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You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Information Resources on the South American Camelids  / Alpacas 2004  Printer Friendly Page
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Information Resources on the South American Camelids: Llamas, Alpacas, Guanacos, and Vicunas 2004-2008
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Alpacas 2004

Al Ani, F.K.  Classification and breeds. In: Camel: Management and Diseases. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq. 2004; 61-68.
Descriptors: alpacas, guancos, llamas, vicunas, dromedaries, Bactrian camels, taxonomy, draft animals, riding animals, dual purpose animals, hybrids, breeds, adaption, anatomy, physiology, milk and meat production.

Al Ani, F.K. Domestication, distribution and population. In: Camel: Management and Diseases. 2004; 1-24. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq.
Descriptors: camels, llamas, vicunas, dromedaries, Bactrian camels, domestication, geographical distribution, livestock numbers, population dynamics, Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North and South America, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates. 

Al Ani, F.K.; Ababneh, M.M. South American camelids (SAC). In: Camel: Management and Diseases. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq. 2004; 121-136.
Descriptors: alpacas, guancos, llamas, vicunas, draft animals, riding animals, breeding, crossbreeding, diseases, husbandry, hematology, meat and milk production, reproduction, pregnancy diagnosis, parturition, physiology, surge ry, wool producing animals, South America.

Anderson , D.E. Common surgical procedures in camelids. In: Proceedings of the Thirty Seventh Annual Conference, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Forth Worth, Texas, City, USA, 23-25 September, 2004. 2004: 118-125.   ISSN:  0743-0450.
NAL call no.: SF961.A5
Descriptors: alpacas, dromedary camels, llamas, surgical procedures, teeth, tooth diseases, abscesses, bone diseases, castration, digestive tract, limb bones, limbs, postoperative care.

Anderson , D.E. Comparison of trace mineral concentration in the various lobes of the liver of alpacas and llamas. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 2004; 3(3): 162-164. ISSN: 1680-5593.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, postmortem study, site of liver collection, affects on selected trace metals postmortem study, left lobe, right lobe, caudate lobe, analysed via inductively coupled argon plasma emission, spectroscop y, calcium, copper, iron, molybdenum, selenium, zinc, potassium.

Anderson , D.E.; Silveira, F.; Grubb, T. Effects of venipuncture and correlation of plasma, serum and saliva cortisol concentration with transportation stress in camelids. In: Selected Research on Camelid Physiology and Nutrition. The Camelid Publishers. Bikaner, India. 2004: 160-168. ISBN: 8190114123.
NAL call no.: SF401.C2S46 2004
Descriptors: alpacas, dromedary camels, llamas, camels, animal transport related stress effects, blood chemistry, saliva hydrocortisone, effects of venipuncture, intravenous injection, restraint of animals, stress response.

Anderson , D.E.; Rings, D.M.; Kowalski, J. Infection with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in five alpacas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2004 Dec 1; 225(11): 1743-1747.  ISSN: 0003-1488 .
URL: http://www.avma.org
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: alpacas, bacterial infection, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, case study.

Anderson , D.E. Liver disease, metabolism and digestion in llamas and alpacas. In: Selected Research on Camelid Physiology and Nutrition. The Camelid Publishers. Bakaner, India. 2004:. 545-554. ISBN:  8190114123.
NAL call no.: SF401.C2S46 2004
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, liver disease, hepatitis, lipidosis, diagnosis, etiology, clinical aspects, therapy, digestion, disease prevalence surveys, disease prevention, energy requirements, epidemiology, metabolism, neoplasms, poisoning, therapy, toxicity.

Antonini, M.; Gonzales, M.; Valbonesi, A. Relationship between age and postnatal skin follicular development in three types of South American domestic camelids. Livestock Production Science. 2004; 90(2-3): 241-246. ISSN: 0301-6226.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03016226
NAL call no.: SF1.L5
Descriptors: 15 alpaca kids, (10 huacaya and 5 suri types), 10 llama kids (chaku type), age of secondary follicle maturity, skin follicular structure, difference in types, fiber study, shearing recommendation, "Alpaquero" Developing Centre of Toccra, Arequipa Plateau, Caylloma Province, Peru.
 

Buttolph, Lita P.; Coppock, D. Layne. Influence of deferred grazing on vegetation dynamics and livestock productivity in an Andean pastoral system. Journal of Applied Ecology. 2004; 41(4): 664-674. ISSN: 0021-8901.
URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/117972213/home
NAL call no.: 410 J828
Descriptors: sheep, llamas, alpacas, rangeland management, range degradation, livestock productivity, equilibrium and non-equilibrium theory, key grazing resources, Andean pastoral ecosystem, fencing of bofedal and gramadal (wet and dry meado ws) seasonally deferred grazing practices, peak standing crop, plant species, enclosures increased survival of young alpacas and sheep, different finding for meadow systems, negative effects of privitizing communal resources, Bolivia.

