oxidative phosphorylation. This may secure maximal mitochondrial ATP synthesis during maximal work rates and high cellular [Ca2+].
Descriptors: energy metabolism, skeletal muscle, pigeons, rats, swine, humans.

Rattenborg, N.C., W.H. Obermeyer, E. Vacha, and R.M. Benca (2005). Acute effects of light and darkness on sleep in the pigeon (Columba livia). Physiology and Behavior 84(4): 635-40. ISSN: 0031-9384.
Abstract: In addition to entraining circadian rhythms, light has acute effects on sleep and wakefulness in mammals. To determine whether light and darkness have similar effects in birds, the only non-mammalian group that displays sleep patterns comparable to mammals, we examined the effects of lighting changes on sleep and wakefulness in the pigeon. We quantified sleep behavior (i.e., bilateral or unilateral eye closure) in pigeons maintained under a 12:12 LD cycle, and immediately following a change from a 12:12 to a 3:3 LD cycle. During both LD cycles, sleep was most prevalent during dark periods. During the 3:3 LD cycle, darkness had the greatest sleep promoting effect during the hours corresponding to the subjective night of the preceding 12:12 LD cycle, whereas light suppressed sleep across circadian phases. As previously suggested, the light-induced decrease in sleep in the subjective night might be partly mediated by the suppression of melatonin by light. Although the sleep promoting effect of darkness was modulated by the circadian rhythm, sleep in darkness occurred during all circadian phases, suggesting that darkness per se may play a direct role in inducing sleep. In addition to the effects of lighting on behavioral state, we observed an overall bias toward more right eye closure under all lighting conditions, possibly reflecting a response to the novel testing environment.
Descriptors: pigeon, sleep, light, darkness, acute effects, circadian rhythms, wakefulness.

Raukar, J., M. Simpraga, R. Zadro, and J. Lukac (2006). Immunological status in one-day old ostriches: preliminary results. Journal of Ornithology 147(5, Suppl. 1): 236. ISSN: 0021-8375.
Descriptors: ostriches, one day old, immunological status, preliminary results, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: 24th International Ornithological Congress, Hamburg, GERMANY; 2006.

Reed, K.L., M.G. Conzemius, R.A. Robinson, and T.D. Brown (2004). Osteocyte-based image analysis for quantitation of histologically apparent femoral head osteonecrosis: application to an emu model. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering 7(1): 25-32. ISSN: 1025-5842.
Abstract: Femoral head osteonecrosis is often characterized histologically by the presence of empty lacunae in the affected bony regions. The shape, size and location of a necrotic lesion influences prognosis, and can, in principle, be quantified by mapping the distribution of empty lacunae within a femoral head. An algorithm is here described that automatically identifies the locations of osteocyte-filled vs. empty lacunae. The algorithm is applied to necrotic lesions surgically induced in the emu, a large bipedal animal model in which osteonecrosis progresses to collapse, as occurs in humans. The animals' femoral heads were harvested at sacrifice, and hematoxylin and eosin-stained histological preparations of the coronal midsections were digitized and image-analyzed. The algorithm's performance in detecting empty lacunae was validated by comparing its results to corresponding assessments by six trained histologists. The percentage of osteocyte-filled lacunae identified by the algorithm vs. by the human readers was statistically indistinguishable.
Descriptors: emu, hip joint pathology, animal models, osteocytes pathology, osteonecrosis pathology, algorithms, Dromaiidae, femoral head, alogorithm.

Reisen, W.K., R.E. Chiles, V.M. Martinez, Y. Fang, and E.N. Green (2004). Encephalitis virus persistence in California birds: experimental infections in mourning doves (Zenaidura macroura). Journal of Medical Entomology 41(3): 462-466. ISSN: 0022-2585.
Abstract: After-hatching and hatching year, mourning doves were infected by inoculation with either western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) or St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses; some birds in each group also were treated with the immunosuppressant cyclophosphamide before and during infection. Cyclophosphamide treatment significantly increased the WEE viremia but did not alter the antibody response. In contrast, cyclophosphamide-treated and -untreated doves did not develop a detectable SLE viremia but became antibody positive. Antibody peaked at 10 wk after inoculation for both viruses and remained detectable in most birds throughout the 26-wk study. When treated with cyclophosphamide the following spring, birds did not relapse and develop a detectable viremia. Previously infected birds were protected when challenged with conspecific virus (i.e., none produced a detectable viremia), but there was no anamnestic antibody response to reinfection. In agreement with our failure to detect relapses, all birds were negative for viral RNA when sera, spleen, lung, and kidney tissues were tested by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction after necropsy. Our results indicated that adult mourning doves were an incompetent host for SLE virus and probably do not serve as a suitable overwintering or dispersal host for either WEE and SLE viruses.
Descriptors: Columbidae, doves, infection, Western equine encephalitis virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, viral encephalitis, viremia, antibody formation, immunosuppressive agents, cyclophosphamide, host pathogen relationships, immunity, disease reservoirs, reinfection, host competence, California, USA.

Roberts, M.L., K.L. Buchanan, D. Hasselquist, and M.R. Evans (2007). Effects of testosterone and corticosterone on immunocompetence in the zebra finch. Hormones and Behavior 51(1): 126-34. ISSN: 0018-506X.
Abstract: The original immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH) suggested that testosterone has a handicapping effect in males by both promoting the development of sexual signals and suppressing immune function. A modified version, the stress-linked ICHH, has recently proposed that testosterone is immunosuppressive indirectly by increasing production of corticosterone. To test both the original and stress-mediated versions of the ICHH, we implanted male zebra finches taken from lines selected for divergent maximum stress-induced levels of corticosterone (high, low and control) with either empty or testosterone-filled implants. Their humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were then assessed by challenge with diphtheria:tetanus vaccine and phytohemagglutinin respectively. We found no effect of the hormone manipulations on either PHA or tetanus antibody responses, but found a significant interaction between titers of both testosterone and corticosterone on diphtheria secondary antibody response; antibody response was greatest in individuals with high levels of both hormones. There was also a significant interactive effect between testosterone treatment group and corticosterone titer on body mass; the body mass of males in the elevated testosterone treatment group decreased with increasing corticosterone titer. These results suggest that, contrary to the assumption of the stress-mediated version of the ICHH, high plasma levels of corticosterone are not immunosuppressive, but are in fact immuno-enhancing in the presence of high levels of plasma testosterone. Equally, the central assumption of the ICHH that testosterone is obligately immunosuppressive is also not supported. The same individuals with the highest levels of both hormones and consequently the most robust antibody response also possessed the lowest body mass.
Descriptors: zebra finches, corticosterone, blood, immunology, immunocompetence, testosterone, antibody formation, body weight, immunity, cellular.

Ronning, B., H. Jensen, B. Moe, and C. Bech (2007). Basal metabolic rate: heritability and genetic correlations with morphological traits in the zebra finch. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 20(5): 1815-22. ISSN: 1010-061X.
Abstract: Studies of genetic variation in metabolic traits have so far not focused on birds. In our study population of captive zebra finches we found evidence for a significant heritable genetic component in basal metabolic rate (BMR). Heritability of all morphological traits investigated (body mass, head length, tars length and wing length) was significantly larger than zero. All traits were positively phenotypically correlated. Eight of 10 genetic correlations presented in this study differed significantly from zero, all being positive, suggesting the possibility of correlated responses to any selection acting on the traits. When conditioned on the genetic variance in body mass, the heritability of BMR was reduced from 25% to 4%. Hence, our results indicate that genetic changes in BMR through directional selection are possible, but the potential for adaptation independent of body mass may be limited.
Descriptors: zebra finch, basal metabolic rate, genetic correlations, heritability, morphological traits, BMR.

Rossi Fraire, H.J. and M.B. Martella (2006). DNA test to sex the lesser rhea (Rhea pennata pennata). British Poultry Science 47(3): 375-377. ISSN: 0007-1668.
Abstract: 1. A polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR)-based test was adapted to sex the lesser rhea. Feathers instead of blood were used as the source of DNA. 2. The primers used allowed the assignment of sex by amplification of Z and W chromosome linked sequences. 3. This method proved to be safe, accurate and non-invasive. 4. The W chromosome linked fragment was sequenced and compared to other ratite sequences.
Descriptors: rheas, alternative livestock, sexing, polymerase chain reaction, feathers, sex chromosomes, sex linkage, genetic markers, nucleotide sequences, sequence alignment, sequence analysis, molecular sequence data.

