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Housing, Husbandry, Care & Welfare of Selected Birds
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Abu Basha, E.A., N.M. Idkaidek, and T.M. Hantash (2006). Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of doxycycline in ostriches (Struthio camelus) at two different dose rates. Journal of Veterinary Science Suwon Si, Korea 7(4): 327-32. ISSN: 1229-845X.
Abstract: A bioavailability and pharmacokinetics study of doxycycline was carried out on 30 healthy ostriches after a single intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and oral dose of 15 mg/kg body weight. The plasma doxycycline concentration was determined by HPLC/UV at 0 (pretreatment), 0.08, 0.25, 0.5 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after administration. The plasma concentration-time curves were examined using non-compartmental methods based on the statistical moment theory for only the higher dose. After IV administration, the elimination half-life (t(1/2beta)), mean residence time (MRT), volume of distribution at the steady-state (V(ss)), volume of distribution (Vd(area)) and total body clearance (Cl(B)) were 7.67+/-0.62 h, 6.68+/-0.86 h, 0.86+/-0.16 l/kg, 1.67+/-0.52 l/kg and 2.51+/-0.63 ml/min/kg, respectively. After IM and oral dosing, the mean peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) were 1.34+/-0.33 and 0.30+/-0.04 microgram/ml, respectively, which were achieved at a postadministration time (tmax) of 0.75+/-0.18, 3.03+/-0.48 h, respectively. The t(1/2beta), Vd(area) and Cl(B) after IM administration were 25.02+/-3.98 h, 23.99+/-3.4 l/kg and 12.14+/-1.71 ml/min/kg, respectively and 19.25+/-2.53 h, 61.49+/-7 l/kg and 40.19+/-3.79 ml/min/kg after oral administration, respectively. The absolute bioavailability (F) of doxycycline was 5.03 and 17.52% after oral and IM administration, respectively. These results show that the dose data from other animals particularly mammals cannot be extrapolated to ostriches. Therefore, based on these results along with those reported in the literature, further studies on the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic, in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration values and clinical applications of doxycycline in ostriches are required.
Descriptors: antibacterial agents pharmacokinetics, doxycycline pharmacokinetics, Struthioniformes metabolism, administration oral, anti bacterial agents administration, dosage, anti bacterial agents blood, area under curve, biological availability, dose response relationship, drug, doxycycline administration, dosage, doxycycline blood, half life, injections, intramuscular, veterinary care, injections, intravenous.

Al Mulhim, I.A., E.M.E. Abu Elzein, A.A. Gameel, A.I. Al Afaleq, R. Manvell, and D.J. Alexander (2006). Comparative study on the clinico-pathological response of the collared dove (Streptopelia roseogrisea arabica) and pigeons (Columba livia) to experimental infection with the pigeon paramyxovirus-1. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 5(5): 395-400. ISSN: 1680-5593.
Descriptors: collard dove, Streptopelia roseogrisea arabica, pigeons, Columba livia, viral diseases, pigeon paramyxovirus-1, clinico-pathological response, comparative study.

Albuquerque, G.R., A.D. Munhoz, F.C.R. Oliveira, A.R.S. Pinto, and C.W.G. Lopes (2002). Alteracoes patologicas na infeccao experimental de codornas (Coturnix japonica) com taquizoitas de Toxoplasma gondii (Apicomplexa: Toxoplasmatinae). [Pathological alterations in the Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) by experimental infection with Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites (Apicomplexa: Toxoplasmatinae)]. Revista Brasileira De Parasitologia Veterinaria 11(1): 43-46. ISSN: 0103-846X.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, Toxoplasma gondii, experimental infection, pathological alterations.
Language of Text: Portuguese, summary in English.

Amann, O., M.J.L. Kik, M.H.A.C. Passon Vastenburg, I. Westerhof, J.T. Lumeij, and N.J. Schoemaker (2007). Chronic pulmonary interstitial fibrosis in a blue-fronted Amazon Parrot (Amazona aestiva aestiva). Avian Diseases 51(1): 150-153. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: A 30-yr-old blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazon aestiva aestiva) was presented to the clinic with a history of sneezing more often during the last 2 mo. Physical examination revealed only a mild nasal discharge. Complete hematologic and plasma biochemical examination showed no abnormalities. Computerized tomography (CT) of the complete bird showed generalized lung alterations consistent with lung fibrosis. Two lung biopsies were taken. The results of the histologic examination of the biopsies confirmed the tentative CT diagnosis of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of chronic pulmonary interstitial fibrosis diagnosed by means of a lung biopsy in an avian species. The histologic characteristics are discussed and compared with those of human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Descriptors: Amazon parrot, disease, chronic pulmonary interstitial fibrosis, first reported case, sneezing, biopsies, lung biopsy, case study, compared to human disease.
Language of Text: Summary in Spanish.

Antarasena, C., R. Sirimujalin, P. Prommuang, N. Promkuntod, P. Prommuang, and S. Blacksell (2007). The indirect immunofluorescence assay using cardiac tissue from chickens, quails and ducks for identification of influenza A virus during an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1): a rapid and simple screening tool for limited resource settings. Research in Veterinary Science 83(2): 279-81. ISSN: 0034-5288.
Abstract: Here we describe the diagnostic utility of the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) during a recent outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 virus in southern Thailand and demonstrate the usefulness of the cardiac tissue from infected chickens, quail, and ducks for diagnosis. The most reliable sample for IFA diagnosis of influenza A virus was cardiac tissue (83.0%; 44/53) which when divided by species (chicken, quail and duck cardiac tissues) gave respective positivity rates of 88% (22/25), 88.9% (16/18) and 60.0% (6/10). Cardiac tissue also gave the highest IFA intensity for the three species. We believe that the IFA method has wide applicability in developing countries or remote settings where clinically similar avian diseases with high morbidity and mortality such as Newcastle disease and fowl cholera are common and could be rapidly excluded thereby conserving valuable reference laboratory capacity for true HPAI outbreaks.
Descriptors: chickens, quail, ducks, influenza A virus H5N1, immunofluorescenc assay, cardiac tissue, avian flu virus, screening tool, outbreaks.

Bastianello, S., P.B. McKenna, J. Hunter, and A. Julian (2005). Clinical and pathological aspects of Libyostrongylus infection in ostriches. Surveillance Wellington 32(3): 3-6. ISSN: 0112-4927.
Descriptors: ostriches, parasites, infection, clinical, pathological, aspects, Libyostrongylus.

Bavelaar, F.J. and A.C. Beynen (2004). The relationship between diet, plasma cholesterol and atherosclerosis in pigeons, quails and chickens. International Journal of Poultry Science 3(11): 671-684. ISSN: 1682-8356.
Descriptors: quails, pigeons, chickens, diet effects, plasma, cholesterol, atherosclerosis.

Bedard, C., S. Lair, and I. Langlois (2007). Coelomic mass in a rock dove (Columba livia). Veterinary Clinical Pathology American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology 36(3): 303-5. ISSN: 0275-6382.
Abstract: A 15-year-old domestic rock dove (Columbia livia) was presented to the Service de Medecine Zoologique of the Universite de Montreal with a 10-day history of lethargy and chronic weight loss of 1-year duration. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the coelomic cavity revealed the presence of effusion and a well-defined mass containing variably sized hypoechoic nodules of unknown origin. Cytologic evaluation of fine-needle aspirates of the mass indicated a malignant epithelial tumor consisting of round cells arranged individually and in clusters, with large nuclei, prominent nucleoli, moderate anisocytosis and anisokaryosis, atypical mitoses, occasional binucleation and multinucleation, and large numbers of ruptured cells. A diagnosis of seminoma was established on histologic sections obtained at necropsy. The cytologic features of this tumor were similar to those of canine seminomas except for the presence of lymphocytes, which were not observed in significant numbers in cytologic smears or histologic sections. Seminoma should be included in the differential diagnosis for a space-occupying mass causing organ displacement within the coelomic cavity of a male bird.
Descriptors: captive rock dove, coelomic mass, coelomic cavity, untrasonographic evaluation, seminoma, diagnosis, case study.

Bolson, J., R.C. Ornes, M.L. Flores, J.E.W. Schossler, A.J.A. Denardin, and R.P. Fontoura (2005). Esofagotomia para retirada de corpo estranho em ema (Rhea americana) - relato de dois casos. [Esophagostomy to remove strange body from Rhea americana - report of two cases]. A Hora Veterinaria 25(146): 47-50. ISSN: 0101-9163.
Descriptors: rhea, Rhea americana, esophagostomy, foreigh body, removal, case reports.
Language of Text: Portuguese, summary in English.

Boris, M. and F. Huchzermeyer (2002). Megabacteriosis como causa de alta mortalidad en charabones de nandu (Rhea americana): primer diagnostico en Uruguay. [Megabacteriosis as cause of high mortality of chicks of nandu (Rhea americana): first diagnosis in Uruguay]. Veterinaria Montevideo 37(149): 9-12. ISSN: 0376-4362.
Descriptors: rhea, Rhea americana chicks, megabacteriosis, high mortality, bacteria, diagnosis, Uruguay .
Language of Text: Spanish, summary in English.

Boris, M., A. Sanmartin, G. Solari, and P. Zunino (2005). Diagnostico de aspergilosis en charabones de Rhea americana (nandu). [Diagnosis of aspergillosis in Rhea americana (nandu) chicks]. Veterinaria Montevideo 40(158): 13-17. ISSN: 0376-4362.
Descriptors: rhea, Rhea americana, aspergillosis, chicks, diagnosis, air sacs, infected.
Language of Text: Spanish, summary in English.

Bouda, J., G.F. Quiroz Rocha, E. Sanchez Ramirez, J. Esquivel Pena, and J.L. Davalos Flores (2004). Selected biochemical values in blood plasma of ostriches of different age and sex. Veterinaria Mexico 35(1): 45-54. ISSN: 0301-5092.
Descriptors: ostriches, different age and sex, selected biochemical values, blood plasma, reference data, disease diagnosis.
Language of Text: Spanish.

Bouda, J., G.F. Quiroz Rocha, E. Sanchez Ramirez, J. Esquivel Pena, and J.L. Davalos Flores (2004). Valores bioquimicos selectos en plasma sanguineo de avestruces de diferentes edades y sexo. [Selected biochemical values in blood plasma of ostriches of different age and sex]. Veterinaria Mexico 35(1): 45-54. ISSN: 0301-5092.
Descriptors: ostriches, Struthio camelus, selected blood plasma values, age, sex, venous blood plasma, reference data, disease diagnosis.
Language of Text: Spanish, summaries in English and Spanish.

Bougiouklis, P.A. (2007). Avian circoviruses of the genus Circovirus: A potential trigger in Pigeon breeder's lung (PBL)/bird fancier's lung (BFL). Medical Hypotheses 68(2): 320-3. ISSN: 0306-9877.
Abstract: Pigeon breeder's lung (PBL) or bird fancier's lung (BFL) is one of the most common extrinsic allergic alveolitis or hypersensitivity pneumonitis. It is caused after prolonged inhalation of avian antigens and provokes a hypersensitivity reaction in the lungs of sensitised people. Although the pathogenic mechanism is unclear, the epidemiology of BFL shows that it occurs worldwide, and has been described in adults keeping birds and also in their children. Laboratory findings associated with the disease classified as a type III immunologic reaction that produces blood precipitin antibodies against birds' serum, feathers, intestinal mucin and/or faeces. In particular, the fine dust from pigeon feathers has strong antigenic properties. There is an interaction between host and antigen that seems to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Avian circoviruses (ACV) of the genus Circovirus, has been detected in free-ranging and captive birds worldwide, such as pigeons, canaries, psittacines, Senegal doves, finches, gulls, Australian ravens and geese. T lymphocytes are the main target cells of the ACV and in the above avian species circovirus-like particles were detected in blood, macrophages, feathers, crop secretions, intestinal contents and/or faeces. Most of the ACV was demonstrated that are pantropic and viral antigen in pigeon tissues was most commonly detected in respiratory organs, including the trachea, pharynx and lung. The transmission of the circovirus between the birds usually occurs through inhalation of feathers dust. There is evidence that animal circoviruses may originate when vertebrates become "infected" with DNA from a plant nanovirus. So, it seems that further investigation for the avian circoviruses is needed to determine if they are host specific or not. This study attempts to demonstrate ACV or ACV-like particles as potential triggers in the BFL aetiology, and the possible involvement in BFL's pathogenic mechanism.
Descriptors: pigeon diseases virology, Circoviridae infections diagnosis, human immunological disease allergies, agricultural workers' diseases virology, Circoviridae infections transmission, Circoviridae infections veterinary, Circovirus, Columbidae, allergic alveolitis.

Bunbury, N., D. Bell, C. Jones, A. Greenwood, and P. Hunter (2005). Comparison of the InPouch TF culture system and wet-mount microscopy for diagnosis of Trichomonas gallinae infections in the pink pigeon Columba mayeri. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 43(2): 1005-6. ISSN: 0095-1137.
Descriptors: pink pigeon, Columba mayeri, bird diseases, diagnosis, Columbidae microbiology, Trichomonas gallinae isolation, purification, Trichomonas infections, bird diseases microbiology, culture media, microscopy methods, sensitivity, specificity, Trichomonas growth, development.

Cannon, M.J. (2006). Unusual tracheal foreign body in an African grey parrot. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice 9(3): 551-6. ISSN: 1094-9194.
Abstract: This case report documents an unusual tracheal foreign body (a moth) in Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). Gross postmortem signs and histopathology results are presented. A discussion of the peculiar avian anatomy that may have contributed to the aspiration of the moth is provided.
Descriptors: African grey parrot, bird diseases diagnosis, foreign bodies, veterinary, diagnosis differential, fatal outcome, foreign bodies diagnosis, case study.

Caruana, M., K.S. Cornish, S. Bajada, C.F. Jones, and J. Cacciottolo (2005). Rosella parrot exposure as a cause of bird fancier's lung. Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health 60(4): 187-92. ISSN: 0003-9896.
Abstract: A case of a 30-year-old man who presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening dyspnoea, cough, and reduced exercise tolerance is discussed. A chest x-ray and computerized tomography of the chest suggested interstitial lung disease, which was confirmed on histology of an open lung biopsy. Careful questioning revealed that the patient had sustained close exposure to a rosella parrot acquired as a pet 9 months prior to presentation, which led to the diagnosis of bird fancier's lung. The case, investigations, and outcome are presented. This is followed by a discussion on extrinsic allergic alveolitis with particular emphasis on the importance of a complete social and environmental history in patients presenting with similar respiratory symptoms.
Descriptors: bird fancier's lung diagnosis, inhalation exposure adverse effects, parrots, adult, bird fancier's lung drug therapy, pathology, prednisolone therapeutic use, respiratory function tests, risk assessment, risk factors, tomography, x ray computed, allergic alveolitis.

Chen YiengHow, Feng ChingWang, Kuo MingJung, Lin DerTyan, Shiau JongRong, and Tsang ChauLoong (2003). The changes in haematology of ostrich from 4 to 12 weeks of age. Taiwan Veterinary Journal 29(4): 347-352. ISSN: 1682-6485.
Descriptors: ostrich, age, 4 to 12 weeks, hematology changes, normal values, white blood cells, blood samples.
Language of Text: Chinese, summary in English.

Chitty, J. (2005). Hospitalisation of parrots and raptors. VN Times 5(5): 4-6. ISSN: 0922-8012.
Descriptors: parrots, raptors, hospitalisation, veterinary care.

Ciboto, R., S.R.G. Cortopassi, M.A.E. Lopes, R.C. Carvalho, and C.G. Baitelo (2006). Comparison of chemical restraint techniques in ostrich (Struthio camelus). Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science 8(2): 119-123. ISSN: 1516-635X.
Descriptors: ostriches, chemical restraint, techniques, comparison of anesthetic drugs, combinations.

Circella, E., A. Camarda, V. Martella, G. Bruni, A. Lavazza, and C. Buonavoglia (2007). Coronavirus associated with an enteric syndrome on a quail farm. Avian Pathology 36(3): 251-8. ISSN: 0307-9457.
Abstract: An enteric syndrome was observed in quail (Coturnix coturnix) semi-intensively reared for restocking in Apulia (southern Italy). The birds showed depression, severe diarrhoea, dehydration and reduced growth. Mortality occurred particularly in young birds. At necropsy the prominent lesion was enteritis. A coronavirus was detected by electron microscopy and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in the faeces and in the intestinal content of the dead quails. The virus could not be cultivated in chicken embryos. By sequence analyses of a fragment (409 nucleotides) of region 1b of the polymerase gene, the quail coronavirus displayed <or=93% nucleotide identity to avian coronaviruses (group 3 coronaviruses)--whereas by analysis of the S1 portion of the spike protein-encoding gene, the quail coronavirus displayed 16% to 18% amino acid identity with infectious bronchitis virus, and 79% to 81% identity with turkey coronavirus. Altogether, the findings suggest the existence of a novel coronavirus genetically related to turkey coronavirus.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, quail farm, coronavirus, enteric syndrome, electron microscopy, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Italy.