Campero, J.R. Lama (Lama glama L.) and Guanaco (Lama guanicoe M.): general perspective. In: Cardellino, R.; Rosati, A; Mosconi, C. [Editors] ICAR Technical Series. 2004; (11): 11-18. ISSN: 1563-2504. ISBN: 9295014065. Note: conference proceedings: Current Status of Genetic Resources, Recording and Production Systems in African, Asian and American Camelids, Sousse, Tunisia, 30 May 2004.
URL: http://www.icar.org/Documents/technical_series/tec_series_11_sousse.pdf
Abstract: The highlands of South America form a special ecosystem with an important biodiversity. Since 4000 or 5000 years ago, two species of domesticated camelids have developed in this region: the llama and the alpaca, as well as two non-domesticated ones, the guanaco and the vicuna. During the Incas period, these genetic resources played an important role in the development of this ancient culture, but the protagonistic role of Camelids ended abruptly with the Spanish conquest of that South American region five centuries ago. The Spaniards initiated their colonization with the systematic elimination of the camelids and replaced them with their own domestic species, principally sheep and cattle. Along with the Spanish conquest, the mines period begins in these highlands as well; the mines' development requested not only an important quantity of camelids' meat, vegetables and natural energy but also large llama caravans, in order to transport the mines products from highlands to the coast. However, the pastoral communities in those high-risk environments have played a major role in conserving the llama, alpaca, guanaco and vicuna species. The mining activity along with human pressure on the fragile ecosystem resulted not only in an important loss of biodiversity but also, and most importantly, in the reproduction of poverty. Consequently, today like five centuries ago, the highlands of South America are characterized by three elements: poverty, soils of low quality and camelids. And it is through these elements that they try to resolve their main problem, that is poverty. The analysis of market trends, the review of the historical context of the use of native breeds, and the efforts of highlands people suggest that the rational use of South American Camelids, both domestic and wild ones, can be an economic alternative in many production systems in the South American highlands, on the condition that the regional governments in co-operation with the producers are able to find new markets with fair prices and improve the quality of camelids' products. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, vicunas, guanacos, animal production, biodiversity, ecosystems, socioeconomics, socioeconomic aspects, South America.
 

Campero, J.R. Camelids in South America. Lama (Lama pacos) production systems in Bolivia. In: Cardellino, R.; Rosati, A; Mosconi, C. [Editors] ICAR Technical Series. 2004; (11): 145-158. ISSN: 1563-2504. ISBN: 9295014065. Note: conference proceedings: “Current Status of Genetic Resources, Recording and Production Systems in African, Asian and American Camelids, Sousse, Tunisia, 30 May 2004.”
URL: http://www.icar.org/Documents/technical_series/tec_series_11_sousse.pdf
Abstract: In this paper, a review about the historical and actual context of the lama production systems, with special focus in the Bolivian Altiplano Lama Production Systems (BALPS) is presented. The BALPS are possible to include in two general systems manned Pastoral (lama, or/and alpaca and sheep) System and Agropastoral System, and gather near 54 thousands productive units. During the last five centuries, the life of many people in these systems was very hard, and the poverty and social exclusion are the principal results. Lama is the principal livestock component and has historically been used for their high protein meat, transporting merchandise along the Incan, colonial and republican roads, and in religious rituals; it provides the family with economic security, manure, traction and transport and has and specific cultural significance; moreover, in those Agropastoral Systems, the quantity of manure determined the extension of agricultural activities. In Bolivia as in other countries, the llamas' productive systems are, still, traditional and based on the extensive used of the native pastures. The productivity of the grasslands, not only is scare but too it has low quality as a result of the extreme climatic fluctuations, characterized for periods prolonged of frosts and droughts, and depended of a ecosystem fragile, marginal and inaccessible. However, the Altiplano, also presents opportunities as its biological diversity and the extreme conditions have generated traditional practices and knowledge that joint with modern technologies should be used to improve the actual low productive systems. The planners of Ministery of Rural Affairs and Agricultural of Bolivia consider that the successful developed of the camelid chain with fiber, meat, and leather productions require to develop of special markets as organic or ecological markets, and consider that this can be a one of a few opportunities that have the Altiplano people in order to resolved the secular poverty cycle. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: llama,alpacas, agropastoral systems, animal production, ecosystems, pastoralism, poverty, socioeconomic aspects, reviews, Bolivia.