Rubenson, J., D.G. Lloyd, T.F. Besier, D.B. Heliams, and P.A. Fournier (2007). Running in ostriches (Struthio camelus): three-dimensional joint axes alignment and joint kinematics. Journal of Experimental Biology 210(Pt 14): 2548-62. ISSN: 0022-0949.
Abstract: Although locomotor kinematics in walking and running birds have been examined in studies exploring many biological aspects of bipedalism, these studies have been largely limited to two-dimensional analyses. Incorporating a five-segment, 17 degree-of-freedom (d.f.) kinematic model of the ostrich hind limb developed from anatomical specimens, we quantified the three-dimensional (3-D) joint axis alignment and joint kinematics during running (at approximately 3.3 m s(-1)) in the largest avian biped, the ostrich. Our analysis revealed that the majority of the segment motion during running in the ostrich occurs in flexion/extension. Importantly, however, the alignment of the average flexion/extension helical axes of the knee and ankle are rotated externally to the direction of travel (37 degrees and 21 degrees, respectively) so that pure flexion and extension at the knee will act to adduct and adbuct the tibiotarsus relative to the plane of movement, and pure flexion and extension at the ankle will act to abduct and adduct the tarsometatarsus relative to the plane of movement. This feature of the limb anatomy appears to provide the major lateral (non-sagittal) displacement of the lower limb necessary for steering the swinging limb clear of the stance limb and replaces what would otherwise require greater adduction/abduction and/or internal/external rotation, allowing for less complex joints, musculoskeletal geometry and neuromuscular control. Significant rotation about the joints' non-flexion/extension axes nevertheless occurs over the running stride. In particular, hip abduction and knee internal/external and varus/valgus motion may further facilitate limb clearance during the swing phase, and substantial non-flexion/extension movement at the knee is also observed during stance. Measurement of 3-D segment and joint motion in birds will be aided by the use of functionally determined axes of rotation rather than assumed axes, proving important when interpreting the biomechanics and motor control of avian bipedalism.
Descriptors: ostrich, running, motion, joint axis, alignment, kinematics, locomotor, walking, joint motion, flexion, extension, limb anatomy.

Ruffins, S.W., M. Martin, L. Keough, S. Truong, S.E. Fraser, R.E. Jacobs, and R. Lansford (2007). Digital three-dimensional atlas of quail development using high-resolution MRI. The Scientific World Journal 7: 592-604. ISSN: 1537-744X.
Abstract: We present an archetypal set of three-dimensional digital atlases of the quail embryo based on microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (microMRI). The atlases are composed of three modules: (1) images of fixed ex ovo quail, ranging in age from embryonic day 5 to 10 (e05 to e10); (2) a coarsely delineated anatomical atlas of the microMRI data; and (3) an organ system-based hierarchical graph linked to the anatomical delineations. The atlas is designed to be accessed using SHIVA, a free Java application. The atlas is extensible and can contain other types of information including anatomical, physiological, and functional descriptors. It can also be linked to online resources and references. This digital atlas provides a framework to place various data types, such as gene expression and cell migration data, within the normal three-dimensional anatomy of the developing quail embryo. This provides a method for the analysis and examination of the spatial relationships among the different types of information within the context of the entire embryo.
Descriptors: quail, development, three dimensional, high resolution MRI, embryo, anatomy, histology, embryology, magnetic resonance imaging.

Rutstein, A.N., P.J. Slater, and J.A. Graves (2004). Diet quality and resource allocation in the zebra finch. Proceedings. Biological Sciences The Royal Society 271(Suppl 5): S286-9. ISSN: 0080-4649.
Abstract: We investigated the effect of diet quality on resource allocation in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) by providing females with a high-quality (HQ) or low-quality (LQ) diet for six weeks prior to pairing, and continuing these diets during egg laying and chick rearing. Diet treatments were then reversed and the experiment repeated. When females laid on the HQ diet, egg mass increased with laying order, but the reverse was true on the LQ diet. Females laid significantly more male eggs on the LQ diet compared with on the HQ diet. In addition, female eggs were more frequent at the end of the clutch when on the HQ diet and at the beginning of the clutch when on the LQ diet. These differences in the primary sex ratio are in line with predictions from sex allocation theory, since in this species females are more vulnerable to nutritional stress than males.
Descriptors: zebra finch, animal nutrition physiology, finches physiology, ovum growth, development, sex ratio, body weight, diet quality, resource allocation, litter size.

Sahin, K., R. Ozercan, M. Onderci, N. Sahin, M.F. Gursu, F. Khachik, F.H. Sarkar, A. Munkarah, R. Ali Fehmi, D. Kmak, and O. Kucuk (2004). Lycopene supplementation prevents the development of spontaneous smooth muscle tumors of the oviduct in Japanese quail. Nutrition and Cancer 50(2): 181-9. ISSN: 0163-5581.
Abstract: Leiomyomas (fibroids) are benign tumors of the uterus affecting millions of women. Spontaneous leiomyomas of the oviduct are common tumors of the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), which makes it a good animal model for screening potential agents for testing in the prevention and treatment of human myoma uteri. Because dietary intake of lycopene has been associated with a reduced risk of a variety of human cancers, we investigated the effects of lycopene supplementation on the development of leiomyomas in the oviduct of Japanese quail. We also measured serum levels of oxidative stress markers [malondialdehyde (MDA) and homocysteine], lycopene, vitamins C, E, and A, and tissue biomarkers Bcl-2 and Bax expression. One hundred twenty quails (6 mo old) were assigned to 3 treatment groups consisting of 4 replicates of 10 birds in each group. Birds were fed either a basal diet (group C) or the basal diet supplemented with 100 mg (group L1) or 200 mg (group L2) of lycopene per kilogram of diet. The animals were sacrificed after 285 days and the tumors were identified. Lycopene supplementation decreased the number of leiomyomas compared with control subjects (P=0.056). The tumors in lycopene-fed birds were smaller than those found in control birds (P=0.01). There were no significant differences in the expression of tissue Bcl-2 and Bax among the study groups. Serum vitamins C, E, and A increased (P=0.01), whereas MDA and homocysteine concentrations decreased (P=0.01) with lycopene supplementation. No measurable lycopene could be detected in the serum of control birds, whereas a dose-dependent increase was observed in the serum of lycopene-supplemented birds. The results indicate that dietary supplementation with lycopene reduces the incidence and size of spontaneously occurring leiomyoma of the oviduct in the Japanese quail. Clinical trials should be conducted to investigate the efficacy of lycopene supplementation in the prevention and treatment of uterine leiomyoma in humans.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, smooth muscle tumors, oviduct, lycopene supplementation, prevents decelopment, fibroids, leiomyomas, animal model.

Sahin, N., M. Onderci, K. Sahin, G. Cikim, and O. Kucuk (2005). Magnesium proteinate is more protective than magnesium oxide in heat-stressed-quail. Journal of Nutrition 135(7): 1732-1737.
Abstract: We evaluated the effects of dietary supplementation with Mg-oxide and Mg-proteinate on performance; nutrient digestibilities; malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in serum, liver, and thigh meat; and serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) exposed to high ambient temperature. The birds (n = 360; 10 d old) were randomly assigned to 12 treatment groups consisting of 6 replicates of 5 birds each in a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial arrangement (temperature, Mg source, Mg level). Birds were maintained in temperature-controlled rooms at 22degrees C for 24 h/d or 34degrees C for 8 h/d (0900-1700 h) and fed a basal diet or that diet supplemented with 1 or 2 g Mg-oxide or Mg-proteinate/kg of diet. Heat exposure decreased (P = 0.0001) live weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, and carcass weight in quail fed the basal diet. A linear increase in feed intake (P = 0.008) and body weight (P = 0.001), and improvements in feed efficiency (P = 0.001), carcass weight (P < 0.0001), digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and ether extract were found in Mg-supplemented, heat-stressed quail. The effects of Mg-proteinate were greater than those of Mg-oxide (P </= 0.0001). Serum Mg (P = 0.001) concentration increased, whereas the concentration of MDA in serum (P = 0.0001), liver (P = 0.04), and thigh meat (P = 0.0001) and serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations decreased linearly (P = 0.001) with the level of Mg in the diet. Interactions between dietary Mg source, temperature, and level of supplementation (P </= 0.05) were found for several variables. Results of the present study suggest that supplementation with Mg-proteinate is more protective than Mg-oxide in reducing the negative effects of heat stress in quail.
Descriptors: Japanese quails, magnesium oxide, magnesium, heat stress, animal growth, digestibility, liver, lipid peroxidation, poultry meat, dietary mineral supplements, malondialdehyde, blood chemistry, thighs, cholesterol, triacylglycerols, feed intake, liveweight gain, feed conversion, carcass weight, protective effect, magnesium proteinate.