Cooper, R.G. (2007). Differences in stride between healthy ostriches (Struthio camelus) and those affected by tibiotarsal rotation. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 78(1): 52-3. ISSN: 0038-2809.
Abstract: Twenty healthy ostriches (ten cocks and ten hens), and twenty birds with tibiotarsal rotation (nine cocks and 11 hens) (14 months old) were isolated, hooded and weighed. A run (50 m x 2.5 m) was divided into sections marked 5 m, 10 m, 15 m and 20 m. Time taken for each bird to pass these points was recorded and speed computed. The degree of tibiotarsal rotation in the right foot was mean +/- SEM, 156 +/- 2.69 degrees. Comparisons between left and right foot length in healthy birds showed no significant differences. Foot length was significantly lower in tibiotarsal rotation (P = 0.03). The right foot in tibiotarsal rotation was significantly shorter than the left foot. The number of strides per each 5 m division were significantly (P < 0.05) greater in tibiotarsal rotation by comparison with healthy birds. At 20 m, healthy cocks had more strides than hens. The stride length in hens was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than cocks at 5, 10 and 15 m, respectively, but lower throughout in tibiotarsal rotation (P = 0.001). The speed of hens was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than cocks. Tibiotarsal rotation resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) reduced speeds. Hens may be able to escape danger faster than cocks. The occurrence of tibiotarsal rotation necessitates consideration of genetics, management, sex, nutrition and growth rates.
Descriptors: ostriches, healthy, tibiotarsal rotation, stride differences, right foot, speed.

Cooper, R.G. (2005). Bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections in the ostrich (Struthio camelus var. domesticus). Animal Science Journal 76(2): 97-106. ISSN: 1344-3941.
Descriptors: ostrich, Struthio camelus, infections, bacterial, fungal, parasitic, veterinary, diseases, parasites.

Cooper, R.G. and H.A. El Doumani (2006). The presence of quill mites (Gabucinia bicaudata) and lice (Struthiolipeurus struthionis) in ostrich wing feathers. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 77(1): 9-11. ISSN: 0038-2809.
Abstract: Quill mites (Gabucinia bicaudata) and lice (Struthiolipeurus struthionis) may infest ostrich feathers, resulting in skin damage, pruritis and excessive feather preening and loss. Four different feather types (prime white, femina extra wide, femina class 1, and femina short; n = 10) were collected. The quill mites and lice were removed with fine forceps, studied using a photographic optical microscope and counted microscopically at x 100 magnification following collection by sedimentation. They were placed in separate Petri dishes containing lactophenol solution and examined (x40 magnification). Anatomical features are described. The density of quill mites in all feather types of both wings was higher than that of the lice. There was no significant difference between the counts of both arthropods on the left wing and the right wing, respectively, except for the femina class 1 quill mites (P = 0.01). The femina extra wide feathers were a preferred habitat in both wings. Large standard deviations (quill mites left wing: 73 +/- 8; quill mites right wing: 69 +/- 7) suggested variations in the degree of migration between feather shafts or as a response to escape preening. It is recommended that ostriches be treated with an oral preparation of Ivermectin administered per os at a dosage rate of 0.2 mg/kg at 30-day intervals for quill mites, and with a 1-5 % Malathion dust at 14-day intervals for lice.
Descriptors: ostriches, antiparasitic agents, therapeutic use, bird parasites, parasitology, lice ultrastructure, mites ultrastructure, Struthioniformes parasitology, drug therapy, epidemiology, feathers parasitology, Ivermectin therapeutic use, lice anatomy, histology, lice infestations, drug therapy, epidemiology, Malathion therapeutic use, mite infestations drug therapy, epidemiology, mites anatomy, histology.

Cooper, R.G. and J.O. Horbanczuk (2006). Crooked beak in a 14-month-old ostrich (Struthio camelus) hen. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 77(4): 170. ISSN: 0038-2809.
Descriptors: young ostrich nutrition, physiology, beak abnormalities, Struthioniformes abnormalities, selenium deficiency, vitamin D deficiency, complications.

Cortright, K.A., S.E. Wetzlich, and A.L. Craigmill (2007). Plasma pharmacokinetics of midazolam in chickens, turkeys, pheasants and bobwhite quail. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 30(5): 429-36. ISSN: 01490-7783.
Abstract: In vivo plasma pharmacokinetics of midazolam hydrochloride (5 mg/kg i.v.) were determined in commercially raised broiler chickens, turkeys, ring-necked pheasants and bobwhite quail. Pharmacokinetic profiles of midazolam were similar for all four species, especially with regard to the area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve. Estimates of the half-life of elimination of midazolam were 0.42, 1.45, 1.90, and 9.71 h for turkeys, chickens, bobwhite quail, and pheasant, respectively. This was similar to the major metabolite (1-hydroxymidazolam). Elimination half-lives for 1-hydroxymidazolam were 1.35, 1.86, 1.97, and 13.97 h for turkey, chicken, bobwhite quail and pheasant, respectively. Elimination half-lives for 4-hydroxymidazolam were 0.76, 1.23, 2.85, and 13.82 h for chicken, turkey, pheasant, and bobwhite quail, respectively. In addition to traditional pharmacokinetic approaches to parameter estimation, a bootstrapping technique was employed to attempt to achieve more realistic approximations of the concentrations at later time-points.
Descriptors: pheasants, quail, chickens, turkeys, midazolam, plasma pharmacokinetics, half life.

Cousquer, G. and D. Parsons (2007). Veterinary care of the racing pigeon. In Practice. 29((6)): 344-355. ISSN: 0263-841X.
Descriptors: racing pigeon, veterinary care.

Cousquer, G.O., E.J. Dankoski, and J.C. Patterson Kane (2007). Metabolic bone disease in wild collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto). Veterinary Record 160(3): 78-84. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Abstract: The records of 666 casualty collared doves examined at a wildlife hospital in south-west England over a period of five years were reviewed. Signs of metabolic bone disease were recorded in 51.2 per cent of the juvenile birds but in only 9.6 per cent of the adults. The incidence of the condition was highest between December and February and decreased almost to zero between June and August. Histological lesions in 11 of the juvenile doves were consistent with vitamin D deficiency, possibly as a result of inadequate exposure to uvb light during the short winter days.
Descriptors: bird diseases epidemiology, bone diseases, metabolic, Columbidae, vitamin D deficiency, age factors, wild bird diseases, pathology, epidemiology, pathology, incidence, retrospective studies, seasons, sunlight, complications, England.

D' Agostino, J.J., T. Snider, J. Hoover, and G. West (2006). Use of laser ablation and cryosurgery to prevent primary feather growth in a pigeon (Columba livia) model. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 20(4): 219-224. ISSN: 1082-6742.
Descriptors: pigeon primary feather growth, laser ablation, cryosurgery, model, Diode laser, minimal tissue damage.

de Lucas, J.J., C. Rodriguez, S. Waxman, F. Gonzalez, M.L. de Vicente, and M.I. San Andres (2004). Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin after single intravenous and intramuscular administration in young domestic ostrich (Struthio camelus). Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 27(2): 119-22. ISSN: 0140-7783.
Descriptors: young domestic ostrich, enrofloxacin, pharmacokinetics, single administration, intravenous, intramuscular.

de Lucas, J.J., C. Rodriguez, S. Waxman, F. Gonzalez, I. Uriarte, and M.I. San Andres (2005). Pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin after intravenous and intramuscular administration to ostriches. Veterinary Journal 170(3): 364-8. ISSN: 1090-0233.
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin was investigated after intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration, both at a dose rate of 5 mg/kg BW, in six clinically healthy domestic ostriches. Plasma concentrations of marbofloxacin was determined by a HPLC/UV method. The high volume of distribution (3.22+/-0.98 L/kg) suggests good tissue penetration. Marbofloxacin presented a high clearance value (2.19+/-0.27 L/kgh), explaining the low AUC values (2.32+/-0.30 microgh/mL and 2.25+/-0.70 microgh/mL, after IV and IM administration, respectively) and a short half life and mean residence time (t(1/2 beta)=1.47+/-0.31 h and 1.96+/-0.35 h; MRT=1.46+/-0.02 h and 2.11+/-0.30 h, IV and IM, respectively). The absorption of marbofloxacin after IM administration was rapid and complete (C(max)=1.13+/-0.29 microg/mL; T(max)=0.36+/-0.071 h; MAT=0.66+/-0.22 h and F (%)=95.03+/-16.89).
Descriptors: ostriches, marbofloxacin, intravenous, intramuscular, administration, pharmacokinetics, dose rate, plasma concentrations.

Dehghani, S., M. Mohammadi, and H. Nadda (2005). Anaesthetic protocol for pigeon undergoing orthopaedic operation. Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery 26(1): 47. ISSN: 0254-4105.
Descriptors: pigeon, orthopedic operation, anaesthetic protocol.

DeLucas, J.J., C. Rodriguez, M. Marin, F. Gonzalez, C. Ballesteros, and M.I. SanAndres (2007). Pharmacokinetics of Intramuscular Ketamine in Young Ostriches Premedicated with Romifidine. Zentralblatt Fur Veterinarmedizin, Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A Physiology Pathology Clinical Medicine Reihe A 54(1): 48-50. ISSN: 0514-7158.
Abstract: Ketamine is a short-acting dissociative anaesthetic for chemical restraint and surgical anaesthesia in domestic and non-domestic animals. The present study was designed to determine the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of ketamine (10 mg/kg) after intramuscular (i.m.) administration to young ostriches premedicated with romifidine. Ketamine was rapidly absorbed after i.m. administration. Maximal ketamine concentration (Cmax) of 2.93 +/- 0.61 (So(Bg/ml was reached at 12.5 +/- 2.50 min and thereafter ketamine concentrations decreased rapidly. The elimination half-life (t subscript 1(B/ subscript 2(Bz) obtained was 62.37 +/- 17.37 min and mean residence time (MRT) was 77.33 +/- 19.12 min. The area under the curve (AUC) was 114.19 +/- 15.76 (So(Bg.min/ml.
Descriptors: ostriches, ketamine, intramuscular, pharmacokinetics, premedication, romifidine, chemical restraint, surgical anaesthesia.

Deshmukh, S., R.K. Asrani, N. Jindal, D.R. Ledoux, G.E. Rottinghaus, M. Sharma, and S.P. Singh (2005). Effects of Fusarium moniliforme culture material containing known levels of fumonisin B1 on progress of Salmonella gallinarum infection in Japanese quail: clinical signs and hematologic studies. Avian Diseases 49(2): 274-280. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: To study the individual and combined effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1) toxicity and Salmonella serotype Gallinarum infection, Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were fed Fusarium moniliforme culture material (2.5%), 150 mg FB1/kg ration, and were subsequently challenged orally with Salmonella Gallinarum organisms (2 x 10(4) colony-forming units) at 21 days of age. The chicks were fed culture material containing FB1 from day 5 till the end of the experiment. After being infected with Salmonella Gallinarum, observations were made 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21 days postinfection. The clinical signs of diarrhea with bloody discharges were more pronounced in the Salmonella-infected birds on the FB1 diet. Mortality caused by Salmonella Gallinarum increased by 12% in the presence of FB1. Mean body weights in both the Salmonella-infected and FB1-fed groups were significantly lower than those of the controls at almost all intervals. Mean values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume, and total erythrocyte count were slightly higher in birds fed FB1 but were lower in the Salmonella Gallinarum groups fed FB1 and plain chick mash. Anemia was evident, between 5 and 10 days postinfection, in quail chicks infected with Salmonella Gallinarum alone. Total leukocyte counts were higher in Salmonella-infected and FB1-fed groups because of an increase in the number of heterophils and lymphocytes. However, the increase in lymphocyte response to infection was lower by 4.27%-30.09% between 3 and 21 days postinfection in the FB1-fed chicks compared with chicks infected with Salmonella Gallinarum. Alanine transaminase and total serum protein were slightly higher in both the infected and FB1-fed groups. This study revealed that the continuous presence of fumonisins in the diets of quail chicks might increase the susceptibility to or the severity of Salmonella Gallinarum infection.
Descriptors: Japanese quails, Salmonella enterica subsp. Enterica serovar Gallinarum, salmonellosis, animal pathogenic bacteria, fumonisin B1, Gibberella fujikuroi, disease course, symptoms, diarrhea, mortality, hematocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocyte count, leukocyte count, lymphocytes, heterophils, blood proteins, alanine transaminase.
Language of Text: Summary in Spanish.

Dhondt, A.A., K.V. Dhondt, D.M. Hawley, and C.S. Jennelle (2007). Experimental evidence for transmission of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in house finches by fomites. Avian Pathology 36(3): 205-8. ISSN: 0307-9457.
Abstract: Ever since Mycoplasma gallisepticum emerged among house finches in North America, it has been suggested that bird aggregations at feeders are an important cause of the epidemic of mycoplasmal conjunctivitis because diseased birds could deposit droplets of pathogen onto the feeders and thereby promote indirect transmission by fomites. In this paper we bring the first experimental evidence that such transmission (bird-to-feeder-to-bird) does actually take place. House finches infected via this route, however, developed only mild disease and recovered much more rapidly than birds infected from the same source birds but directly into the conjunctiva. While it is certainly probable that house finch aggregations at artificial feeders enhance pathogen transmission, to some degree transmission of M. gallisepticum by fomites may serve to immunize birds against developing more severe infections. Some such birds develop M. gallisepticum antibodies, providing indication of an immune response, although no direct evidence of protection.
Descriptors: house finches bird diseases, transmission, finches microbiology, fomites, mycoplasma infections, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, isolation, purification, antibodies, bacterial blood, conjunctivitis, bacterial microbiology, bacterial transmission, epidemiology.

Diaz Figueroa, O., T.N.J. Tully, J. Williams, and D. Evans (2006). Squamous cell carcinoma of the infraorbital sinus with fungal tracheitis and ingluvitis in an adult solomon eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus solomonensis). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 20(2): 113-119. ISSN: 1082-6742.
Descriptors: eclectus parrot, squamous cell carcinoma, infraorbital sinus, fungal tracheitis, ingluvitis.

Doneley, B. (2006). Pigeon medicine and surgery. Small animal and exotics Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference., January 7, 2006-January 11, 2006, Orlando, FL, The North American Veterinary Conference: Gainesville, USA, Vol. 20, p. 1525-1530.
Descriptors: pigeon, medicine, surgery, anaesthesia, breeding, feeding, housing, husbandry, bacterial diseases, congenital abnormalities, diet, metabolic disorders, mycoses, neoplasms, parasites, racing pigeons, trauma, viral diseases.
Notes: Meeting Information: Small animal and exotics. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 20, Orlando, Florida, USA, 7-11 January, 2006.

Doneley, B. (2002). Acute pancreatitis in parrots. Exotic DVM 4(3): 13-16. ISSN: 1521-1363.
Descriptors: parrots, acute pancreatitis, conference, symptoms, treatment.
Notes: Meeting Information: 4th Annual International Conference on Exotics (ICE2002), Key West, Florida, USA, 2002.

Draycott, R.A.H., M.I.A. Woodburn, D.E. Ling, and R.B. Sage (2006). The effect of an indirect anthelmintic treatment on parasites and breeding success of free-living pheasants Phasianus colchicus. Journal of Helminthology 80(4): 409-415. ISSN: 0022-149X.
Descriptors: Phasianus colchicus, pheasants, game birds, helminths, helminthiasis, anthelmintics, drug evaluation, animal reproduction, population density, chemoprevention, worm burden, England .

Durgun, Z., E. Keskin, R. Col, and B. Atalay (2005). Selected haematological and biochemical values in ostrich chicks and growers. Archiv Fur Geflugelkunde 69(2): 62-66. ISSN: 0003-9098.
Descriptors: ostrich, chicks, growers, hematological values, biochemical values, selected.
Language of Text: German.