Cardellino, R.; Rosati, A; Mosconi, C. [Editors]. Current status of genetic resources, recording and production systems in African, Asian and American Camelids, Sousse, Tunisia, 30 May 2004. ICAR-Technical Series. 2004; (11): 163 pp. ISSN: 1563-2504. ISBN: 9295014065. Note: conference proceedings: “Current Status of Genetic Resources, Recording and Production Systems in African, Asian and American Camelids, Sousse, Tunisia, 30 May 2004.”
URL: http://www.icar.org/Documents/technical_series/tec_series_11_sousse.pdf
Abstract: This proceedings contains 14 conference papers on the breeding, handling systems and milk, meat and fibre production of Bactrian and dromedary camels, llamas, guanacos, alpacas and vicunas in Asia, Africa, Arab Gulf countries and South America. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, dromedaries, Bactrian camels, guanacos, llamas, vicunas, fiber producing animals, animal breeding, animal fibers; meat production, milk production, wool production, Africa, Arab Countries, Asia, South America.
 

Castellaro G., G.; Ullrich R., T.; Wackwitz, B.; Raggi S., A. Composicion botanica de la dieta de alpacas (Lama pacos L.) y llamas (Lamaglama L.) en dos estaciones del ano, en praderas altiplan icas de un sector de la Provincia de Parinacota, Chile. [Botanical composition of alpaca (Lama pacos) and llama (Lama glama) diets in two seasons of the year on highland ranges of Parinacota Province, Chile.] Agricultura Tecnica. 2004; 64(4): 353-363. ISSN: 0365-2807. Note: In Spanish with an English summary.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, botanical composition of diets, grazing, winter dry and summer wet seasons, matter, dry matter, grazing, Deschampsia cespitosa, Agrostis tolucensis, Festuca nardifolia, Festuca orthophylla, Oxychloe, Oxychloe andina, Parastrephia lucida, Ranunculus uniflorus, highland range of Parinacota, Chile.

Cebra, C.K.; Tornquist, S.J. Assessment of the effects of epinephrine and insulin on plasma and serum biochemical variables in llamas and alpacas. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2004 Dec; 65(12): 1692-1696. ISSN: 0002-9645.
URL: http://www.avma.org
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3A
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, blood values, plasma, serum biochemical variables, effects of epinephrine and insulin.

Chavez-Velasquez, A.; Alvarez-Garcia, G.; Collantes-Fernandez, E.; Casas-Astos, E.; Rosadio-Alcantara, R.; Serrano-Martinez, E.; Ortega-Mora, L.M. First report of Neospora caninum infection in adult alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and llamas (Lama glama). Journal of Parasitology. 2004 Aug; 90(4): 864-866. ISSN: 0022-3395.
URL: http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-archive&issn=0022-3395
NAL call no.: QH547.I55
Descriptors: Vicugna pacos, alpacas, llamas, Neospora caninum, protozoal disease, neosporosis, new host records, adult animals, seroprevalence, antibody detection, fluorescent antibody technique, immunoblotting, Western blotting, Peru.

Clauss, M.; Lendl, C.; Schramel, P.; Streich, W.J. Skin lesions in alpacas and llamas with low zinc and copper status - a preliminary report. Veterinary Journal. 2004; 167(3): 302-305. ISSN: 1090-0233.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10900233
NAL call no.: SF601.V484
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, species differences, breed differences, sex differences, 13 llamas, 17 huacaya alpacas, 18 suri alpacas predisposition to skin lesions, dry scaly lesions, dietary deficiencies of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) deficiencies, fleece color, non-white colors, wool, Germany.

Coates, W.; Ayerza, R. Comparison of llama fiber obtained from two production regions of Argentina. Journal of Arid Environments. 2004 Sep; 58(4): 513-524. ISSN: 0140-1963.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01401963
NAL call no.: QH541.5.D4J6
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, farmed animal species, arid zones, overgrazing, environmental degradation, animal production, animal breeding, fiber differences, fleece, color, fiber quality, selection criteria, sustainable agricu lture, Argentina.