Sahin, N., K. Sahin, M. Onderci, M.F. Gursu, G. Cikim, J. Vijaya, and O. Kucuk (2005). Chromium picolinate, rather than biotin, alleviates performance and metabolic parameters in heat-stressed quail. British Poultry Science 46(4): 457-463. ISSN: 0007-1668.
Abstract: 1. The effects of chromium picolinate and biotin supplementation alone and in combination on performance, carcase characteristics, malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamin C, vitamin E, glucose and cholesterol levels were evaluated in Japanese quail exposed to high ambient temperature. 2. Two hundred and forty quails (10 d old) were assigned randomly to 4 dietary treatments at room temperature (22 degrees C; thermoneutral, TN) or ambient (34 degrees C for 8 h/d; heat stress, HS). Both TN and HS were fed either on a basal (control) diet or the basal diet supplemented with 400 microgram of Cr/kg (Cr group), 0.5 mg of biotin/kg of diet (biotin group) or both (Cr + Biotin group). 3. Supplementing the diet of heat-stressed quails with chromium picolinate improved live weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency and carcase traits. Biotin supplementation during TN and HS conditions did not have any beneficial effects on body weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency or carcase traits. 4. Either in combination or alone, chromium picolinate increased serum concentrations of vitamins C and E, but decreased MDA, glucose and cholesterol concentrations in birds kept at high ambient temperature. There was no difference in vitamins C and E and MDA concentrations between birds given chromium picolinate and birds receiving chromium picolinate plus biotin, while glucose and cholesterol levels were significantly lower in all groups. The lowest concentrations of cholesterol and glucose were found in the combination group under both TN and HS conditions. An interaction between diet and temperature was detected for glucose and cholesterol concentrations. 5. Excretion rates for zinc, iron and chromium were lower in TN groups than in the corresponding HS groups. Supplementing diet with chromium picolinate and chromium picolinate plus biotin decreased excretion of minerals while biotin alone did not effect excretion of minerals. 6. Chromium supplementation, but not biotin supplementation, attenuated the decline in performance and antioxidant status resulting from heat stress.
Descriptors: Japanese quails, food animals, feed supplements, poultry feeding, heat stress, ambient temperature, picolinic acid, biotin, carcass characteristics, animal performance, malondialdehyde, ascorbic acid, vitamin E, glucose, cholesterol , liveweight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, carcass quality, blood chemistry, zinc, iron, chromium, excretion, chromium picolinate.

Sahnduran, S. (2004). Isolation of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus from ostriches with conjunctivitis and respiratory disease. Revue De Medecine Veterinaire 155(3): 167-169. ISSN: 0035-1555.
Descriptors: ostriches, conjunctivitis, respiratory disease, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, isolation, clincal signs, treatment.
Language of Text: French.

Sandkc, M., U. Eren, A.G. Onol, and S. Kum (2004). The effect of heat stress and the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae or (and) bacitracin zinc against heat stress on the intestinal mucosa in quails. Revue De Medecine Veterinaire 155(11): 552-556. ISSN: 0035-1555.
Descriptors: quails, heat stress, effect, intestinal mucosa, use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, bacitracin, against heat stress.
Language of Text: French.

Sasazaki, S., T. Hinenoya, B. Lin, A. Fujiwara, and H. Mannen (2006). A comparative map of macrochromosomes between chicken and Japanese quail based on orthologous genes. Animal Genetics 37(4): 316-320. ISSN: 0268-9146.
Abstract: In order to develop a comparative map between chicken and quail, we identified orthologous gene markers based on chicken genomic sequences and localized them on the Japanese quail Kobe-NIBS linkage map, which had previously been constructed with amplified fragment length polymorphisms. After sequencing the intronic regions of 168 genes located on chicken chromosomes 1-8, polymorphisms among Kobe-NIBS quail family parents were detected in 51 genes. These orthologous markers were mapped on eight Japanese quail linkage groups (JQG), and they allowed the comparison of JQG to chicken macrochromosomes. The locations of the genes and their orders were quite similar between the two species except within a previously reported inversion on quail chromosome 2. Therefore, we propose that the respective quail linkage groups are macrochromosomes and designated as quail chromosomes CJA 1-8.
Descriptors: chickens, Japanese quails, chromosomes, genes, chromosome mapping, sequence alignment, genetic markers, linkage, introns, genetic polymorphism, chromosome inversions, comparative mapping, macrochromosomes, molecular sequence data.

Savlik, M., L. Polackova, B. Szotakova, J. Lamka, J. Velik, and L. Skalova (2007). Activities of biotransformation enzymes in pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) and their modulation by in vivo administration of mebendazole and flubendazole. Research in Veterinary Science 83(1): 20-26. ISSN: 0034-5288.
Abstract: Basal activities of certain pheasant hepatic and intestinal biotransformation enzymes and modulation of their activities by anthelmintics flubendazole (FLBZ) and mebendazole (MBZ) were investigated in subcellular fractions that were prepared from liver and small intestine of control and FLBZ or MBZ treated birds. Several oxidation, reduction and conjugation enzyme activities were assessed. In the liver, treatment of pheasants by FLBZ or MBZ caused very slight or no changes in monooxygenase activities and conjugation enzymes. More significative changes were detected in small intestine. Metyrapone and daunorubicin reductase activities were increased by both substances in the liver. This is the first evidence that certain benzimidazoles modulate reductases of carbonyl group. With respect to the relatively slight extent of the changes caused by FLBZ or MBZ we can assume that repeated administration of therapeutic doses of both FLBZ and MBZ has probably no serious influence on pheasant biotransformation enzyme system.
Descriptors: pheasant, biotransformation enxymes, activities, moculation, mebendazole, flubendazole, in vivo administration.

Savlik, M., P. Polaskova, B. Szotakova, J. Lamka, and L. Skalova (2005). The effects of flubendazole and mebendazole on cytochromes P4501A in pheasant hepatocytes. Research in Veterinary Science 79(2): 139-147. ISSN: 0034-5288.
Descriptors: pheasants, flubendazole, mebendazole, cytochrome P 450, hepatocytes, drug evaluation, cell culture, chemical concentration, immunoblotting, enzyme activity, enzyme inhibition, product safety, animal well being.

Schaller, N., K. D'auot, P. Aerts, and B. Herkner (2007). Phalangeal load and pressure distribution in walking and running ostriches (Struthio camelus). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A Molecular and Integrative Physiology 146(4, Suppl. S): S122. ISSN: 1095-6433.
Descriptors: ostriches feet, walking, running, phalangeal load, pressure distribution, skeletal system, Struthio camelus, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: Annual Meeting of the Society for Experimental Biology, Glasgow, UK; March 31-April 04, 2007.

Schaller, N.U., B. Herkner and R. Prinzinger (2005). Locomotor characteristics of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) I: Morphometric and morphological analyses. E. Carbajo Proceedings of the 3rd International Ratite Science Symposium of the World' s Poultry Science Association WPSA and 12th World Ostrich Congress, Madrid, Spain, 14th 16th October, 2005, World Poultry Science Association (WPSA): Beekbergen, Netherlands, p. 83-90. ISBN: 8460963535.
Descriptors: ostrich, locomotor characteristics, morphometric, morphological, analysis, conference proceedings, book chapter.
Notes: Meeting Information: Proceedings of the 3rd International Ratite Science Symposium of the World's Poultry Science Association (WPSA) and 12th World Ostrich Congress, Madrid, Spain, 14th-16th October, 2005.

Schulte, M., B. Diekamp, M. Manns, A. Schwarz, C. Valencia Alfonso, J.A. Kirsch, O. Gunturkun, and K. Folta (2006). Visual responses and afferent connections of the n. ventrolateralis thalami (VLT) in the pigeon (Columba livia). Brain Research Bulletin 68(4): 285-292. ISSN: 0361-9230.
Descriptors: pigeon, visual responses, afferent connections, n. ventrolateralis thalami, VLT, retinal, forebrain.

Schulz, J.H., J.J. Millspaugh, B.E. Washburn, A.J. Bermudez, J.L. Tomlinson, T.W. Mong, and Z. He (2005). Physiological effects of radiotransmitters on mourning doves. Wildlife Society Bulletin 33(3): 1092-1100. ISSN: 0091-7648.
Descriptors: mourning doves, radiotransmitters, physiological effects, attachment techniques.