Durrani, U.F., M. Ashraf, and A. Khalid (2005). Comparative efficacy of detomidine and detomidine - ketamine cocktail in quails. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 25(4): 197-199. ISSN: 0253-8318.
Abstract: Twenty adult healthy quails (Coturnix coturnix) were divided into two equal groups. One group was administered detomidine (2.4 mg/kg, 1/M) and other group was administered detomidine-ketamine cocktail (1.2 mg/kg + 30 mg/kg, 1/M). Detomidine slowly and smoothly induced a light sedation accompanied by superficial analgesia, hypoventilation, hypothermia and bradycardia in all birds. Detomidine-ketamine cocktail rapidly and smoothly induced a deep anaesthesia accompanied by deep analgesia, hypoventilation, hypothermia and bradycardia and complete loss of all reflexes in all birds. In both groups, recovery from sedation and anaesthesia was smooth and of short duration. From this study it was concluded that for minor and least painful procedures in quails detomidine can be used alone, while for major and painful surgical procedures detomidine- ketamine combination should be preferred.
Descriptors: Japanesemquails, anaesthetics, analgesics, anaesthesia, birds, domestic animals, drugs, Galliformes, livestock, neurotropic drugs, poultry.
Language of Text: Summary in English.

Eatwell, K. (2006). Approach to the dyspnoeic parrot. Veterinary Times 36(47): 25-27. ISSN: 1352-9374.
Descriptors: parrot, dyspnoeic, approach, allergies, antifungal, diagnosis, therapy, respiratory diseases.

El Shabiny, L.M., M.M. Shaker, and S.E. Ouda (2005). The application of a recent technique for diagnosis of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection from migratory quail. Veterinary Medical Journal Giza 53(1): 143-152. ISSN: 1110-1423.
Descriptors: migratory quail, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, diagnosis, recent technique, application.

Elias, M.Z., T.A. Aire, and J.T. Soley (2007). Macroscopic features of the arterial supply to the reproductive system of the male ostrich (Struthio camelus). Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia 36(4): 255-62. ISSN: 0340-2096.
Abstract: The macroscopic features of the arterial supply to the reproductive system of the male ostrich was studied in 16 pre-pubertal and eight sexually mature and active birds. The left and right cranial renal arteries arise from the aorta, between the cranial divisions of the kidneys. These vessels supply the cranial divisions of the kidneys, the testes, the epididymides and the cranial segments of the ducti deferentia. Accessory testicular arteries which arise directly from the aorta are present in 45.8% of the specimens. They supply the testes and cranial parts of the ducti deferentia. They are variable in number and origin, and four variants are identified. A cranial ureterodeferential branch originates from the cranial renal artery, supplies the cranial portion of the ductus deferens and ureter, and runs caudally to anastomose with the middle renal artery. The sciatic artery arises laterally from the aorta, just caudal to the acetabulum, and gives rise, ventrally, to a common trunk, the common renal artery, which divides into the middle and caudal renal arteries. The middle renal artery gives rise to the middle ureterodeferential branch which supplies the middle part of the ductus deferens and ureter. A few centimetres caudal to the kidney, the aorta terminates in three branches, namely, the left and right internal iliac arteries and the median caudal artery. The internal iliac artery divides into the lateral caudal artery and the pudendal artery; the latter gives off caudal ureterodeferential branches that supply the caudal segments of the ductus deferens and ureter. In addition, the pudendal artery gives off vessels that supply the cloaca, some of which continue to the base of the phallus, where they form an arterial network. In conclusion, the pattern of the blood supply to the reproductive organs of the male ostrich is, in general, similar to that of the domestic fowl and pigeon, although there are a few highlighted distinctive features.
Descriptors: ostrich, male, arteries, anatomy, histology, Struthioniformes, testis, blood supply, epididymis, epididymis, regional blood flow, sexual maturation, physiology, vas deferens, blood supply.

Faki, A.E. and A.E. Amin (2005). Red-necked ostrich (Struthio camelus) normal clinical and clinico-chemical values. E. Carbajo Proceedings of the 3rd International Ratite Science Symposium of the World' s Poultry Science Association WPSA and 12th World Ostrich Congress, Madrid, Spain, 14th 16th October, 2005, World Poultry Science Association (WPSA): Beekbergen, Netherlands, p. 203-208. ISBN: 8460963535.
Descriptors: red-necked ostrich, normal clinico, clinico-chemical values, conference proceedings.
Notes: Meeting Information: Proceedings of the 3rd International Ratite Science Symposium of the World's Poultry Science Association (WPSA) and 12th World Ostrich Congress, Madrid, Spain, 14th-16th October, 2005.

Ferrell, S.T. (2004). Mycoplasmosis of house finches. Small Animal and Exotics Book Two: Pain Management-Zoonosis Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 18, Orlando, Florida, USA, 17 21 January 2004, Eastern States Veterinary Association: Gainesville, USA, p. 1449-1450.
Descriptors: house finches, mysoplasmosis, book chapter, conference.
Notes: Meeting Information: Small Animal and Exotics. Book two: Pain Management - Zoonosis. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 18, Orlando, Florida, USA, 17-21 January 2004.

Ferrell, S.T. (2004). Husbandry and clinical medicine of finches. Small Animal and Exotics Book Two: Pain Management-Zoonosis Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 18, Orlando, Florida, USA, 17 21 January 2004, Eastern States Veterinary Association: Gainesville, USA, p. 1443-1445.
Descriptors: finches, husbandry, clinical medicine, book chapter, conference.
Notes: Meeting Information: Small Animal and Exotics. Book two: Pain Management - Zoonosis. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 18, Orlando, Florida, USA, 17-21 January 2004.

Flammer, K. and M. Papich (2006). Pharmacokinetics of fluconazole after oral administration of single and multiple doses in African grey parrots. American Journal of Veterinary Research 67(3): 417-22. ISSN: 0002-9645.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the pharmacokinetics and effects of orally administered fluconazole in African grey parrots. ANIMALS: 40 clinically normal Timneh African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus timneh). PROCEDURE: In single-dose trials, parrots were placed into groups of 4 to 5 birds each and fluconazole was administered orally at 10 and 20 mg/kg. Blood samples for determination of plasma fluconazole concentrations were collected from each group at 2 or 3 of the following time points: 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 31, 48, and 72 hours. In multiple-dose trials, fluconazole was administered orally to groups of 5 birds each at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg every 48 hours for 12 days. Trough plasma concentrations were measured 3 times during treatment. Groups receiving 20 mg/kg were monitored for changes in plasma biochemical analytes, and blood samples were collected on days 1 and 13 of treatment to allow comparison of terminal half-life. RESULTS: Peak plasma concentrations of fluconazole were 7.45 and 18.59 microg/mL, and elimination half-lives were 9.22 and 10.19 hours for oral administration of 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. Oral administration of fluconazole for 12 days at 10 or 20 mg/kg every 48 hours did not cause identifiable adverse effects or change the disposition of fluconazole. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Oral administration of fluconazole to parrots at 10 to 20 mg/kg every 24 to 48 hours maintains plasma concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration for several common yeast species. The prolonged dosing interval is an advantage of this treatment regimen.
Descriptors: African grey parrots, antifungal agents, administration, dosage, pharmacokinetics, fluconazole, administration, dosage, pharmacokinetics, parrots metabolism, absorption, administration, oral, dose response, half life, suspensions, tablets.

Fukui, D., G. Bando, and M. Kosuge (2005). Stifle luxation repair by articular stabilization technique with non-absorbable suture in a white-fronted goose and therapeutical trial in a domestic pigeon. Japanese Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 10(1): 49-52. ISSN: 1342-6133.
Descriptors: stifle luxation, domestic pigeon, goose, repair, articular stabilization, non-absorbable suture, dislocation, ligaments rupture.
Language of Text: Japanese, summary in English.

Gal, J. (2006). Papagajok legezesi zavarainak elkulonito korjelzese kortani szempontbol. [Pathological aspects of the differential diagnosis of respiratory diseases in parrots]. KisallatPraxis 7(3): 108...113. ISSN: 1585-9142.
Descriptors: parrots, respiratory diseases, differential diagnosis, pathological aspects, overview.
Language of Text: Hungarian, summary in English.

Gal, J. (2006). Papagajok egyes majelvaltozasainak klinikopatologiaja. [Clinicopathology of some hepatic diseases of parrots]. KisallatPraxis 7(4): 158-161. ISSN: 1585-9142.
Descriptors: parrots, hepatic diseases, clinicopathology, veterinary.
Language of Text: Hungarian, summary in English.

Gartrell, B.D., M.R. Alley, and A.H. Mitchell (2005). Fatal levamisole toxicosis of captive kiwi (Apteryx mantelli). New Zealand Veterinary Journal 53(1): 84-6. ISSN: 0048-0169.
Abstract: CASE HISTORY: Nine of 24 captive kiwi treated with oral levamisole at a dose between 25-43 mg/kg showed signs of respiratory distress. Six died within 4 h of treatment and the remaining three made a full recovery within 24 h. CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS: Within 3-4 h of treatment, the affected birds had an elevated respiratory rate, mucoid nasal discharge and rapidly became comatose. Post mortem examination revealed accumulation of thick mucus in the oral cavity and trachea. There was severe pulmonary congestion and oedema and early bronchopneumonia in the lungs of five of the birds. In two birds, there was acute hepatic degeneration and necrosis and one bird had acute pancreatic degeneration and necrosis. DIAGNOSIS: Acute levamisole toxicity. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Kiwi were acutely sensitive to levamisole toxicity at doses that are well within the safe range for domestic poultry. Levamisole should not be used as an anthelmintic in kiwi.
Descriptors: kiwi, antinematodal agents, adverse effects, bird diseases, diagnosis, orall levamisole, toxicosis, hepatitis, toxic etiology, fatalities.

Gartrell, B.D., S.R. Raidal, and S.M. Jones (2003). Renal disease in captive swift parrots (Lathamus discolor): clinical findings and disease management. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 17(4): 213-223. ISSN: 1082-6742.
Descriptors: swift parrots, captive, renal disease, clinical findings, disease management, Lathamus discolor, neurologic signs, gout, nephropathy.

Gartrell, B.D. and C. Reid (2007). Death by chocolate: a fatal problem for an inquisitive wild parrot. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 55(3): 149-51. ISSN: 0048-0169.
Abstract: CASE HISTORY: An adult male kea (Nestor notabilis) in good body condition was found dead at Aoraki/Mt Cook Village, in the Southern Alps of New Zealand. The bird had previously been involved in behavioural tests of problem-solving ability. CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS: The bird had substantial subcutaneous and abdominal reserves of fat. The crop contained 20 g of what appeared to be dark chocolate; a conservative estimate of the dose of methylxanthines ingested by the bird was 250 mg/kg theobromine, 20 mg/kg caffeine and 3 mg/kg theophylline. Histopathological examination revealed acute degenerative changes to hepatocytes, renal tubules, and cerebrocortical neurons. DIAGNOSIS: Acute combination methylxanthine toxicity after opportunistic ingestion of chocolate. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This is the first report of the pathological findings of methylxanthine toxicity in a wild parrot, and illustrates the need to ensure that kea are protected from the toxic by-products of human habitation, and the difficulties in ensuring this against a neophilic, inquisitive and innovative parrot.
Descriptors: wild parrot, chocolate poisoning, xanthines, methylxanthine toxicity, dosage levels, caffeine, fatal outcome, theobromine, theophylline, adverse effects, New Zealand.

Gelis, S. and S.R. Raidal (2006). Microsporidiosis in a flock of tricolor parrot finches (Erythrura tricolor). Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice 9(3): 481-6. ISSN: 1094-9194.
Abstract: The lesions caused by a microsporidian infection in a flock of tricolor parrot finches (Erythrura tricolor) are described. Affected birds had a widespread nodular to diffuse granulomatous inflammation of the serosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, perirenal airsacs and connective tissue, bone marrow, dura, and conjunctiva. This was composed predominantly of foamy macrophages containing numerous intracytoplasmic microsporidia measuring 1 to 2 microm. Ultrastructural features consistent with microsporidia were the presence of a coiled polar filament and an electrode-dense outer surface and thick electron-lucent capsule. Differential diagnoses included infection with intracellular organisms, including coccidian and other apicomplexan parasites, such as lsospora, Eimeria, and blood parasites; Chlamydophilosis; disseminated mycobacteriosis; and other bacterial and fungal species.
Descriptors: tricolor parrot finches, bird diseases, pathology, microbiology, microsporidia isolation, purification, microsporidiosis, diagnosis, infection.

Gerhold, R.W., C.M. Tate, S.E. Gibbs, D.G. Mead, A.B. Allison, and J.R. Fischer (2007). Necropsy findings and arbovirus surveillance in mourning doves from the southeastern United States. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 43(1): 129-35. ISSN: 0090-3558.
Abstract: Mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) are the most abundant and widespread native member of the columbid family, as well as a major migratory game species, in the United States. However, there is little information on mortality factors in mourning doves. Records of necropsy accessions at the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (SCWDS) from 15 southeastern states, from 1971 through 2005, were reviewed. One hundred thirty-five mourning doves were submitted from nine states during the 35-yr period. Trichomonosis constituted 40% (n = 54) of all diagnoses and was the most frequent diagnosis. Toxicoses and avian pox constituted 18.5% (n = 25) and 14.8% (n = 20) of all diagnoses, respectively. Remaining diagnoses included trauma, suspected toxicosis, Ascaridia columbae infection, suspected tick paralysis, and undetermined. Adults were observed more frequently with trichomonosis (94.1%) and toxicoses (68%) as compared to juveniles, but a gender predisposition was not apparent for either disease. Age and gender predilections were not apparent for cases of avian pox. The majority of the trichomonosis and avian pox cases were observed in the spring-summer, whereas the majority of the toxicosis cases were observed in the winter-spring. Additionally, the Georgia Department of Human Resources-Division of Public Health and West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources submitted 809 mourning doves to SCWDS from 2001 through 2005 for West Nile virus surveillance efforts. West Nile virus was isolated from 2.1% (n = 17) and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) was isolated from 0.2% (n = 2) of the submitted birds.
Descriptors: mourning doves, arbovirus surveillance, necropsy findings, columbid family, diseases, parasites, viruses, southeastern USA.

Giunchi, D., N.E. Baldaccini, G. Sbragia, and C. Soldatini (2007). On the use of pharmacological sterilisation to control feral pigeon populations. Wildlife Research 34(4): 306-318. ISSN: 1035-3712.
Descriptors: feral pigeon populations, control, sterilization, pharmacological, adverse effects, breeding season, reproduction, sterilization, wildlife management.

Glatz, P.C. (2005). Best practice methods to declaw ostriches to improve skin quality. E. Carbajo Proceedings of the 3rd International Ratite Science Symposium of the World' s Poultry Science Association WPSA and 12th World Ostrich Congress, Madrid, Spain, 14th 16th October, 2005, World Poultry Science Association (WPSA): Beekbergen, Netherlands, p. 397-400. ISBN: 8460963535.
Descriptors: ostriches, declaw, best practice methods, skin quality, skin damage, conference proceedings.
Notes: Meeting Information: Proceedings of the 3rd International Ratite Science Symposium of the World's Poultry Science Association (WPSA) and 12th World Ostrich Congress, Madrid, Spain, 14th-16th October, 2005.

Glatz, P.C. (2005). Effect of declawing on behaviour and skin quality of ostriches. E. Carbajo Proceedings of the 3rd International Ratite Science Symposium of the World' s Poultry Science Association WPSA and 12th World Ostrich Congress, Madrid, Spain, 14th 16th October, 2005, World Poultry Science Association (WPSA): Beekbergen, Netherlands, p. 157-162. ISBN: 8460963535.
Descriptors: ostriches, declawing, effect, behavior, aggression, emus, conference proceedings.
Notes: Meeting Information: Proceedings of the 3rd International Ratite Science Symposium of the World's Poultry Science Association (WPSA) and 12th World Ostrich Congress, Madrid, Spain, 14th-16th October, 2005.

Gomez Meda, B.C., A.L. Zamora Perez, J. Luna Aguirre, A. Gonzalez Rodriguez, M.L. Ramos Ibarra, O. Torres Bugarin, C.M. Batista Gonzalez, and G.M. Zuniga Gonzalez (2006). Nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes of parrots (Aratinga canicularis) related to genotoxic damage. Avian Pathology 35(3): 206-210. ISSN: 0307-9457.
Abstract: Nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes, as micronuclei and nuclear buds (BE), are considered potential biomarkers of genotoxic exposure. We described previously the frequency of spontaneous micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) in the species Aratinga canicularis. Here, we have used this species to evaluate the induction of MNE and BE by mitomycin-C. Animals were given a single intracoelomic injection of 0, 2, 3 or 4 mg/kg mitomycin-C on two consecutive days. A drop of blood was obtained after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, and stained smears were used to count micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) and polychromatic erythrocytes with buds (BPCE)/1000 polychromatic erythrocytes. The number of MNE and BE in 10 000 total erythrocytes was also counted. MNPCE and BPCE frequencies were elevated at 24, 48, and 72 h after the administration of the lower dose (P<0.03). At a 3 mg/kg dose, the frequency of MNPCE increased at 48 and 72 h (P<0.04) whereas the number of BPCE increased, but not significantly. Administration of 4 mg/kg mitomycin-C increased the number of MNE observed at 72 h (P<0.03), the number of MNPCE at 48 h (P<0.01) and 72 h (P<0.006), the BE frequency at 72 h (P<0.05), and the frequency of BPCE at 48 and 72 h (P<0.001). While mitomycin-C appears to produce a parallel increase in MNPCE and BPCE frequencies, the MNE seemed to be a more sensitive indicator of genotoxicity than the BE. This suggests that evaluating BE and MNE in routine haematological analysis should be considered to evaluate environmental genotoxic exposure.
Descriptors: parrots, Aratinga canicularis, erythrocytes, cell nucleus, genotoxicity, mitomycin, dosage, symptoms, biomarkers, diagnostic techniques, screening, hematologic tests, micronuclei, nuclear buds.