Cristofanelli, S.; Antonini, M.; Torres, D.; Polidori, P.; Renieri, C. Meat and carcass quality from Peruvian llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Lama pacos). Meat Science. 2004 Mar; 66(3): 589-593. ISSN: 0309-1740.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03091740
NAL call no.: TX373.M4
Abstract:  An experiment based on 20 llama males and 40 alpaca males reared in Peru has been carried out with the aim to evaluate the live growth performances, carcass quality, the nutritional characteristics of meat from animals slaughtered at 25 months of age, and to determine the physica l and chemical parameters of meat obtained from these animals. The live body weights registered during the 25 months of the experiment were significantly lower in alpaca compared with llama. In llama carcasses were significantly h igher both warm and cold carcass weight (P < 0.001) but dressing percentage was higher in alpacas (P < 0.01). The glycolityc fine-course was very similar both in llama and in alpaca muscle Longissimus Thoracis et Lumborum. C hemical composition of muscle Longissimus Thoracis et Lumborum taken from llama and alpaca carcasses was significantly different (P < 0.01) in ash content; cholesterol content was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in llama meat compared with alpaca.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, male animals, alternative livestock, growth, body weight, 25 months old at slaughter, longissimus dorsi, physical and chemical parameters of meat, postmortem changes. pH, nutritional value of meat, carcass quality and weight, dressing percentage, meat quality, moisture content, lipid content, protein content, ash content, cholesterol, water holding capacity, species comparison, Peru.

DeWitt, S.F.; Bedenice, D.; Mazan, M.R. Hemolysis and Heinz body formation associated with ingestion of red maple leaves in two alpacas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2004 Aug 15; 225(4): 578-583.  ISSN: 0003-1488.
URL: http://www.avma.org
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: alpacas, eating red maple leaves, toxicity, blood effects, hemolysis, Heinz body formation, case reports, US

Dong, Chang Sheng; Zhang, Qiao Ling; He, Xiao Yan; He, Jun Ping; Fan, Rui Wen; Geng, Jian Jun. [Study on the chromosome of alpacas (Lama pacos).] Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica. 2004 Sep; 35(5): 594-596. ISSN: 0366-6964. Note: In Chinese with an English summary.
Descriptors: alpacas, cytogenetics, chromosomes, karyotypes, mutations.

Drew, M.L.; Johnson, L.; Pugh, D.; Navarre, C.B.; Taylor, I.T.; Craigmill, A.L. Pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur in llamas and alpacas. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2004; 27(1): 13-20. ISSN: 0140-7783.
URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/117986825/home
NAL call no.: SF915.J63
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, ceftiofur sodium, pharmacokinetics, antiobiotics, dosages based on other domestic species, disposition studies, intramuscular administration in llamas, intravenous and intramuscular administration in alpacas, ser ial timed blood sampling, similar to values in sheep and goats.

Dunkel, B.; Del Piero, F.; Wotman, K.L.; Johns, I.C.; Beech, J.; Wilkins, P.A. Encephalomyelitis from West Nile flavivirus in 3 alpacas. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2004 May-June; 18(3): 365-367. ISSN: 0891-6640.
URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118902531/home
NAL call no.: SF601.J65
Descriptors: alpacas, 3 animals, West Nile virus, viral encephalitis, case studies.

Gauly, M. Tierschutzaspekte bei der Haltung Neuweltkameliden. [Aspects of animal welfare in South American Camelids husbandry.] DTW (Deutsche Tieraerztliche Wochenschrift). 2004; 111(3): 127-130. ISSN: 0341-6593. Note: In German.
NAL call no.: 41.8 D482
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, animal welfare, guidelines development, husbandry, feeding, lack of basic knowledge about requirements, veterinary care, education needed, Germany.

Hunter, Robert P.; Isaza, Ramiro; Koch, David E.; Dodd, Charles C.; Goately, Marie A. Moxidectin plasma concentrations following topical administration to llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (Lama pacos). Small Ruminant Research. 2004; 52(3): 275-279. ISSN: 0921-4488.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, extra label usage of pharmaceuticals, pharmacokinetic parameters between species, study of pour-on moxidectin, clipped along dorsal midline, serial blood sampling post dosing, variability in absorption, moxidectin not well absorbed, no adverse affects, pharmacokinetic parameters not determined.

Hunter, R.P.; Isaza, R.; Koch, D.E.; Dodd, C.C.; Goatley, M.A. The pharmacokinetics of topical doramectin in llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (Lama pacos). Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2004; 27(3): 187-189. ISSN: 0140-7783.
URL: http://www.wiley.com/bw/journal.asp?ref=0140-7783&site=1
NAL call no.: SF915.J63
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, avermectin, doramectin,avermectin encectocide, milbecycin, moxidectin, plasma concentration, pharmecokinectics, topical treatments.

Janmaat, A.; Choy, J.L.; Currie, B.J. Melioidosis in an alpaca (Lama pacos). Australian Veterinary Journal. 2004 Oct.; 82(10): 622-623. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL call no.: 41.8 AU72
Descriptors: alpaca, Lama pacos, disease, Burkholderia species, bacterial disease similar to glanders.