Sehu, A., S. Cakir, O. Cengiz, and D. Essiz (2005). MYCOTOX and aflatoxicosis in quails. [Erratum: 2006 Apr., v. 47, no. 2, p. 247.]. British Poultry Science 46(4): 520-524. ISSN: 0007-1668.
Abstract: 1. This study was to evaluate the toxic effects of aflatoxin (AF) on growth performance of quail, and to determine the preventive efficacy of MYCOTOX (oxicinol, tymol, micronised yeast). 2. One hundred and eighty 1-d-old quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) of both sexes were weighed and randomly divided into 4 experimental groups each with 5 replicates of 9 birds. 3. There were 4 dietary treatments: (1) control with 0 mg AF/kg diet and 0% MYCOTOX; (2) 0 mg AF/kg diet and 0.5% MYCOTOX; (3) 2.5 mg AF/kg diet and 0% MYCOTOX; (4) 2.5 mg AF/kg diet plus 0.5% MYCOTOX. The chicks were maintained on these treatments to 3 weeks of age. Quail consumed the diets and water ad libitum. 4. Body weight (BW) gains in groups receiving AF alone were the lowest at all periods. Feed intake was lowest in the group consuming the AF diet. The addition of MYCOTOX to the AF diet did not prevent or reduce the toxic effects of AF on feed intake at any time period. Feeding diets containing MYCOTOX alone did not change feed intake significantly. With the exception of the 1 to 7 d period, feed conversion of chicks fed the AF diet was similar to those of the other experimental groups. 5. Bursa of Fabricius weight decreased, whereas the relative weights of liver, kidney and spleen increased in quail consuming diets containing AF and AF plus MYCOTOX. Liver colour was normal in the control and MYCOTOX alone group, but was lighter in groups fed AF. 6. The results indicated that MYCOTOX was not effective in preventing the deleterious effects of AF.
Descriptors: Japanese quails, food animals, aflatoxicosis, aflatoxins, feed supplements, body weight, feed intake, feed conversion, bursa of Fabricius, tissue weight, liver, kidneys, spleen, color, oxicinol, tymol, micronized yeast, toxicosis prevention.

Sellier, N., J.P. Brillard, V. Dupuy, and M.R. Bakst (2006). Comparative staging of embryo development in chicken, turkey, duck, goose, guinea fowl, and Japanese quail assessed from five hours after fertilization through seventy-two hours of incubation. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 15(2): 219-228. ISSN: 1056-6171.
Descriptors: poultry, embryo, embryogenesis, ova, fertilization, developmental stages, oviposition, oviducts, blastoderm, species differences.

Shao ChaoGang, Shan SongHua, and Chen JiaYi (2006). Isolation and identification of a new pigeon genotype VI strain of Newcastle disease virus. Veterinary Science in China 36(7): 543-546. ISSN: 1673-4696.
Descriptors: pigeon, Newcastle disease virus, new genotype VI strain, isolation, paramyxovirus.
Language of Text: Chinese, summary in English.

Shepherd, L. and D.M. Lambert (2006). Nuclear microsatellite DNA markers for New Zealand kiwi (Apteryx spp.). Molecular Ecology Notes 6(1): 227-229. ISSN: 1471-8278.
Abstract: Kiwi (Apterygidae) is an endemic New Zealand avian family comprising five species whose conservation is actively managed. We present five polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci isolated from North Island brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli). In addition, we demonstrate cross-amplification, and in some cases, polymorphism, of these microsatellite DNA loci in four other kiwi species. Therefore, these markers may be broadly applicable to conservation genetic studies within this family.
Descriptors: kiwi, New Zealand, DNA markers, nuclear microsatellite, loci.

Sloley, S., S. Smith, M. Algeciras, V. Cavett, J.A. Busby, S. London, D.F. Clayton, and S.K. Bhattacharya (2007). Proteomic analyses of songbird (Zebra finch; Taeniopygia guttata) retina. Journal of Proteome Research 6(3): 1093-100. ISSN: 1535-3893.
Abstract: Proteomic analyses of male songbird (Zebra finch; Taeniopygia guttata; ZF) retina were performed resulting in identification of 129 proteins. Comparison of T. guttata retinal proteome with that of chicken found proteins detected in both retinas. Immunohistochemical analyses of T. guttata retinal sections and Western analyses of total retinal protein extract were performed confirming presence of select bona fide retinal proteins. Results demonstrate the utility of one-dimensional gel fractionation for mass spectrometry and will be useful for future proteomic comparison of songbird retina and brain tissues in different behavioral and pharmacological studies.
Descriptors: zebra finch, proteomic analysis, retina, genetics, proteins analysis, immunohistochemical analysis, retinal sections, retinal proteome.

Small, M.F., J.T. Baccus, J.N. Mink, and J.A. Roberson (2005). Hematologic responses in captive white-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica), induced by various radiotransmitter attachments. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 41(2): 387-94. ISSN: 0090-3558.
Abstract: White blood cell counts, heterophil-lymphocyte ratios, and leukocyte differentials of captive white-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica) from Texas equipped with different radiotransmitter attachment packages were monitored. Doves were segregated by gender and age by males, females, and hatching year; individuals housed in 30 large outdoor pens in groups of seven. Treatments consisted of controls, glue-on transmitters, body loop harnesses, surgically implanted intracoelomic transmitters, surgically implanted subcutaneous transmitters, intracoelomic surgery without implants, and subcutaneous surgery without implants. We used multivariate analysis of variance with pen as a blocking variable and gender nested and repeated measures analysis of variance to identify differences among any of the transmitter attachment techniques and the control for dependent variables. We found no difference in blood parameters between transmitter attachment technique versus a control.
Descriptors: white-winged doves, Zenaida asiatica, Columbidae blood, leukocyte count, prostheses, telemetry, multivariate analysis, sentinel surveillance, telemetry methods, radiotransmitter, blood cell counts.

Small, M.F., R. Rosales, J.T. Baccus, F.W. Weckerly, D.N. Phalen, and J.A. Robertson (2004). A comparison of effects of radiotransmitter attachment techniques on captive white-winged doves. Wildlife Society Bulletin 32(3): 627-637. ISSN: 0091-7648.
Descriptors: white-winged doves, radiotransmitter, attachment techniques, effects, comparison.

Smith, N.C., R.C. Payne, K.J. Jespers, and A.M. Wilson (2007). Muscle moment arms of pelvic limb muscles of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Journal of Anatomy 211(3): 313-24. ISSN: 0021-8782.
Abstract: Muscle moment arms were measured for major muscles of the pelvic limb of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) in order to assess specific functional behaviour and to apply this to locomotor performance. Pelvic limbs of six juvenile ostriches were used for this study. The tendon travel technique was used to measure moment arms of 21 muscles at the hip, knee, ankle and metatarsophalangeal joints throughout the ranges of motion observed during level running. Six of the 21 muscles measured were found to have moment arms that did not change with joint angle, whilst the remainder all demonstrated angle-dependent changes for at least one of the joints crossed. Moment arm lengths tended to be longest for the large proximal muscles, whilst the largest relative changes were found for the moment arms of the distal muscles. For muscles where moment arm varied with joint angle: all hip muscles were found to have increasing moment arms with extension of the joint, knee flexors were found to have moment arms that increased with extension, knee extensor moment arms were found to increase with flexion and ankle extensor moment arms increased with extension. The greatest relative changes were observed in the flexors of the metatarsophalangeal joint, for which a three-fold increase in moment arm was observed from flexion to full extension. Changes in muscle moment arm through the range of motion studied appear to optimize muscle function during stance phase, increasing the effective mechanical advantage of these muscles.
Descriptors: ostrich, muscle moment arms, pelvic limb muscles, functional behavior, locomotor performance, hip, knee, ankle, flexion, extension.

Smith, N.C., A.M. Wilson, K.J. Jespers, and R.C. Payne (2006). Muscle architecture and functional anatomy of the pelvic limb of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Journal of Anatomy 209(6): 765-79. ISSN: 0021-8782.
Abstract: The functional anatomy of the pelvic limb of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) was investigated in order to assess musculoskeletal specialization related to locomotor performance. The pelvic limbs of ten ostriches were dissected and detailed measurements of all muscle tendon units of the pelvic limb were made, including muscle mass, muscle length, fascicle length, pennation angle, tendon mass and tendon length. From these measurements other muscle properties such as muscle volume, physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), tendon cross-sectional area, maximum isometric muscle force and tendon stress were derived, using standard relationships and published muscle data. Larger muscles tended to be located more proximally and had longer fascicle lengths and lower pennation angles. This led to an expected proximal to distal reduction in total muscle mass. An exception to this trend was the gastrocnemius muscle, which was found to have the largest volume and PCSA and also had the highest capacity for both force and power production. Generally high-power muscles were located more proximally in the limb, while some small distal muscles (tibialis cranialis and flexor perforatus digiti III), with short fibres, were found to have very high force generation capacities. The greatest proportion of pelvic muscle volume was for the hip extensors, while the highest capacity for force generation was observed in the extensors of the ankle, many of which were also in series with long tendons and thus were functionally suited to elastic energy storage.
Descriptors: ostrich, functional anatomy, pelvic limb, muscle architecture, locomotion physiology, muscle, skeletal anatomy, histology, biomechanics, hindlimb, muscle contraction, tendons anatomy, histology.