Graham, J.E., C. Kollias Baker, A.L. Craigmill, S.M. Thomasy, and L.A. Tell (2005). Pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 28(4): 399-402. ISSN: 0140-7783.
Descriptors: Japanese quails, pharmacokinetics, nonsteroidal anti inflammatory agents, intravenous injection, intramuscular injection, oral administration, injection site, dosage, drug toxicity, adverse effects, drug therapy, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, bioavailability, half life, ketoprofen.

Grizzle, J.M., D.B. Kersten, M.D. McCracken, A.E. Houston, and A.M. Saxton (2004). Determination of the acute 50% lethal dose T-2 toxin in adult bobwhite quail: additional studies on the effect of T-2 mycotoxin on blood chemistry and the morphology of internal organs. Avian Diseases 48(2): 392-9. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: Three experiments were conducted to assess mortality rate, blood chemistry, and histologic changes associated with acute exposure to T-2 mycotoxin in adult bobwhite quail. In Experiment 1, adult quail were orally dosed with T-2 toxin to determine the lethal dose that resulted in 50% mortality of the affected population (LD50), and that dose was determined to be 14.7 mg of T-2 toxin per kilogram of body weight (BW). A second experiment was performed to study the effects of 12-18 mg/kg BW T-2 toxin on blood chemistry and liver enzyme profiles. Posttreatment uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase, lactic dehydrogenase, and gamma glutamyltransferase increased as compared with pretreatment values. In contrast, posttreatment plasma total protein, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels numerically decreased as compared with pretreatment values. Changes in blood chemistry values were consistent with liver and kidney damage after T-2 toxin exposure. In Experiment 3, histologic analyses of bone marrow, spleen, liver, small intestine, kidney, and heart were conducted on birds dosed in Experiment 2. Marked lymphocyte necrosis and depletion throughout the spleen, thymus, bursa, and gut-associated lymphoid tissue in the small intestine were observed in birds dosed with 15 and 18 mg/kg BW T-2 toxin. Necrosis of liver and lipid accumulation as a result of malfunctioning hepatocytes were also observed. Little or no morphologic change was observed in bone marrow and heart tissue. The LD50 for adult bobwhite quail as found in this study is two to three times higher than that reported for other species of commercial poultry. Results from these data confirm previous reports of immunosuppressive and/or cytotoxic effects of T-2 toxin in other mammalian and avian species. T-2 toxin may have a negative impact on the viability of wild quail populations.
Descriptors: bobwhite quail, Colinus, blood, T-2 toxin toxicity, blood chemical analysis, enzyme tests, heart drug effects, intestines drug effects, kidney drug effects, lethal dose 50, liver drug effects, lymphocytes pathology, mortality.

Gumussoy, K.S., F. Uyanik, A. Atasever, and Y. Cam (2004). Experimental Aspergillus fumigatus infection in quails and results of treatment with itraconazole. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. B, Infectious Diseases and Veterinary Public Health 51(1): 34-8. ISSN: 0931-1793.
Abstract: This study was performed to investigate (i). the clinical, histopathological and biochemical changes in quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with experimentally induced aspergillosis; and (ii). the efficiency of itraconazole treatment on these infected birds. A total of 18021-day-old male quails was randomly divided into three groups (control, infected untreated and infected treated), each containing 60. The experimental infection was set by intratracheal inoculation of 0.2 ml inoculum of Aspergillus fumigatus (CBS 113.26 strain) consisting of approximately 2.7 x 106 spores/ml. Two days after the inoculation, general clinical signs of aspergillosis in the respiratory tract were observed. In the histopathological examination, caseous foci were found in lungs, trachea and on airsacs. All quails died in the infected untreated group. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from the various organs of all dead quails. There was no significant change in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activities in infected untreated birds compared with controls. However, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, albumin and calcium levels, and albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio were lower while phosphorus and globulin levels were higher in the infected untreated group than in controls. Each quail in the infected treated group was given 10 mg/kg/day itraconazole via drinking water for 7 days immediately after the first clinical findings. Although all quails died in the infected untreated group, 41 quails survived in the itraconazole treatment group. Biochemical values also returned approximately to the control levels after the treatment. The conclusion was drawn that aspergillosis in the quails might cause economical losses because of high mortality. Oral itraconazole treatment of aspergillosis might lower the mortality rate in quails.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica, antifungal agents, therapeutic use, aspergillosis, bird diseases, Aspergillus fumigatus, drug therapy, coturnix, itraconazole therapeutic use, oral administration, administration and dosage, drug therapy, pathogenicity, treatment outcome.

Gurel, A., A. Gulcubuk, and N. Turan (2004). A granulomatous conjunctivitis associated with Morexella phenylpyruvica in an ostrich (Struthio camelus). Avian Pathology 33(2): 196-199. ISSN: 0307-9457.
Abstract: The aim of study was to evaluate a case of granulomatous conjunctivitis, clinically and pathologically, in the right eye of a 2-year-old, female ostrich. A mass measuring 5 cm x 3 cm x 4 cm was removed surgically from the eye of the ostrich. Morexella phenylpyruvica was recovered from the mass. On histopathological examination, hyperplasia or squamous metaplasia in some area of conjunctival palpebra, and a granulomatous inflammation in the submucosa were observed. The lesion was described as a granulomatous conjunctivitis caused by M. phenylpyruvica. The lesion was located in the lower eyelid conjunctiva and was not only restricted to the gl. lacrimalis, but also present in the connective tissue. After excision of the mass, the ostrich was treated with topical and systemic antibiotics and corticosteroid. The ostrich recovered fully and the function of the eye appeared to be normal.
Descriptors: ostriches, conjunctivitis, bacterial infections, Morexella phenylpyruvica, granulomatous conjunctivitis, lower eyelid, case study.

Haag Wackernagel, D. and R. Spiewak (2004). Human infestation by pigeon fleas (Ceratophyllus columbae) from feral pigeons. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine AAEM 11(2): 343-6. ISSN: 1232-1966.
Abstract: The report concerns a married couple who were repeatedly invaded by pigeon fleas (Ceratophyllus columbae) over a period of 2 months. The source of the fleas was a pair of breeding feral pigeons (Columba livia). The birds' nest was located in the attic immediately above the couple's apartment, and the fleas found their way along an unsealed heating pipe. The people encountered up to 40 bites per night. With invasions repeated almost every night, the man gradually developed an allergic urticarial reaction. The most traumatic experience for the couple, however, was to learn that they were invaded by fleas (initially, they had presumed they were bothered by mosquitoes). This information resulted in severe psychological distress with phobic reactions and insomnia. Despite the successful removal of the fleas and the pigeons that were source of the pest, parasitophobia of the man persisted over the following 4 months. This case is discussed from the broader aspect of health risks related to feral pigeons and animal fleas. Also summarised are previous observations on people invaded by pigeon fleas.
Descriptors: feral pigeons, bird parasites, transmission, Columbidae parasitology, ectoparasitic, home infestations, transmission, fleas, ectoparasitic infestations, pathology, house invaded by fleas, stress, zoonoses, Switzerland.

Hanley, C.S., G.H. Wilson, K.S. Latimer, P. Frank, Hernandez Divers, and Stephen J (2005). Interclavicular hemangiosarcoma in a double yellow-headed Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala oratrix). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 19(2): 130-137. ISSN: 1082-6742.
Descriptors: yellow headed Amazon parrot, hemangiosarcoma, interclavicular, anorexia, respiratory distress, right carotid artery, diagnostic samples.

Harcourt Brown, N.H. (2002). Surgical correction of a deformed tibiotarsus in a grey parrot. Exotic DVM 4(3): 17-19. ISSN: 1521-1363.
Descriptors: grey parrot, deformed tibiotarsus, surgical correction, conference report.
Notes: Meeting Information: 4th Annual International Conference on Exotics (ICE2002), Key West, Florida, USA, 2002.

Harkinezhad, T., K. Verminnen, C. Van Droogenbroeck, and D. Vanrompay (2007). Chlamydophila psittaci genotype E/B transmission from African grey parrots to humans. Journal of Medical Microbiology 56(Pt 8): 1097-100. ISSN: 0022-2615.
Abstract: Thirty-six birds from a parrot relief and breeding centre, as well as the manager, were examined for the presence of Chlamydophila psittaci. In the relief unit, 5 of 20 African grey parrots showed depression, ruffled feathers, loss of weight and mild dyspnoea. The birds received no antibiotic treatment. Birds of the breeding unit, 14 blue and gold macaws and 2 green-winged macaws, were healthy. They received doxycycline at the start of each breeding season. The manager complained of shortness of breath but took no medication. Using a nested PCR enzyme immunoassay (EIA), Cp. psittaci was detected in the faeces of all five sick birds, as well as in a nasal and pharyngeal swab from the manager. The veterinarian and her assistant became infected while sampling the parrots, as pharyngeal and nasal swabs from both were positive by nested PCR/EIA after visiting the parrot relief and breeding centre, but they showed no clinical signs of infection. Bacteria could be isolated from three of five nested PCR/EIA-positive birds, the manager and the veterinarian, but not from the veterinary assistant. Using an ompA genotype-specific real-time PCR, Cp. psittaci genotype E/B was identified as the transmitted strain. All breeding birds tested negative for Cp. psittaci. This is believed to be the first report on Cp. psittaci genotype E/B transmission from parrots to humans. In contradiction to genotype A strains, which are thought to be highly virulent to both birds and men, the currently described genotype E/B strain apparently caused no severe clinical symptoms in either parrots or humans.
Descriptors: African grey parrots, Chlamydophila psittaci, genotype E, B, transmission, humans, diagnosis, strain, symptoms, treatment, doxycycline, zoonotic disease, case study.

Hauptmanova, K., M. Maly, and I. Literak (2006). Changes of haematological parameters in common pheasant throughout the year. Veterinarni Medicina 51(1): 29-34. ISSN: 0375-8427.
Descriptors: common pheasant, hematological parameters, changes, throughout year, blood count, cell volume, hemoglobin.

Hawkins, M.G., B.M. Crossley, A. Osofsky, R.J. Webby, C.W. Lee, D.L. Suarez, and S.K. Hietala (2006). Avian influenza A virus subtype H5N2 in a red-lored Amazon parrot. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 228(2): 236-41. ISSN: 0003-1488.
Abstract: CASE DESCRIPTION: A 3-month-old red-lored Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis autumnalis) was evaluated for severe lethargy. CLINICAL FINDINGS: Avian influenza virus hemagglutinin subtype H5N2 with low pathogenicity was characterized by virus isolation, real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay, chicken intravenous pathogenicity index, and reference sera. The virus was also determined to be closely related to a virus lineage that had been reported only in Mexico and Central America. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: The chick was admitted to the hospital and placed in quarantine. Supportive care treatment was administered. Although detection of H5 avian influenza virus in birds in the United States typically results in euthanasia of infected birds, an alternative strategy with strict quarantine measures and repeated diagnostic testing was used. The chick recovered from the initial clinical signs after 4 days and was released from quarantine 9 weeks after initial evaluation after 2 consecutive negative virus isolation and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay results. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of H5N2 avian influenza A virus isolated from a psittacine bird and represents the first introduction of this virus into the United States, most likely by illegal importation of psittacine birds. Avian influenza A virus should be considered as a differential diagnosis for clinical signs of gastrointestinal tract disease in psittacine birds, especially in birds with an unknown history of origin. Although infection with avian influenza virus subtype H5 is reportable, destruction of birds is not always required.
Descriptors: Amazon parrot, Avian influenza type A, H5N2, virus isolation, pathogenicity, differential diagnosis, introduction, United States Department of Agriculture.

Hawkins, M.G., P.H. Kass, J.G. Zinkl, and L.A. Tell (2006). Comparison of biochemical values in serum and plasma, fresh and frozen plasma, and hemolyzed samples from orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). Veterinary Clinical Pathology American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology 35(2): 219-25. ISSN: 0257-6382.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: To the authors' knowledge, on the basis of sample type, storage condition, or hemolysis, differences in serum and plasma biochemical values have not been evaluated in orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare values for biochemical analytes in serum vs plasma, fresh vs frozen plasma, and nonhemolyzed vs hemolyzed samples in orange-winged Amazon parrots. We also compared differences in serum and plasma yield from whole-blood aliquots. METHODS: Fifteen biochemical analytes were evaluated in paired serum and plasma, fresh and frozen plasma, nonhemolyzed and hemolyzed serum and plasma samples from orange-winged Amazon parrots (n = 10) using a wet reagent analyzer. Hemolysis was assessed qualitatively (visually) and quantitatively (hemoglobin [Hgb] measured spectrophotometrically). Serum and plasma yields from 500-microl whole-blood aliquots were determined from centrifuged samples. RESULTS: Analyte values significantly differed among sample groups, but were still within published reference intervals, with the exception of increases in potassium concentration in markedly hemolyzed serum and plasma samples. Clinically important changes in hemolyzed serum and plasma samples included increases in potassium, phosphorus, and albumin concentrations and lactate dehydrogenase activity. The degree of hemolysis assigned qualitatively did not correlate with quantitative Hgb concentration. A significantly greater yield of plasma (288 +/- 13 microL) than serum (241 +/- 44 microL) was obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Significant differences may occur in different sample types, however, only changes in potassium, phosphorus, albumin, and lactate dehydrogenase values in hemolyzed samples were considered clinically relevant. Lack of agreement between qualitative and quantitative Hgb concentration indicates the unreliability of visual estimation. Based on higher sample yield, and lack of clinically relevant differences from serum, plasma is a better sample choice for clinical chemistry analysis in birds.
Descriptors: Amazon parrots blood, blood chemical analysis veterinary, freezing, plasma chemistry, serum chemistry, specimen handling veterinary.

Headley, S.A. (2005). Intrathoracic haemangiosarcoma in an ostrich (Struthio camelus). Veterinary Record Journal of the British Veterinary Association 156(11): 353-354.
Descriptors: ostriches, Struthio camelus, hemangiosarcoma, intrathoracic.

Hendrix, D.V.H. and M.H. Sims (2004). Electroretinography in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 18(2): 89-94. ISSN: 1082-6742.
Descriptors: Amazon parrot, electroretinography, retinal function, evaluation, cataracts, isoflurane, electroretinograms, light adapted.

Herraez, P., F. Rodriguez, A. Espinosa de los Monteros, B. Acosta, J.R. Jaber, J. Castellano, and A. Castro (2005). Fibrino-necrotic typhlitis caused by Escherichia fergusonii in ostriches (Struthio camelus). Avian Diseases 49(1): 167-169. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: Two adult ostriches developed anorexia, prostration, and severe hemorrhagic diarrhea, dying 24 hr after the onset of clinical signs. On postmortem examination, the cecal mucosa showed locally extensive areas of hemorrhages and fibrino-necrotic typhlitis with a white-yellowish material covering the mucosal surface. Multiple serosal petequial hemorrhages and fibrinous peritonitis were present. Histologic examination revealed an intense mononuclear infiltration in the lamina propria and submucosa of the cecum and extensive superficial necrosis associated with fibrin and serocellular deposits. Several gram-negative bacterial colonies were observed within the necrotic areas. Samples from intestinal lesions were collected, and pure growth of Escherichia fergusonii was obtained. Escherichia fergusonii is a member of Enterobacteriaceae, closely related to Escherichia coli and Shigella sp., established as a new species of the genus Escherichia in 1985. In veterinary medicine, E. fergusonii has been reported in calves and sheep from clinical cases suggestive of salmonellosis. To our knowledge, this report represents the first description of E. fergusonii associated with enteritis in ostrich.
Descriptors: ostriches, alternative livestock, Escherichia fergusonii, animal pathogenic bacteria, bird diseases, symptoms, cecum, case studies, Escherichia infections, intestinal mucosa, histopathology, necrosis, new host records, enteritis, case study.
Language of Text: Summary in Spanish.