Knight, A.P. Plant poisoning of small ruminants. In: Proceedings of the Thirty-Seventh Annual Conference, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Forth Worth, Texas, City, USA, 23-25 September, 2004. 2004: 127-134. ISSN: 0743-0450.
NAL call no.: SF961.A5
Descriptors: sheep, goats, llamas, alpacas, grazing and browsing toxic plants, grazing behavior, toxic plant danger when overgrazing, drought, access to high levels of toxic plants, oxalates, nitrates, cyanogenic glycosides, pho tosensitizing compounds, Halogeton glomeratus, Cicuta douglasii, Conium maculatum, Eupatorium rugosum, Xanthium, Karwinskia, North America.

Kraus, M.S.; Calvert, C.A.; Spier, A.W.; Meurs, K.M.; Anderson, D.E. Determination of electrocardiographic parameters in healthy llamas and alpacas. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2004 Dec.; 65(12): 1719-1723.  ISSN: 0002-9645.
URL: http://www.avma.org
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3A
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, healthly animals, cardiac scanning, electrocardiographic parameters.

Kosal, M.E.; Anderson, D.E. An unaddressed issue of agricultural terrorism: A case study on feed security. Journal of Animal Science. 2004; 82(11): 3394-3400. ISSN: 0021-8812.
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
NAL call no.: 49 J82
Descriptors: alpacas, feed contamination, case study, potential biosecurity concerns, mid-west, United States.

Kutzler, Michelle A.; Baker, Rocky J.; Mattson, Donald E. Humoral response to West Nile virus vaccination in aluiacas and llamas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2004; 225(3): 414-416. ISSN:  0003-1488.
URL: http://www.avma.org
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, horses, equine West Nile virus vaccine, humoral responses, clinical trial, vaccine intervals varied, results indicate the vaccine is safe.

Kutzler, M.A.; Bildfell, R.J.; Gardner-Graff, K.K.; Baker, R.J.; Delay, J.P.; Mattson, D.E. West Nile virus infection in two alpacas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association . 2004 Sep. 15; 225(6): 921-924. ISSN: 0003-1488.
URL: http://www.avma.org
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: alpacas, viral diseases, West Nile virus, diagnosis, symptoms, case reports.

Lenghaus, C.; O'Callaghan, M.G.; Rogers, C. Coccidiosis and sudden death in an adult alpaca (Lama pacos). Australian Veterinary Journal. 2004 Nov.; 82(11): 711-712.  ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL call no.: 41.8 AU72
Descriptors: adult alpaca, Lama pacos, coccidiosis, disease pathology, case report.

Leroy, J.L.; Flahou, T.; Moerloose, K.; de Kruif, A. De voortplanting bij de llama- en de alpacamerrie. [The reproduction in llama and alpaca mares.] Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift. 2004; 73(5): 31 0-316. ISSN: 0303-9021. Note: In Dutch with an English summary.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, females, care in those imported into Europe, veterinary care, reproduction and breeding, assisted reproductive techniques, pregnancy, pregnancy diagnosis, reproductive efficiency, reproductive performance, Belgium.

Long, P. A practitioner approach to llama and alpaca nutrition. In: Selected Research on Camelid Physiology and Nutrition. The Camelid Publishers, Bakaner, India. 2004; 747-749. ISBN: 8190114123.
NAL call no.: SF401.C2S46 2004
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, animal husbandry, animal nutrition, body condition, nutrient requirements, wool producing animals, Arab countries.

Majewska, M.; Panasiewicz, G.; Klisch, K.; Olivera, L.; Abd-Elnaeim, M.M.; Borkowski, K.; Szafranska, B. Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) in camelids. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 2004; 39(4): 282-283. ISSN: 0936-6768. Note: 8th Annual Conference of the European Society for Domestic Animal Reproduction (ESDAR), Warsaw, Poland; September 23-25, 2004.
URL: http://www.wiley.com/bw/journal.asp?ref=0936-6768&site=1
NAL call no.: SF105.A1Z8
Descriptors: camelids, camels, llamas, alpaca, reproductive biochemistry, glycoproteins, pregnancy, PAG gene.
 

Mate, M.L.; Di Rocco, F.; Zambelli, A.; Vidal-Rioja, L. Mitochondrial DNA structure and organization of the control region of South American camelids. Molecular Ecology Notes. 2004; 4(4): 765-767. ISSN: 1471-8278.
URL: http://www.wiley.com/bw/journal.asp?ref=1755-098X&site=1
NAL call no.: QH541.15.M632
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, vicunas, guanaco, mitochrondrial DNA molecular organization of control region, conserved sequence blocks, potential as a molecular marker to infer data for camelid genetic relationships, population diversity tool.
 