Soman, A., T.L. Hedrick, and A.A. Biewener (2005). Regional patterns of pectoralis fascicle strain in the pigeon Columba livia during level flight. Journal of Experimental Biology 208(Pt 4): 771-86. ISSN: 0022-0949.
Abstract: Regional fascicle strains were recorded in vivo from the pectoralis of carneau pigeons using sonomicrometry during level slow flight, together with regional electromyography (EMG) and deltopectoral crest (DPC) strain measurements of whole muscle force. Fascicle strain measurements were obtained at four sites within the pectoralis: the anterior (Ant), middle (Mid) and posterior (Post) sternobrachium (SB), and the smaller thoracobrachium (TB). Strains were also recorded along the intramuscular aponeurosis of the pectoralis to assess its 'in-series' compliance with respect to strains of Post SB and TB fascicles. In-series segment strains were also obtained along Ant SB and Mid SB fascicles, which insert directly on the DPC without attaching to the intramuscular aponeurosis. In-series segment strains differed from 2% to 17.2%, averaging differences of 6.1% at the Ant SB site and 1.4% at the Mid SB site. Temporal patterns of in-series fascicle segment strain were similar at both sites. Regional fascicle strains also exhibited similar temporal patterns of lengthening and shortening and were most uniform in magnitude at the Ant SB, Mid SB and TB sites (total strain: 33.7%, 35.9% and 33.2% respectively), but were smaller at the Post SB site (24.4%). Strains measured along the aponeurosis tracked the patterns of contractile fascicle strain but were significantly lower in magnitude (19.1%). Fascicle lengthening strains (+25.4%) greatly exceeded net shortening strains (-6.5%) at all sites. Much of the variation in regional fascicle strain patterns resulted from variation of in vivo recording sites among individual animals, despite attempts to define consistent regions for obtaining in vivo recordings. No significant variation in EMG activation onset was found, but deactivation of the Ant SB occurred before the other muscle sites. Even so, the range of variation was small, with all muscle regions being activated midway through lengthening (upstroke) and turned off midway through shortening (downstroke). While subtle differences in the timing and rate of fascicle strain may relate to differing functional roles of the pectoralis, regional patterns of fascicle strain and activation suggest a generally uniform role for the muscle as a whole throughout the wingbeat cycle. Shorter fascicles located in more posterior regions of the muscle underwent generally similar strains as longer fascicles located in more anterior SB regions. The resulting differences in fiber length were accommodated by strain in the intramuscular aponeurosis and rotation of the pectoralis insertion with respect to the origin. As a result, longer Ant and Mid SB fascicles were estimated to contribute substantially more work per unit mass than shorter Post SB and TB fascicles. When the mass fractions of these regions are accounted for, our regional fascicle strain measurements show that the anterior regions of the pectoralis likely contribute 76%, and the posterior regions 24%, of the muscle's total work output. When adjusted for mass fraction and regional fascicle strain, pectoralis work averaged 24.7+/-5.1 J kg(-1) (206.6+/-43.5 W kg(-1)) during level slow (approximately 4-5 m s(-1)) flight.
Descriptors: pigeon, level flight, pectoralis fascicle, strains, muscle, regional patterns, muscle force, strain measurements.

Sorrell, E.M. and D.R. Perez (2007). Adaptation of influenza A/Mallard/Potsdam/178-4/83 H2N2 virus in Japanese quail leads to infection and transmission in chickens. Avian Diseases 51(1 Suppl): 264-8. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: To assess the potential of quail as an intermediate host of avian influenza, we tested the influenza A/Mallard/ Potsdam/178-4/83 (H2N2) virus to determine whether through adaptation a mallard strain can replicate and transmit in quail, as well as other terrestrial birds. After five serial passages of lung homogenate a virus arose that replicated and transmitted directly to contact cage mates. To test whether adaptation in quail led to interspecies transmission, white leghorn chickens were infected with the wild-type (mall/178) and quail-adapted (qa-mall/178) viruses. The results show that mall/178 H2N2 does not establish an infection in chickens nor does it transmit, while qa-mall/178 H2N2 infects and transmits to contact chickens causing clinical signs like depression and diarrhea. Completed sequences indicate six amino acid changes spanning four genes, PB2, PB1, HA, and NP, suggesting that the internal genes play a role in host adaptation. Further adaptation of qa-mall/178 in white leghorn chickens created a virus that replicated more efficiently in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Sequence analysis of the chicken-adapted virus points to a deletion in the neuraminidase stalk region.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, infection, transmission, influenza A, Mallard, Potsdam, 178-4, 83 H2N2, intermediate host, avian influenza, chickens.

Stanford, M. (2004). The effect of UV-B lighting supplementation in African grey parrots. Exotic DVM 6(3): 29-32. ISSN: 1521-1363.
Descriptors: African grey parrots, UV-B lighting, supplementation, effect, Psittacus erithacus erithacus.

Suchy, P., I. Bedanova, V. Vecerek, E. Voslarova, V. Pistekova, P. Chloupek, and F. Vitula (2007). Effects of transport stress and floor space reduction on selected biochemical indices in common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus). Archiv Fuer Gefluegelkunde 71(2): 56-61. ISSN: 0003-9098.
Descriptors: common pheasant, Phastanus colchicus, transport stress, floor space reduction, effect, biochemical indicies.

Sugiarto, H. and P.L. Yu (2007). Mechanisms of action of ostrich (Sb(B-defensins against Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiology Letters 270(2): 195-200. ISSN: 0378-1097.
Abstract: To understand their mechanism of antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria, ostrich (Sb(B-defensins, ostricacins-1 and 2 (Osp-1 and Osp-2), were compared with those of sheep myeloid antimicrobial peptide (SMAP)-29 and human neutrophil peptide (HNP)-1, well-characterized sheep (Sa(B-helical and human (Sa(B-defensin peptides, respectively. Fluorescence-based biochemical assays demonstrated that the ostricacins bound lipopolysaccharides and disrupted both outer and cytoplasmic membrane integrity. The ostricacins' permeabilizing ability was weaker than that of SMAP-29, but stronger than HNP-1. As ostricacins have previously shown the ability to inhibit bacterial growth, these peptides were suggested to be bacteriostatic to Gram-negative bacteria, which are caused by the interaction between the peptides and cytoplasmic targets causing the inhibition of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis as well as enzymatic activities. These findings indicated promising possibilities for the peptides to be used in the development of therapeutic and topical products.
Descriptors: (Sb(B-defensins, antimicrobial peptide, membrane disruption, E coli, mechanisms.

Sydenstricker, K.V., A.A. Dhondt, D.M. Hawley, C.S. Jennelle, H.W. Kollias, and G.V. Kollias (2006). Characterization of Experimental Mycoplasma gallisepticum Infection in Captive House Finch Flocks. Avian Diseases 50(1): 39-44. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: The use of controlled, horizontal-transmission experiments provides detailed information on the spread of disease within fixed social groups, which informs our understanding of disease dynamics both in an empirical and theoretical context. For that reason, we characterized in 2002, horizontal transmission of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) in two flocks of 11 wild-caught house finches housed in outdoor aviaries over a 6-mo period. All birds were initially free of MG by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based test, rapid plate agglutination (RPA), and the scoring of physical signs. We inoculated one flock member bilaterally in the palpebral conjunctiva and reintroduced it into its cage. Index birds developed conjunctivitis within 3 to 5 days but died 13 and 20 days postinfection (PI) possibly because of very severe weather. The proportion of birds with physical signs increased gradually, reached 40% at 6 wk PI, and fluctuated around 40% until 21 wk PI. By the time our experiment ended at 24.5 wk PI, 28% of the birds still exhibited physical signs. Across both flocks, 80% of the birds developed unilateral or bilateral conjunctivitis, and several birds relapsed. The appearance of physical signs in new individuals occurred between 10 and 144 days PI (median 41 days PI). Physical signs lasted 1-172 days (median 42 days). Birds that became infected earlier during the experiment developed more severe conjunctivitis, and there was a tendency for birds that developed bilateral conjunctivitis to develop physical signs earlier. Most birds that developed physical signs of MG were also PCR- and RPA-positive, although we detected a single asymptomatic carrier and a single symptomatic false negative. No birds died as a result of secondary MG infection.
Descriptors: house finch, captive flocks, infection, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, experimental, horizontal transmission, disease spread.
Language of Text: Summary in Spanish.