Heryford, A.G. and S.A. Seys (2004). Outbreak of occupational campylobacteriosis associated with a pheasant farm. Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health 10(2): 127-32. ISSN: 1074-7583.
Abstract: A cluster of campylobacteriosis cases occurred at a pheasant farm in rural Wyoming during the summer of 2000. This study examined the potential causes of the outbreak. A cohort study of all farm workers was conducted to assess foodborne and occupational exposures at the facility. Eight of fifteen workers (53%) became ill, and four were stool-culture positive for Campylobacter jejuni. High attack rates were noted among workers who had direct contact with pheasant feces and first-time workers at the farm. This investigation suggests an association between campylobacteriosis and occupational animal exposure to pheasants. Enhanced educational efforts targeting occupations with direct animal contact are critical, particularly in rural communities.
Descriptors: pheasant, campylobacteriosis, agricultural workers' diseases, epidemiology, bird diseases, epidemiology, campylobacter infections, disease outbreaks, transmission, feces microbiology, occupational exposure, zoonoses.

Horbanczuk, J.O., R. Parada, F.W. Huchzermeyer, and K. Plaza (2004). Four-legged ostrich (Struthio camelus) chick. Veterinary Record 154(23): 736. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Descriptors: ostrich, chick, four legged, abnormalities, Struthioniformes, multiple diagnosis, pathology, diagnosis.

Hove, T. and S. Mukaratirwa (2005). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in farm-reared ostriches and wild game species from Zimbabwe. Acta Tropica 94(1): 49-53. ISSN: 0001-706X.
Abstract: One hundred and seventy one serum samples from 10 game species from Zimbabwe were tested for IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii infection using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Significantly higher seroprevalences were found in the felidae (Panthera leo) (92% of 26), bovidae (Tragelaphus species) (55.9% of 34) and farm-reared struthionidae (Struthio camelus) (48% of 50) compared to the other groups tested. Among the bovidae, the nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) had the highest seroprevalence of 90% (9/10). Anti-Toxoplasma antibody prevalences in browsers [greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) (20% of 10), giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) (10% of 10) and elephant (Loxodonta africana) (10% of 20)] were generally in the lower range. No antibodies were detected in the wild African suidae [warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) and bushpig (Potamochoerus larvatus)]. Attempts to isolate T. gondii from the heart muscles of seropositve ostriches by subinoculation in BALB/c mice were unsuccessful.
Descriptors: ostriches, Toxoplasma gondii, seroprevalence, wild game species, Panthera, nyala, giraffe, elephant, warthog, bushpig, Zimbabwe.

Howard, L.L., P.H. Kass, N. Lamberski, and R.F. Wack (2004). Serum concentrations of ionized calcium, vitamin D3, and parathyroid hormone in captive thick-billed parrots (Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 35(2): 147-53. ISSN: 1042-7260.
Abstract: Serum collected from 68 thick-billed parrots (Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha) from 15 institutions was analyzed for ionized Ca (iCa), total Ca (tCa), P, total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and vitamin D3. Values were not distributed normally; 95% frequency intervals were as follows: iCa (0.82-1.3 mmol/L), tCa (1.37-2.09 mmol/L,), P (0.35-1.75 mmol/L), TP (21-39 g/L), Alb (9-13 g/L), PTH (0-65.68 pmol/L), and vitamin D3 (5.2-51 nmol/L). Sixty percent (+/-7.5%) of tCa was ionized. Female thick-billed parrots had significantly higher mean iCa (1.11 mmol/L, n = 22) than male thick-billed parrots (1.05 mmol/L, n = 32). tCa and iCa values in thick-billed parrots were lower than the reported values for other psittacine species. A significant positive linear relationship existed between Alb-TP and iCa-tCa ratios. A significant inverse linear relationship was also identified between the tCa-P ratio and PTH. These findings are consistent with known domestic avian Ca physiology.
Descriptors: thick-billed parrots, calcium blood, cholecalciferol blood, parathyroid hormone blood, parrots blood, blood proteins analysis, parrots physiology, reference values, serum albumin analysis, sex factors.

Jakhar, K.K. and J.R. Sadana (2004). Sequential pathology of experimental aflatoxicosis in quail and the effect of selenium supplementation in modifying the disease process. Mycopathologia 157(1): 99-109. ISSN: 0301-486X.
Abstract: Feeding of aflatoxin B1 @ 1 ppm to 2-week old Japanese quail for a period of 8 weeks produced gross and microscopic changes in the liver, skeletal muscles, heart and bursa of Fabricius. These included fatty changes, bile duct hyperplasia and lymphoid aggregation in liver; haemorrhages in thigh, breast muscles and myocardium; mild depletion of lymphocytes, cystic degeneration and fibrous tissue proliferation in bursa of Fabricius. More or less similar lesions were seen in quail chicks fed on aflatoxin with sodium selenite @ 5 ppm but these were of lesser intensity and appeared at later stages of the experiment thereby indicating that supplementation of selenium had some protective action against the toxic effect of aflatoxin B1 in Japanese quail.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, coturnix, aflatoxin B1 metabolism, poultry diseases, drug therapy, diseases pathology, selenium pharmacology, aflatoxin B1 toxicity, bursa of Fabricius pathology, dietary supplements, liver pathology, lung pathology, lymphoid tissue pathology, skeletal muscle pathology, myocardium pathology.

Jepson, M.H. and B. Wilton (2004). Pigeon healthcare. S.B.J.M.H. Kayne Veterinary Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Press: London, UK, p. 475-498. ISBN: 0853695342.
Descriptors: pigeon, health care, parasites, drugs, vaccines, disease, nutrition, book chapter.

Jimenez Baigorria, M.V.L. (2004). Balanced anesthesia in rhea for abdominal surgery. Internet Journal of Veterinary Medicine 1(1): unpaginated. ISSN: d000-1004.
Descriptors: rhea, abdominal surgery, anesthesia balanced, veterinary.

Johnston, M.S., T.T. Son, and K.L. Rosenthal (2007). Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in an eclectus parrot. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 230(7): 1028-31. ISSN: 0003-1488.
Abstract: CASE DESCRIPTION: A 2-year-old female Solomon Island eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus) was evaluated by a veterinarian because of a 4-day history of progressive lethargy, weakness, poor appetite, and inactivity. The bird was referred to a veterinary teaching hospital for further examination. CLINICAL FINDINGS: Clinicopathologic analyses revealed that the parrot had marked regenerative anemia, autoagglutination, and biliverdinuria. Small, rounded RBCs (thought to be spherocytes) were detected in blood smears. The abnormal findings met the diagnostic criteria for dogs with primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. However, analyses of blood samples for lead and zinc concentrations and plasma bile acids concentrations; the use of PCR assays for Chlamydophila psittaci, psittacine circovirus 1 (causative agent of beak and feather disease), and polyomavirus; and microbial culture and Gram staining of feces did not reveal a cause for the hemolytic anemia. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: Although administration of immunosuppressive doses of cyclosporine was initiated, there was a rapid progression of disease, which lead to death of the parrot before this treatment could be continued long-term. Lack of an identifiable underlying disease (confirmed by complete histologic examinations at necropsy) supported the diagnosis of primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia has not been widely reported in psittacine birds. A comprehensive evaluation and complete histologic examination of tissues to rule out underlying disease processes are required to definitively establish a diagnosis of primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in parrots. Primary immune-me-diated hemolytic anemia should be considered as a differential diagnosis for regenerative anemia in a parrot.
Descriptors: eclectus parrot, immune mediated hemolitic anemia, symptoms, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, regenerative anemia., case study.

Jyoti Markan, Kuldip Gupta, N.K. Sood, Jaswinder Kaur, and Amarjit Singh (2004). Miscellaneous pathological conditions in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Journal of Research, Punjab Agricultural University 41(4): 501-503. ISSN: 0048-6019.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, coturnix, pathological conditions, miscellaneous, veterinary.

Klaphake, E., S.L. Beazley Keane, M. Jones, and A. Shoieb (2006). Multisite integumentary squamous cell carcinoma in an African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). Veterinary Record 158(17): 593-6. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Abstract: A 22-year-old male African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus) had had episodes of chronic feather picking and self-mutilation for 10 years; it had a 5 cm diameter right axillary wound and a 2 cm left dorsal patagial wound. Initial treatment with azithromycin and wound management was unsuccessful. Biopsies of both masses indicated squamous cell carcinoma. The left patagial tumour was removed completely by electrocautery. Cisplatin was administered weekly into multiple sites on the right axillary tumour and it initially appeared to regress; however, the bird's condition deteriorated after a month of treatment, and it was euthanased. The tumour was confirmed postmortem to be squamous cell carcinoma, which had invaded local tissues. The aetiology of the carcinoma may have been secondary to chronic focal trauma.
Descriptors: African grey parrot, integumentary squamous cell carcinoma, multisite, self-mutilization, biopsies, postmortem., chronic focal trauma.

Klaphake, E., J. Schumacher, C. Greenacre, M.P. Jones, and N. Zagaya (2006). Comparative anesthetic and cardiopulmonary effects of pre-versus postoperative butorphanol administration in Hispaniolan amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) anesthetized with sevoflurane. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 20(1): 2-7. ISSN: 1082-6742.
Descriptors: Amzon parrots, butorphanol, sevoflurane, anesthetic, postoperative, cardiopulmonary effects, comparative.

Kondiah, K., J. Albertyn, and R.R. Bragg (2005). Beak and feather disease virus haemagglutinating activity using erythrocytes from African Grey parrots and Brown-headed parrots. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 72(3): 263-5. ISSN: 0030-2465.
Abstract: Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) is a common viral disease of wild and captive psittacine birds characterized by symmetric feather loss and beak deformities. The causative agent, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), is a small, circular single-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the genus Circovirus. BFDV can be detected by PCR or the use of haemagglutination (HA) and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays that detect antigen and antibodies respectively. Erythrocytes from a limited number of psittacine species of Australian origin can be used in these tests. In South Africa, the high cost of these birds makes them difficult to obtain for experimental purposes. Investigation into the use of erythrocytes from African Grey parrots and Brown-headed parrots yielded positive results showing the haemagglutinating activity of their erythrocytes with purified BFDV obtained from confirmed clinical cases of the disease. The HA activity was further confirmed by the demonstration of HI using BFDV antiserum from three different African Grey parrots previously exposed to the virus and not showing clinical signs of the disease.
Descriptors: grey parrots, brown-headed parrots, beak and feather diseases, diagnosis, Circoviridae infections, parrots virology, antibodies, viral blood, diagnosis, erythrocytes virology, hemagglutination inhibition tests methods, hemagglutination, sensitivity, specificity.

Kumar, K.S., Y.R. Reddy, S. Shakila, S.T.V. Rao, and K. Veerabrahmaiah (2001). Behavioural, clinical and biochemical parameters of emu (Dromaiceius novaehollandiae). Intas Polivet 2(2): 270-272. ISSN: 0972-1738.
Descriptors: emu, Dromaiceius novaehollandiae, behavioral, clinical, biochemical, parameters.
Notes: Wildlife Health.

Kurtul, I. and R.M. Hazroglu (2004). Horoz, erkek ordek ve guvercinde aorta descendens'in seyri ve dallanmas uzerinde karslastrmal makroanatomik arastrmalar. [Comparative macroanatomical investigations on the pattern and branches of the descending aorta among the rooster, drake and pigeon]. Ankara Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi 51(1): 1-6. ISSN: 1300-0861.
Descriptors: pigeon, anatomy, aorta, blood circulation, species differences, rooster, drake.
Language of Text: Turkish, summary in English.

Lancker, S.v., K. Chiers, G. Janssens, W.v.d. Broeck, and P. Simoens (2006). Conjunctival granuloma in a racing pigeon. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 75(1): 41-44. ISSN: 0303-9021.
Descriptors: racing pigeon, conjunctival granuloma, biopsy, case report, clinical aspects, eyes, histopathology, surgery.
Language of Text: Dutch.

Latshaw, J.D., T.Y. Morishita, C.F. Sarver, and J. Thilsted (2004). Selenium toxicity in breeding ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Avian Diseases 48(4): 935-939. ISSN: 0005-2086.
Abstract: A flock of breeding ring-necked pheasants received feed with a high selenium content. Within 4 days of eating the toxic feed, the rate of egg production began to decrease, and bird aggression increased. Approximately 12% of the hens died within a week. Necropsy of the hens revealed colorless fluid around the heart and a friable, but otherwise normal, liver. The rapid onset of the problem and signs noted at necropsy suggested toxicosis. Based on analysis, the feed contained 9.3 ppm of selenium. Selenium toxicity was consistent with the histologic diagnosis of degenerative cardiomyopathy, vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, and centrilobular hepatic necrosis. After 8 days, the toxic feed was removed and replaced with fresh feed. Egg production, which had dropped to 50%, returned to normal within 10 days of feed replacement. Hatchability of eggs laid from days 8 to 14 after delivery of the toxic feed was 35%. Approximately 10% of the chicks that hatched had deformed beaks and abnormal eyes. Many of the chicks that died in the shell had deformities, bringing the total to more than 50% of all embryos that developed. The selenium content of eggs that had no embryonic development was 2.05 ppm. Hatchability of eggs laid from days 21 to 28 after the toxic feed was delivered was almost 80%, which was slightly lower than normal. The selenium content of these eggs was 0.30 ppm. These results show the rapid onset and correction of selenium toxicity and suggest that specific embryologic defects are diagnostic for selenium toxicity.
Descriptors: Pheasants, Phasianus colchicus, ring-necked pheasants, game birds, breeding stock, selenium toxicity, selenosis, feeds, fecundity, animal fertility, animal behavior, aggression, liver, heart, symptoms, egg hatchability, embryogenesis, embryonic mortality, deformed embryos.
Language of Text: Summary in Spanish.

Lima, F.S., E. Santin, A.C. Paulillo, L. Doretto Junior, V.M.B.d. Moraes, and R.P. Schocken Iturrino (2004). Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) as a Newcastle disease virus carrier. International Journal of Poultry Science 3(7): 483-484. ISSN: 1682-8356.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, Newcastle disease virus, carrier.

Lloyd, S. and J.S. Gibson (2006). Haematology and biochemistry in healthy young pheasants and red-legged partridges and effects of spironucleosis on these parameters. Avian Pathology 35(4): 335-340. ISSN: 0307-9457.
Abstract: Plasma biochemical and haematological parameters were examined in 4-week-old to 12-week-old game birds. Healthy, uninfected pheasants and partridges had similar levels of total protein, albumin, osmolality, Na+, Cl-, K+, Mg2+ and glucose. Triglyceride, globulin and Ca2+ were significantly higher and PO43- was lower in the partridges. Pheasants carrying a light to moderate infection with Spironucleus had significantly lower total protein, albumin, osmolality, Na+, Cl-, Ca2+ and PO43-. In severely affected pheasants, the osmolality, Na+ and Cl- fell further. Triglyceride and glucose were significantly lower than in healthy birds, and Mg2+ was higher. Similar data were obtained from infected partridges. Red cell parameters rose significantly in pheasants severely affected by spironucleosis, and the percent of heterophils was significantly higher and lymphocytes and basophils lower in their blood smears. The breast and leg muscle wet weight from severely affected pheasants was 22.2 and 37.7% that of uninfected birds, although the water content of the breast muscle was significantly higher.
Descriptors: pheasants, Phasianus colchicus, Alectoris rufa, game birds, hematologic tests, blood chemistry, Spironucleus, bird diseases, blood glucose, blood lipids, disease severity, infection, blood proteins, albumins, osmolarity, sodium, chlorides, potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphates, heterophils, lymphocytes, basophils, protozoal infections.

Lopez Murcia, M.M., L.J. Bernal, A.M. Montes, J.D. Garcia Martinez, and I. Ayala (2005). The normal electrocardiogram of the unanaesthetized competition 'Spanish Pouler' pigeon (Columba livia gutturosa). Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A. 52((7)): 347-349. ISSN: 0931-184X.
Descriptors: racing pigeons, Columba livia, electrocardiography, adult animals, gender differences, males, females, heart rate, electrical conductivity, monitoring, heart.

Lucas, J.J.d., C. Rodriguez, M. Marin, F. Gonzalez, C. Ballesteros, and M.I. San Andres (2007). Pharmacokinetics of intramuscular ketamine in young ostriches premedicated with romifidine. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 54(1): 48-50. ISSN: 0931-184X.
Descriptors: ostriches, ketamine, intramuscular, premedicated, romifidine, pharmacokinetics, young birds.