McGregor, B.A.; Butler, K.L. Sources of variation in fibre diameter attributes of Australian alpacas and implications for fleece evaluation and animal selection. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 2004; 55(4): 433-442. ISSN: 0004-9409.
URL: http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/40.htm
NAL call no.: 23 AU783
Descriptors: Lamapacos, alpacas, breeds, individual variations, fleece fiber quality, gender, age, body weight, selection criteria, repeatability, geographical variation, regression analysis, multivariate analysis, correlation, algo rithms, restricted maximum likelihood method, prediction, models, Australia.

Medina, Mirta A.; Fernandez, Francisco; Saad, Silvia; Rebuffi, Gustavo; Yapur, Jose. Inmunoglobulinas G de Cadenas pesadas en la leche de los camelidos sudamericanos. [Heavy-chain IgG in the milk of South American camelids.] Mastozoologia Neotropical. 2004; 11(1): 19-26. ISSN: 0327-9383. Note: In Spanish with an English and Spanish summary.
Descriptors: camelids, llama, vicuna, alpaca, guanaco, conventional IgG, IgG with two heavy chains, identify types of IgG in milk, PAGE-SDS, immunoblotting, immunoblotting assays, both types of IgG found.

Middleton, J.R.; Moody, M.M.; Parish, S.M. Diabetes mellitus in an adult alpaca (Lama pacos). Veterinary Record-- London. 2005; 157(17): 520-522. ISSN: 0042-4900
URL: http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/
NAL Call no.: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: alpacas, blood chemistry, blood sugar, case reports, clinical aspects, diabetes mellitus, diagnosis, hyperglycaemia, insulin, blood glucose, clinical picture, glucose in blood, glucose metabolism, high blood glucose, hyperglycemia, Washington State, US.

Middleton, J.R.  Haematology of South American camelidae. In: Selected Research on Camelid Physiology and Nutrition. The Camelid Publishers, Bakaner, India. 2004: 400-408. ISBN: 8190114123.
NAL call no.: SF401.C2S46 2004
Descriptors: Bactrian camels, alpacas, vicunas, guanacos, llamas, blood chemistry, blood disorders, hematocrit, anemia, blood cells morphology, basophils, bone marrow, dissolved oxygen, eosinophilia, eosinophils, erythrocyte cou nt, erythrocytes, erythropoietin, transferring, hematology, hemoglobin, iron deficiency anemia, leukocyte count, lymphocytes, monocytes, morphology, neutrophils, normal values, platelets, South America.

Nawrocki, M.A.; Lincoln, J.D.; Tibary, A. Surgical management of unilateral ectopic hydroureter and hydronephrosis in a juvenile alpaca. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2004; 11(2): 119-123. ISSN: 0971-6777.
NAL call no.: SF997.5.C3J68
Descriptors: female alpaca, 9 months old, ectopic ureter and hydronephrosis, incontinence, ultrasonographic examination, intravenous pyelogram, excretory urogram, left nephrectomy and ureterectomy surgical procedures, uneventful recovery.

O'Rourke, Jennifer L.; Callan, Robert J.; Van Metre, David C. West Nile virus meningoencephalomyelitis in alpacas. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2004; 18(3): 396. ISSN: 0891-6640. Note: 22nd Annual American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) Forum, Minneapolis, MN, USA; June 9-12, 2004.
URL: http://www.wiley.com/bw/journal.asp?ref=0891-6640&site=1
NAL call no.: SF601.J65
Descriptors: alpacas, West Nile virus infection, neural affects, meningoencephalomyletitis, neural coordination effects.

Otazu, D.A. Alpaca and vicuna: general perspectives. In: Cardellino, R.; Rosati, A; Mosconi, C. [Editors] ICAR Technical Series. 2004; (11): 31-36. ISSN: 1563-2504. ISBN: 9295014065. Note: conference proceedings: “Current Status of Genetic Resources, Recording and Production Systems in African, Asian and American Camelids, Sousse, Tunisia, 30 May 2004.”
URL: http://www.icar.org/Documents/technical_series/tec_series_11_sousse.pdf
Abstract: In the landscapes of the high plains at over 4 000 meters above sea level, thousands of years ago the Incas domesticated two species of the South American camelids: Alpaca and Llama, using techniques that are a mystery to these days. The first one would later be used as a source of soft, fine and resistant fibre and the second one as a mean of transportation. From the two species that continued being wild: Guanaco and especially Vicuna, a fantastic and very fine fibre was obtained, which was reserved only for nobility. Its threads were mixed with gold threads to create varied work of art. It was the fibre of the gods. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, guanaco, vicunas, animal fibers, fiber quality, wool producing animals.