Sydenstricker, K.V., A.A. Dhondt, D.H. Ley, and G.V. Kollias (2005). Re-exposure of captive house finches that recovered from Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 41(2): 326-33. ISSN: 0090-3558.
Abstract: Fourteen house finches were reinoculated (re-exposed) with 0.05 ml (3.24x10(5) colony forming units/ml) of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) in the conjunctival sac of each eye. All birds used in this reinoculation study had recovered from previous infection between 27 and 83 days after inoculation. Recovery was based on the absence of clinical signs of conjunctivitis and/ or the inability to detect MG in conjunctival or choanal samples. Birds were maintained in individual cages under controlled environmental conditions at temperature 21-24 C, relative humidity 70%, and a light cycle adjusted to ambient values. They were divided into three groups, (A, B, and C). Five birds each were reinoculated 219 days (7.3 mo, group A) and 314 days (10.47 mo, group B) after the original infection. The final group of four birds was reinoculated at 425 days after experimental infection (14.17 mo, group C). Although the birds were randomly assigned to the three groups, the duration of the disease state (number of days until clinical signs last observed) during initial infection differed: group A mean=37.0+/-SE 4.549, group B mean=63.6+/-SE 6.306, group C mean=42.75+/-SE 2.750; analysis of variance F2,11=8.17, P=0.007. Within 24 hr after reinoculation six of the 14 experimental birds had developed some clinical signs of MG-induced conjunctivitis. At 3 days after reinoculation, 12 of the 14 birds had unilateral or bilateral conjunctivitis. The duration of clinical signs in the reinoculated individuals was significantly shorter than with their previous infection. These results suggest that the birds were able to mount a rapid and strong immune response following re-exposure. However, they were susceptible to reinfection and developed disease, suggesting that reinfection or perhaps even recurrence of infection and disease could occur in the free-ranging population. This may represent an important component in the epidemiology of this disease in house finches.
Descriptors: captive house finches, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, re-exposure, recovered, immune response, clinical signs, previous infection, reinfection, disease epidemiology in free living finches.

Tanizaki, A., H. Yoshikawa, S. Iwatani, and I. Kimata (2005). Infectivity of Blastocystis isolates from chickens, quails and geese in chickens. Parasitology Research 96(1): 57-61. ISSN: 0932-0113.
Abstract: The infectivity of six Blastocystis isolates obtained from two domestic chickens, two Japanese quails and two domestic geese, were examined in 1-week-old male chicks. All six isolates were able to infect the chicks via the intracecal inoculation of 1x10(6) cells of cultured organisms. Since the infected chicks discharged many cysts in their feces, the infectivity of the concentrated cysts in chicks was compared among three isolates from different bird species. The CK86-1 and QQ93-3 isolates, which were obtained from a chicken and a quail, respectively, were successfully infected in chicks by orally inoculating with 1x10(2)-1x10(6) cysts. On the other hand, the AC03-1 isolate from a goose required more cysts to infect the chicks, from 1x10(3) cysts to 1x10(6) cysts. In addition, when an uninfected normal chick was housed with five experimentally inoculated chicks with cysts of the QQ93-3 isolate, the normal chick became infected, indicating the fecal-oral transmission of the cyst form among the birds. These results show that the transmission of Blastocystis infection occurs easily between the same or different bird species. Therefore, the proposal of new Blastocystis species on the basis of different avian host species is problematic.
Descriptors: quails, chickens, geese, Blastocystis isolates, infectivity, cysts, oral inoculation, transmission between species.

Taylor, T.D. and D.T. Parkin (2007). Characterization of 12 microsatellite primer pairs for the African grey parrot, Psittacus erithacus and their conservation across the Psittaciformes. Molecular Ecology Notes 7(1): 163-167. ISSN: 1471-8278.
Abstract: This study describes 12 microsatellite loci identified in the African grey parrot Psittacus erithacus. Eleven were polymorphic, with observed heterozygosities 42-94% (average 68) and exclusion powers of PE subscript 1(B = 0.996 and PE subscript 2(B = 0.999. Microsatellites have previously been developed for a number of other parrots but showed limited cross-species polymorphism. Here high levels of cross-species amplification were observed: 71% of 32 Psittacines (22 genera). At least seven loci, 58%, were polymorphic in other African parrots as well as Neotropical and Australasian parrots, which diverged from the African parrots c30.6 and over 41.4 million years ago, respectively.
Descriptors: African grey parrot, microsatellite primer pairs, characterization, study, conservation, Psittaciformes.

Todd, D., A.N. Scott, E. Fringuelli, H.L. Shivraprasad, D. Gavier Widen, and J.A. Smyth (2007). Molecular characterization of novel circoviruses from finch and gull. Avian Pathology 36(1): 75-81. ISSN: 0307-9457.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to molecularly characterize circoviruses that infect finches and gulls. Circovirus-specific DNAs were isolated using polymerase chain reaction methods from bursa of Fabricius tissues from a Gouldian finch (Chloebia gouldiae) and a herring gull (Larus argentatus) that were known to be circovirus-infected. Nucleotide sequence determination and analysis of cloned genomic DNAs showed that these circoviruses represented novel members of the genus Circovirus of the family Circoviridae, and have been tentatively named Finch circovirus (FiCV) and Gull Circovirus (GuCV). Both new circoviruses shared genome organizational features with previously characterized circoviruses, such that both contained two major, inversely-arranged open reading frames encoding the putative replication-associated and capsid proteins, and both contained a potential stem-loop and nonanucleotide motif. Phylogenetic analyses based on genome nucleotide sequences and involving the seven additional genus members indicated that FiCV and GuCV were more closely related to canary circovirus, beak and feather disease virus and pigeon circovirus, and that FiCV and canary circovirus were the most closely related avian circoviruses. Pairwise comparisons showed that the capsid proteins of FiCV and GuCV shared highest amino acid identity values with those of canary circovirus (62.0%) and pigeon circovirus (40.6%), respectively. The 5' intergenic region of GuCV was longer (207 nucleotides) and contained more direct and inverse repeated sequences than those of other circoviruses, while the 3' intergenic region of FiCV was notable in being longer (307 nucleotides) than its counterparts in other circoviruses and in containing two long repeats of 77 nucleotides.
Descriptors: finches, gulls, circoviruses, molecular characterization, specific DNA's, bursa of Fabricus tissues, polymerase chain reaction.

Tomaszewski, E.K., W. Wigle, and D.N. Phalen (2006). Tissue distribution of psittacid herpesviruses in latently infected parrots, repeated sampling of latently infected parrots and prevalence of latency in parrots submitted for necropsy. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 18(6): 536-544. ISSN: 1040-6387.
Descriptors: parrots, pets, Herpesviridae, bird diseases, latent period, disease prevalence, viral diseases, digestive system diseases, disease transmission, disease reservoirs, digestive tract mucosa, mouth, cloaca, genotype, serotypes, new host records, psittacid herpesviruses.

Tomiosso, T.C., L. Gomes, B. de Campos Vidal, and E.R. Pimentel (2005). Extracellular matrix of ostrich articular cartilage. Biocell 29(1): 47-54. ISSN: 0327-9545.
Abstract: The composition and organization of the extracellular matrix of ostrich articular cartilage was investigated, using samples from the proximal and distal surfaces of the tarsometatarsus. For morphological analysis, sections were stained with toluidine blue and analyzed by polarized light microscopy. For biochemical analysis, extracellular matrix components were extracted with 4 M guanidinium chloride, fractionated on DEAE-Sephacel and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Glycosaminoglycans were analyzed by electrophoresis in agarose gels. Structural analysis showed that the fibrils were arranged in different directions, especially on the distal surface. The protein and glycosaminoglycan contents of this region were higher than in the other regions. SDS-PAGE showed the presence of proteins with molecular masses ranging from 17 to 121 kDa and polydisperse components of 67, 80-100, and 250-300 kDa in all regions. The analysis of glycosaminoglycans in agarose-propylene diamine gels revealed the presence of only chondroitin-sulfate. The electrophoretic band corresponding to putative decorin was a small proteoglycan containing chondroitin-sufate and not dermatan-sulfate, unlike other cartilages. The higher amounts of proteins and glycosaminoglycans and the multidirectional arrangement of fibrils seen in the distal region may be correlated with the higher compression normally exerted on this region.
Descriptors: ostrich, articular cartilage, extracellular matrix, composition, organization, tarsometatarsus, biochemical analysis, protein, glycosaminoglycans.

Tsuda, Y., C. Nishida Umehara, J. Ishijima, K. Yamada, and Y. Matsuda (2007). Comparison of the Z and W sex chromosomal architectures in elegant crested tinamou (Eudromia elegans) and ostrich (Struthio camelus) and the process of sex chromosome differentiation in palaeognathous birds. Chromosoma 116(2): 159-173. ISSN: 0009-5915.
Abstract: To clarify the process of avian sex chromosome differentiation in palaeognathous birds, we performed molecular and cytogenetic characterization of W chromosome-specific repetitive DNA sequences for elegant crested tinamou (Eudromia elegans, Tinamiformes) and constructed comparative cytogenetic maps of the Z and W chromosomes with nine chicken Z-linked gene homologues for E. elegans and ostrich (Struthio camelus, Struthioniformes). A novel family of W-specific repetitive sequences isolated from E. elegans was found to be composed of guanine- and cytosine-rich 293-bp elements that were tandemly arrayed in the genome as satellite DNA. No nucleotide sequence homologies were found for the Struthioniformes and neognathous birds. The comparative cytogenetic maps of the Z and W chromosomes of E. elegans and S. camelus revealed that there are partial deletions in the proximal regions of the W chromosomes in the two species, and the W chromosome is more differentiated in E. elegans than in S. camelus. These results suggest that a deletion firstly occurred in the proximal region close to the centromere of the acrocentric proto-W chromosome and advanced toward the distal region. In E. elegans, the W-specific repeated sequence elements were amplified site-specifically after deletion of a large part of the W chromosome occurred.
Descriptors: crested tinamou, (Eudromia elegans), ostrich, sex chromosomes, Z and W, architecture, differentiation, palaeognathous birds, cytogenetic charasterization.