Lucas, J.J.d., C. Rodriguez, M.B. Martella, M.C. Labaque, J.L. Navarro, and M.I. San Andres (2005). Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin following intravenous administration to greater rheas: a preliminary study. Research in Veterinary Science 78(3): 265-267. ISSN: 0034-5288.
Abstract: The pharmacokinetic behaviour of enrofloxacin (ENR) and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin (CIP) were determined in six greater rheas following a single intravenous (i.v.) dose of 15 mg/kg bw. Plasma concentrations of ENR and CIP were simultaneously determined by a HPLC/u.v. method. Following i.v. administration, the plasma drug concentrations were best fitted by an open two-compartment model with a rapid distribution phase. The high volume of distribution (V(ss) = 5.01 L/Kg) suggests good tissue penetration. ENR presents a high clearance (3.95 L/kg h) explaining the low AUC values (3.57 mg h/L) and a short permanence (t(1/2beta) = 2.66 h and MRT = 1.23 h). Ciprofloxacin comprised 14% of the total fluoroquinolone (ENR + CIP).
Descriptors: rheas, pharmacokinetics, enrofloxacin, intravenous injection, ciprofloxacin, dosage, blood plasma, high performance liquid chromatography, ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, young animals.

Lucas, J.J.d., C. Rodriguez, S. Waxman, F. Gonzalez, I. Uriarte, and M.I. San Andres (2005). Pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin after intravenous and intramuscular administration to ostriches. Veterinary Journal 170(3): 364-368. ISSN: 1090-0233.
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin was investigated after intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration, both at a dose rate of 5 mg/kg BW, in six clinically healthy domestic ostriches. Plasma concentrations of marbofloxacin was determined by a HPLC/UV method. The high volume of distribution (3.22 +/- 0.98 L/kg) suggests good tissue penetration. Marbofloxacin presented a high clearance value (2.19 +/- 0.27 L/kg h), explaining the low AUC values (2.32 +/- 0.30 microgram h/mL and 2.25 +/- 0.70 microgram h/mL, after IV and IM administration, respectively) and a short half life and mean residence time (t(1/2beta) = 1.47 +/- 0.31 h and 1.96 +/- 0.35 h; MRT = 1.46 +/- 0.02 h and 2.11 +/- 0.30 h, IV and IM, respectively). The absorption of marbofloxacin after IM administration was rapid and complete (C(max) = 1.13 +/- 0.29 microgram/mL; T(max) = 0.36 +/- 0.071 h; MAT = 0.66 +/- 0.22 h and F (%) = 95.03 +/- 16.89).
Descriptors: ostriches, pharmacokinetics, quinolones, intravenous injection, intramuscular injection, dosage, blood plasma, high performance liquid chromatography, ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, half life, alternative livestock, marbofloxacin.

Lucas, J.J.d., C. Rodriguez, S. Waxman, F. Gonzalez, M.L.d. Vicente, and M.I. San Andres (2004). Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin after single intravenous and intramuscular administration in young domestic ostrich (Struthio camelus). Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 27(2): 119-122. ISSN: 0140-7783.
Descriptors: ostrich, domestic, pharmacokinetics, enrofloxacin, single intravenous, intramuscular, administration.

Luo Feng, Wing YaBiao, Zhang JianFei, Zhu XingQuan, and Li GuoQing (2006). Efficacy of common antitrichomonal drugs against Trichomonas gallinae from pigeon in vitro. Veterinary Science in China 36(12): 980-982. ISSN: 1673-4696.
Descriptors: pigeon, Trichomonas gallinae, common antitrichomonal drugs, efficacy, against, antiprotozoal drugs, parasites.
Language of Text: Chinese, summary in English.

Mazzullo, G., G. Montalbano, A. Augello, A. Germana, and B. Macri (2007). A case of conjoined cephalopagus twinning in an ostrich (Struthio camelus). Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia 36(4): 263-5. ISSN: 0340-2096.
Abstract: Conjoined twinnings have been reported in most domestic animal species and in some avian species. Cases of conjoined twins have not been reported in the ostrich so far. A hybrid Blue neck x African black male ostrich conjoined twinning was born at the end of artificial egg incubation and died spontaneously 24 h after the hatching. It was frozen and sent to the Unit of Veterinary Pathology of the University of Messina for gross examination. The most important gross findings involved the external body and most of the internal organs. On the basis of the duplication, the conjoined twins were classified as a cephalopagus. Radiological features included: development of one head containing a single brain, two spinal cords, deviated vertebral columnae with fusion of the two first cervical vertebrae. In one twin, the synsacrum was absent as well as portions of the vertebral column. Grossly, both twins showed two upper and lower limbs each. The gastro-enteric apparatuses of the twins were not completely developed and fused at different levels. One liver and one heart localized in the centre of the conjoined twins were observed. The authors conclude that the possible causes of the malformation could be related to a genetic factor.
Descriptors: ostrich, twinning, conjoined cephalopagus, male, gross examination, artificial egg incubation, pathology, malformation, genetic.

Minet, D. (2004). Veterinary ostrich inspection. Proceedings of the 11th Ostrich World Congress, Island Great Brijun, Croatia, 15 17 October 2004: 36-39.
Descriptors: ostriches, health problems, veterinary inspection, diseases, observation, conference proceedings.
Notes: Meeting Information: Proceedings of the 11th Ostrich World Congress, Island Great Brijun, Croatia, 15-17 October 2004.

Moniello, G., F. Bovera, I.L. Solinas, G. Piccolo, W. Pinna, and A. Nizza (2005). Effect of cage and blood collection site on the metabolic profile of ostriches. South African Journal of Animal Science 35(4): 268-272. ISSN: 0375-1589.
Descriptors: ostriches, blood collection site, cage, metabolic profile, effect.

Morrisey, J.K., J. Paul Murphy, J.P. Fialkowski, A. Hart, and B.J. Darien (2003). Estimation of prothrombin times of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and umbrella cockatoos (Cacatua alba). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 17(2): 72-77. ISSN: 1082-6742.
Descriptors: Amazon parrot, unbrella cockatoos, prothombin times, estimation, plasma samples, non-domestic avian species.

Mostafa, M.B. and B. Galiwango (2004). Traumatic oesophageal perforation in a male ostrich (Struthio camelus australis). Veterinary Record Journal of the British Veterinary Association 154(21): 669. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Descriptors: ostriches, esophagus, animal injuries, oesophageal perforation, traumatic, male.

Munhoz, A.D., G.R. Albuquerque, F.C.R.d. Oliveira, and C.W.G. Lopes (2004). Studies of clinical signs and hematological alterations in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) due to Toxoplasma gondii Nicolle and Manceaux, 1909 (Apicomplexa: Toxoplasmatinae) experimental infection. Revista Brasileira De Parasitologia Veterinaria 13(1): 1-5. ISSN: 0103-846X.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, Toxoplasma gondii, clinical signs, hematological alterations, experimental infection.
Language of Text: Portuguese.

Murakami, T., K. Uchida, H. Naito, and S. Shinohara (2000). Ventricular septal defects in an ostrich (Struthio camelus) and a Chinese goose (Cygnopsis cygnoid var. orientalis). Advances in Animal Cardiology 33(1): 33-37. ISSN: 0910-6537.
Descriptors: ostrich, Chinese goose, ventricular septal defects.
Language of Text: Japanese, summary in English.

Musulin, S.E. and D.B. Adin (2006). ECG of the Month. Sinus arrhythmia in an African grey parrot. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 229(4): 505-7. ISSN: 0003-1488.
Descriptors: African grey parrot, sinus arrhythmia, ECG, diagnosis, electrocardiography, veterinary, parrots, anesthetics, diagnosis, heart rate, case study.

Naeini, A.T., H. Dadras, and B.A. Naeini (2006). Myelography in the Pigeon (Columba livia). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 20(1): 27-30. ISSN: 1082-6742.
Descriptors: pigeon, myelography, anaesthesia, evaluated, contrast medium, cerebellomedullary cistern, potential application in avian.

Nilson, P.C., I. Teramitsu, and S.A. White (2005). Caudal thoracic air sac cannulation in zebra finches for isoflurane anesthesia. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 143(2): 107-15. ISSN: 0165-0270.
Abstract: Small songbirds such as the zebra finch are commonly used for studies on the neural mechanisms that underlie vocal learning. For these studies, survival surgeries are often performed that involve animal anesthesia and stereotaxic stabilization for localization of specific brain regions. Here we describe air sac cannulation as a novel method for delivering isoflurane gas to zebra finches for anesthesia during neurosurgery. Advantages of this method include that it leaves the bird's head free for stereotaxic targeting and does not interfere with the beak clamps that are often used to position and stabilize the head. It additionally allows for the use of the inhalant anesthetic, isoflurane, which is an appealing alternative to injectable anesthetics because it provides fast, minimally stressful induction, and low subject and personnel toxicity. The use of isoflurane also prevents overdosing and lengthy postoperative recovery times.
Descriptors: zebra finches, isoflurane anesthesia, caudal thoracic air sac, canulation, neurosurgery, inhalant anesthesia, injectable, recovery.

Novak, I.L., M. Simpraga, and H. Mazija (2004). Humoral immune reaction of ostriches vaccinated against Newcstale disease by different routes. Proceedings of the 11th Ostrich World Congress, Island Great Brijun, Croatia, 15 17 October 2004 82-88
Descriptors: ostriches, vaccinated, Newcastle disease, humoral immune reaction, different routes, spraying, drinking, conference proceedings.
Notes: Meeting Information: Proceedings of the 11th Ostrich World Congress, Island Great Brijun, Croatia, 15-17 October 2004.

Ocal, N., S. Karahan, and T. Atmaca (2006). Proliferative response by the ostrich proventriculus in idiopathic gastric stasis: a case report. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 54(2): 213-20. ISSN: 0236-6290.
Abstract: In this report, the late clinical, necropsy, and histopathological findings of idiopathic gastric stasis in an ostrich are described, with special attention to the proventriculus. An ostrich with clinical signs of gastric stasis was brought to our clinic in a state of impending death that could not be reversed with emergency medical care. At necropsy, the koilin layer of the gizzard was uneven without ulcerations. The proventriculus was distended with food items without impaction and mucosal lesions. None of the most typical aetiological factors including foreign objects, Macrorhabdus ornithogaster and parasitic infection with Libyostrongylus douglassii was present. Histologically, the proventriculus was characterised by hyperplastic mucosa with luminal buds and necrotic cells in the lumen. Immunochemistry for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) revealed a high rate of proliferation in epithelial cells of the glandular and mucosal lining in the proventriculus neighbouring the affected gizzard: approximately 88.6% of the cells were immunoreactive as compared to 34.4% of the cells in control ostriches used for comparison. In conclusion, in the absence of gizzard contraction, the mucosal lining of the proventriculus is hyperplastic with a high rate of proliferation that may help compensate the distension due to the accumulation of food items.
Descriptors: ostrich, proventriculus, prolifweative response, idiopathic gastric stasis, case report, necropsy, clinical signs.

Olayemi, F.O., E.O. Ojo, and O.A. Fagbohun (2006). Haematological and plasma biochemical parameters of the Nigerian laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis) and the Nigerian duck (Anas platyrhynchos). Veterinarski Arhiv 76(2): 145-151. ISSN: 0372-5480.
Descriptors: Nigerian laughing dove, Nigerian duck, plasma biochemical, hematological parameters, blood profiles, studies, white blood counts, hemaglobin.
Language of Text: Croatian and English.

Osofsky, A., L.A. Tell, P.H. Kass, S.E. Wetzlich, J. Nugent Deal, and A.L. Craigmill (2005). Investigation of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) as a pharmacokinetic model for cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and Poicephalus parrots via comparison of the pharmacokinetics of a single intravenous injection of oxytetracycline hydrochloride. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 28(6): 505-13. ISSN: 0140-7783.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine whether Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) would serve as a pharmacokinetic animal model for two small companion parrots: cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and Poicephalus parrots. Oxytetracycline (OTC) was the pharmacologic agent chosen for this study as it is eliminated primarily by renal glomerular filtration and undergoes minimal metabolism. A single intravenous injection of 20 mg/kg oxytetracycline hydrochloride was administered to the three study groups and blood samples were obtained at 5, 10, 15, and 30 min post-OTC injection as well as 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h post-OTC injection. Quantification of plasma OTC was accomplished using a standardized microbial inhibition assay. Naive-pooled data (NPD) analysis of the plasma concentration-time profile of OTC best fit a two-compartment open model for all three avian species. Noncompartmental analysis of the mean data yielded the following parameters for quail, cockatiels and Poicephalus parrots respectively: lambda(z) = 3.14, 4.57, 3.71 h; AUC = 38.9, 42.7, 49.6 microg x h/mL; and Cl = 514, 468, 403 mL/h/kg. Based on the similarity of these pharmacokinetic parameters, it appears that quail could be used as a model species to predict the appropriate OTC dosing regimen for small psittacine birds. A bootstrap procedure was also applied to these sparse data sets for both compartmental and noncompartmental analysis. The bootstrap procedure allowed for the calculation of variability of parameters; however, the estimates of the parameters were very similar to those calculated using the NPD and the data mean values.
Descriptors: quail, anti bacterial agents pharmacokinetics, Coturnix metabolism, oxytetracycline pharmacokinetics, administration, dosage, anti bacterial agents blood, anti bacterial agents urine, cockatoos metabolism, glomerular filtration rate, intravenous injections, kidney metabolism, animal models, oxytetracycline administration, dosage.

Padilla, L.R., K. Flammer, and R.E. Miller (2005). Doxycycline-medicated drinking water for treatment of Chlamydophila psittaci in exotic doves. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 19(2): 88-91. ISSN: 1082-6742.
Descriptors: exotic doves, Chlamydophila psittaci, treatment, drinking water, antibiotic treatment, Doxycycline medicated.

Papahn, A.A., H. Naddaf, A. Rezakhani, and M. Mayahi (2006). Electrocardiogram of homing pigeon. Journal of Applied Animal Research 30(2): 129-132. ISSN: 0971-2119.
Descriptors: homing pigeon, electrocardiogram, normal basline data, clinical use.

Partridge, S.J., J.C. Pepperell, C. Forrester Wood, N.B. Ibrahim, A. Raynal, and C.R. Swinburn (2004). Pheasant rearer's lung. Occupational Medicine 54(7): 500-3. ISSN: 0962-7480.
Abstract: A 47-year-old gamekeeper presented with an 8 month history of variable breathlessness, cough and clinical features of severe interstitial lung disease. Open lung biopsy showed an extrinsic allergic alveolitis, which we believe related to his work rearing pheasants. Initially he was resistant, despite advice, to changing his occupation but subsequently, although ceasing exposure to pheasants and beginning treatment with corticosteroids, his disease progressed to the point where he developed respiratory failure and was referred for lung transplantation. Sadly, he died of progressive respiratory failure and cor pulmonale complicated by bronchopneumonia before this could be achieved.
Descriptors: pheasants, animal husbandry, bird fancier's lung, etiology, occupational diseases, poultry, bird fancier's lung diagnosis, bird fancier's lung pathology, fatal outcome, occupational diseases, diagnosis, pathology, allergic alveolitis.

Paul Murphy, J. and J.P. Fialkowski (2004). Pharmacokinetic properties of a single intramuscular dose of buprenorphine in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 18(4): 224-228. ISSN: 1082-6742.
Descriptors: African grey parrots, buprenorphine, single I.M dose, pharmacokinetic properties, analgesic, dose, plasma concentration.

Paulman, A., C.A. Lichtensteiger, and L.J. Kohrt (2006). Outbreak of herpesviral conjunctivitis and respiratory disease in Gouldian finches. Veterinary Pathology 43(6): 963-970. ISSN: 0300-9858.
Abstract: An outbreak of tracheitis, sinusitis, and conjunctivitis, originating in recently imported birds, caused high morbidity and mortality in a flock of finches in Central Illinois. Although several species were present, Gouldian finches (Erythrura [Chloebia] gouldiae) were most commonly and severely affected. Birds submitted for necropsy displayed microscopic lesions characteristic of herpesviral infection, including epithelial cytomegaly and karyomegaly with basophilic, intranuclear inclusion bodies in the nasopharynx, sinuses, trachea, parabronchi, conjunctiva, and occasionally the lacrimal gland or proximal proventricular glands. Viral particles consistent with herpesvirus were visualized within affected epithelial cells with electron microscopy. Based on a partial sequence of the viral DNA polymerase gene, this virus was found to be identical to a herpesvirus previously implicated in a similar outbreak in Canada and is most likely an alphaherpesvirus.
Descriptors: Fringillidae, birds, disease outbreaks, Herpesviridae, viral diseases of animals and humans, conjunctivitis, respiratory tract diseases, tracheitis, sinusitis, histopathology, epithelial cells, pathogen identification, DNA directed DNA polymerase, nucleotide sequences, Erythrura (Chloebia) gouldiae, Alphaherpesvirus, Illinois.