Rosati, A; Mosconi, C. [Editors] ICAR-Technical Series. 2004; (11): 159-163. ISSN: 1563-2504. ISBN: 9295014065. Note: conference proceedings: “Current Status of Genetic Resources, Recording and Production Systems in African, Asian and American Camelids, Sousse, Tunisia, 30 May 2004”.
URL: http://www.icar.org/Documents/technical_series/tec_series_11_sousse.pdf
Abstract: The characteristics of the meat, fibre and skin production systems of alpacas and vicunas, primarily in South America, are presented, including income, conservation and management, captive and semi-captive production systems and sustainability. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstract.
Descriptors: alpacas, vicunas, animal fibers, fleece, hides and skins, income, management, meat production, sustainability, wool producing animals, conservation, South America.

Renieri, C.; Antonini, M.; Frank, E. Fibre recording systems in camelids. In: Cardellino, R.; Rosati, A; Mosconi, C. [Editors] ICAR Technical Series. 2004; (11): 131-143. ISSN: 1563-2504. ISBN: 9295014065. Note: conference proceedings: “Current Status of Genetic Resources, Recording and Production Systems in African, Asian and American Camelids, Sousse, Tunisia, 30 May 2004.”
URL: http://www.icar.org/Documents/technical_series/tec_series_11_sousse.pdf
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, fiber production, animal fibers, selection and heritability, coat colors, heritable characteristics, methods.

Rojas, X.; Munoz, S.; Otto, B.; Perez, B.; Nielsen, K.   Utilizacion de los test de Fluorescencia Polarizada (FP) y Elisa de Competencia (C-Elisa) en el diagnostico de brucelosis de camelidos.  [The use of polarized fluorescence as say (PF) and competitive ELISA test (C-ELISA) for the diagnosis of brucellosis in South American camelids.] Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria. 2004; 36(1): 59-64. ISSN:  0301-732X. Note: In Spanish with an English summary.
URL: http://www.scielo.cl
NAL call no.: SF604.A75
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, Brucella, bacterial disease, diagnostic techniques, detection of antibodies, assays, camelid sera, fluorescence polarization assay (PF), competitive ELISA (C-ELISA), rose Bengal (RB), seroagglutination (SAT), comple ment fixation (CF) tests.
 

Sartin, E.A.; Crowe, D.R.; Whitley, E.M.; Treat, R.E., Jr.; Purdy, S.R.; Belknap, E.B. Malignant neoplasia in four alpacas. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2004; 16(3): 226-229. ISSN: 1040-6387.
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL call no.: SF774.J68
Descriptors: alpacas, B-cell lymphosarcoma, neuroendocrine neoplasm, clinical picture, postmortem examination, abdominal mass, thoracic masses, diagnosis with immunohistochemical stains, case reports.

Saulez, M.N.; Cebra, C.K.; Valentine, B.A. Necrotizing hepatitis associated with enteric salmonellosis in an alpaca. Canadian Veterinary Journal. 2004; 45(4): 321-323.  ISSN: 0008-5286. In English with a French summary.
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=548619
NAL call no.: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: 1 year old alpaca, Salmonella typhimurium, isolated from feces, salmonellosis, clinical aspects, anorexia, weight loss, liver biopsies, hepatitis, differential diagnosis, disease control, antibiotic treatment, fluid therapy, blood chemistry, case report, hematology, histopathology.

Serrano Martinez, E.; Collantes Fernandez, E.; Rodriguez Bertos, A.; Casas Astos, E.; Alvarez Garcia, G.; Chavez Velasquez, A.; Ortega Mora, L.M. Neospora species-associated abortion in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and llamas (Lama glama). Veterinary Record ( London). 2004 Dec 4; 155(23): 748-749. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL call no.: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: alpacas, Vicugna pacos, llamas, Lama glama, abortion associated with Neospora sp.

Teague, L. Arriving with alpacas. AgVentures. 2004 Apr-May; 8(2): 6-8.
NAL call no.: S441.A475
Descriptors: alpacas, transport, care, handling, personal story.

Tichit, M.; Ingrand, S.; Moulin, C.H.; Cournut, S.; Lasseur, J.; Dedieu, B. Analyser la diversite des trajectoires productives des femelles reproductrices: interets pour modeliser le fonctionnement du troupeau en elevage allaitant. [Analysis of the diversity of breeding female productive trajectories: interest for modelling the functioning of suckling herds.] Productions Animales (Paris). 2004; 17(2): 123-132. ISSN: 0990-0632. Note: In French.
URL: http://www.inra.fr/internet/Produits/PA/spip.php?article556
Descriptors:   cattle, sheep, llamas, variable animal productivity, production trajectory herd model, based on 6 case studies, breeding and replacement practices, decreasing or increasing within herd diversity of female productive trajectories, consequences for modelling herd functioning are reviewed.