Uchiyama, R., T. Moritomo, O. Kai, K. Uwatoko, Y. Inoue, and T. Nakanishi (2005). Counting absolute number of lymphocytes in quail whole blood by flow cytometry. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science the Japanese Society of Veterinary Science 67(4): 441-4. ISSN: 0916-7250.
Abstract: In a previous study, we reported a new method for counting quail blood cells. After quail blood cells were stained with fluorescent lipophilic dye (DiOC6(3)), absolute counts of erythrocytes, granulocytes, and monocytes were obtained by means of flow cytometry (FC). The FC method has the potential for application to avian blood cells count; however, the method was unable to distinguish between lymphocytes and thrombocytes. In the present study, we improved the FC method to obtain separate counts of lymphocytes using DiOC5(3). After quail blood cells were stained with DiOC5(3), the cells were measured with FC. Each blood cell type was distinguished by means of their typical FL-1 (green fluorescence) and SSC (side scatter). Absolute numbers of erythrocytes, granulocytes, monocytes and lymphocytes in whole blood were obtained. The improved FC analysis worked equally well with chicken (Gallus gallus) and goose (Anser cygnoides) blood.
Descriptors: flow cytometry methods, lymphocytes, quail blood, carbocyanines, fluorescent dyes, lymphocyte count methods.

Usherwood, J. (2007). Aerodynamics, lift, drag and power of slow pigeon flight. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A Molecular and Integrative Physiology 146(4, Suppl. S): S116-S117. ISSN: 1095-6433.
Descriptors: slow pigeon flight, lift, drag, power, aerodynamics , bird flight, meeting.
Notes: Meeting Information: Annual Meeting of the Society for Experimental Biology, Glasgow, UK; March 31 -April 04, 2007.

Velotto, S. and A. Crasto (2004). Histochemical and morphometrical characterization and distribution of fibre types in four muscles of ostrich (Struthio camelus). Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia 33(5): 251-6. ISSN: 0340-2096.
Abstract: A staining procedure used for simultaneously determining three different fibre types in single sections bovine, porcine or ovine skeletal muscle was modified for use with ostrich skeletal muscle. The muscle fibres of gastrocnemius pars externa, tibialis cranialis caput tibiale, tibialis cranialis caput femorale and fibularis longus tendo caudalis were studied. The histochemical results revealed the presence of three types of fibre only in the gastrocnemius pars externa muscle: fast-twitch glycolytic fibres (FG), fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic fibres (FOG) and slow-twitch oxidative fibres (SO), while in the other muscles the FG fibres were absent. The percentage distribution of fibres types showed a higher incidence of SO fibres compared to FOG fibres in tibialis cranialis caput femorale and tibialis cranialis caput tibiale muscles, while it was opposite in the case of the fibularis longus tendo caudalis muscle. In the gastrocnemius pars externa muscle the FG fibres outnumber the other fibres, followed by the SO and FOG fibres. The results of the analysis of variance show significant interaction between muscle x fibre type for every morphometric parameter evaluated. Differences about value of fibres area exists between tibialis cranialis caput femorale and fibularis longus tendo caudalis muscles. Both fibre types in tibialis cranialis caput tibiale muscle have mean values of transversal section area smaller than tibialis cranialis caput femorale. The other morphometric parameters show a similar trend. The gastrocnemius pars externa muscle presents similar dimensions of muscle fibres for the FG and FOG types, and significantly smaller for the SO type.
Descriptors: ostrich, four muscles, fibre types, histochemical, morphometrical, characterization, skeletal muscle, gastrocnemius, tibialis, fibularis, staining procedures.

Wan, H. and D.R. Perez (2006). Quail carry sialic acid receptors compatible with binding of avian and human influenza viruses. Virology 346(2): 278-86. ISSN: 0042-6822.
Abstract: There is growing evidence that some terrestrial avian species may play a role in the genesis of influenza viruses with pandemic potential. In the present investigation, we examined whether quail, a widespread-farmed poultry, possess the proper characteristics for serving as an intermediate host for the zoonotic transmission of influenza viruses. Using a lectin-based staining based on specific agglutinins, we found that, in addition to the presence of sialic acid alpha2,3-galactose (SAalpha2,3-gal) linked receptors, there are abundant sialic acid alpha2,6-galactose (SAalpha2,6-gal) linked receptors in quail trachea and intestine. The presence of abundant SAalpha2,6-gal-linked receptors explains, at least in part, the circulation of avian influenza viruses with human-like receptor specificity in quail. In quail trachea, SAalpha2,3-gal linked receptors are present primarily in non-ciliated cells, while SAalpha2,6-gal linked receptors are localized predominantly on the surface of ciliated cells. In quail intestine, both types of receptors were found on epithelial cells as well as in crypts. In a solid-phase overlay binding assay, both avian and human influenza viruses bind to plasma membranes prepared from epithelial cells of quail trachea and intestine, strongly suggesting that these receptors are functional for binding of influenza viruses from different species. Together with previous observations, these results are consistent with the notion that quail could provide an environment for the spread of reassortants between avian and human influenza viruses, thus acting as a potential intermediate host.
Descriptors: quail, avian influenza virus, human influenza virus, sialic acid receptors, binding, plasms membranes, quail as an intermediate host.

Wang XiaoLi, Xia XingXia, Zhao YongQian, Zhu YuMei, and Dai DingZhen (2007). Development of oil-adjuvant inactivated vaccine against pigeon Newcastle disease. Jiangsu Journal of Agricultural Sciences 23(2): 109-113. ISSN: 1000-4440.
Descriptors: pigeon, Newcastle disease, development, oil adjuvant inactivated vaccine, immunity.
Language of Text: Chinese, summary in English.

Wang, Z., K. Farmer, G.E. Hill, and S.V. Edwards (2006). A cDNA macroarray approach to parasite-induced gene expression changes in a songbird host: genetic response of house finches to experimental infection by Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Molecular Ecology 15(5): 1263-1273. ISSN: 0962-1083.
Abstract: In 1994, the bacterial parasite Mycoplasma gallisepticum expanded its host range and swept through populations of a novel host -- eastern US populations of the house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus). This epizootic caused a dramatic decline in finch population numbers, has been shown to have caused strong selection on house finch morphology, and presumably caused evolutionary change at the molecular level as finches evolved enhanced resistance. As a first step toward identifying finch genes that respond to infection by Mycoplasma and which may have experienced natural selection by this parasite, we used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and cDNA macroarray approaches to identify differentially expressed genes regulated by the Mycoplasma parasite. Two subtractive cDNA libraries consisting of 16 512 clones were developed from spleen using an experimentally uninfected bird as the 'tester' and an infected bird as 'driver', and vice versa. Two hundred and twenty cDNA clones corresponding 34 genes with known vertebrate homologues and a large number of novel transcripts were found to be qualitatively up- or down-regulated genes by high-density filter hybridization. These gene expression changes were further confirmed by a high throughout reverse Northern blot approach and in specific cases by targeted Northern analysis. blast searches show that heat shock protein (HSP) 90, MHC II-associated invariant chain (CD74), T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 1 (TIM1), as well as numerous novel expressed genes not found in the databases were up- or down-regulated by the host in response to this parasite. Our results and macroarray resources provide a foundation for molecular co-evolutionary studies of the Mycoplasma parasite and its recently colonized avian host.
Descriptors: house finches, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, bacterial parasite, cDNA, experimental infection, induced gene expression, host range, eastern USA.

Watanabe, S. and H.J. Bischof (2004). Effects of hippocampal lesions on acquisition and retention of spatial learning in zebra finches. Behavioural Brain Research 155(1): 147-52. ISSN: 0166-4328.
Abstract: We tested the role of the hippocampus in spatial memory of zebra finches. The birds were trained to find the location of a food site among four identical feeders arranged on the aviary floor. Extra-maze cues were present. The birds had to perform the task from four different starting points. Successful visits and the time to find the food were recorded. Hippocampal lesions made before acquisition led to a decrease in correct choices. Hippocampal lesions following training disrupted the retention of the spatial memory. Surprisingly, birds with hippocampal damage reached the food as quickly as intact birds, but they needed more visits to find the correct feeder. Therefore, the birds with hippocampal damage used an alternative, nonspatial memory-based strategy to find the food.
Descriptors: zebra finches, spatial learning, hippocamoal lesions, effects, acquisition, retention, spatial memory, nonspatial memory-based strategy, food finding.