Pees, M., J. Straub, and M.E. Krautwald Junghanns (2004). Echocardiographic examinations of 60 African grey parrots and 30 other psittacine birds. Veterinary Record 155(3): 73-6. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to establish reference values for the assessment of cardiac function in birds by measuring structures in the heart of healthy psittacine birds; 60 grey parrots, 10 Amazon parrots, 10 cockatoos and 10 Senegal parrots were anaesthetised with isoflurane and examined echocardiographically. The heart was visualised in two planes (vertical and horizontal views). Depending on the quality of the images, several dimensions of the heart could be measured and various parameters calculated. On the basis of these values, it was possible to establish reference values for each parrot genus. Some relative parameters showed no significant difference between the genera, independent of the bird's size.
Descriptors: echocardiography, heart anatomy, histology, Psittaciformes anatomy, histology, parrots anatomy, histology, reference values.

Pereira, R.A., J.L. Maria, L.B. Moraes, L.C.B. Fallanena, N.C. Rodrigues, M.d.C. Allgayer, A.T. Esmeraldino, V.M. Pinto, and L.C.B. Fallavena (2003). Carcinoma espinocelular em papagaio verdadeiro (Amazona aestiva): relato de caso. [Spindle cell carcinoma in a parrot (Amazona aestiva): case report]. Veterinaria Em Foco 1(1): 29-33. ISSN: 1679-5237.
Descriptors: Amazon parrot, spindel cell carinoma, case report.
Language of Text: Portuguese, summary in English.

Perelman, B. (2004). Control and prevention of hatchery related infectious diseases in ostriches. Proceedings of the 11th Ostrich World Congress, Island Great Brijun, Croatia, 15 17 October 2004 63-65 ISSN: 1520-8052 (online).
Descriptors: ostriches, infectious diseases, hatchery related, control, prevention, incubator, bacteria, fungus, conference proceedings.
Notes: Meeting Information: Proceedings of the 11th Ostrich World Congress, Island Great Brijun, Croatia, 15-17 October 2004.

Phalen, D. (2004). Steps to preventing avian polyomavirus in aviaries breeding non-budgerigar parrots. Exotic DVM 5(6): 21-22. ISSN: 1521-1363.
Descriptors: non-budgerigar parrots, breeding, avian polyomavirus, preventing, steps, aviaries.

Polat, U., M. Cetin, O. Turkyilmaz, and A. Yalcin (2004). Reference serum protein and lipoprotein fractions of ostriches (Struthio camelus) in Turkey. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 71(1): 77-9. ISSN: 0030-2465.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine for reference purposes the values of serum albumin, alpha 1-globulin, alpha 2-globulin, beta-globulin, gamma-globulin, and alpha-lipoprotein (high density lipoprotein), pre-beta-lipoprotein (very low density lipoprotein) and beta-lipoprotein (low density lipoprotein) fractions of normal ostriches (Struthio camelus) in Turkey. Five male and five female ostriches, 18 months old, were used. All the ostriches were fed on a diet that contained 15.14% crude protein and 2,950 Kcal/kg of metabolizable energy. The serum protein and lipoprotein fractions were measured using agarose gel electrophoresis. The fractions were found to be 60.96% albumin, 0.24% alpha 1-globulin, 15.91% alpha 2-globulin, 13.34% beta-globulin, 9.55% gamma-globulin, 53.77% HDL, 0.60% VLDL and 48.09% LDL.
Descriptors: ostriches, serum protein, lipoprotein, fractions, reference, values, globulin, diet, argarose gel electrophoresis, Turkey.

Promkuntod, N., C. Antarasena, P. Prommuang, and P. Prommuang (2006). Isolation of avian influenza virus A subtype H5N1 from internal contents (albumen and allantoic fluid) of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) eggs and oviduct during a natural outbreak. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1081: 171-3. ISSN: 0077-8923.
Abstract: Avian influenza virus (AIV) was recovered from the internal contents of eggs, including mixture of albumen and allantoic fluid, and from the oviduct of naturally infected Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) flocks in the southern part of Thailand. The virus titers of 10(4.6)-10(6.2) ELD(50)/mL were directly measured from the internal content of infected eggs. The virus was isolated by chorioallantoic sac inoculation of embryonating chicken eggs. Infected allantoic fluid was identified as hemagglutinating virus and then was indicated the presence of H5 hemagglutinin. The virus was confirmed to be H5N1 subtype influenza A virus by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay could specifically detect influenza virus subtype H5. Furthermore, indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test by using specific anti-influenza A monoclonal antibody indicated that virus antigens were detected in the parenchyma of multiple tissues. Systemic localization of viral antigen detected was certainly considered to be viremic stage. In addition, influenza virus antigen was also detected by IFA in allantoic fluid sediments isolated from internal content of egg or oviduct. The conclusion of isolated AIV type A subtype H5N1 from these two infected materials was correlated to the viremic stage of infection because the virus antigens could be observed in almost all tissues. Conclusively, the need for adequate safeguards to prevent contamination and spread of the virus to the environment during movement of eggs--including hatching eggs, cracked eggs, and other relevant infected materials-- or egg consumption from area of outbreak is emphasized and must not be ignored for the reasons of animal, public, and environmental health.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, coturnix, eggs virology, influenza a virus, H5N1 subtype, isolation, purification, influenza in birds, epidemiology, disease outbreaks, egg proteins, fluorescent antibody technique, influenza transmission, oviducts virology, public health, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.

Raukar, J. (2004). Hematoloski pokazatelji u nojeva (Struthio camelus). [Hematological parameters of the ostrich (Struthio camelus)]. Veterinarska Stanica 35(1): 33-41. ISSN: 0350-7149.
Descriptors: ostrich, hematological parameters, clinically healthy, blood counts, sex and age related.
Language of Text: Croatian, summary in English.

Raukar, J. (2003). Dijagnosticka vrijednost biokemijskih pokazatelja u krvi nojeva. [Diagnostic value of biochemical indices in the blood in ostriches]. Veterinarska Stanica 34(6): 333-339. ISSN: 0350-7149.
Descriptors: ostriches, blood, biochemical indices, diagnostic value.
Language of Text: Croatian, summary in English.

Raukar, J. and M. Simpraga (2005). Haematological parameters in the blood of one day old ostriches. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine 60(4): 112-116. ISSN: 0334-9152.
Descriptors: ostriches, one day old, blood, hematoligical parameters, hemoglobin, erythrocyte count, leukocyte count, hematocrit, newly hatched.

Razmyar, J., O. Dezfoulian, B. Shojadoost, M. Masoudifard, and S.M. Peighambari (2005). Sertoli cell tumor in a pigeon (Columba livia). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 19(4): 286-288. ISSN: 1082-6742.
Descriptors: pigeon sertoli cell tumor, anorexia, emaciation, abdominal distention, soft tissue mass, histopathology.

Reddy, Y.R., S.T.V. Rao, K. Veerabrahmaiah, K.S. Kumar, and S. Shakila (2003). Haematological parameters of emu. Indian Veterinary Journal 80(12): 1308-1309. ISSN: 0019-6479.
Descriptors: emu, hematological parameters, blood count, white cells, red cells, hemoglobin.

Reed, K.L., M.G. Conzemius, R.A. Robinson, and T.D. Brown (2004). Osteocyte-based image analysis for quantitation of histologically apparent femoral head osteonecrosis: application to an emu model. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering 7(1): 25-32. ISSN: 1025-5842.
Abstract: Femoral head osteonecrosis is often characterized histologically by the presence of empty lacunae in the affected bony regions. The shape, size and location of a necrotic lesion influences prognosis, and can, in principle, be quantified by mapping the distribution of empty lacunae within a femoral head. An algorithm is here described that automatically identifies the locations of osteocyte-filled vs. empty lacunae. The algorithm is applied to necrotic lesions surgically induced in the emu, a large bipedal animal model in which osteonecrosis progresses to collapse, as occurs in humans. The animals' femoral heads were harvested at sacrifice, and hematoxylin and eosin-stained histological preparations of the coronal midsections were digitized and image-analyzed. The algorithm's performance in detecting empty lacunae was validated by comparing its results to corresponding assessments by six trained histologists. The percentage of osteocyte-filled lacunae identified by the algorithm vs. by the human readers was statistically indistinguishable.
Descriptors: emu, hip joint pathology, animal models, osteocytes pathology, osteonecrosis pathology, algorithms, Dromaiidae, femoral head, alogorithm.

Rezakhani, A., H. Komali, M.R. Mokhber Dezfoul, M. Zarifi, M. Ghabi, N. Alidadi, and M.G. Nadalian (2007). A preliminary study on normal electrocardiographic parameters of ostriches (Struthio camelus). Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 78(1): 46-8. ISSN: 0038-2809.
Abstract: Electrocardiograms were taken from 100 normal healthy male and female ostriches which were 1 to 15 months old using a base apex lead. The heart rate of those less than 3 months old ranged from 107 to 250 beats per minute with a mean of 171.47 +/- 9.03 and that of ostriches of more than 3 months old ranged from 43 to 167 with a mean of 90.52 +/- 2.64 beats/minute. The P-waves were positive in all cases except in 1 ostrich which it was isoelectric. The ORS complexes were mainly negative and either monophasic (QS) or biphasic (rS or RS). The T-wave showed more variation than other waves. The durations of P P-R, QRS, Q-T and T-waves of chicks and of those more than 3 months of age (4-15-month-old) were 0.04 +/- 0.00, 0.06 +/- 0.00; 0.14 +/- 0.04, 0.16 +/- 0.00; 0.04 +/- 0.00, 0.06 +/- 0.00; 0.18 +/- 0.00, 0.27 +/- 0.00 and 0.06 +/- 0.00, 0.09 +/- 0.01 s, respectively, and amplitudes of the main direction of P-, QRS and T- waves of 2 groups were 0.29 +/- 0.02, 0.26 +/- 0.01; 1.87 +/- 0.17, 2.21 +/- 0.08; and 0.34 +/- 0.06, 0.37 +/- 0.02 mV, respectively. Ten cases showed cardiac dysrhythmias of which 9 showed sinus arrhythmia and 1 showed premature atrial contractions (PAC). This study showed that the base apex lead can be a suitable monitoring lead for electrocardiographic examination of ostriches.
Descriptors: ostriches, electrocardiography, heart physiology, Struthioniformes, age factors, heart rate, reference values, sex factors.

Ritzman, T.K. and M.M. Garner (2005). Differential diagnosis proventricular dilatation disease: pyloric adenocarcinoma in a red-lored Amazon parrot. Exotic DVM 7(1): 13-17. ISSN: 1521-1363.
Descriptors: amazon parrot, proventricular dilitation disease, pyloric adenocarcinoma, differential diagnosis.

Sakai, K., G. Sakabe, O. Tani, M. Nakamura, and K. Takehara (2006). Antibody responses in ostriches (Struthio camelus) vaccinated with commercial live and killed Newcastle disease vaccines. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science the Japanese Society of Veterinary Science 68(6): 627-9. ISSN: 0916-7250.
Abstract: Three ostriches (Struthio camelus) were immunized with commercially available live and killed Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines for chickens and the antibody responses to the ND vaccines were evaluated by a virus-neutralization (VN) test. Primary vaccination with the live vaccine, B1, by eye drop was followed with two shots of alum-precipitated killed vaccine via subcutaneous injection in the neck. As a final booster, another live vaccine, Clone 30, was used by eye drop. A VN antibody titer, more than 1:10 was observed for 6 months. This is the first report on the use of a live vaccine by eye drop as a booster in ostriches as well as evaluating responses to ND vaccines using the VN test in this avian species.
Descriptors: ostriches, antibody responses, Newcastle disease vaccines, live, killed, immunology, viral vaccines immunology, newcastle disease prevention, control, ophthalmic solutions, viral vaccines, administration, dosage.

Santos, M.M.A.B., J.R. Peiro, and M.V. Meireles (2005). Cryptosporidium infection in ostriches (Struthio camelus) in Brazil: clinical, morphological and molecular studies. Revista Brasileira De Ciencia Avicola 7(2): 113-117. ISSN: 1516-635X.
Descriptors: ostriches, cryptosporidium, infection, clinical, morphological, molecular, studies, Brazil.

Schulze, C., E. Grossmann, and O. Krone (2006). Fallbericht: Libyostrongylus douglassii-assoziierte Magenentzundungen bei Straussen (Struthio camelus) in Deutschland. [Case report: Libyostrongylus douglassii-associated proventriculitis in ostriches in Germany]. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 113(6): 240-242. ISSN: 0341-6593.
Descriptors: ostriches, Libyostrongylus douglassii, proventriculitis, adult, female, wireworm, infection, case report, nematodes.
Language of Text: German, summary in English.

Sen, S. and M.K. Albay (2003). Fatal impaction of the stomach in two farmed ostriches. Irish Veterinary Journal 56(6): 317-318. ISSN: 0368-0762.
Descriptors: ostriches, stomach, impaction, fatal, farned, clinical signs, necropsy, foreign objects, young.

Seok, S.H., J.H. Park, S.A. Cho, and J.H. Park (2005). Idiopathic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the renal tubular epithelia of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Journal of Veterinary Science Suwon Si, Korea 6(1): 75-6. ISSN: 1229-845X.
Abstract: We report idiopathic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the renal tubular epithelia of two cases of among the 960 Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in the course of the acute oral toxicity and dietary toxicity test. Basophilic inclusion bodies were seen only in the nuclei of renal tubular epithelia. We could not classify our case into any adenovirus infection by clinical signs and lesions. The inclusion bodies were only identified as adenovirus-like particles based upon the electronmicroscopical features.
Descriptors: Japanese quail, coturnix, epithelial cells, ultrastructure, intranuclear inclusion bodies, kidney tubules ultrastructure.

Shaw, S.D. and T. Billing (2006). Karaka (Corynocarpus laevigatus) toxicosis in North Island brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli). Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice 9(3): 545-9. ISSN: 1094-9194.
Abstract: From 2001 t0 2004, Westshore Wildlife Reserve observed five incidences of a vestibular syndrome in North Island brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli). These were suspected to be the result of ingesting the karaka berry (Corynocarpus laevigatus), which contains a neurotoxin (karakin).
Descriptors: brown kiwi, toxicosis, karaka, diagnosis, bird diseases, glucose analogs, derivatives, Palaeognathae, toxic plants, pathology, differential diagnosis, glucose toxicity.

Simpraga, M., J. Raukar, and I.L. Novak (2004). Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium levels and alkaline phosphatase activity in the blood of one-day-old ostriches. Veterinarski Arhiv 74(3): 177-188. ISSN: 0372-5480.
Descriptors: ostriches, one day old, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, levels, alkaline phosphatase activity, reference values.
Language of Text: Croatian and English.

Singh, I.M., S. Singh, F. Mills Robertson, M.A. McMurphy, R.D. Applegate, and S.S. Crupper (2004). Antibiotic susceptibility of Edwardsiella hoshinae isolated from northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus). Veterinary Record Journal of the British Veterinary Association 155(1): 29. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Descriptors: bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus, Edwardsiella hoshinae, antibiotic resistance.

Sladky, K.K., L. Krugner Higby, E. Meek Walker, T.D. Heath, and J. Paul Murphy (2006). Serum concentrations and analgesic effects of liposome-encapsulated and standard butorphanol tartrate in parrots. American Journal of Veterinary Research 67(5): 775-81. ISSN: 0002-9645.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To compare serum concentrations of liposome-encapsulated butorphanol tartrate (LEBT) and standard butorphanol tartrate (STDBT) following SC and IM administration, respectively, and to evaluate analgesic effects of LEBT and STDBT after parenteral administration to Hispaniolan parrots. ANIMALS: 11 adult Hispaniolan parrots. PROCEDURE: The ability of LEBT to prolong the duration of analgesia in an avian species was tested. Blood samples were collected at serial time points after SC administration of LEBT (10 mg/kg or 15 mg/kg) or IM administration of STDBT (5 mg/kg). Serum concentrations of butorphanol tartrate were determined by use of a commercial immunoassay that measured parent drug and metabolites. Analgesic efficacy was evaluated in parrots exposed to electrical and thermal stimuli. Foot withdrawal thresholds were recorded at baseline and at serial time points after LEBT (15 mg/kg), liposome vehicle, STDBT (2 mg/kg), or physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution administration. RESULTS: LEBT had a prolonged in vivo release for up to 5 days. Negligible serum butorphanol and butorphanol metabolite concentrations were obtained at 24 hours after IM administration of STDBT. Analgesic efficacy of LEBT as measured by foot withdrawal threshold to noxious thermal and electrical stimuli persisted for 3 to 5 days following SC administration of LEBT. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: SC administration of LEBT provided analgesia and detectable serum butorphanol concentrations in Hispaniolan parrots for up to 5 days. The use of LEBT may allow for substantial improvement in long-term pain relief without subjecting birds to the stress of handling and multiple daily injections.
Descriptors: parrots, analgesia, butorphanol, therapeutic use, liposomes, administration, dosage, pain, drug therapy, analgesics, opioid, serum concentrations, analgesic effects, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic use, butorphanol administration, dosage, dose response relationship.