Ueda, J.; Cebra, C.K.; Tornquist, S.J. Assessment of the effects of exogenous long-acting insulin on glucose tolerance in alpacas. American Journal of Veterinary Research.  2004 Dec; 65(12): 1688-1691. ISSN: 0002-9645.
URL: http://www.avma.org
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3A
Descriptors: alpacas, glucose metabolism, glucose tolerance, effects of exogenous long-acting insulin.

Van Hoogmoed, L.M.; Drake, C.M.; Snyder, J.R. In vitro investigation of the effects of nonsteroidal anti-flammatory drugs, prostaglandin E2, and prostaglandin F2 alpha on contractile activity of the third compartment of the stomach of llamas. American Journal of Research . 2004 Feb.; 65(2): 220-224. ISSN: 0002-9645.
URL: http://www.avma.org
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3A
Descriptors: NSAIDS, prostaglandin E3, prostaglandin F2 alpha, in vitro testing, effects on contractile activity, third stomach.

Varney, K. Quarterly review of diagnostic cases - October to December 2003. Surveillance Wellington. 2004; 31(1): 21-25. ISSN: 0112-4927.
Descriptors: alpacas, cats, cattle, deer, dogs, horses, pigs, rabbits, sheep, protozoa, bacteria, viruses, various types of animal diseases, clinical aspects, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, case reports.

Vaughan , J.L. Eradication of the carnelid biting louse, Bovicola breviceps. Australian Veterinary Journal. 2004; 82(4): 218-219. ISSN:  0005-0423.
URL: http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/40.htm
NAL call no.: 41.8 AU72
Descriptors: alpaca, llama, sheep, camelid biting louse, Bovicola breviceps, common parasite, pesticide, egg counts, shearing, treatment, Extinosad (spinosad 25 g/l spinosad suspension concentrate) with wetting agent, efficacy of treatment.

Vaughan , J.L.; Macmillan, K.L.; D'Occhio, M.J. Ovarian follicular wave characteristics in alpacas. Animal Reproduction Science. 2004; 80(3-4): 353-361. ISSN: 0378-4320.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03784320
NAL call no.: QP251.A5
Descriptors: alpacas, study of ovarian follicular growth characteristics, intervals between, successive large follicles in unmated females, non-pregnant and non-lactating adult alpacas, ultrasound 46-100 days, wave pattern, diameters measured, possible use for optimal mating times.

Wauters, J.J.M.; Duchi, N.; Guevara, P.; Onate, W.; Castillo, P.; Lopez, J.; de Wilde, R. Comparison of the digestibility of paja de paramo and barley straw between sheep (Ovis aries), llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (Lama paco). In: Selected Research on Camelid Physiology and Nutrition. The Camelid Publishers, Bakaner, India. 2004: 766-769.  ISBN:  8190114123.
NAL call no.: SF401.C2S46 2004
Descriptors: sheep, llamas, alpacas, animal nutrition, forage, feed digestibility study, barley straw, Hordeum vulgare, lignin, nutritive value, species differences, Calamagrostis rigida, Festuca dolichophyla, Festuca humilior, Muhlembergia angustata.

Webb, A.I.; Baynes, R.E.; Craigmill, A.L.; Riviere, J.E.; Haskell, S.R.R. Drugs approved for small ruminants. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2004; 224(4): 520-523. ISSN: 0003-1488.
URL: http://www.avma.org
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3A
Descriptors: alpacas, deer, goats, llamas, sheep, drugs for small ruminants, pharmacology, regulations.

Yaeger, M.; Yoon, K.J.; Schwartz, K.; Berkland, L. West Nile virus meningoencephalitis in a Suri alpaca and Suffolk ewe. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2004; 16(1): 64-66. ISSN: 1040-6387.
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL call no.: SF774.J68
Descriptors: alpacas; Suffolk ewe sheep, clinical signs, llama symptoms, torticollis, hyperesthesia, ataxia, recumbency, altered mentation, ewe symptoms, rapidly progressive illness of ataxia and convulsions, diffuse, lymphoplas macytic meningoencephalitis with focal gliosis meningoencephalitis, microscopic brain lesions, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, West Nile virus, immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, first confirmed case in camelids, New Hampshire, United States.

Zhang, Qiao Ling; Dong, Chang Sheng; He, Jun Ping; He, Xiao Yan. [Research progress on the study of the chromosomes of alpacas.] Journal of Economic Animal. 2004; 8(2): 115-121. ISSN 1007-7448. Note: In Chinese with an English summary.
Descriptors: alpacas, animal breeding, sex determination, chromosomes, genetic variance, inheritance, physiology, reviews.

 

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