Weir, K.A. and C.A. Lunam (2006). Immunohistochemical study of cutaneous nerves in the emu. Cell and Tissue Research 326(3): 697-705. ISSN: 0302-766X.
Abstract: The distribution and chemical content of cutaneous nerves in 3- to 13-day-old emu chicks (Dromaius novaehollandiae) were examined by using double-labelling immunohistochemistry. Seven different subpopulations of cutaneous nerves were identified based on their neurochemistry. No intraepidermal nerve fibres were found. However, axons were located within the dermis and were often associated with blood vessels, pennamotor muscles and feather follicles or innervated Herbst corpuscles. Both similarities and differences exist between subpopulations of cutaneous nerves in the emu and volant birds. As in volant birds, a subpopulation of cutaneous axons innervates the superficial skin layers and contains immunoreactivity to both substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). This suggests that the neuropeptide content of these presumptive free nerve endings is conserved throughout the evolution of birds. In contrast, Herbst corpuscles in the emu are innervated by axons that contain immunoreactivity for CGRP or neuropeptide Y (NPY) but that lack the calbindin D-28k immunoreactivity found in fibres innervating Herbst corpuscles of volant birds. Herbst corpuscles therefore may have a different chemical content in a flightless species from that in volant birds.
Descriptors: emu, anatomy, histology, cutaneous nerves, immunohistochemistry study, nerve tissue metabolism, skin innervation, axons metabolism, blood vessels innervation, nerve fibers metabolism, skin blood supply.

Weir, K.A. and C.A. Lunam (2004). A histological study of emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) skin. Journal of Zoology London 264(3): 259-266. ISSN: 0952-8369.
Descriptors: emu, Dromaius novaehollandiae, skin, histological study.

Whiteman, N.K., D. Santiago Alarcon, K.P. Johnson, and P.G. Parker (2004). Differences in straggling rates between two genera of dove lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) reinforce population genetic and cophylogenetic patterns. International Journal for Parasitology 34(10): 1113-1119. ISSN: 0020-7519.
Abstract: Differences in dispersal abilities have been implicated for causing disparate evolutionary patterns between Columbicola and Physconelloides lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera). However, no study has documented straggling (when lice are found on atypical hosts) rates within these lineages. We used the fact that the Galapagos Hawk, Buteo galapagoensis (Gould) (Falconiformes) feeds on the Galapagos Dove Zenaida galapagoensis Gould (Columbiformes) within an ecologically simplified setting. The Galapagos Dove is the only typical host of Columbicola macrourae (Wilson) and Physconelloides galapagensis (Kellogg and Huwana) in Galapagos. We quantitatively sampled and found these lice on both bird species. A DNA barcoding approach confirmed that stragglers were derived from Galapagos doves. We also collected a Bovicola sp. louse, likely originating from a goat (Capra hircus). On hawks, C. macrourae was significantly more prevalent than P. galapagensis. On doves, the two lice were equally prevalent and abundant. Differences in prevalence on hawks was a function of differences in straggling rate between lice, and not a reflection of their relative representation within the dove population. This provides further evidence that differences in dispersal abilities may drive differences in the degree of cospeciation in Columbicola and Phyconelloides lice, which have become model systems in evolutionary biology.
Descriptors: Philopteridae, Columbicola, lice, dispersal behavior, insect behavior, doves, Columbiformes, hawks, host-parasite relationships, population genetics, nucleotide sequences, phylogeny, coevolution, Galapagos Islands, Physconelloides galapagensis, Columbicola macrourae, Zenaida galapagoensis, Buteo galapagoensis, straggling behavior, molecular sequence data.

Wilhelms, K.W., S.A. Cutler, J.A. Proudman, R.V. Carsia, L.L. Anderson, and C.G. Scanes (2006). Lack of effects of atrazine on estrogen-responsive organs and circulating hormone concentrations in sexually immature female Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Chemosphere 65(4): 674-681. ISSN: 0045-6535.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, hormone concentrations, estrogen responsive organs, atrazine, effects, sexually immature.

Wood, A.M. and H.V. Smith (2005). Spironucleosis (Hexamitiasis, Hexamitosis) in the ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus): detection of cysts and description of Spironucleus meleagridis in stained smears. Avian Diseases 49(1): 138-143. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: Trophozoites and cysts of Spironucleus (Hexamita) meleagridis were detected in the intestinal fluid and mucus of pheasant poults with spironucleosis (hexamitiasis, hexamitosis) following staining with Heidenhain iron hematoxylin (HIH) and the Romanowsky-type stain Hemacolor. Their morphology was consistent with that of flagellates of the genus Spironucleus, and bright-field morphologic observations were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Cysts occurred mostly within intestinal mucus, which was firmly compressed between microscope slides prior to staining. The internal structures of cysts were similar to those of trophozoites, allowing them to be confidently recognized. Hemacolor provided differential color staining of trophozoites and cysts, allowing accurate identification of S. meleagridis life cycle stages, even in smears in which there was heavy background staining. While HIH often produced clearer and more detailed staining of protozoan structures, in the context of a diagnostic laboratory its use was outweighed by the ease of use, rapidity of results, and differential color staining provided by Hemacolor. The possible significance of a resistant cystic stage in the life cycle of S. meleagridis is discussed.
Descriptors: Phasianus colchicus, game birds, bird diseases, Hexamita, protozoal infections, cysts (developmental-stages), trophozoites, pathogen identification, life cycle, intestinal mucosa, histopathology, differential staining, Hexamita meleagridis, Sprionucleus meleagridis.
Language of Text: Summary in Spanish.

Wu, C.P., Y.M. Horng, K.T. Yang, C.W. Huang, and M.C. Huang (2006). Female-specific DNA sequences in ostriches. Molecular and Cellular Probes 20(5): 307-10.
Abstract: Ostrich absence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, unique sequences or markers located in the ostrich W-chromosome. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting was carried out to investigate the sex-specific DNA sequence for sexing in ostrich. One hundred and forty random primers were used for random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). One of these primers, OPAJ-13, produced a sex-specific band only found in tested females, which was isolated and constructed into plasmids for nucleotide sequencing. A 760bp novel female-specific sequence was obtained. Two primers (OstSexOPAJ13-F and -R) were designed according to the cloned female sequence to amplify the female-specific fragment from genomic DNA of ostriches for sexing by PCR. The sex-specific band was represented in females but none were found in the males. This result showed that the sex of ostrich could be easily and effectively identified using the female-specific primers for PCR technique.
Descriptors: sex determination analysis, Struthioniformes genetics, base sequence, DNA primers, molecular sequence data, random amplified polymorphic dna technique.

Yildiz, H., B. Yilmaz, I. Arican, M. Petekl, and A. Bahadir (2006). Effects of cage systems and feeding time on the morphological structure of female genital organs in pharaoh quails (Coturnix coturnix pharaoh). Veterinarski Arhiv 76(5): 383-391. ISSN: 0372-5480.
Descriptors: pharaoh quail, female genital organs, morphological structure, cage systems, feeding time, effects.

Yldz, H., B. Ylmaz, and I. Arcan (2005). Morphological structure of the syrinx in the Bursa Roller Pigeon (Columba livia). Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Puawy 49(3): 323-327. ISSN: 0042-4870.
Descriptors: Bursa Roller Pigeon, syrinx, morphological structure, anatomy, histological.

Yuan JianXia, Zhang Lao and Li Ning (2005). Chromosome karyotype and G-banding analysis of the male ostrich. E. Carbajo Proceedings of the 3rd International Ratite Science Symposium of the World' s Poultry Science Association WPSA and 12th World Ostrich Congress, Madrid, Spain, 14th 16th October, 2005, World Poultry Science Association (WPSA): Beekbergen, Netherlands, p. 229-232. ISBN: 8460963535.
Descriptors: ostriche, male, chromosome, karyotype, G banding, analysis, conference proceedings.
Notes: Meeting Information: Proceedings of the 3rd International Ratite Science Symposium of the World's Poultry Science Association (WPSA) and 12th World Ostrich Congress, Madrid, Spain, 14th-16th October, 2005.

Zhang Yong Qiang, Wang Ning, Zhan Xiang Jiang, and Zhang Zheng Wang (2006). A method for dna extraction from incubated eggshells of pheasants. Chinese Journal of Zoology 41(6): 76-81. ISSN: 0250-3263.
Descriptors: pheasants, eggshells, incubated, DNA, extraction, method, noninvasive.
Language of Text: Chinese.



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