Smith, K.M., S. Murray, and C. Sanchez (2005). Successful treatment of suspected exertional myopathy in a rhea (Rhea americana). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 36(2): 316-20. ISSN: 1042-7260.
Abstract: A 7-yr-old, adult, female greater rhea (Rhea americana) from the National Zoological Park presented with a 24-hr history of severe left leg lameness that progressed to an inability to stand. Blood work revealed creatine phosphokinase (CPK) above 50,000 U/L and elevated lactate dehydrogenase. The bird's condition deteriorated over the next week. The bird's CPK increased to over 208,400 U/L. Aggressive intravenous fluids and physical therapy along with oral anxiolytic and muscle-relaxant drugs were instituted. After 2 wk of aggressive therapy, initial signs of improvement were noted. By day 28, the bird was able to walk unassisted with no noticeable lameness. This is one of the few reported cases of successful treatment of suspected ratite exertional myopathy. It is believed that success in this case can be attributed to persistent, aggressive physical therapy, muscle relaxants, and anxiolytics aimed to counteract the hyperexcitable nature of these birds.
Descriptors: rhea, exertional myopathy, treatment, left leg lameness, blood phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, iv fluids, physical therapy, muscle relaxant drugs, oral anxiolytic drugs.

Smith, N.C., R.C. Payne, K.J. Jespers, and A.M. Wilson (2007). Muscle moment arms of pelvic limb muscles of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Journal of Anatomy 211(3): 313-24. ISSN: 0021-8782.
Abstract: Muscle moment arms were measured for major muscles of the pelvic limb of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) in order to assess specific functional behaviour and to apply this to locomotor performance. Pelvic limbs of six juvenile ostriches were used for this study. The tendon travel technique was used to measure moment arms of 21 muscles at the hip, knee, ankle and metatarsophalangeal joints throughout the ranges of motion observed during level running. Six of the 21 muscles measured were found to have moment arms that did not change with joint angle, whilst the remainder all demonstrated angle-dependent changes for at least one of the joints crossed. Moment arm lengths tended to be longest for the large proximal muscles, whilst the largest relative changes were found for the moment arms of the distal muscles. For muscles where moment arm varied with joint angle: all hip muscles were found to have increasing moment arms with extension of the joint, knee flexors were found to have moment arms that increased with extension, knee extensor moment arms were found to increase with flexion and ankle extensor moment arms increased with extension. The greatest relative changes were observed in the flexors of the metatarsophalangeal joint, for which a three-fold increase in moment arm was observed from flexion to full extension. Changes in muscle moment arm through the range of motion studied appear to optimize muscle function during stance phase, increasing the effective mechanical advantage of these muscles.
Descriptors: ostrich, muscle moment arms, pelvic limb muscles, functional behavior, locomotor performance, hip, knee, ankle, flexion, extension.

Smith, N.C., A.M. Wilson, K.J. Jespers, and R.C. Payne (2006). Muscle architecture and functional anatomy of the pelvic limb of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Journal of Anatomy 209(6): 765-79. ISSN: 0021-8782.
Abstract: The functional anatomy of the pelvic limb of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) was investigated in order to assess musculoskeletal specialization related to locomotor performance. The pelvic limbs of ten ostriches were dissected and detailed measurements of all muscle tendon units of the pelvic limb were made, including muscle mass, muscle length, fascicle length, pennation angle, tendon mass and tendon length. From these measurements other muscle properties such as muscle volume, physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), tendon cross-sectional area, maximum isometric muscle force and tendon stress were derived, using standard relationships and published muscle data. Larger muscles tended to be located more proximally and had longer fascicle lengths and lower pennation angles. This led to an expected proximal to distal reduction in total muscle mass. An exception to this trend was the gastrocnemius muscle, which was found to have the largest volume and PCSA and also had the highest capacity for both force and power production. Generally high-power muscles were located more proximally in the limb, while some small distal muscles (tibialis cranialis and flexor perforatus digiti III), with short fibres, were found to have very high force generation capacities. The greatest proportion of pelvic muscle volume was for the hip extensors, while the highest capacity for force generation was observed in the extensors of the ankle, many of which were also in series with long tendons and thus were functionally suited to elastic energy storage.
Descriptors: ostrich, functional anatomy, pelvic limb, muscle architecture, locomotion physiology, muscle, skeletal anatomy, histology, biomechanics, hindlimb, muscle contraction, tendons anatomy, histology.

Soderstrom, K., W. Qin, and M.H. Leggett (2007). A minimally invasive procedure for sexing young zebra finches. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 164(1): 116-9. ISSN: 0165-0270.
Abstract: Zebra finches have been widely used to study neurobiology underlying vocal development. Because only male zebra finches learn song, efficient developmental use of these animals requires early determination of sex at ages that precede maturation of secondary sex characteristics. We have developed a sex determination method that combines a forensics method of genomic DNA isolation (from very small blood samples) with PCR amplification from Z and W sex chromosomes (males are ZZ, females ZW). This combination results in a minimally invasive yet highly reliable and convenient genotyping method.
Descriptors: zebra finches, sexing, minimally invasive, genomic DNA, blood samples, forensic method, PCR amplification, Z and W sex chromosomes.

Souza, M.J., G.H. Wilson, and K.P. Carmichael (2006). Multifocal sialoceles and sialoliths in a yellow-naped Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala auropalliata) with chronic ptyalism. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 20(2): 101-104. ISSN: 1082-6742.
Descriptors: yellow-naped Amazon parrot, chronic ptyalism, multifocal sialoceles, sialoliths, diagnosis.

Stanford, M. (2004). Interferon treatment of circovirus infection in grey parrots (Psittacus e erithacus). Veterinary Record Journal of the British Veterinary Association 154(14): 435-436. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Descriptors: grey parrots, circovirus infection, interferon treatment, Paittacus e erithacus.

Stanford, M. (2004). The effect of UV-B lighting supplementation in African grey parrots. Exotic DVM 6(3): 29-32. ISSN: 1521-1363.
Descriptors: African grey parrots, UV-B lighting supplementation, effect, deficiency diseases, prevention, vitamin deficiencies, conference.
Notes: Meeting Information: Sixth Annual International Conference on Exotics, Naples, Florida, USA, 6-8 May 2004.

Stanford, M. (2002). Clinical assessment of sevoflurane use in African grey parrots. Exotic DVM 4(6): 9. ISSN: 1521-1363.
Descriptors: African grey parrots, anesthesia, anesthetics, dosage effects, sevoflurane, clinical assessment.

Stanford, M. (2003). Recombinant omega interferon in combination with F10 nebulization for the treatment and prevention of circovirus infection in African grey parrots. Exotic DVM 5(3): 43-46. ISSN: 1521-1363.
Descriptors: African grey parrots, circovirus infection, prevention, treatment, recombinant omega interferon, combination, F10 nebulization, conference.
Notes: Meeting Information: International Conference on Exotics (ICE2003), Palm Beach, Florida, USA, 2003.

Styles, D.K., E.K. Tomaszewski, L.A. Jaeger, and D.N. Phalen (2004). Psittacid herpesviruses associated with mucosal papillomas in neotropical parrots. Virology 325(1): 24-35. ISSN: 0042-6822.
Abstract: Mucosal papillomas are relatively common lesions in several species of captive neotropical parrots. They cause considerable morbidity and in some cases, result in mortality. Previous efforts to identify papillomavirus DNA and proteins in these lesions have been largely unsuccessful. In contrast, increasing evidence suggests that mucosal papillomas may contain psittacid herpesviruses (PsHVs). In this study, 41 papillomas from 30 neotropical parrots were examined by PCR with PsHV-specific primers. All 41 papillomas were found to contain PsHV DNA. This 100% prevalence of PsHV infection in the papilloma population was found to be significantly higher than PsHV infection prevalence observed in other surveys of captive parrots. PsHV genotypes 1, 2, and 3, but not 4 were found in these lesions. Psittacus erithacus papillomavirus DNA and finch papillomavirus DNA were not found in the papillomas. A papilloma from a hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) was found to contain cells that had immunoreactivity to antiserum made to the common antigenic region of human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 major capsid protein. However, four other mucosal papillomas were negative for this immunoreactivity, and negative control tissues from a parrot embryo showed a similar staining pattern to that seen in the cloaca papilloma of the hyacinth macaw, strongly suggesting that the staining seen in hyacinth macaw papilloma was nonspecific. Based on these findings, it was concluded that specific genotypes of PsHV play a direct role in the development of mucosal papillomas of neotropical parrots and there is no evidence to suggest the concurrent presence of a papillomavirus in these lesions.
Descriptors: parrots, psittacid herpesvirus, bird diseases, virology, mucosal papillomas, papilloma virology, DNA primers, genotype, herpesviridae classification, immunohistochemistry, phylogeny, polymerase chain reaction.

Sutherland Smith, M. and P. Morris (2004). Combination therapy using trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, pyrimethamine, and diclazuril to treat sarcocystosis in a pied imperial pigeon (Ducula bicolor bicolor). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 18(3): 151-154. ISSN: 1082-6742.
Descriptors: pied imperial pigeon, sarcocystosis, treat, combination therapy, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, pyrimethamine, diclazuril, blood count.

Szymborski, J. and M. Szymborski (2004). Zespo sabego strusiecia w Australii. [Ostrich fading syndrome in Australia]. Zycie Weterynaryjne 79(6): 321-322. ISSN: 0137-6810.
Descriptors: ostrich, fading syndrome, wasting, young, death, undetermined cause, stress, transport, weather conditions, hygiene, Australia.
Language of Text: Polish, summary in English.

Todd, D., J.P. Duchatel, J.C. Bustin, F.T. Scullion, M.G. Scullion, A.N.J. Scott, A. Curry, N.W. Ball, and J.A. Smyth (2006). Detection of pigeon circovirus in cloacal swabs: implications for diagnosis, epidemiology and control. Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association. 159((10)): 314-317. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Descriptors: pigeon circovirus, disease detection, polymerase chain reaction, diagnosis, epidemiology, control.

Tomaszewski, E.K., W. Wigle, and D.N. Phalen (2006). Tissue distribution of psittacid herpesviruses in latently infected parrots, repeated sampling of latently infected parrots and prevalence of latency in parrots submitted for necropsy. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 18(6): 536-544. ISSN: 1040-6387.
Descriptors: parrots, pets, Herpesviridae, bird diseases, latent period, disease prevalence, viral diseases, digestive system diseases, disease transmission, disease reservoirs, digestive tract mucosa, mouth, cloaca, genotype, serotypes, new host records, psittacid herpesviruses.

Tully, T.N.J., A. Osofsky, P.L.H. Jowett, and G. Hosgood (2003). Acetylcholinesterase concentrations in heparinized blood of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 34(4): 411-413. ISSN: 1042-7260.
Descriptors: Amazon parrots, heparinized blood, acetylcholinesterase concentrations, levels, reference range, pesticides.

Uchiyama, R., T. Moritomo, O. Kai, K. Uwatoko, Y. Inoue, and T. Nakanishi (2005). Counting absolute number of lymphocytes in quail whole blood by flow cytometry. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science the Japanese Society of Veterinary Science 67(4): 441-4. ISSN: 0916-7250.
Abstract: In a previous study, we reported a new method for counting quail blood cells. After quail blood cells were stained with fluorescent lipophilic dye (DiOC6(3)), absolute counts of erythrocytes, granulocytes, and monocytes were obtained by means of flow cytometry (FC). The FC method has the potential for application to avian blood cells count; however, the method was unable to distinguish between lymphocytes and thrombocytes. In the present study, we improved the FC method to obtain separate counts of lymphocytes using DiOC5(3). After quail blood cells were stained with DiOC5(3), the cells were measured with FC. Each blood cell type was distinguished by means of their typical FL-1 (green fluorescence) and SSC (side scatter). Absolute numbers of erythrocytes, granulocytes, monocytes and lymphocytes in whole blood were obtained. The improved FC analysis worked equally well with chicken (Gallus gallus) and goose (Anser cygnoides) blood.
Descriptors: flow cytometry methods, lymphocytes, quail blood, carbocyanines, fluorescent dyes, lymphocyte count methods.

Ushakumary, S. and Geetha Ramesh (2003). Gross anatomy of pectoral girdle of ostrich (Sturthio camelus). Cheiron 32(3/4): 71-72. ISSN: 0379-543X.
Descriptors: ostrich, Struthio camelus, pectoral girdle, gross anatomy.

Verstappen, F.A.L.M. and G.M. Dorrestein (2005). Aspergillosis in Amazon parrots after corticosteroid therapy for smoke-inhalation injury. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 19(2): 138-141. ISSN: 1082-6742.
Descriptors: Amazon parrots, aspergillosis, post corticosteroid therapy, smoke inhalation injury, Amazona aestiva aestiva.

Voslarova, E., Bedanova I, V. Vecerek, Pistekova V, P. Chloupek, and P. Suchy (2006). Changes in haematological profile of common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) induced by transit to pheasantry. DTW (Deutsche Tieraerztliche Wochenschrift) 113(10): 375-378. ISSN: 0341-6593.
Descriptors: common pheasant, hematological profile, changes, transit to pheasantry, induced.

Wagner, W.M. (2005). Small intestinal foreign body in an adult Eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus). Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 76(1): 46-8. ISSN: 0038-2809.
Abstract: A 14-month-old female Eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus) was presented with a 4-week history of bloody diarrhea and depression. No additional information could be gained from physical examination. Only selected diagnostic tests (faecal examination, haematocrit, aspartate aminotransferase, and uric acid) could be performed due to financial constraints, but all where within reference range. Unspecific antibiotic treatment was started and the bird responded well initially, but had to be readmitted 2.5 weeks after initial presentation. Four weeks after initial presentation the owner finally consented to taking whole body radiographs and a diagnosis of an intestinal foreign body could be made. The foreign body was surgically removed 2 days later. The bird recovered uneventfully after surgery and was still in good health 1 year after surgery. This article emphasises the importance of diagnostic imaging in the avian patient. A brief review of avian gastrointestinal foreign bodies is given (concentrating on the psittacine patient) and the importance of distinguishing metallic from non-metallic gastrointestinal foreign bodies are discussed.
Descriptors: Eclectus parrot, diagnosis, foreign bodies, small intestine, radiography, surgery, bloody diarrhea, depression, treatment outcome.

Wang, Z.y. and S.j. Hu (2004). Diagnosis of salmonellosis in parrot. Xinan Nongye Daxue Xuebao 26(2): 230-232. ISSN: 1000-2642.
Descriptors: parrot, salmonellosis diagnosis, bacterial diseases.
Language of Text: Chinese, summaries in Chinese and English.

Wnukiewicz, A., W. Dobrowolski, and A. Danczak (2005). Limb diseases in emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) and ostrich (Struthio camelus) - prevention and treatment. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Zootechnika 4(1): 153-162. ISSN: 1644-0714.
Descriptors: emu, ostrich, limb diseases, prevention, treatment, lameness.
Language of Text: Polish.

Xu FengYu, Yu ShouPing, Shan XiaoFeng, Li TianSong, and Hu GuiXue (2006). Diagnosis and cure of mixed infection of paramyxovirus type I and E. coli in pigeon. Journal of Economic Animal 10(1): 22-24. ISSN: 1007-7448.
Descriptors: pigeon, paramyxovirus, E. coli, mixed infection, diagnosis, cure, clinical symptoms, drug sensitivity.
Language of Text: Chinese, summary in English.

Yaman, M. and R. Durgut (2005). Devekuslarinin paraziter hastaliklari ve tedavileri. [Parasitic infestations in ostriches and therapy]. Turkiye Parazitoloji Dergisi 29(2): 103-109. ISSN: 1300-6320.
Descriptors: ostriches, parasitic infections, therapy, Struthio camelus, treatment for parasites.
Language of Text: Turkish, summaries in English andTurkish.

Yang HuiPing, Xu DaXin, and Chen PeiLong (2004). Diagnosis and prevention of epidemic pigeon paramyxovirus type I disease. Acta Agriculturae Shanghai 20(3): 120-122. ISSN: 1000-3924.
Descriptors: pigeon, paramyxovirus type I disease, prevention, diagnosis, control, oil emulsion inactivated vaccine, antibiotics.
Language of Text: Chinese, summary in English.

Yilmaz, F., N. Timurkaan, and F. Coven (2004). Pathological findings in quails infected with Avian Influenza A virus H7 N1 subtype. International Journal of Poultry Science 3(12): 764-767. ISSN: 1682-8356.
Descriptors: Japanese quails, avian influenza virus, infected, H7N1, pathological findings, clinical signs, symptoms.



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